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L CNG NHN

Ti liu tham kho :

i hc Si Gn

Gii thiu tng quan

Quang ph l ngnh khoa hc thc nghim chuyn nghin cu cc tnh cht,


hin tng vt l, cc thnh phn ho hc da trn s phn tch cc ph nh sng. V
mt lch s, ngn t ph (spectrum) dng ch kt qu ca s tch cc thnh phn
(cc mu) ca nh sng kh kin pht ra t vt nghin cu (ph pht x) hoc hp th,
tn x bi vt nghin cu (ph hp th, ph tn x). Ngy nay, nguyn l ny c
vn dng pht trin cc k thut thc nghim chuyn dng cho hu ht cc lnh vc
khoa hc c lin quan n vt l nh : vt l sinh hc, ho hc, thin vn, vt l
nguyn t, vt l ht nhn, vt l plasma, vt l cht rn, c hc, m thanhCc ph
quang hc c dng phn tch khng ch trong vng nh sng kh kin m trn
tt c cc tn s ca sng in t, t tn s ca tia gama ti tn s radio. Ty vo i
tng v mc ch cn nghin cu m ta chn nhng khong bc sng hay tn s
thch hp: cc tm, kh kin, hng ngoi trung bnh, THz... Cn lu rng: khi cp
ti cc k thut ph, phng tin nghin cu khng b gii hn trong vic s dng
sng in t. Tht vy, ngoi vic s dng nh sng ngi ta cn s dng m thanh,
cc chm ht thc hin cc php o tng t. V d nh ph m thanh, ph khi
lngTuy nhin trong gii hn ca quang ph th phng tin s dng ch l sng
in t.
u im ca cc k thut quang ph l khi thc hin php o ta thu c kt
qu nhanh chng v php o khng lm hng mu th, khng thay i trng thi ca
h cn o. Thm ch n cn thc hin c nhng php o m ta khng th trin khai
phng th nghim. V d nh: xc nh nhit v nng ca cc thnh phn ho
hc ui tn la ang bay hay cc ngi sao. Tu theo bn cht ca mu vt (v
c, hu c, sinh hc) v th ca n (rn, lng, kh, plasma), ngoi vn phn tch
nh tnh, nh lng, ta cn thu nhn c nhng thng tin v ng lc in t (cc
dch chuyn in t gia cc trng thi, s chuyn giao in tch gia cc phn t),
ng lc cu trc (vn ng ca b sng, phn ly, chuyn bin cu hnh phn t).
Bn cnh , nhng thng tin v mi trng cha mu vt cng c xc nh nh
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vo cc tnh cht quang hc tuyn tnh (nng sut lng t, s dch chuyn bc sng
pht x, hp th), v cc tnh cht ny c th b iu chnh do tng tc ca mi
trng (pH, nng ion, nht, kh nng dn nhit, nhit ).
Mc ch ca cun sch ny l trnh by mt cch ngn gn nhng ni dung
c bn nht v quang ph bn c nm bt kin thc tng quan mt cch nhanh
chng. Tc gi tm tt mt cch c ng c s l thuyt v gii thiu bn phng
php o cn bn ca quang ph: ph hp th, ph pht x, ph tn x, ph phn gii
theo thi gian. Trn c s ca bn php o cn bn ny, tc gi s gii thiu nhng
tin b k thut v mt vi v d ng dng trong nghin cu khoa hc c pht trin
trong vng 20 nm tr li y.
B cc ca cun sch c chia thnh su chng. Theo sau phn m u, cc
kin thc c bn v nh sng cn nm vn dng vo k thut quang ph s c
trnh by chng mt v chng hai. Ni dung ca chng ba tp trung vo gii
thiu nguyn l vn hnh ca laser. Chng bn c dnh gii thiu cc loi u
thu v cch hn ch n nhiu khi thc hin php o. chng nm, cc mc nng
lng ca phn t v cc hin tng quang l trong qu trnh tng tc gia nh sng
v vt cht s c trnh by. Chng cui c dnh gii thiu bn phng php
o ph bin nht trong cc th nghim quang ph.
Sau cng, tc gi rt mong nhn c kin phn hi t bn c v chn
thnh cm n bn c dnh thi gian cho ti liu ny.

Si Gn, ngy 1 thng 9 nm 2012.

Mc lc
M u ...........................................................................................................................4
Chng I

NGUN SNG ....................................................................................6

I.1 Tng quan v nh sng ..........................................................................................6


I.2 Ngun sng t nhin v ngun sng Laser .........................................................10
Chng II

PH V TRNG THI PHN CC..................................14

II.1 Cch tch mu v xc nh bc sng nh sng ...............................................14


II.2 Kim sot tnh phn cc, cng sng bi knh phn cc v knh tr pha ....21
Chng III

LASER ................................................................................................29

III.1 Lch s ra i v cc ng dng ca laser .........................................................29


III.2 Cu to ca laser ...............................................................................................30
III.3 S mc nng lng cn thit trong mi trng hot tnh ................................34
III.4 Xp hng mc nguy him ca laser.............................................................41
Chng IV

U THU BC X .....................................................................43

IV.1 u thu nhit ....................................................................................................45


IV.2 u thu photon .................................................................................................45
Chng V

CC MC NNG LNG CA PHN T...................48

V.1 Lin kt phn t .................................................................................................48


V.2 Cc mc nng lng ca phn t: in t, Dao ng, Quay............................50
V.3 Gin Jablonski ..............................................................................................51
Chng VI

K THUT O QUANG PH ................................................54

VI.1 Quang ph hp th ...........................................................................................54


VI.2 Quang ph pht x ............................................................................................57
VI.3 Quang ph phn gii theo thi gian .................................................................62
Ph lc: Cc t ting Anh chuyn ngnh trong quang ph hc ...............................74
Ti liu tham kho........................................................................................................78

M u

Ty vo i tng v mc ch nghin cu m mi h o quang ph c xy


dng theo mi cch khc nhau. V c bn th c bn phng php k thut: quang
ph hp th, quang ph pht x, quang ph tn x v quang ph phn gii theo thi
gian. Trong y, ba phng php u cho php xc nh: ph ca nh sng truyn
qua (sau khi b hp th mt phn bi mu vt), ph ca nh sng hunh quang (nh
sng pht ra t mu vt b kch thch) v ph ca nh sng sau khi b tn x ln mu
vt. Nu nh c ba loi ph trn m c o bng cch da vo c ch bm qut
quang hc [1-3] th y chnh l cch o cui cng, ph phn gii theo thi gian. Nh
vy, phng php cui bao gm c ba k thut c tn gi ln lt l: quang ph hp
th phn gii theo thi gian, quang ph pht x phn gii theo thi gian v quang ph
tn x phn gii theo thi gian. Mc d cc h o quang ph khc nhau v nguyn l
nhng c mt im chung v mt k thut l tt c u c cu to bi hai phn
chnh: to ra tn hiu (ngun sng + mu vt), Hnh 0-1, v thu nhn tn hiu (h tn
sc + u thu bc x), Hnh 0-2.

Hnh 0-1. nh sng pht ra t ngun tng tc vi mu vt. Dn n: mu vt


hp th nh sng lm thay i cng truyn qua, mu vt b kch thch pht x ra
nh sng hunh quang (>o), mu vt tn x nh sng ti lm i hng ca chng
v c th km theo s bin i v bc sng( = o ).
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o ba loi ph trong Hnh 0-1 (ph truyn qua, ph hunh quang, ph tn


x) ta ch cn gi cc chm sng y i vo b phn thu nhn tn hiu, Hnh 0-2.

Hnh 0-2. H tn sc v u thu. nh sng sau khi i vo h tn sc s c tch


mu bi cch t phn x. Cc mu khc nhau s c hi t ln cc v tr khc nhau
trn u thu ca camera, cho php camera xc nh c ph (s phn phi cng
sng theo bc sng).

