5 PDH
Copy write, Machine Design Spreadsheet calculations by John R Andrew, 2 June 2011
1MACHINE DESIGN
Machine Design
This 5 PDH machine design course uses Excel's calculating and
optimizing capabilities. Machine design includes:
1. A description of the needed machine in a written specification.
2. Feasibility studies comparing alternate designs and focused research.
3. Preliminary; sketches, scale CAD drawings, materials selection, appearance
and styling.
4. Functional analysis; strength, stiffness, vibration, shock, fatigue, temperature,
wear, lubrication. Customer endurance and maintenance cost estimate.
5. Producibility; machine tools, joining methods, material supply and handling,
manual vs automated manufacture.
6. Cost to design and manufacture one or more models in small and large
quantities.
7. Market place: present competition and life expectancy of the product.
8. Customer service system and facilities.
9. Outsource part or all; engineering, manufacturing, sales, warehousing,
customer service.
Backhoe
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.chesterfieldgroup.co.uk/products/mobile.html
Backhoe
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.chesterfieldgroup.co.uk/products/mobile.html
The replicable bearings have seals to keep the grease or oil lubricant in and
the dust and grit out.
Quick release access panels are provided for clearing jams and cutter
replacement.
A large, steel rod reinforced concrete pad, foundation is usually provided for
absorbing dynamic shredding forces and shock loads.
Spur Gears
Below is the image in its original context on the page:
www.usedmills.net/machineryequipment/feed/
Select the, "Gears" tab at the bottom of the Excel Worksheet
for more information about spur gears.
Worm gear
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.globalb2bnetwork.com/b2b/17/25/751/gear...
Worm gear
Above is the image in its original context on the page:
www.globalb2bnetwork.com/b2b/17/25/751/gear...
2Stress Analysis
* Machine components are designed to withstand: applied direct forces, moments and torsion.
* These loads may be applied gradually, suddenly, and repeatedly.
* Design load is equal to the applied load multiplied by a combined shock and fatigue factor, Ks.
* The average applied design stress must be multiplied by a stress concentration factor K.
* Calculated deflections are compared with required stiffness.
* The material strength is compared with the maximum stress due to combinations of loads.
Math Symbols
Spread Sheet Method:
1. Type in values for the input data.
2. Enter.
3. Answer: X = will be calculated.
4. Automatic calculations are bold type.
A x B = A*B
2x3= 2*3
=6
A/ B =
3/2=
=
A+ B = A+ B
2+3= 2+3
=5
Xn =
23 =
=
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Reference: Design of
Machine Elements, by V.M.
Faires, published by: The
Macmillan Company, New
York/CollierMacmillan
Limited, London, England.
Reference: Design of
Machine Elements, by V.M.
Faires, published by: The
Macmillan Company, New
York/CollierMacmillan
Limited, London, England.
Diameter / Height, D / H =
Section area, A =
=
Maximum direct stress, Smax =
=
Safety factor, SF =
=
Material
Brass
Bronze
ASTM A4752 Malleable Cast Iron
Duralumin
Monel Metal
ASTM A36 (Mild Steel)
NickelChrome Steel
E x 10^6 lbf/in^2
15.0
16.0
25.0
10.5
26.0
29.0
28.0
lbf
in
in
in
in
D/H is OK
in^2
lbf/in^2

G x 10^6
5.80
6.50
10.70
4.00
10.00
11.50
11.80
Tension ( + ) Compression (  ), P =
Section Area, A =
Original length, L =
Original height, H =
Material modulus of elasticity, E =
Stress (tension +) (compression ), S =
=
Strain, e =
=
Extension (+), Compression (  ), X =
=
Poisson's Ratio, Rp = 0.3 =
Transverse (contraction +) (expansion ) =
=
=
Input
22,000
2.00
10
3
29,000,000
Calculation
P/A
11,000
S/E
0.00038
L*e
0.0038
((H  Ho) / H) / e
(H  Ho)
0.3*e*H
0.00034
lbf/in^2
in^2
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
in
For most metals
in
Input
20,000
4.000
1.000
4,000,000
10
Calculation
H*B
4
lbf
in
in
lbf/in^2
in
in^2
1.5
k*P / A
7,500
Fs / G
0.00188
e*L
0.0188
lbf/in^2
in
Input
20,000
1.500
0.000
1.33
11,500,000
10
Calculation
*( D^2  d^2 )/ 4
1.7674
k*P / A
15051
Fs / G
0.00131
e*L
0.0131
Compound Stress
Stress Element
The stress element right is at the point of interest in
the machine part subjected to operating: forces,
moments, and torques.
