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STRUCTUAL GLASS DESIGN OF HAND RAIL BALCONY

I.

General
1. Design Philosophy - PREAMBLE
The purpose of this calculation is to verify the thickness of glass and
its supporting structure for its integrity, strength and stability
verification. The result of this conclusion is that the structure
considered adequate in meeting the required of design criteria.
The glass used is 12.74mm thick laminated glass fixed using a
bracket.
2. Unit of Measurement
Unit of measurement in design shall be in Metric system.

II.

Design Calculations
1. Design Code and reference:
BS 8118 Part 1:1991: Structural use of Aluminium. Code of practice
for design
Wind loads as per CP3
2. Materials
The modulus of elasticity of Steel E = 210000 MPa
Ultimate Bending stress steel Po - = 275 MPa = 275 N/mm2
Ultimate Tensile Stress steel Pa = 435 MPa = 435 N/mm2
Ultimate Shear Stress steel Pv = 0.6X Po = 0.6X275 = 96 MPa = 96
N/mm2
All bolts used shall be grade 8.8 or high yield.
GLASS PROPERTIES
12.74mm thick Laminated Glass
The modulus of elasticity E = 72.7 MPa
The modulus of Shear G = 29.6 MPa
The modulus of Rupture = 41.4 MPa
Poisson Ratio = 0.23
Density = 24.525 N/mm2 per m thick sheet
Flexure Strength = 166 MPa = 166 N/mm 2

3. Loading
Wind load calculations:
Wind loads (WL) calculated as per CP3: ch.V
Basic wind speed V = 45.0 m/sec
Design wind speed Vs = V x S1 x S2 x S3
Where,
Topography factor, S1 = 1.0

For the calculation of S2, ground roughness, building size and height
above ground, factor S2 = 0.69, as per CP3: Chapter V: Part 2,
Clause 4 (Surface with large and frequent obstructions; i.e. City
Centre), class B for 15m average height as per the attached sheets
for the wind loads see appendix A.
Statistical factor, S3 = 1.0
Design wind speed Vs = 45.0 x 1.0 x 0.69 x 1.0
Design wind speed Vs = 31.05 m/sec
Wind pressure q = k Vs2
K constant = 0.613
Wind pressure q = 0.613 x (31.05)2
Wind pressure q = 591 N/m2 or 0.591 KN/m2
The wind pressure is considered as 1.0 KN/m 2 as per the
Consultants comment
The maximum and minimum pressure co-efficients are,
Cp = +0.7, and -0.8, Since 0.7 is less than 0.8 and considering the
large co-efficients to calculate the maximum wind pressure acting
on the surface either upwards or downwards to resist the ultimate
wind load by the structure.
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = Cp X q
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = -0.80 X 1.0
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = 0.80 KN/m 2

IV.

Design Method and Calculations


Basic data and Calculations
The analysis is carried out manually to verify the sections
used are safe.
The wind load acting on the Glass structure is considered as
1000mm width as mentioned below:
WL = 1.0 X 0.80 = 0.80 KN/m
Factored Load = 1.4 X 0.80 = 1.12 KN/m
The uniform loads are used to check the moment and
deflections.
DESIGN OF GLASS STRUCTURE

The bottom of the Glass Structure is fixed in the concrete


surface with a U Channel of 50X30X3mm thick and the top of
the handrail is supported by the Aluminium circular profile
section.
Hence, the glass is considered as simple supported between
the two supports.
Check for Moment:
Maximum Bending Moment due to the above loading criteria
for a span of 1.20 m
B.M (max) = w l2 /8
B.M (max) = 1.12 X (1.20)2 /8
B.M (max) = 0.20KNm
The Moment of resistance of the section must be larger than
above value.
Calculation of Moment of Resistance (MR)
MR = Z x Po
Z = Sectional Modulus
Z=I

xx

The glass section used is 1000 X 12.74mm,


Moment of Inertia & Sectional Modulus are calculated as
below:
The moment of inertia Ixx = bd3/12 = 1000 X 12.743 / 12,
I

xx

= 172,316 mm4

Z = bd2/6 = 1000 X 12.742 / 6,


Z = = 27,051.267mm3
MR = 27051.267 X 166
MR = 4.4905KNm which is greater than the 0.20KNm

The Moment of Resistance is greater than the Maximum


Bending moment. Hence the section used to resist the
ultimate loads supported is safe.
Check for Deflection:
= WL4 / (8 EI)
< L / 360
E = 72000 MPa
I xx = 172316 mm4 as shown above,
Loading shall be considered as 80% of the Ultimate load in
calculating the deflection,
W = 0.80 X 0.80 = 0.64 KN/m
= (0.64 X 1.20 X 1000) X (1200)3 /(8 X 72000 X 172316)
Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered.
= 1.39mm
L/360 = 1200 / 360
L/360 = 3.33mm
< 3.33mm
Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.
CONNECTION DESIGN AT BOTTOM OF GLASS
STRUCTURE
The bottom of the Glass Structure is fixed in the concrete
surface with a U Channel of 50X30X3mm thick and the top of
the handrail is supported by the Aluminium circular profile
section.
Check for Moment:
Maximum Bending Moment due to the above loading criteria
for a span of 1.20 m
B.M (max) = w l2 /8

B.M (max) = 1.12 X (1.20)2 /8


B.M (max) = 0.20KNm
The Moment of resistance of the section must be larger than
above value.
Calculation of Moment of Resistance (MR)
MR = Z x Po
Z = Sectional Modulus of the Fixed Aluminium Profile
The area of U Channel section resisting the moment is 1000
X 3mm thick on one side,
Sectional Modulus is calculated as below:
Z = bd2/6 = 1000 X 32 / 6,
Z = = 3,375 mm3
MR = 3375 X 160
MR = 0.540KNm which is greater than the 0.20KNm
The Moment of Resistance is greater than the Maximum
Bending moment. Hence the section used to resist the
ultimate loads supported is safe.
Conclusion:
All sections used are structurally sufficient and meet its intended
purpose.