Ph thu c khi thc hin php o l kt qu ca s tng tc gia nh sng


v mu vt. Chnh v vy m cc k thut quang ph cho php ta xc nh c cc
tnh cht ho l ca mu vt, cc thng s trng thi (nhit , p sut) ca h cn
o. hiu c s tng tc gia nh sng v vt cht th kin thc v cu trc ph
ca nguyn t v phn t l rt quan trng. Cc kin thc ny c gii thiu ngn
gn chng V, v trnh by chi tit trong cc ti liu [4, 5].
V mt k thut, ba linh kin khng th thiu khi xy dng h o quang ph l:
ngun sng, h tn sc, h thu bc x. Chc nng ca tng linh kin c trnh by
chi tit chng mt, chng hai, v chng bn. nm c k nng xy dng
hay vn hnh mt th nghim quang ph th cn c s hiu bit vng chc cc kin
thc vt l lin quan n ba thnh phn ny.

Chng I

NGUN SNG

I.1 Tng quan v nh sng


nh sng l g? Theo Maxwell, ngi c xem l a ra l thuyt hon
chnh nht v nh sng cho ti nay, th nh sng l sng in t. V l sng in t
nn nh sng bao gm hai thnh phn, in trng v t trng. Trong qu trnh
truyn sng, hai vect in trng E v t trng B lun vung gc vi nhau v
chng vung gc vi phng truyn sng vect k, Hnh 1-1. Li gii ca cc phng
trnh Maxwell cho php xc nh cc vect E, B mi im trong khng gian v t
s xc nh c bin , phn cc ca sng nh sng ti tt c cc im trong qu
trnh lan truyn.

Hnh 1-1. M hnh sng in t.


bc sng, E vect in trng, B vect t trng, k vect sng.

Tuy nhin cc tnh cht m nh sng th hin vn c th c din t mt cch


n gin hn thng qua hai m hnh c in v mt m hnh vt l lng t: Tia,
Sng v Ht. C ba m hnh ny u c nhng u im khc nhau. Nu gii thch
cc vn v to nh, truyn sng, phn x, khc x th m hnh Tia l ph hp
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nht. Nu din t cc hin tng nh giao thoa, nhiu x hay phn cc nh sng th
cn phi xem nh sng nh l mt Sng ngang. Cn gii thch kt qu ca s
tng tc gia nh sng v vt cht (hp th, pht x, tn x) th cn xem nh sng
nh Ht, nhng lng t nng lng. V vy, khi cp ti tnh cht vt l ca nh
sng ngi ta thng cho rng n th hin s lng tnh sng ht. Cn lu l, lc
quan st th nhn thy tnh cht sng ca nh sng (nhiu x, giao thoa). Cn lc thc
hin php o li nhn thy tnh cht ht (cng dng in ph thuc vo s lng
photon).
Trong ngn ng vt l, t nh sng thng c dng cho cc bc x in t
c bc sng trong khong 10 nm ti 1000 m. i vi vng nh sng kh kin (mt
ngi nhn thy), ph c bc sng tri di t 380 nm n 780 nm. y l phm vi
c qui c vng ph kh kin (visible: VI) m cc ti liu vt l hin i thng
nht vi nhau. Cc bc sng trong vng t 780 nm n 10 m c xem l vng
hng ngoi gn (near infrared: NIR), cn cc bc sng di hn th nm trong vng
hng ngoi xa (far infrared: FIR). Ngc li, i vi vng cc bc sng ngn t 200
nm n 380 nm th gi l cc tm hay t ngoi gn (ultraviolet: UV). Vi nhng vng
bc sng ngn hn t 200 nm n 10 nm th c gi l cc tm su hay l t ngoi
xa (deep ultraviolet: DUV). Nh vy, tu theo khong tn s hay bc sng m sng
in t c nhng tn gi khc nhau. Ton cnh ca bc tranh ny c minh ha trn
Hnh 1-2.

Hnh 1-2. Tn gi ca tng vng sng in t.

Hnh 1-2 cho thy rng, rng quang ph m mt c th xc nh trc tip


ch chim mt khong rt b ( = 400 nm) trong di sng in t. Do gii hn v
phn gii mu ca mt nn nh sng kh kin ch c cm nhn vi khong by mu
khc nhau: tm, chm, lam, lc, vng, cam, . Mt ngi khng nhy cm vi mu
chm, c bc sng khong 420 n 440 nm, nn nhiu ngi khng th nhn thy
s khc bit gia mu chm vi hai mu lam, tm. V vy, trong cc ti liu khi ni
n mu sc th mu chm thng t c nhc n. L do mu chm c Newton
a vo l c th cho nh sng c by mu c bn (tng t nh tun c 7 ngy
hay nhc c 7 nt). c tng v s tng ng gia mu sc v bc sng (xem
minh ha Hnh 1-3), di y trnh by mt vi vch laser m n thng c chn
lm chun trong phn bit mu sc.

0,364 m

UV khng nhn thy

0,407 m

tm

0,430 m chm
0,488 m xanh lam
0,514 m xanh lc
0,530 m xanh lc
0,574 m vng
0,590 m vng
0,620 m cam
0,647 m
0,790 m mc kh nhn thy

Hnh 1-3. Phm vi bc sng tng ng vi mu sc cm nhn ca mt ngi


(cc s liu ch c gi tr tng i). Khng gii thiu mu chm, 420-440 nm, v
mu ny rt kh phn bit vi hai mu lam, tm. S cm nhn mu thng qua cc t
bo hnh que (nhy cm vi ba mu: , vng, xanh lc) nn mu sc m ta nhn thy
l kt qu ca s pha trn cc mu. V d, khi nhn thy mu vng th cha hn l do
nh sng n sc mu vng to nn m c th l kt qu ca s pha trn gia nh
sng c mu xanh l cy v nh sng mu .

Trong qu trnh pht trin ca khoa hc, s hiu bit v bn cht nh sng
i qua nhng mc lch s ln. Vic tng kt nhng im ni bt ca lch s ngnh
quang cho php tm tt mt cch nhanh chng nhng kin thc c bn v quang hc.

Nhng mc lch s v quang hc


nh lut Snell (1621): khng cng b i chng.
Descartes (1637): phn x, khc x i vi sng phng trn b mt phn cch gia
hai mi trng.
Fermat (1657): nh sng truyn theo con ng m quang trnh l cc tr.
Hooke (1665): nhng quan st thc hin bng knh hin vi v knh vin vng.
Newton (1666): nh sng trng c th phn tch c, khi nim v mu sc.
Rmer (1675): vn tc gii hn ca nh sng.
Huygens (1678): tt c cc im trong khng gian, m nh sng i qua, ng vai tr
nh mt ngun sng th cp. Khi nim phn cc v sng ngang ca nh sng.
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Young (1803): nhiu x - tnh cht sng ca nh sng.


Malus (1808): cc tia sng lun vung gc vi mt phng sng.
Fresnel (1818): tng hp cc cng trnh v bn cht sng, (1821): ngun gc ca s
tn sc.
Maxwell (1876): nh sng l mt sng in t n dao ng tn s 5.1014 Hz v lan
truyn trong chn khng vi vn tc c = 3.108 ms-1.
Planck (1900): bc x ca vt en, mu sc ca mt vt c nung nng l ch s v
nhit ca n.
Einstein (1905): Lng t ho nh sng thnh cc ht mang nng lng photon,
(1917) gi thuyt v pht x cng bc.
Basov, Prokhnov, Towns (1954): My khuych i MASER.
Maiman (1960): Ra i laser u tin.
Alexey Ekimov (1980): Quantum dot.
Rusell (1991): Si quang hc cu trc micro (si quang hc tinh th).

I.2 Ngun sng t nhin v ngun sng laser


Ngun sng t nhin thng pht ra nhng sng truyn i trong nhiu hng,
c nhiu mu sc, khng c s kt hp (khng c lin h v pha) v khng phn cc.
Mt sng nh sng c pht ra t ngun laser th ngc li, ng hng, n sc,
kt hp (c lin h v pha) v phn cc. S khc nhau c bn ny l ngun gc ca
s pht sng. Nu nh cc ngun sng t nhin (bng n, ngn la, mt tri) cho
ra nh sng da vo c ch pht x t nhin (Spontaned emission), th ngun sng
laser li cho ra nh sng da trn c ch pht x cm ng (hay cn gi l pht x
cng bc, Stimulated emission).
hiu c hin tng pht x t nhin v hin tng pht x cm ng,
chng ta c th gii thch bng m hnh nguyn t Bohr, Hnh 1-4.