Direct Stresses:
Horizontal, +Fx = tension, Fx = compression.
Vertical, +Fy = tension, Fy = compression.
lbf
in
in
lbf/in^2
in
in^2
lbf/in^2
in
Stress Element
The stress element right is at the point of interest in
the machine part subjected to operating: forces,
moments, and torques.
Direct Stresses:
Horizontal, +Fx = tension, Fx = compression.
Vertical, +Fy = tension, Fy = compression.
Shear stress:
Shear stress, Sxy = normal to x and y planes.
Principal Stress Plane:
The vector sum of the direct and shear stresses,
called the principal stress F1, acts on the principal
plane angle A degrees, see right. There is zero
shear force on a principal plane. Angle A may be
calculated from the equation:
Tan 2A = 2 x Sxy / ( Fy  Fx)
Principal Stresses:
Two principal stresses, F1 and F2 are required to
balance the horizontal and vertical applied
stresses, Fx, Fy, and Sxy.
The maximum shear stress acts at 45 degrees to
the principal stresses, shown right. The maximum
shear stress is given by:
Smax = ( F2  F1 ) / 2
The principal stress equations are given below.
Principal Stresses
Principal stress, F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((FxFy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
Principal stress, F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2  [ ((FxFy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.5 ]
Max shear stress, Sxy = [Fn(max)  Fn(min)] / 2
Principal plane angle, A = ( ATAN(2*Sxy / (Fy  Fx) ) / 2
Horizontal force, H =
Vertical force, V =
Torsion, T =
Cantilever length, L =
Diameter, D =
Properties at section AB
=
Area, A =
A=
Section moment of inertia, I =
I=
Polar moment of inertia, J =
J=
AT POINT "A"
Horizontal direct stress, Fd =
Fd =
Bending stress, Fb =
Fb =
Combined direct and bending, Fx =
Fx =
Direct stress due to, "V", Fy =
Torsional shear stress, Sxy =
Sxy =
Input
3,000
600
2,000
10
2
Calculation
3.1416
*D^2 / 4
3.142
*D^4 / 64
0.7854
*D^4 / 32
1.5708
H/A
955
M*c / I
7639
H/A + M*c / I
8594
0
T*(D / 2) / J
1273
lbf
lbf
inlbf
in
in
in^2
in^4
in^4
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
H/A
955
M*c / I
7,639
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
H/A + M*c / I
6,684
0
T*D / (2*J)
1,273
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
Curved Beams
Input
8.500
7.000
1.500
5,000
Calculation
Ro  Ri
1.500
H*B
2.250
Rna
H / Ln(Ro / Ri)
7.726
Ri + H/2  Rna
0.0243
M*(RnaRi) / (A*e*Ri)
9,499
in
in
in
inlbf
in
in
in^2
in
in
lbf/in^2
M*(RoRna) / (A*e*Ri)
