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Konda Ram Charan3, R.Jeeva @ Rajasekar3

1 Research Scholar, Dept. of CSE

2 Professor, Dept. of IT

3 Final Year IT

Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry, India

Abstract:GeneticAlgorithm(GA)andParticleswarmoptimization(PSO)arebothpopulationbasedsearchmethods

andmovefromsetofpoints(population)toanothersetofpointsinasingleiterationwithlikelyimprovementusingset

ofcontroloperators.GAhasbecomepopularbecauseofitsmanyversions,easeofimplementation,abilitytosolve

difficultproblemsandsoon.PSOisrelativelyrecentheuristicsearchmechanisminspiredbybirdflockingorfish

schooling.AssociationRule(AR)miningisoneofthemoststudiedtasksindatamining.Theobjectiveofthispaper

istocomparetheeffectivenessandcomputationalcapabilityofGAandPSOinminingassociationrules.Thoughboth

areheuristicbasedsearchmethods,thecontrolparametersinvolvedinGAandPSOdiffer.TheGeneticalgorithm

parametersarebasedonreproductiontechniquesevolvedfrombiologyandthecontrolparametersofPSOarebasedon

particlebestvaluesineachgeneration.FromtheexperimentalstudyPSOisfoundtobeaseffectiveasGAwith

marginallybettercomputationalefficiencyoverGA.

Keywords:GeneticAlgorithm,ParticleSwamoptimization,Associationrules,Effectiveness,Computationalefficiency.

1 Introduction

With advancements in information technology the amount of data stored in databases and kinds of databases

continue to grow fast. Analyzing and finding the critical hidden information from this data has become very

important issue. Association rule mining techniques help in achieving this task. Association rule mining is searching

of interesting patterns or information from database [12]. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are

both evolutionary heuristics and population based search methods proven to be successful in solving difficult

problems.

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a procedure used to find approximate solutions to search problems through the

application of the principles of evolutionary biology. Genetic algorithms use biologically inspired techniques such as

genetic inheritance, natural selection, mutation, and sexual reproduction. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a

heuristic search method whose mechanics are inspired by the swarming or collaborative behavior of biological

populations. PSO works with group of potential solutions called particles, and explores the search space for global

minimum by continuously modifying the population in subsequent generations.

The major objective of this paper is to verify whether the hypothesis that PSO has same effectiveness as that of GA

but better computational efficiency is valid or not. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the

preliminaries of the methods. Section 3 describes the method adopted for mining ARs. In section 4 the experimental

results are presented followed by conclusions in section 5.

2 Preliminaries

This section briefly presents the preliminaries involved. Association rules and measures related to it are discussed

first followed by the related works on the subject.

2.1 Association Rule

Association rule mining finds interesting associations and/or correlation relationships among large set of data items.

Association rules show attributes value conditions that occur frequently together in a given dataset. Typically the

relationship will be in the form of a rule [13]:

X Y

Where X and Y are itemsets and X is called the antecedent and Y the consequent.

Each association rule has two quality measurements, support and confidence. Support implies frequency of

occurrence of patterns, and confidence means the strength of implication and is defined as follows:

An itemset, X, in a transaction database, D, has a support, denoted as sup(X) or simply p(X), that is the ratio of

transactions in D containing X.

( x )=

No . of transactions containing X

Total No .oftransactions

(1)

The confidence of a rule X Y, written as conf(XY), is defined as

conf ( X Y )=

( X Y )

(X )

(2)

Association rule mining is to find frequent patterns, correlations, associations or casual structures among sets of

items or objects in transactional databases, relational databases, and other information repositories.

2.2 Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an adaptive heuristic search algorithm based on the evolutionary ideas of natural

selection and genetics. As such they represent an intelligent exploitation of a random search used to solve

optimization problems. Although randomized, GAs are by no means random, instead they exploit historical

information to direct the search into the region of better performance within the search space. The basic techniques

of GAs are designed to simulate processes in natural systems necessary for evolution, especially those follow the

principles first laid down by Charles Darwin of "survival of the fittest".

The evolutionary process of a GA [11] is a highly simplified and stylized simulation of the biological version. It

starts from a population of individuals randomly generated according to some probability distribution, usually

uniform and updates this population in steps called generations. In each generation, multiple individuals are

randomly selected from the current population based upon some application of fitness, bred using crossover, and

modified through mutation to form a new population.