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Hnh 1-4. Minh ha c ch pht x t nhin v pht x cm ng.

Nm 1915, Neils Bohr a ra mt m hnh nguyn t n cho php gii


thch rt nhiu hin tng m vt l thi by gi ang b tc (s gin on ca cc
vch quang ph, nguyn t khng pht x nng lng khi electron trn qu o
dng). M hnh n gin ny tuy rt ng nghch trong vic din t s chuyn ng
ca electron nhng n t nn tng c bn cho c hc lng t. V cho n ngy nay,
n vn c s dng thng xuyn din t nguyn l hp th, pht x nh sng ca
nguyn t.
Theo m hnh Bohr, s chuyn dch ca electron gia hai qu o m, n, tng
ng vi s hp th hoc pht x mt lng t nng lng, photon:
,

(1.1)

vi h l hng s Planck , l tn s ca nh sng, l bc sng nh sng, c l


vn tc nh sng trong chn khng.
Nh vy, ecletron nhy ln trng thi lng t cao hn th nguyn t phi
nhn mt nng lng t bn ngoi. S nhn nng lng ny c th thng qua nhiu
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c ch khc nhau nh: va chm khng n hi hoc bn n hi vi cc nguyn t


khc, hoc hp th nng lng di dng sng in t. Tng t nh vy, electron
khi ri t trng thi cao v trng thi thp, nguyn t phi nh ra nng lng thng
qua cc c ch c hc k trn (chuyn dch khng bc x), hoc bc x ra sng in
t (chuyn dch c bc x). V ni dung ny cp ti c ch pht sng nn ta ch
tho lun duy nht trng hp chuyn dch c bc x.
Hnh 1-4 biu din m hnh Bohr n gin, h ch gm hai trng thi, c bn
v kch thch. Ta thy rng, sau khi nguyn t hp th mt photon, c nng lng h ,
th electron chuyn t qu o thp ln qu o cao hn. Nguyn t i vo trng thi
kch thch. nguyn t quay v trng thi c bn th n phi pht x ra mt photon.
ng thi electron li c dch chuyn t qu o cao v qu o thp. y l s
pht x t nhin, v nguyn t trong trng thi kch thch t n pht ra nh sng,
khng h c mt s can thip no t bn ngoi. c tnh ca s pht x t nhin l
hng pht ra v pha ban u ca photon l ngu nhin. Nh vy, nu h m ta xt
gm nhiu nguyn t th s c rt nhiu photon pht ra trong tt c cc hng, gia
cc photon ny khng c mi lin h ln nhau. Ta ni h ny l mt ngun sng t
nhin. Nu nh ta tnh thi gian trung bnh m cc electron lu li trn qu o cao
trc khi quay v qu o c bn l th y c gi l hng s thi gian hay thi
gian sng ca trng thi kch thch.
i vi s pht x cm ng hay cn gi l cng bc th ngc li, ngha l c
s can thip t bn ngoi. Nu nh nguyn t ang trong trng thi kch thch ng
vi mc nng lng E2 th n c xu hng t tr v mc c bn E1 sau mt khong
thi gian . Nhng trc khi iu xy ra m c mt photon mang nng lng
tng ng vi mc chnh lch nng lng E2 E1 i ngang th s c mt xc sut
m photon ny lm cho electron ri t qu o cao v qu o thp ng thi km
theo s pht x mt photon. im c bit y l photon b pht ra ny hon ton
ging (hng, bc sng, pha, phn cc) vi photon gy nn s pht . Gi s
nh h gm nhiu nguyn t trong trng thi kch thch th mt photon u tin s to
ra hai photon hon ton ging nhau, sau y s c bn photon, ri tmTt c u
cng bc sng, phn cc, hng, pha nn c gi l chm sng kt hp. y l

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c tnh ring bit ca ngun sng laser. Nh vy m laser pht ra cng sut rt ln so
vi ngun sng t nhin v n c kh nng to ra cc hin tng quang phi tuyn hay
cc mi trng plasmas
Cn lu , thng th nh sng pht ra t laser c bc sng c nh v n
sc cao. Nhng y ch ng vi laser lin tc cn i vi laser xung th n c mt
rng ph nht nh. rng ph ny v bc sng trung tm l c th iu chnh
phn no bi bung cng hng. Cn i vi nh sng pht ra t ngun sng t nhin
th thng c ph rng v lin tc. Tuy nhin tnh cht ph ny (ph rng hay hp,
lin tc hay gin on) cn ph thuc vo vt liu pht sng: nguyn t g v l n
nguyn t hay l pha tp nhiu nguyn t.
Nhng im khc nhau c bn gia ngun sng t nhin v ngun sng laser
c th c tm tt mt cch ngn gn nh trong Bng 1-1.

Bng 1-1. S khc nhau c bn gia laser v ngun sng t nhin.

13

Chng II

PH V TRNG THI PHN CC

II.1 Cch tch mu v xc nh bc sng nh sng


II.1.1. Cch tch mu
Nm 1666, Newton lm th nghim v tn sc nh sng. Qua , ng chng
minh rng nh sng trng l tp hp ca nhiu mu. V t y khi nim mu sc
c gn lin vi bc sng nh sng. xc nh ph (cng theo bc sng)
th vic tch cc mu ca nh sng ra l iu cn thit u tin.
Trn phng din vt l th c hai c ch c bn lm tn sc nh sng: mt l
chit sut mi trng thay i theo bc sng, hai l gc nhiu x ph thuc vo
bc sng.
i vi c ch tn sc th nht, s ph thuc ca chit sut vo bc sng
c biu th bi cng thc Cauchy:
,

(2.2)

vi A, B l cc hng s, n ly cc gi tr khc nhau tu theo vt liu, nhit , p


sut... Chnh v vy, khi ni n chit sut ca mt cht no th ta cn lu l
chit sut bc sng no, trong iu kin mi trng ra sao. minh ha cho s
ph thuc ny, trn Hnh 2-1 bn tri, gii thiu ng chit sut ca mt s thy tinh
pha tp khc nhau. Cn Hnh 2-1 bn phi l hnh nh minh ha cho s tn sc sau
khi nh sng trng b khc x qua lng knh.

14

Hnh 2-1. S ph thuc vo bc sng ca chit sut (tri) v tn sc nh


sng trng qua lng knh (phi).

Nh vy, i vi nhng mi trng m s ph thuc ca chit sut vo bc


sng cng ln th cng d tch mu. Ngoi vn tch mu theo khng gian, s ph
thuc ca chit sut vo bc sng cn cho php tch mu theo thi gian. Tht vy,
vn tc truyn sng trong mi trng lin h vi chit sut bi:
( )

(2.3)

nn, cc mu khc nhau s truyn vi vn tc khc nhau. i vi phn ln cc mi


trng th mu (cch gi tn cho nhng bc sng di) s chy nhanh hn mu
xanh (cch gi tn cho bc sng ngn). Nhng mi trng nh vy c gi l mi
trng c tn sc dng. Ngc li, i vi nhng mi trng m mu xanh chy
nhanh hn mu th c gi l mi trng c tn sc m. Cc tnh cht ny thng
c vn dng trong cc k thut nn hoc gin xung nh sng - ng dng trong
truyn ti thng tin, to xung laser cc ngn.
i vi c ch tn sc th hai, da vo hin tng nhiu x, ngi ta thng
dng cch t phn x hoc cch t truyn qua. V nguyn l vt l th hai loi cch t
ny l tng ng nhau. Tuy nhin v mt k thut th chng c nhng c th
ring. Cch t truyn qua thng l Silict (thy tinh, SiO2), cn cch t phn x th
thng l kim loi. Do Silict hp th mnh cc bc sng ngn, UV, nn n ph hp
15

khi dng cho cc bc sng kh kin v hng ngoi. Cn i vi cc bc sng ngn,


UV, th ngi ta phi s dng cch t phn x.
Cch t c ch to bng cch to ra cc rnh, xem ln vi cc khe, song
song cch u nhau v c tc dng chn sng (cch t truyn qua) hoc chn phn x
(cch t phn x). V vy khi i qua cch t th cng chm sng thng b mt
mt rt ln. Hn na, khi dng cch t tch mu, th cng cc mu quan st
c l kt qu giao thoa ca nhiu x bc mt hoc bc hainn cng sng
cng yu hn, di 50% so vi cng ban u. y l im bt li khi dng cch
t tch mu. Tuy nhin, n c u im vt tri v kh nng phn tch bc sng
so vi lng knh. rng ca mi khe trn cch t thng khong 2 m v s lng
cc khe trong cch t l tng i ln, c 10.000 khe trn vi cm. Khi chm sng i
ra khi cch t, th cc khe ng vai tr nh nhng ngun kt hp. Chnh v vy khi
hi t cc ngun kt hp ny li trn mn hnh th ta quan st c hin tng giao
thoa, Hnh 2-2.