10,134
lbf/in^2
in
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
Input
6.000
in
4.000
in
175
inlbf
Calculation
Curved BeamSection diameter, D =
Ro  Ri
D=
2
in
Section radius of neutral axis, Rna = 0.25*(Ro^0.5 + Ri^0.5)^2
Rna =
4.949
in
e=
Ri + D/2  Rna
e=
0.051
in
Inside fiber bending stress, Si = (P*(Rna+e))*(RnaRi) / (A*e*Ri)
= 1,309
lbf/in^2
Fo = M*(RoRna) / (A*e*Ro)
=
193
lbf/in^2
Outside radius, Ro =
Inside radius, Ri =
Applied moment, M =
Input
1.500
3.000
Calculation
B*H^3 / 12
3.375
H/2
1.5
in
in
in^4
in
Section Modulus  1
I and C Sections
Input
1
2
3
Bn
9
1.5
6
1
2
3
Yn
11.000
6.500
1.500
Hn
2
7
3
A =
Calculation
A
18
10.5
18
46.5
Calculation
A*Yn
A*Yn^2
198.00
2178.00
68.25
443.63
27.00
40.50
= 293.25
2662.13
Calculation
Section modulus, Ixx = A*Yn^2 + Icg
= 2724.50
in^4
Center of area, C1 = A*Yn/A
= 6.306
in
C2 = Y1 + H1/2
= 12.000
in
P=
L=
a=
b=
Cantilever, MMAX at B =
Fixed ends, MMAX, at C ( a < b ) =
Pinned ends, MMAX, at C =
Input
2,200
24
8
Calculation
La
16
P*L
52,800
P * a * b^2 / L^2
7,822
P*a*b/L
11,733
lbf
in
in
inlbs
inlbs
inlbs
Input
3.00
13,200
1.750
4.66
1.00
Calculation
Kb*M*C / I
4,957
inlbf
in
in^4

lb/in^2
Section Modulus  2
Input
1
2
3
Bn
2
7
3
Yn
1.000
3.500
1.500
Hn
9
1.5
6
A =
Calculation
A
18.00
10.50
18.00
46.5
Calculations
A*Yn
A*Yn^2
9.00
4.50
18.38
32.16
13.50
10.13
= 40.88
46.78
Calculation
A
18.00
10.50
18.00
46.5
in
in^4
Input
8,000
12
3
Calculation
La
9
P * (L  a)
72,000
P * a * b^2 / L^2
13,500
lbf
in
in
inlb
inlb
P*a*b/L
18,000
inlb
Enter values for applied moment at a beam section given: C, Ixx and Ycg.
Bending stress will be calculated.
Applied moment from above, MMAX =
Larger of: C1 and C2 = C =
Section moment of inertia, Ixx =
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
Shaft material elastic modulus, E =
Input
13200
1.750
4.466
1.5
29000000
Calculation
Beam length from above, L =
12
Beam load from above, P =
8000
Max moment stress, Sm =
Kb*M*C / I
=
7759
Cantilever deflection at A, Y =
P*L^3 / (3*E*I)
0.0356
Fixed ends deflection at C, Y = P*a^3 * b^3 / (3*E*I*L^3)
0.000235
Pinned ends deflection at C, Y = P*a^2 * b^2 / (3*E*I*L)
0.001251
inlbf
in
in^4
lb/in^2
in
lbf
lb/in^2
in
in
in
s and torsion.
ns of loads.
A/ B
3/2
1.5
X^n
2^3
8
ence: Design of
ne Elements, by V.M.
s, published by: The
millan Company, New
CollierMacmillan
d, London, England.
ence: Design of
ne Elements, by V.M.
s, published by: The
millan Company, New
CollierMacmillan
d, London, England.