Step 1. [Start] Generate random population of n chromosomes

Step 2. [Fitness] Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population

Step 3. [New population] Create a new population by repeating the following steps until the

new population is complete

[Selection] Select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness

[Crossover] With a crossover probability cross over the parents to form a new offspring (children)

[Mutation] With a mutation probability mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome)

[Accepting] Place new offspring in a new population

Step 4. [Replace] Use new generated population for a further run of algorithm

Step 5. [Test] If the end condition is satisfied, stop, and return the best solution in current

population

Step 6. [Loop] Go to step 2

2.3 Particle Swarm Optimization

PSO simulates the behavior of bird flocking. PSO is an optimization tool, providing a population-based search

procedure in which individuals called particles change their position (state) with time. In a PSO system, particles fly

around in a multidimensional search space. During flight, each particle adjusts its position according to its own

experience, and according to the experience of a neighboring particle, making use of the best position encountered

by itself and its neighbor.

PSO is initialized with a group of random particles (solutions) and then searches for optimum value by updating

particles in successive generations. In each iteration, all the particles are updated by following two "best" values.

The first one is the best solution (fitness) it has achieved so far. This value is called pbest. Another "best" value that

is tracked by the particle swarm optimizer is the best value, obtained so far by any particle in the population. This

best value is a global best and called gbest.

After finding the two best values, the particle updates its velocity and positions with the following equations (3) and

(4).

(4)

v[] is the particle velocity, present[] is the current particle. pbest[] and gbest[] are local best and global best position

of particles. rand () is a random number between (0,1). c1, c2 are learning factors. Usually c1 = c2 = 2.

The outline of basic particle swarm optimizer is as follows

Step1. Initialize the population : locations and velocities

Step 2. Evaluate the fitness of the individual particle (pbest)

Step 3. Keep track of the individuals highest fitness (gbest)

Step 4. Modify velocities based on pBest and gBest position

Step 5. Update the particles position

Step 6. Terminate if the condition is met

Step 7. Go to Step 2

Particles' velocities on each dimension are clamped to a maximum velocity V max. If the sum of accelerations causes

the velocity on that dimension to exceed V max, which is a parameter specified by the user, then the velocity on that

dimension is limited to Vmax.

2.4 Related works

During last few decades many researches were carried out using evolutionary algorithm in data mining concepts.

Association rule mining shares major part of research in data mining. Many classical approaches for mining

association rules have been developed and analyzed. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) are stochastic search methods

that mimic the metaphor of natural biological evolution. Recent works on association rule mining concentrates more

on these EAs.

GA discovers high level prediction rules [1] with better attribute interaction than other classical mining rules

available. Representation of rules plays a major role in GAs. Pittsburgh[1] approach leads to syntactically-longer

individuals, which tends to make fitness computation more computationally expensive. In the Michigan[1] approach

the individuals are simpler and syntactically shorter. This tends to reduce the time taken to compute the fitness

function and to simplify the design of genetic operators. The mechanism to select individuals for a new generation

based on the technique of elitist recombination [2] simplifies the implementation of GA. According to this

technique, the individuals in a population are randomly shuffled. Then, the cross-over operation is applied on each

mating pair, resulting into two offspring. The parent and the offspring with the highest fitness value are selected to

be mutated with a probability. Then they are added to the new generation. In this way, there is a direct competition

between the offspring and their own parents and the offspring provides the possibility to explore different parts of a

search space.

In [3], cross probability and mutation probability are set up in dynamic process of evolution. When new population

evolves, if every individual is comparatively consistent, then cross probability Pc and mutation probability Pm are

increased. The cross probability and mutation probability are set up as follows.

K=

Flast

F now

(5)

F is the fitness function and K is the rate that, dissimilar degree of colony of last century is compared with current

century.

pc =K pc '

(6)

pm=K p m '

(7)

Pc' and Pm' are separately cross probability and mutation probability of last century, Pc Pm are separately cross

probability and mutation probability of current century. In this way, evolution of current century is based on last

century.

Noda et al. [4] has proposed two relatively simple objective measures of the rule Surprisingness (or interestingness).

The basic idea of one of these measures is that a rule is considered surprising to the extent that it predicts a class

different from the classes predicted by its minimum generalizations. By contrast, genetic algorithms (GAs) [5]

maintain a population and thus can search for many non-dominated solutions in parallel. GAs ability to find a

diverse set of solutions in a single run and its exemption from demand for objective preference information renders

it immediate advantage over other classical techniques.

Particle Swarm Optimization is a population based stochastic optimization technique developed by Eberhart and

Kennedy in 1995 [6], inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. PSO shares many similarities

with evolutionary computation techniques such as GA. However unlike GA, PSO has no evolution operators such as

crossover and mutation.

A binary version of PSO based algorithm for fuzzy classification rule generation, also called fuzzy PSO, is presented

in [7]. The only application of PSO in the context of knowledge discovery is to train a fuzzy neural network for

extracting fuzzy rules. In essence, it is a neural network based algorithm for classification rule generation. PSO has

proved to be competitive with GA in several tasks, mainly in optimization areas. The PSO variants implemented

were Discrete Particle Swarm Optimizer [8] (DPSO), Linear Decreasing Weight Particle Swarm Optimizer [9]

(LDWPSO) and Constricted Particle Swarm Optimizer [10] (CPSO).

Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization both population based search methods are applied for mining

association rule from databases. Fitness function controls the passing of data from one generation to next generation.

Predictive accuracy is used to measure the quality of rules mined. The self adaptive GA [15] is found to produce

marginally better than traditional GA. This section describes the methodology adopted for mining AR based on both

SAGA and PSO.

3.1 Fitness Function

Fitness value decides the importance of each itemset being evaluated. Fitness value is evaluated using the fitness

function. The objective of the fitness function is maximization. Equation 8 describes the fitness function.

(8)

Where sup(x) and conf(x) are as described in equation 1 and 2, length(x) is length of the association rule type x. If

the support and confidence factors are larger then, greater is the strength of the rule with more importance.

3.2 Objectives Design

Predictive accuracy measures the effectiveness of the rules mined. The mined rules must have high predictive

accuracy.

X

X Y

Predictive accuracy =

(9)

where |X&Y| is the number of records that satisfy both the antecedent X and consequent Y, |X| is the number of

rules satisfying the antecedent X.

3.3 Mining AR based on SAGA

Binary encoding is used to represent the rules as chromosomes. Initial population is selected randomly from the

dataset. Elitism based selection method is adopted for selection of chromosomes for reproduction (namely crossover

and mutation). In the traditional genetic algorithm, the crossover rate and mutation rate are fixed values which are

selected based on experience. Generally we believe that when the crossover rate is too low, the evolutionary process

can easily fall into local optimum to result in groups of premature convergence due to population size and the lack

of diversity. When the crossover rate is too high, the process is optimized to the vicinity of optimal point and the

individual is difficult to reach optimal point which can slow the speed of convergence significantly though groups

can ensure the diversity.

To overcome the drawbacks of traditional genetic algorithm, Self Adaptive GA (SAGA) is proposed. SAGA

involves changing the crossover and mutation rates adaptively. A method of adaptive mutation rate is used as

follows:

n+1 )

f mi )

( f (max

i=1

m

n)

f in)

( f (max

i=1

(10)

pm n is the nth generation mutation rate, pm(n+1) is the (n+1)th generation mutation rate. The first generation mutation

rate is pm0, fi(m) is the fitness of the nth individual itemset i. f max(n+1) is the highest fitness of the (n+1) th individual

stocks. fi(n) is the fitness of the nth individual i. m is the number of itemsets. is the adjustment factor. The fitness

criterion is as described in equation 5.

3.4 Mining AR based on PSO

The chromosome encoding approach adopted in this scheme is binary encoding. Particles which have larger fitness

are selected for the initial population. The particles in this population are called initial particles. Initially the velocity

and position of all particles randomly set within predefined range. In each iteration, the velocities of all particles are

updated based on velocity updating equation 3. The position of particles is then updated based on equation 4. During

position updation if the acceleration exceeds the user defined V max then position is set to Vmax. The global best and

local best particles are updated in each iteration as in equation 11 and 12.

p

f

(

i)>

f ( pbest)

if

pbest=p i

(11)

gbext=g i

if

f ( gi ) > f ( gbest )

(12)

The above process is repeated until fixed number of generations or the termination condition is met.

4 Experimental Results

To confirm the effectiveness of GA and PSO, both the algorithms were coded in Java. Lenses, Haberman and Car

evaluation datasets from UCI Irvine repository[14] were taken up or the experiment. The information regarding the

datasets is listed in table 1.

Table 1. Dataset information

Dataset Name

Lenses

Haberman

Car evaluation

No. of

Records

24

310

700

No. of

attributes

4

3

6

No of

classes

3

2

4

Traditional GA, self adaptive GA and PSO based mining of ARs on the above dataset when performed resulted in

predictive accuracy as listed in table 2. The predictive accuracy when achieved maximum during successive

iterations was recorded.

Table 2. Predictive Accuracy

Dataset Name

Lenses

Haberman

Car evaluation

Traditional

GA

87.5

75.5

85

Self Adaptive

GA

91.6

92.5

94.4

PSO

92.8

91.6

95

PSO tends to produce results as effective as self adaptive GA, but better than traditional GA. The performance of

SAGA and PSO over generations in terms of predictive accuracy was recorded for Lenses, Car evaluation and

Haberman datasets in figures 1 to 3. PSO is found to be equally effective as SAGA in mining association rules. The

predictive accuracy for both the methods is close to one another.