Hnh 2-2.

Nhiu x nh sng bi cch t truyn qua. Sau khi qua cch t,

nh sng trng t cc khe k nhau i ti mn vi cc qung ng chnh nhau mt


khong

th c cc i giao thoa. Vi m = 0, 1, 2 l bc nhiu x,

d l b rng ca khe cch t, m l gc nhiu x bc m.

16

i vi gc nhiu x bc zero, khi giao thoa th v tr cc cc i khng ph


thuc vo bc sng (m = 0) nn cc i ca tt c cc mu u cng chung im hi
t trn mn. V vy nhiu x bc zero ch cho ra mu trng. Cc v tr giao thoa ng
vi nhiu x bc cao (t bc 1 tr ln) th phn b ca v tr cc i ph thuc vo
bc sng nn xut hin di mu. Trong ng dng o ph ngi ta thng o ph
t nhiu x bc mt v cc bc nhiu x cao hn cho cng yu hn. Cn lu
rng, khi quan st ph bng cch t l ta kt hp c hai hin tng vt l: nhiu x v
giao thoa. S phn b cng trn hnh giao thoa ph thuc vo s cch t, N.
minh ha cho s ph thuc ny, ta xt trng hp giao thoa ca nh sng n sc, v
ta so snh s phn b cng gia hai trng hp giao thoa, ch vi hai khe v vi
1000 khe, Hnh 2-3.

Hnh 2-3. Minh ha s ph thuc vo s khe ca cch t ln phn b cng


do giao thoa.

S phn b cng ny c xc nh bi mi lin h:


(

( )

(2.4)

vi I0 l cng ti mn gy ra bi mt khe duy nht, l lch pha, ti mn,


gia cc sng i t cc khe k nhau. Nh vy khi s khe ln th cng nh sng
ti cc v tr trn mn s hoc l rt mnh, I = I0N2, hoc l gn nh bng khng, ty
vo lch pha. S phn b cng ny l kt qu ca vic giao thoa t nhiu
ngun kt hp.

17

Cn lu l b mt ca cch t c thit k bi nhiu khe song song rt tinh


t nn nu cn lm v sinh cho cch t th ch nn dng hi hoc cht lng phun qua.
Mi tip xc trc tip vi b mt u rt d lm hng cu trc ca cch t.

II. 1.2. tn sc ca cch t


c trng cho kh nng phn tch cc mu trong chm sng theo khng
gian ngi ta a ra i lng gi l tn sc, c nh ngha:
.
Vi

(2.5)

l khong cch gc (ti bc nhiu x m) gia cc cc i chnh ca cc sng

c bc sng khc nhau mt lng l

. tn sc ny lin h vi rng ca khe

cch t v bc nhiu x thng qua:


.

(2.6)

Nh vy i vi nhng cch t c khong cch khe, d, cng nh hay khi phn


tch trn bc nhiu x, m, cng ln th kh nng phn gii v bc sng cng cao. Tuy
nhin phn gii ny cn b gii hn bi tiu chun Rayleigh. T tiu chun ny ta
rt ra c mi lin h:

(2.7)

y, l bc sng ca mt trong hai vch st nhau (chng gn bng nhau).


Nu hiu gia hai bc sng m ta cn tch bit khng tha mn iu kin (2.7) th
chng khng c phn gii v ch xut hin nh mt vch. Tm li, phn gii
cng cao khi quan st ph vi s khe cch t cng ln, bc nhiu x cng cao, v
bc sng cng ngn.

II. 1.3. Ph lin tc v ph gin on


Cc ngun sng nh Mt tri, dy tc bng n pht ra nh sng cha mt
phn b lin tc cc bc sng (ph lin tc), cn cc loi n cha kh Hidro, hi
thy ngnth li pht ra nh sng vi s phn b gin on cc bc sng (ph gin
18

on). Khi nhn trc tip bng mt trn vo nh sng pht ra t cc ngun sng trn,
ta ch c th nhn thy c s khc nhau v mu ca ngun sng ch khng th
phn bit c u l ph lin tc, u l ph gin on. S phn bit ny s rt r
rng khi quan st nh sng qua h tn sc, xem Hnh 2-4.

Hnh 2-4. S phn b cc bc sng gin on (trn), lin tc (di) trong


chm sng pht ra t n thy ngn v n dy tc.

II.1.4. Cch xc nh bc sng


V mt k thut th h tn sc, s dng lng knh hoc cch t, cho php tch
mu theo khng gian, t y u thu ca camera o c cng sng theo khng
gian. Nhng xch nh ph, ngha l cng theo bc sng, th ta cn phi xc
nh c s phn b v v tr ca cc bc sng trn u thu camera. Vic xc nh
ng bc sng ca cc vch ph l mt nhim v quan trng bi n cho bit cc
mc nng lng ca phn t. T s chn on, v cu trc ca phn t hay cc
thng s trng thi ca h cha phn t, mi cho kt qu chnh xc.
Trong vt l c nhiu phng php cho php xc nh chnh xc bc sng nh
sng, cc phng php ny ch yu da vo hin tng giao thoa nh: giao thoa k
Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Fizeau[6]. Cc thit b ny c gi l sng k, chuyn
dng o cc bc sng cha bit ca mt laser, bng cch so snh h thng vn
giao thoa ca bc sng ny vi bc sng chun. Phn ln, bc sng chun c
chn ny c bc sng 632,8 nm, pht ra t laser kh He-Ne. y l loi laser c
19

bc sng n sc rt n nh, cu trc nh gn, gi thnh thp, thng c trang b


cc phng th nghim.
Nhng, cch n gin nht m ngi ta thng vn dng vo quang ph l
phng php so snh trc tip vi mt ngun sng chun. Ngha l s dng mt
ngun sng khc, c cc ph vch c xch nh, lm chun. V d nh n
Neon, n Hg, hay n H2 cc vch ph pht x hay hp th ca chng thng
c km theo trong ti liu hng dn s dng ca nh sn xut hoc trn cc ti
liu chuyn ngnh.
Phng php so snh vi mt ngun sng chun c th minh ha mt cch n
gin nh trnh by Hnh 2-5. y, c hai ph khc nhau: ph pht x ca Hg, v
mt ph cn c xc nh. Khi bt n Hg trc h tn sc v u thu th ta o c
s phn b cng sng theo khng gian, c cng gin on vi nhiu nh.
Cc bc sng ng vi cc nh ny c th xc nh c theo ti liu v ph ca Hg.
T vi gi tr bc sng c xc nh ti cc pixel, tng ng trn u thu, ta c
th suy ra v tr ca cc bc sng khc bng thit lp mi quan h gia bc sng v
v tr pixel. thit lp mi lin h ny ngi ta thng dng mt hm a thc, v
y thng khng phi l mi quan h tuyn tnh. i vi trng hp ph rng th
o c ton b ph ngi ta cn phi thc hin t hai ln o tr ln v phi quay
h tn sc gia hai ln o (tng ng vi dch chuyn u thu theo khng gian). V
vy, ng vi mi gc quay ca h tn sc th ta cn thit lp mi lin h gia bc
sng v v tr pixel tng ng.

Hnh 2-5. V d minh ha phng php so snh vi mt ngun sng chun


xc nh ph. S liu ghi trn cc nh l cc gi tr ca bc sng vi n v l
(10-10 m).