Calculation
Yn
11
6.5
1.5
Icg
6.00
42.88
13.50
62.38
Calculation
Yn
1.00
3.50
1.50
Icg
121.50
1.97
54.00
177.47
Calculation
Icg
6
43
14
62
J = *D^4 / 32
J = *(D^4  d^4) / 32
Sb = M*R / I
I = *D^4 / 64
I = *(D^4  d^4) / 64
The ASME Code equation for shafts subjected to: torsion, bending, axial load, shock, and
fatigue is:
Shaft diameter cubed,
D^3 = (16/*Ss(1K^4))*[ ( (KbMb + (*F*D*(1+K^2)/8 ]^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
Shaft diameter cubed with no axial load,
D^3 = (16/*Ss)*[ (KbMb)^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
K = D/d
d = inside diameter
Moment of area:
I = *D^4 / 64
I = *(D^4  d^4) / 64
The ASME Code equation for shafts subjected to: torsion, bending, axial load, shock, and
fatigue is:
Shaft diameter cubed,
D^3 = (16/*Ss(1K^4))*[ ( (KbMb + (*F*D*(1+K^2)/8 ]^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
Shaft diameter cubed with no axial load,
D^3 = (16/*Ss)*[ (KbMb)^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.5
K = D/d
d = inside diameter
Input
70,000
46,000
Calculate
18% * Su
12600
30% * Sy
13800
75% * Sau
9450
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
Input
9,450
20
600
3
60
10
30
10
8
18
200
20
1.5
1
Calculate
HP * 63000 / N
2,100
3
T / (D2 / 2)
( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1  B)
117
B * T2
350
lbf/in^2
hp
rpm
deg
in
in
in
in
in
lbs
deg

inlbf
lbf
lbf
Vertical Forces
V2 = Fs =
Ft * Tan( A )
=
191
lbf
V4 = ( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )Wp
=
204
lbf
V3 = ( (V4*(L2 + L3))  (V2*L1) ) / L2
208
lbf
V1 =
V2 + V3  V4
195
lbf
Vertical Moments
Mv2 =
V1 * L1
1,954
lbfin
Mv3 =
V4 * L3
2,041
lbfin
Horizontal Forces
H2 =Ft =
T / (D1 / 2)
525
lbf
H4 =
(T1 + T2) * Cos( A )
233
lbf
H3 = ( (H4*(L2 + L3)) + (H2*L1) ) / L2
486
H1 =
H2  H3 + H4
272
Horizontal Moments
Mh2 =
H1 * L1
2,722
lbfin
Mh3 =
H4 * L3
2,334
lbfin
Resultant Moments
Mr2 =
(Mv2^2 + Mh2^2)^0.5
3351
lbfin
Mr3 =
(Mv3^2 + Mh3^2)^0.5
3100
lbfin
Input
Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb =
3,351
lbfin
Calculate
ASME Code for shaft with keyway, D^3 = (16 / (*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5
=
3
in^3
D=
1.431
in^3
Input
70,000
46,000
Calculate
18% * Su
12600
30% * Sy
13800
75% * Sau
9450
Input
9,450
20
600
3
60
10
30
10
8
18
200
20
1.5
1
1.000
3.000
2.000
Calculate
HP * 63000 / N
2,100
3
T / (D2 / 2)
( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1  B)
117
B * T2
350
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
hp
rpm
deg
in
in
in
in
in
lbs
deg
in
in
in
inlbf
lbf
lbf
H2 =Ft =
T / (D1 / 2)
525
lbf
V2 = Fs =
Ft * Tan( A )
=
909
lbf
V4 = ( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )Wp
=
204
lbf
V3 = ( (V4*(L2 + L3))  (V2*L1) ) / L2
31
lbf
V1 =
V2 + V3  V4
674
lbf
Vertical Moments
Mv2 =
V1 * L1
6,742
lbfin
Mv3 =
V4 * L3
2,041
lbfin
Input
Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb =
6,742
lbfin
Calculate
ASME Code for shaft with keyway, D^3 = (16 / (*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5
=
5.567
in^3
D=
1.771
in^3
Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Torque shock & fatigue factor, Kt =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Shaft material shear modulus, G =
hp
rpm
in
in
psi
inlbf
Input
1,080
0.883
10
29,000,000
11,500,000
Calculation
*D^4 / 32
0.060
Td*D / (2*J)
8,000
Td*L / (J*G)
0.0158
0.90
inlbf
in
in
psi
psi
in^4
lbf/in^2