Haberman

Lenses

100

90

80

Predictive

PS O AccuracyS AGA

70

60

50

60

Predictive

Accuracy

PS O

S AGA

10

123456789

No. of Genetaions

No. of Generations

Car evaluation

Haberman

1500

100

90

80

70

PS O

S AGA

PS O

Predictive

Accuracy

60

50

1000

Execution

Time in msecS AGA

500

PS O

0

No. of Generations

S AGA

No. of Generations

Lenses

PS O

SAGA

No . of Gener ations

fast when compared to SAGA. This can be seen from the figures 4 to 6. The execution time of both PSO and SAGA

over generations is predicted in the graphs.

Car Evaluation

1200

1000

800

600

Execution

PSOTime in msec

SAGA

400

200

0

No. of Generations

Particle Swarm optimization shares many similarities with Genetic Algorithms. Both methods begin with a group of

randomly initialized population, evaluate their population based on fitness function. Genetic operators namely

crossover and mutation preserves the aspects of the rules and in avoiding premature convergence. The main

difference between PSO and GA is that PSO does not have the genetic operators as crossover and mutation. In PSO

only the best particle passes information to others and hence the computational capability of PSO is marginally

better than SAGA.

5 Conclusions

Particle swarm optimization is a recent heuristic search method based on the idea of collaborative behavior and

swarming in populations. Both PSO and GA depend on sharing information between populations. In GA information

is passed from one generation to other through the reproduction method namely crossover and mutation operator.

GA is well established method with many versions and many applications. The objective of this study is to analyze

PSO and GA in terms of effectiveness and computational efficiency.

From the study carried out on the three datasets PSO proves to be as effective as GA in mining association rules. In

term of computational efficiency PSO is marginally faster than GA. The pbest and gbest values tends to pass the

information between populations more effectively than the reproduction operators in GA. PSO and GA are both

inspired by nature and more effective for optimization problems. Setting of appropriate values for the control

parameters involved in these heuristics methods is the key point to success in these methods

References

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Alex A. Freitas, A Survey of Evolutionary Algorithms for Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery,

Postgraduate Program in Computer Science, Pontificia Universidade catolica do Parana Rua Imaculada

Conceicao, Brazil.

Xian-Jun Shi, Hong Lei, Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach for Classification Rule Discovery,

International Conference on Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering,

ICIII '08, Volume: 1 , Page(s): 175 178, 2008.

Xiaoyuan Zhu, Yongquan Yu, Xueyan Guo, Genetic Algorithm Based on Evolution Strategy and the

Application in Data Mining, First International Workshop on Education Technology and Computer

Science, ETCS '09, Volume: 1 , Page(s): 848 852, 2009

E. Noda, A.A. Freitas, H.S. Lopes, Discovering interesting prediction rules with a genetic algorithm, in:

Proceedings of Conference on Evolutionary Computation 1999 (CEC-99), Washington, DC, USA, (1999),

pp.13221329.

Z. Michalewicz, Genetic Algorithms + Data Structure = Evolution Programs, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,

1994.

J.Kennedy, R.C Eberhart, Particle Swarm Optimization. In: Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International

Conference on Neural Networks. IEEE Press, 1995, p.1492-1948.

Zh. He etc. Extracting rules from fuzzy neural network by particle swarm optimization. IEEE Conference

on Evolutionary Computation, USA ,1998:74-77

8.

9.

Y. Shi, R.C. Eberhart, Empirical Study of Particle Swarm Optimisation, in: Proceedings of the 1999

Congress of Evolutionary Computation, Piscatay, 1999.

10. M. Clerc, J. Kennedy, The particle swarm-explosion, stability and convergence in a multidimensional

complex space, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 6 (1) (2002).

11. Dehuri.S, Mall. R, Predictive and comprehensible rule discovery using a multiobjective genetic algorithm,

Knowledge based systems, Elsevier, vol 19, p :413-421, 2006.

12. Min Wang, Qin Zou, Caihui Liu , Multi-dimension Association Rule Mining Based on Adaptive Genetic

Algorithm, IEEE International Conference on Uncertainty Reasoning and Knowledge Engineering, 2011.

13. S. Dehuri, S. Patnaik, A. Ghosh, R. Mall, Application of elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm for

classification rule generation Applied Soft Computing (2008) 477487.

14. UCI C. J. Merz and P. M. Murphy, UCI repository of machine learning databases. University of California

Irvine, Department of Information and Computer Science, http://kdd.ics.uci.edu, 1996.

15. K.Indira, S. Kanmani , Gaurav Sethia.D, Kumaran.S, Prabhakar.J, Rule Acquisition in

Data Mining Using a Self Adaptive Genetic Algorithm, Communications in Computer

and Information Science, 2011, Volume 204, Part 1, 171-178

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