20

Mt yu t phc tp khc na thng gp khi o ph rng (ph nh sng trng


hay supercontinuum) l c s chng lp mt phn hnh nh ca nhiu x bc hai ln
nhiu x bc mt. Ngha l, v mt khng gian th cc bc sng ngn ca nhiu x
bc hai hi t vo cng vi v tr cc bc sng di ca nhiu x bc mt. gii
quyt vn ny th ta cn s h tr ca cc knh lc mu.

II.2 Kim sot tnh phn cc, cng sng bi knh phn cc v knh tr
pha
S phn cc ca sng nh sng l tnh cht c trng cho phng dao ng
ca n. V nh sng l sng in t nn n c hai thnh phn in trng E, t trng
B lun dao ng vung gc vi nhau v cng vung gc vi phng truyn sng k,
Hnh 1.1. Phng phn cc ca nh sng c nh ngha l phng dao ng ca
vect in trng. Cn mt phng phn cc l mt phng cha in trng v
phng truyn sng. Nh vy khi ni ti phn cc nh sng ta khng cn quan tm
ti vect t trng. Nu xt v trng thi phn cc nh sng th cn lu l c ba
trng thi phn cc c bn khc nhau: phn cc thng, phn cc trn v phn cc
elip. Nhng thut ng ny miu t qu o dao ng m vector in trng vch ra
khi n lan truyn trong khng gian, Hnh 2-6.

Hnh 2-6. Qu o dao ng ca vect in trng, khi chiu ln mt phng


vung gc vi phng truyn, ng vi phn cc thng, elip, trn.

21

Thng th nh sng i ra t mt laser c phn cc cao v l phn cc


thng, cn ngun sng t nhin th pht ra nh sng khng phn cc. Tuy nhin, vic
chuyn ha nh sng t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc l rt n gin, ch cn cho n
i qua mt knh phn cc. V nguyn l vt l ta c bn c ch chuyn ha nh sng
t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc: 1) s hp th chn lc, 2) phn x v truyn qua,
3) lng chit, 4) tn x. Knh phn cc u tin ti a cc dao ng sng c phng
trng vi quang trc ca n, = 0o, i qua. Sau khi i qua knh phn cc nh sng t
nhin tr thnh nh sng phn cc thng, theo phng quang trc ca knh, vi cng
sng gim 50%. i vi nh sng phn cc thng, cng sng sau khi qua knh
phn cc thay i theo nh lut Malus:
(2.8)
Vi Io l cng sng trc khi i vo knh phn cc. Chnh s ph thuc
vo gc ny m knh phn cc cn c dng thay i cng sng. Tht vy,
i vi nh sng phn cc thng, ch cn quay knh phn cc trong phm vi t 0o n
90o th ta c th cho cng sng bin thin t gi tr cc i v bng khng.
c trng cho mc phn cc ca nh sng, ngi ta thng dng i lng
phn cc, c nh ngha:
(2.9)
Vi

ln lt l cng ca nh sng sau khi i qua knh phn cc vi

hng phn cc l song song, v vung gc vi quang trc ca knh phn cc. Nu
nh nh sng khng phn cc hoc phn cc trn th

, v nh vy th phn

cc nhn gi tr nh nht. Ngc li, nu nh sng c phn cc thng hon ton th


phn cc ly gi tr cc i bng mt.
Cc loi knh phn cc thng dng thng gp nh: bn tuamalin, bn polaroit
l nhng vt liu kt hp c hai tnh cht: lng chit v lng hng sc. Mt tia
sng t nhin i vo s b tch thnh hai tia, thng v bt thng, bi tnh lng
chit ca vt liu. Do s hp th khng ng iu t tnh cht lng hng sc nn
tia thng b hp th mnh cn tia bt thng th t b hp th nn i qua c. Vi
22

mt bn Tuamalin c b dy ln hn 1 mm ta c th chuyn nh sng t nhin thnh


nh sng phn cc ton phn. Tuy nhin, vi hai loi knh ny th s mt mt v
cng do hp th l rt ln (thng ch truyn qua ti a 30% cng ). Cn lu
l, trong mi lin h cng thc (2.8) ngi ta b qua s phn x v hp th ca
knh phn cc. Vi cc loi knh phn cc ch da vo c ch phn x - truyn qua, v
d lng knh Nicon (Hnh 2-7), th vic bin i nh sng t nhin, hoc phn cc
mt phn, thnh nh sng phn cc ton phn l rt hiu qu v trnh c s suy
gim cng sng do hp th. Trn c ch phn x - truyn qua ny ngi ta cn
ng dng to ra cc gng bn m (bn mt song song), chuyn dng trong vic
tch chm sng thnh hai tia: tia phn x v tia truyn qua. Khi thay i hng ca
phn cc nh sng ti mt gng bn m th thay i c t l gia cng phn
x v cng truyn qua.

Hnh 2-7. Tia sng t nhin khi ri vo lng knh Nicon th b tch lm hai tia
c phn cc vung gc vi nhau: tia phn cc thng (ordinairy polarization) b
khc x vi chit sut ca mi trng l no, cn tia phn cc bt thng
(extraordinairy polarization) b khc x vi chit sut ca mi trng l ne. Do no >
nnha nn tia phn cc thng b phn x ton phn. Cn tia phn cc bt thng i
qua v ne > nnha.

Ngoi vn chuyn nh sng t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc thng, ta c


th thay i hng phn cc bng bn na bc sng (knh lamda/2). Hoc thay i
trng thi phn cc, t phn cc thng thnh phn cc trn hay elip, bng bn mt
phn t bc sng (knh lamda/4), xem s th nghim Hnh 2-8. Vic kim sot

23

hng phn cc v trng thi phn cc c ng dng rt nhiu trong cc cng ngh
quang hc hin i nh: k thut laser, quang phi tuyn, mn hnh tinh th lng, iu
bin tn s, x l hnh nh, van quang hc, v c bit l cc php o lin quan n
tnh bt ng hng ca mi trng, v d nh o ph phn cc hunh quang.

Hnh 2-8. S th nghim kim sot tnh phn cc nh sng (cc knh u
quay c 360o theo phng vung gc vi tia sng). Laser pht ra tia sng phn
cc thng theo mt phng c nh; quay knh /2 i phng phn cc; quay
knh /4 i trng thi phn cc; quay knh phn cc iu chnh cng
sng; cng sng n u th thay i ty theo v tr ca knh /2, /4, v knh
phn cc.

Nguyn liu ch to cc knh tr pha (knh /2, /4) ch yu l cc tinh


th lng chit, v d nh thch anh, bng lan.., xem Bng 2-1. y l nhng mi
trng bt ng hng t nhin. Bn cnh nhng ng dng c bn va cp, s
lng chit ca cc tinh th ng vai tr rt quan trng trong quang hc phi tuyn.
to ra cc hin tng quang phi tuyn nh: nhn i tn s (second harmonic
generation), tng hp hai bc sng...ngi ta thng s dng cc tinh th phi tuyn
nh -BaB2O4 (BBO), KTiOPO4 (KTP).. v kt hp c tnh cht lng chit bn trong
tinh th thc hin s hp pha gia nh sng c bn v nh sng tn hiu (c to
ra t nh sng c bn) trong qu trnh lan truyn. S hp pha ny c thc hin
bng cch chn gc nghing ca tinh th, ng vi iu kin nhit v bc sng
ca nh sng lm th nghim, sao cho nh sng c bn v nh sng tn hiu khi u
chu chung mt chic sut mi trng, nh vy chng lan truyn cng pha vi nhau.

24

Ngoi cc vt liu t nhin k trn, cn c mi trng lng chit nhn to,


chng c to ra bng cch dng lc hay in trng gy ra s bt ng hng
trong mi trng vt cht. u im ca mi trng lng chit nhn to l chnh
lch v chit sut (n = n0 ne) ph thuc vo iu kin bn ngoi. Nn ty theo cc
gi tr khc nhau ca lc, hiu in th v tn s p dng ca cc i lng ny ln
mi trng lng chit nhn to m mi trng ny thc hin c nhiu chc nng
khc nhau.