radians
degrees
Hollow Shaft
Torsion, T =
Hollow shaft outside dia, Do =
Hollow shaft inside dia, Di =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
J=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=
Input
360
2.000
Calculation
*D^4 / 32
1.571
T*(D/2) / J
229
Input
1,000
2.250
1.125
Calculation
*(Do^4  Di^4) / 32
2.359
T*(Do/2) / J
477
inlbf
in
in^4
lb/in^2
inlbf
in
in
in^4
lb/in^2
Square Shaft
Torsion, T =
Square shaft breadth = height, B =
Input
1,000
1.750
inlbf
in
Calculation
B^4 / 6
1.563
T*(B/2) / J
560
in^4
lb/in^2
Rectangular Shaft
Torsion, T =
Rectangular shaft breadth, B =
Height, H =
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
=
Torsion stress, Ft =
=
Input
1,000
1.000
2.000
Calculation
B*H*(B^2 + H^2)/ 12
0.833
T*(B/2) / J
600
inlbf
in
in
in^4
lb/in^2
Input
740
5
3
3.000
Calculation
W*x
Km*Mx
11100
*D^4 / 64
3.977
M*D / (2*I)
4,187
lbf
in
in
inlbs
inlbs
in^4
lbs/in^2
Input
740
lbf
3.000
in
10
in
5
in
3
29,000,000
psi
Calculation
Section moment of inertia, I =
*D^4 / 64
=
3.976
in^4
Moment at, x =
5
in
Moment at x, M =
Km*W*x
=
11100
inlbf
Bending stress at x: Sb =
M*(D/2) / I
4,188
lbf/in^2
Cantilever bend'g deflection at x, Yx = (W*x^2/(6*E*I))*((3*L)  x)
=
0.0007
in
Bending deflection at x = 0, Y =
W*L^3 / (3*E*I)
Y=
0.0021
in
Input
1.000
Calculations
*D^4 / 64
0.049
Input
1.750
1.5
Calculation
*(Do^4  Di^4) / 64
0.212
Input
1.750
Calculation
B^4 / 12
0.782
in
in^4
in
in
in^4
in^4
Applied moment at x, M =
c=
Section moment of inertia, Izz =
Bending shock & fatigue factor, Kb =
Max bending stress, Fb =
Answer: Fb =
Input
1,000
1.000
2.5
3
Calculation
Kb*M*c / I
1,200
inlbf
in
in^4

lb/in^2
1.4 Shaft keys shall be the square parallel type and keyways adjacent to bearings
shall be round end, all other keyways may be the runout type.
2.1 Pulleys:
2.2 The head pulley on the Reclaim Conveyor shall be welded 304SS so as not to
interfere with tramp metal removal by the magnet.
2.3 All pulleys shall be welded steel crown faced, selected in accordance with
ratings established by the Mechanical Power Transmission Association Standard
No.3011965 and U.S.A.
Standard No.B105.11966. In no case shall the pulley shaft loads as listed in the
rating tables of these standards be exceeded.
2.4 All pulleys shall be crowned.
2.5 All drive pulleys shall be furnished with 1/2 inch thick vulcanized herringbone
grooved lagging.
2.6 Snub pulleys adjacent to drive pulleys shall have a minimum diameter of 16
inches.
End of example.
4COUPLINGS
Riged Coupling Design
Couplings are used to connect rotating
shafts continuously. Clutches are used to
connect rotating shafts temporarily.
Rigid couplings are used for accurately
aligned shafts in slow speed applications.
Refer to ASME code and coupling vendor
design values.
A
B
C
D
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Legend
A
B
C
D
h/R
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Design Stress
Coupling Design Shear Stress = Design allowable average shear stress.
Input
Material ultimate tensile stress, Ft =
85,000
lbf/in^2
Shaft material yield stress, Fy =
45,000
lbf/in^2
Calculation
Ultimate tensile stress design factor, ku =
0.18
Design ultimate shear stress, Ssu =
ku* Ft
=
15,300
lbf/in^2
Yield stress factor, ky =
0.3
Design yield shear design stress factor, Ssy =
ky* Ft
=
13,500
lbf/in^2
Use the smaller design shear stress of Fsu and Fsy above.
Input
2.000
0.375
0.25
Calculation
0.188
0.75
0.25
Input
60
300
13,500
3.00
1.38
Calculation
12*33000*HP / (2**N)
12,603
*D^4 / 32
1.5710
Ss*J / (Kt*Kk*Ds/2)
5,123
in
in
in
Apply to graph
above.
hp
rpm
lbf/in^2
< From above graph.
inlbf
in^4
inlbf
Input
0.375
3.00
2.000
13,500
80,000
Calculation
H*L
1.125
0.75
K*Fs*A
11,391
Pk*Ds/2
11,391
Sb*L*(D/2  H/4)*(H/2)
40,781
in
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
in^2
lbf/in^2
inlbf
inlbf
Input
10.00
in
9.00
in
500
lbf
6
0.2
1
Calculation
Coupling friction radius, Rf = (2/3)*(Ro^3Ri^3)/(Ro^2Ri^2)
Answer: Rf =
4.75
in
Axial force, Fa =
P*Nb
Fa =
Coupling friction torque capacity, Tf =
Answer: Tf =
3,000
Fa*f*Rf*n
2,853
lbf
inlbf
Pb*(Dc/2)*(Nb / 2)
1,919
inlbf
Shaft in Hub
The hub is the outer
ring, Do to Dc. The
shaft is the inner ring,
Dc to Di
Input
14.000
4.000
0.000
8
5,000
1.50E+07
3.00E+07
in
in
in
in
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
lbf/in^2
Coefficient of friction, f =
Hub Poisson's ratio, h =
Shaft Poisson's ratio, s =
0.12
0.3
0.3
See input above:
Calculation
Pressure at contact surface, Pc = Ft*((Do^2Dc^2) / (Do^2+Dc^2))
Pc =
4,245
C1 = (Dc^2+Di^2)/(Es*(Dc^2Di^2))
C1 =
0.000000033333
C2 = (Do^2+Dc^2)/(Eh*(Do^2Dc^2))
C2 =
0.000000078519
C3 =
s / Es
C3 =
0.000000010000
C4 =
h / Eh
C4 =
0.000000020000
Maximum diameter interference, = Pc*Dc*(C1 + C2  C3 + C4)
=
0.00207
in
Maximum axial load, Fa = f**Dc*L*Pc
Fa =
51,221
Maximum torque, T = f*Pc**Dc^2*L / 2
T=
102,441
lbf
inlbf
Y/H
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.40
A
2.01
1.59
1.41
1.37
1.35
0.60
B
1.91
1.50
1.32
1.28
1.25
0.80
C
1.77
1.40
1.25
1.19
1.17
1.00
D
1.62
1.30
1.18
1.10
1.07
bove graph.
5Linear Actuators
Linear Actuators
Motor driven: linear actuators, screw jacks, and clamps are examples of power screws.
The essential components are a nut engaging the helical screw threads of a shaft.
A nut will advance one screw thread pitch per one 360 degree rotation on a single pitch
screw. A nut will advance two screw thread pitches per one 360 degree rotation on a double
pitch screw, etc.
The actuator nut below advances or retreats as the motor shaft turns clockwise or antclockwise. The nut is prevented from rotating by the upper and lower guide slots. The control
system of a stepper motor rotates the shaft through a series of small angles very accurately
repeatedly. The linear travel of the lug & nut is precise and lockable.
Pitch (P) is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next thread.
Lead (n*P) is the distance a nut advances each complete revolution.
Multiple pitch number (n) refers to single (n=1), double (n=2), triple (n=3) pitch screw.