Bng 2-1. Chit sut ca mt s tinh th (ti o = 589.3 nm)

hiu ti sao bn na bc sng lm quay c hng phn cc cn bn


mt phn t bc sng th thay i c trng thi phn cc, ta i vo phn tch bi
ton sau. Gi s ri vung gc vo mt trc ca bn tinh th lng chit, b dy L,
tia sng phn cc ton phn, c vect in trng E, bin dao ng A, hp vi
quang trc ca tinh th mt gc . Do mi trng lng chit nn khi vo bn tia
sng c tch lm hai: tia thng v tia bt thng. Tia thng c vect in trng
Eo dao ng vung gc vi quang trc cn tia bt thng c vect in trng Ee dao
ng song song vi quang trc. Hai tia ny truyn cng phng, v tia sng trc khi
vo bn c chiu vung gc, nhng khc vn tc do chit sut no v ne khc nhau.
Khi ra khi bn hai tia li truyn cng vn tc nn ti mt im bt k sau bn, hiu
quang l gia hai tia l:
(

25

(2.10)

Cn tr pha ca dao ng in trng gia hai tia l:


(

(2.11)

Dao ng ca vect in trng sau bn tinh th l tng ca hai vect thnh


phn:
E = E e + Eo

(2.12)

Do Ee v Eo dao ng vung gc vi nhau nn c th biu din theo hai trc


ta :
Ee = yj =

Eo = xi =

)
)

(2.13)
(2.14)

l bin ca tia thng v tia bt thng.

Vi

T hai phng trnh 2.13 v 2.14 ta xc nh c phng trnh chuyn ng ca


vect E theo phng x, y l:
(2.15)

By gi ta xt hai trng hp c bit:


* Nu tr pha = , ta c bn na bc sng.
Trng hp tng qut = (2k +1 ), th t phng trnh 2.11, b dy ca bn
na bc sng phi tha mn iu kin:

vi k = 0, 1, 2..

(2.16)

Lc phng trnh 2.15 tr thnh:


(2.17)
y l phng trnh ca on thng nm gc phn t th hai v phn t th
t ca Hnh 2-9. Vi lch pha l = , th trc khi vo bn na bc sng, vect
in trng phi nm trong gc phn t th nht v th ba. Nh vy, nu vect in
26

trng i vo bn vi gc so vi trc quang hc th khi ra khi bn n quay mt


gc 2.

Hnh 2-9. Tc dng ca bn na bc sng.

* Nu tr pha l = /2, ta c bn mt phn t bc sng.


Trng hp tng qut = (2k +1 )/2, th t phng trnh 2.11, b dy ca
bn mt phn t bc sng phi tha mn iu kin:

(2.16)

Lc phng trnh 2.15 tr thnh:


(2.17)
Nh vy vect E di chuyn trn mt elip c hai trc l Ox v Oy. Trng hp
c bit, nu vect E i vo bn vi gc = 450 so vi mt trong hai trc quang hc
th a1 = a2 = R, lc phng trnh 2.15 c dng chuyn ng trn (2.18). nh sng
i ra khi bn c phn cc trn, Hnh 2-10.
(2.18)

27

Hnh 2-10. Tc dng ca bn /4: Bin i nh sng phn cc thng thnh trn hoc
elip v ngc li.

28

Chng III

LASER

III.1 Lch s ra i v cc ng dng ca laser


Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) hot ng
da trn nguyn l khuych i cng nh sng nh vo hin tng pht x cm
ng. Hin tng ny c Albert Einstein a ra gi thuyt v ng trn tp ch
Physikalische Zeitschrift vo nm 1917. Tuy nhin quan st c bng thc
nghim th phi ch ti s pht minh, vo nhng nm 1954 -1955, ca cc nh vt l
ngi Nga (Basov, Prokhnov) v ngi M (Towns). H ch to ra nhng my
khuyn i sng in t u tin vi mi trng hot tnh l kh amoniac NH4. Do
cc my ny pht sng in t vi bc sng c m nn thi c gi tn l
MASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). Ba ngi
ny cng nhn gii Nobel vo nm 1964 v t nn mng cho s ra i ca ngnh
vt l laser. H thnh lp cc l thuyt ca laser v m t lm th no laser c th
c xy dng. Tt c c thit k da trn c s ca MASER. Mc d vy, laser
u tin ra i khng phi do h ch to m l Theodor Maiman, nh vt l ngi M,
lm vic ti vin nghin cu Hughes. Vo nm 1960, Maiman to ra my laser u
tin, s dng mi trng hot tnh l cht rn Ruby, pht sng nh sng trong vng
quang ph kh kin 0,69 m. T nm 1960 tr i, hng lot laser khc nhau ra i.
n gin trong cch gi tn, chng thng c phn chia theo nhm da vo
tnh cht vt l ca mi trng hot tnh: rn, lng, kh, bn dn, si quang hc
Hoc da vo c tnh bc x laser (dng nh sng pht ra): lin tc hay xung. Hoc
da vo phng php kch thch: quang hc, ha hc, in
S xut hin ca laser sau nhng nm 1960 a ngnh quang hc sang giai
on pht trin mi, quang phi tuyn, v to ra mt s t bin v cng ngh vo
nhng nm cui th k XX. Chnh vt l laser t nn tng cho s ra i ca cc
29

ngnh nghin cu khc nh: lm lnh nguyn t v 0 oK (Nobel nm 1997),


Femtochimistry (Nobel nm 1999)... Ngoi ra, vt l laser h tr s pht trin ca
nhiu lnh vc khc nh: truyn ti thng tin, truyn ti nng lng, gii tr, cng
nghip nng, t ng ho, y sinhng dng ca laser vo khoa hc v cng ngh th
rt phong ph. Nhiu laser th h mi, pht ra bc sng ngn, tia X, hay xung cc
ngn, attosecond.., v cc ng dng ca n cng ang trn nghin cu, pht trin.

III.2 Cu to ca laser
V nguyn l, my pht quang laser c cu to bi ba b phn chnh l: Mi
trng hot tnh, ngun bm nng lng v bung cng hng quang hc. Vai tr
ca ba b phn ny s c trnh by chi tit di y.
Mi trng hot tnh
B phn quan trng nht ca laser l mi trng hot tnh. N c nhim v
khuch i cng sng khi nh sng truyn qua. Mi trng hot tnh thng
c phn chia thnh cc nhm sau:
-

Mi trng hot tnh rn: Ruby, YAG-Nd, si quang hc pha t him

Mi trng hot tnh lng: Cc dung dch mu (Rodamin, Coumarin..).

Mi trng hot tnh kh: He-Ne, N2, CO2

Mi trng hot tnh bn dn: diode

S khc nhau ca mi trng hot tnh cn c dng gi tn laser theo


phn nhm v mt k thut: laser rn, laser kh, laser mu (mi trng hot tnh l
cht mu: hp cht hu c, a phn th lng), laser bn dn, laser si quang hc.
Ngun bm
khuch i c nh sng th trc ht nhng mi trng hot tnh k trn
phi trong trng thi kch thch. iu y c thc hin bng cch a nng lng
vo mi trng hot tnh thng qua mt ngun bm. Nu l ngun bm quang hc th
y l cc loi n, hoc l cc laser lin tc. Thng th nh sng ca ngun bm
c chn sao cho ph ca n nm trong vng cc i hp th ca mi trng hot
tnh hiu sut bm c ti u. Phng php ny thng c p dng cho mi

30

trng hot tnh l cht rn hay cht lng. Nu l ngun bm in th cc mch in


cao p thng hay c s dng to nn s phng in trong mi trng hot tnh.
Phng php ny thng p dng cho mi trng hot tnh l cht kh v cc cht
bn dn. Bm quang hc v bm in l hai cch thng dng nht. Ngoi ra cn c
ngun bm ho hc v ngun bm kh ng hc nhng hai cch ny t c s dng.
Mc ch ca vic bm l to ra s nghch o tch ly (s lng phn t hay
nguyn t trong trng thi kch thch nhiu hn trng thi c bn) trong mi
trng hot tnh.
Khi s nghch o tch ly c thit lp th phn ln cc phn t hay
nguyn t trong mi trng hot tnh u tnh trng sn sng pht ra nh sng hoc
ang pht ra nh sng theo qui lut pht x t nhin, Hnh 3-1a. Cng pht sng
ca c h t l vi s phn t hay nguyn t trong trng thi kch thch.
Bung cng hng
Nu mun bin i ngun sng t nhin trn thnh ngun sng laser th ta
cn can thip chuyn bin s pht x t nhin thnh s pht x cm ng. thc
hin ta ch cn t mi trng hot tnh vo trong mt bung cng hng quang hc,
v d nh hai gng song song, Hnh 3-1b. Bung cng hng nh hng phng
truyn ca cc photon nh sng, to ra chm photon di chuyn lin tc trong mi
trng hot tnh theo mt phng nht nh, lm gia tng cng chm sng thng
qua hin tng pht x cm ng.