Input
30
hp
1,750
rpm
Calculation
12*33000*HP / (2**N)
1080
inlbf
Input
3.000
3
5.86
2
0.15
0
2
500
Calculation
0.5*(1/ TPI )+0.01
0.177
(D  H) / 2
1.412
in
threads/in
degrees
in
lbf
in
in
degrees
Input
2,000
4
3
0.18
0.9
Calculation
Screw thread average pressure, P = W / (2**L*Rm*H*TPI)
Answer: P =
164
lbf
in
threads/in
in
lbf/in^2
6Brakes
DISC BRAKE
A sectional view of a generic disc brake with calipers is
illustrated right.
Equal and opposite clamping forces, F lbf acting at mean
radius Rm inches provide rotation stopping torque T inlbf.
Braking torque, T =
Shoe Brake
Input
50
0.2
7.00
1
Calculation
2**F*N*Rm
140
lbf
in

inlbf
(Mn  Mr) / C
1,045
lbf
Z = ((Cos(A1)Cos(A2)) / Sin(Am)
Z=
1.6427
Right shoe brake torque capacity, Tr =
f*Pm*w*Rd^2*(Z)
Tr =
3,548
inlbf
7VBELT DRIVES
VBelts
Vbelts are used to transmit power
from motors to machinery.
Sheaves have a Vgroove. Pulleys
have a flat circumference.
A Vbelt may be used in combination
with a drive sheave on a motor shaft
and a pulley on the driven shaft.
Angle B
Small sheave pitch circle radius, R1 =
Large sheave pitch circle radius, R2 =
Center distance, C =
Sin (B)
Sin (B)
B
B
VBelt Drive
=
=
=
=
Input
4
6
14
Calculation
(R2R1) / C
0.1429
0.1433
8.21
in
in
in
radn.
degrees
Drive power, HP =
Motor speed, N =
Drive sheave pitch diameter, D1 =
Driven sheave pitch diameter, D2 =
Center distance, C =
Sheave groove angle, A =
Sheave to Vbelt coefficient of friction, f1 =
Pulley to Vbelt coefficient of friction, f2 =
B1 =
B2 =
D =
Vbelt weight per cubic inch, w =
Tight side Vbelt allowable tension, T1 =
Vbelt C.G. distance, x =
=
Driven sheave pitch diameter, D2 =
=
Input
30
1,800
10
36
40
40
0.2
0.2
0.75
1.5
1
0.04
200
Calculation
D*(B1+ 2*B2)/ 3(B1+B2)
0.556
D2 + 2*x
37.11
hp
rpm
in
in
in
deg
in
in
in
lbm/in^3
lbf
in
in
Angle of Wrap An
Small sheave pitch radius, R1 =
Large pulley pitch radius, R2 =
Sin (B) =
Sin (B) =
B =
B =
Small sheave angle of wrap, A1 =
A1 =
Large pulley angle of wrap, A2 =
A2 =
e =
5.00
18.56
(R2R1) / C
0.3389
0.3457
19.81
180  2*B
140.38
180 + 2*B
219.62
2.7183
in
in
radn.
degrees
degrees
degrees
Sheave capacity Cs =
e^(f1*A1/ Sin(A/2))
= 4.77
Pulley capacity, Cp =
e^(f2*A2/ Sin(90/2))
=
2.15
=
Horsepower per belt, HPb =
=
Number of belts, Nb =
=
Use
148
(T2T1)*V / 550
7.4
HP / HPb
4.1
Input
4
lbf
hp
belts
belts
8SPUR GEARS
14.5 or 20
N/D

Input
2,500
lbf
1.500
in
1.000
in
20
deg
4
32.0
Calculation
Pitch circle diameter, D =
N / Pd
=
8.000
Base circle, BC = D*Cos(Pa/57.3)
=
7.518
Moment arm length, h =
(D  BC)/2
=
0.241
in
Base half thickness, c =
t/2
c=
4.000
in
Section modulus, I =
b*t^3 / 12
I=
0.28125
in^3
Moment applied to tooth, M =
W*h
=
603
inlb
Gear tooth bending stress, Sb =
M*c / I
Sb =
8,576
lbf/in^2
The stress calculated above does not include stress concentration or dynamic loading.
Input
100
ft/min
3.13
in
1836
inlbf
3.00
in
2950
4980
Calculation
Static load, F =
2*T / R
F=
1,224
lbf
Dynamic load, Pd = ((0.05*V*(b*C + F)) / (0.05*V + (b*C + F)^.5)) + F
Pd =
1,711
Pressure
Angle 20
0.078
0.088
0.094
0.098
0.102
0.108
0.114
0.130
0.134
0.138
0.142
150
300
Rack
0.119
0.122
0.124
0.146
0.150
0.154
Input
5.33
800
*Dp*n / 12
1116
1722
840
Calculation
F*V / 33000
44
in
rpm
ft/min
lbf
ft/min
Note:
1.0 HP =
hp
33000
ft/min
Lead Angle, A
Lead =
Dw =
Tan(A/57.2975) =
A=
Lead angle, A =
Answer: A =
Input
2.25
4
Calculation
Lead / (*Dw)
0.1790
Tan1(a)
10.15
radians
degrees
Input
16
Calculation
Cd^0.875 / 2.2
5.143
Dw / 3
1.71
1.75
in
in
in
in
Input
5.33
600
20,000
in
rpm
lbf/in^2
Calculation
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, Vg =
*Dp*n / 12
Vg =
837
ft/min
Worm / Wheel allowable stress, So =
Su / 3
So =
6,667
lbf/in^2
Worm/gear design stress, Sd =So*1200 / (1200 + Vg)
Sd =
3,927
lbf/in^2
Sd =
Tooth width, b =
Circular pitch, Pnc =
Lewis form factor, Y =
Allowable gear tooth load, F =
F=
Input
3,927
1.5
1.0473
0.094
Calculation
Sd*b*Pnc*Y
580
lbf/in^2
in
in
lbf
Input
1,723
800
Calculation
Worm Gear Dynamic Load, Fd = F*(1200+Vg) / (1200)
Fd =
2,872
Static load, F =
Gear Pitch Line Velocity, Vg =
Input
4,000
1.5
0.094
lbf
ft/min
lbf
lbf/in^2
in
5.3
Calculation
Sd*b*Y* / Pnd
334
Input
5.3
1.5
60
Calculation
Dg*b*
477
in
lbf
in
in

lbf
B
50
60
80
120
150
Input Data
0.1
12
degrees
Calculation
Worm gear efficiency, e = (1  f*Tan(A/57.2975) / (1 + f/Tan(A/57.2975)
e=
0.986
Coefficient of friction, f =
Lead angle, A =
Input
3
25
Calculation
9.5*C^1.7 / (R + 5)
2.05
in
hp
What if Calculations
Excel will make a, What if" calculation using,
"Goal Seek" when the calculated formula value
needs to be changed.
Td*L / (J*G)
0.0341
1.95
radians
degrees
Input
5
hp
1750
rpm
3
0.500
in
10
in
11500000
psi
Calculation
Applied motor shaft torque, Ta =12*33000*HP / (2**N)
=
180.05
in*lbf
Section polar moment of inertia, J =
*D^4 / 32
J=
0.006
in^4
Answer: Design Torque, Td =
Kt*Ta
=
540
inlbf
Shear stress for shafts, St =
Td*D / (2*J)
=
22005
lbs/in^2
Shaft torsion deflection angle, a =
Td*L / (J*G)
Motor Power, HP =
Shaft speed, N =
Torque shock & fatigue factor, Kt =
Shaft diameter, D =
Shaft length, L =
Material shear modulus, G =
a=
a=
0.0765
4.39
radians
degrees
 New Version
se a Calculated
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eet > OK
ection with:
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Old Version
se a Calculated formula
d sheet by selecting:
heet > OK
tection with:
et > OK