31

Hnh 3-1. a) Pht x t nhin ca mi trng hot tnh khi khng c bung
cng hng, b) Pht x cm ng khi c s h tr ca bung cng hng.

phn loi bung cng hng (BCH), ngi ta thng da vo tnh cht v
hnh dng ca cc gng. Loi BCH n gin nht l BCH Fabry-Perot, mt h gm
hai gng phn x c t ng trc v song song vi nhau. Mt trong hai gng c
h s phn x R = 100%, cn gng th hai c phn x R < 100% v truyn
qua l T= 100% - R. S mt mt cng sng do hp th hay tn x ca hai gng
phi l khng ng k. V s kht khe v k thut trn nn vic ch to gng dng
cho BCH phi do nhng nh sn xut chuyn v linh kin quang hc m nhim. Kh
khn khc na l vic lp t hai gng song song mt cch tuyt i. lm c
iu ny th hai gng phi c t trn gi c cc trc iu chnh X,Y, vi
chnh xc di 1m.
Ngoi vic s dng gng phng th ngi ta cn dng gng cu lm xy
dng BCH. Theo nguyn l ca quang hnh hc, nu tia sng truyn ng trc vi
bung cng hng th s lan truyn khng ph thuc vo bn knh cong ca
gng. Nh vy s phn x lin tip theo phng ng trc khng ph thuc vo
32

chiu di BCH. Vi BCH s dng gng cu lm th vic iu chnh pht ra tia laser
l d dng hn so vi BCH s dng gng phng. Tuy nhin vic thu c chm tia
laser song song l kh khn hn.
Trong trng hp cn iu chnh bc sng ca laser thi ngi ta dng BCH
tn sc, Hnh 3-2. i vi bung ny, nu thay i v tr ca lng knh hoc iu
chnh gc nghing ca gng G2 th ta s cho cc tia, ng vi bc sng ring bit 1,
2, vung gc vi gng G2 c khuch i.

Hnh 3-2. Bung cng hng tn sc.

Vi laser pht xung ngn [7], v d femto giy, th bn trong bung cng
hng c cha thm hai yu t na: l b phn kha mode ( laser hot ng theo
ch xung) v b phn b yu t tn sc (do ph ca laser rt rng, rng ph ny
ln ti 30 nm i vi laser femto). Nh vo yu t xung cc ngn m cng sut cc
i v kh nng phn gii theo thi ca laser femto l rt cao. Laser femto cng l
mt chuyn ngnh ring trong lnh vc vt l laser. c tng v bung cng
hng ny, di y trnh by cu to ca laser femto giy Titane:saphir.

33

Hnh 3-3.: Bung cng hng ca laser femto giy Titane:saphir. a): Mi trng
hot tnh ; b): b yu t tn sc DVG (group-velocity dispersion) do mi trng hot
tnh gy ra ; c): ko di bung cng hng gim tn s xung pht, tn s ny ph
thuc vo di ca bung cng hng. Khng nhn thy b phn kha mode trong
bung cng hng ny v ch xung ca laser c vn hnh nh vo hiu ng
Kerr, xy ra khi xung i qua mi trng hot tnh.

III.3 S mc nng lng cn thit trong mi trng hot tnh

Hnh 3-4.S bin thin cng sng khi i qua mi trng hot tnh.

Khi chm sng i qua mi trng hot tnh th cng ca n thay i do s


cnh tranh ca ba qu trnh: hp th, pht x t nhin, pht x cm ng. Gi s mi
trng hot tnh m ta ang xt l mt h n gin ch c hai mc nng lng. Khi
, s dch chuyn gia hai mc nng lng ng vi ba hin tng cnh tranh k trn
s xy ra theo t l:

34

T l hp th:

B N1 I

T l pht x t nhin:

A N2

T l pht x cng bc:

B N2 I

Vi A, B l cc h s c gi l xc sut dch m Einstein a ra, nm


1916, khi xem xt s dch chuyn gia hai trng thi c bn v kch thch trong phn
t. N1, N2 l mt phn t hoc nguyn t, trong trng thi c bn (1) v trng thi
kch thch (2) ( n gin cho mc tho lun ny, ta s gi N l s phn t). Ba qu
trnh cnh tranh trn cng vi h s xc sut ca n c minh ha trn Hnh 3-5.

Hnh 3-5. Minh ha s dch chuyn gia hai trng thi c bn 1, kch thch 2.

Trong ba qu trnh k trn th pht x t nhin hu nh khng c nh hng g


ln cng ca chm sng, bi v hng v pha ca cc photon ly cc gi tr ngu
nhin. Nu b qua s nh hng ca pht x t nhin th cng ca chm sng khi
i qua mi trng hot tnh s thay i theo:

(3.1)

T (3.1), ta lp lun c rng, khuch i cng chm sng th N2 phi


(

ln hn N1. Theo phn b Boltzmann,

)), th iu ny l khng

th tn ti nhng mi trng c s cn bng nhit ng. Vy ta phi to ra s


nghch o v tch ly, N2 > N1, hay ni khc i l to ra mi trng c nhit
m tuyt i. S nghch o v tch ly ny c minh ha trn Hnh 3-6.

35

Hnh 3-6. Nghch o tch ly: h c s lng phn t trong trng thi kch thch
nhiu hn trong trng thi c bn.
to c s nghch o ny, ngoi vic cung cp nng lng, ta phi c
mi trng hot tnh c bit, thng c t ba n bn mc nng lng. Sau y ta s
xt vai tr ca s mc nng lng trong vic to ra s nghch o.

a) Mi trng hot tnh c hai mc nng lng

Hnh 3-7. S hp th v bc x trong s hai mc nng lng.


Nu mi trng hot tnh ta xt ch c hai mc nng lng th tng cc phn
t ca h s l:
(3.2)
V chnh lch s lng phn t gia hi trang thi l:
(3.3)
Qu trnh lan truyn ca chm sng trong mi trng hot tnh ko theo s
bin thin ca

l:

[
Cn s bin thin ca

l:
36

(3.4)

(3.5)

T (3.3), (3.4), (3.5) suy ra:


(3.6)
Hay
(3.7)
Khi laser vn hnh n nh th phng trnh (3.7) tr thnh:
(3.8)
T (3.8) suy ra:
(

(3.9)

V A, B ly cc gi tr dng nn N lun dng, ngha l N1 lun ln hn N2.


Vy, khng th to ra s nghch o mt vi mi trng hot tnh ch c hai mc
nng lng.
Ta cng c th lp lun mt cch nh tnh nh sau. Do h ch c hai mc nng
lng nn cc photon b hp th v cc photon c pht x u c cng nng lng.
Vy nn, vic ta chiu chm sng a h t trng thi c bn ln trng thi kch
thch cng l vic ta p h bc x cng bc li trng thi c bn.

b) Mi trng hot tnh c ba mc nng lng

Hnh 3-8. S hp th v bc x trong s ba mc nng lng.


37

Gi s mi trng hot tnh ta xt c ba mc nng lng v thi gian sng


trong trng thi 3 l rt ngn. Vy, nu thc hin vic bm nng lng ln trng thi
3 th s chuyn dch v trng thi 2 s din ra gn nh lp tc. Trong trng hp ny
tia bm khng p c s pht x cng bc gia trng thi 3 v 1. Khi xt n tng
s phn t ca c h ta c th xem s lng phn t ti N3 bng khng, v thi gian
sng trong trng thi ny qu ngn. Nh vy tng s phn t trong h vn l:
(3.10)
V chnh lch s lng phn t gia hai trng thi, 1, 2 l:
(3.11)
Qu trnh bm nng lng v pht x ca mi trng hot tnh ko theo s
bin thin ca

l:
(3.12)

S bin thin ca

l:
(3.13)

T (3.11), (3.12), (3.13) ta rt ra c


(3.14)
Khi laser vn hnh n nh th phng trnh (3.14) tr thnh:
(3.15)
T (3.15) suy ra:
(3.16)
Nh vy nu cng tia bm tha mn iu kin I > A/B, th

m. iu

kin ny cho php khuch i nh sng nhng vi cng bm phi mnh.

38

c) Mi trng hot tnh c bn mc nng lng

Hnh 3-8. S hp th v bc x trong s bn mc nng lng.

Gi s mi trng hot tnh ta xt c bn mc nng lng, Hnh 3-8, v thi


gian sng trong trng thi 3 v trng thi 1 l rt ngn. Vy, c th xem

bng khng. Trong trng hp ny ta ch c s pht x cng bc gia trng thi 2


v 1. Tng s phn t ca c h l:
(3.17)
V chnh lch s lng phn t gia hi trang thi 1, 2 l:
(3.18)
Qu trnh bm nng lng v pht x ca mi trng hot tnh ko theo s
bin thin ca

l:
(3.19)
T (3.17), (3.18) v (3.19) suy ra
(3.20)

Khi laser vn hnh n nh (3.20) tr thnh:


(3.21)
T (3.21) suy ra

39

(3.22)
Nh vy khi mi trng hot tnh c bn mc nng lng b kch thch th N
lun ly gi tr m. iu cho php khuch i nh sng mt cch d dng.
Trong thc t, mt h phn t hay nguyn t m ta xt thng tn ti nhiu
mc nng lng nhng ty vo thi gian sng ca cc trng thi kch thch m ta c
th xem h nh l ba mc hay bn mc.
By gi ta th tm hiu s mc nng lng ca laser Ruby, l laser u tin
trn th gii do Maiman to ra phng th nghim Hughes vo nm 1960. y l loi
laser vi mi trng hot tnh c ba mc nng lng nn vic vn hnh n l tng
i kh khn. Ph hp th ca Ruby c trnh by trn Hnh 3-9B, n c hai bng
hp th tp trung ti 420 nm v 550 nm. Trong th nghim ny Maiman dng n
chp sng, ph rng. Nn khi bm mi trng hot tnh, l thanh Ruby, th s hp th
nh sng bao ph trn ton b hai bng hp th. Ko theo s dch chuyn t mc c
bn ln hai mc nng lng kch thch, c nng lng tng ng vi vng ph
bc sng 420 v 550 nm.V hai mc nng lng ny u c thi gian sng rt ngn
nn trn s mc nng lng ca laser ta c th xem n l mt, mc (3). H nhanh
chng chuyn t trng thi kch thch v mt trng thi tm n nh, mc (2), Hnh
3-9A. Do thi gian sng ca mc tm n nh l rt di so vi mc (3) nn trong
vic bm ny ta c c s nghch o v mt gia mc (2) v mc (1).

40

Hnh 3-9. A) S ba mc nng lng ca mi trng hot tnh Ruby. B)


Tinh th Ruby mu v ph hp th ca n.

III.4 Xp hng mc nguy him ca laser


Cnh bo s dng
Vi s pht pht trin ca cng ngh, laser tr thnh phng tin s dng
trong nhiu lnh vc: phng th nghim, cng nghip, qun s, dn dng, gii
trChnh iu , hng lot tai nn lin quan laser cng khng ngng tng ln.
Trong phn ln tai nn, th mt l b phn hay b thng vong nht. Nguyn nhn tai
nn ch yu bt ngun t s thiu thc v an ton lao ng, s thiu hiu bit v
mc nguy hi ca laser v ch ch xu trong vic s dng. V vy, trc khi dng
ngun sng laser th cn nm r mc nguy him ca n c xp vo hng no.
C nm loi xp hng c nh ngha nh sau:
Hng 1: Laser c cng sut rt nh khng nguy hi cho mt trong bt k iu
kin quan st no.
Hng 2: Laser pht nh sng trong vng kh kin c cng sut di 1 mW.
Laser ny cha tht s nguy him cho mt nu nh sng ca n qut vo mt di
250 ms (l thi gian m mt phn ng nhm li).

41

Hng 3A: Nhm ny tp trung cc loi laser, c cng sut di 5 mW, cha
nguy him cho mt trn nhng c kh nng nguy hi cho mt nu nhn trc tip hoc
quan st qua mt h phng i quang hc.
Hng 3B: Laser c cng sut di 500 mW. Lun nguy him cho mt nu nhn
trc tip bng mt trn (v nguy him hn khi quan st nh sng ca laser ny qua h
phng i quang hc), nhng s phn x ca thnh phn tn x th cha gy nguy
him cho mt.
Hng 4: Laser lin tc c cng sut ln hn 500 mW v tt c cc laser xung.
Ngay c thnh phn tn x cng rt nguy him cho mt trn. Tia laser ny c th
gy chy, bng da. Tuyt i phi s dng knh bo h trc khi laser vn hnh.
Ngi s dng laser cn lun ch vn an ton cho mt, v ngay c laser
hng 1 cng tr nn nguy him nu thao tc cu th. Khi lm vic vi laser th trnh
lm vic trong bng ti, nhm hn ch thng vong cho mt nu xy ra tai nn, v
ng t ca mt dn ti a nn kh nng gom nh sng hi t trn vng mc l ln
nht.
Thng tin trn tng hp t tp ch Socit Franaise d'Optique (SFO-Avril
1998) v cc ti liu hng dn v an ton laser.

42

Chng IV

U THU BC X

u thu bc x (detector) l mt b phn m nhim vic chuyn tn hiu


quang thnh tn hiu in. Sau tn hiu ny c khuych i, x l nhm gia tng
ti a t l tn hiu trn n trc khi a vo my tnh hin th. i vi php o
quang ph, vic thu nhn tn hiu mt cch chnh xc quyt nh s thnh cng ca
th nghim. V c bn cc u thu c chia lm hai nhm, da vo nguyn l vn
hnh: u thu nhit v u thu photon. Cho d l loi u thu no th khi chn ta u
quan tm n cc ch s k thut c bn di y:
nhy ph:
nhy ph R() cho bit gii hn vng ph v s nhy cm theo bc sng
m u thu c c. Nu cn hin th chnh xc hnh dng ph o th chia ph
ny cho nhy ph.
nhy tuyt i:
L t l tn hiu li ra, Y, trn tn hiu li vo, X. nhy ph thuc vo bc
sng nn c biu din bng mi lin h :
( )

( )

( )

Tn hiu li ra l cng dng in, hoc hiu in th, cn tn hiu li vo


l cng sut ca bc x ti.
Vng tuyn tnh :
Phm vi m tn hiu li ra t l tuyn tnh vi cng sut bc x i vo. i vi
a phn u thu, khi cng sut bc x ti vt qu ngng gii hn tuyn tnh th tn
hiu li ra i qua vng khng tuyn tnh trc khi ri vo trng thi bo ha.

Hiu sut lng t :

43

L t s gia cc in t sinh trn s photon ti. Hiu sut ny ph thuc vo


bc sng v nhit ca u thu.
Thi gian p tr :
L thi gian cn thit tn hiu li ra tng (hoc gim) ti mc n nh
khi cng sut bc x ti bin thin t ngt.
Cng sut ngang n :
L cng sut bc x cn thit thu c tn hiu li ra bng tn hiu n trung
bnh ca u thu. pht hin ca u thu (1/cng sut ngang n) cng cao nu cng
sut ngang n cng nh.
n nhiu :
n nhiu gy gim pht hin ca u thu. C nhiu nguyn nhn gy ra n
nhiu, tuy nhin v c bn th ta c th chia chng thnh bn loi nh sau : n ngun
sng, n nn (background), n in t (n c) v n photon.
V mt thng k th cc loi n trn lun khc khng. Tuy nhin ta c th iu
chnh iu kin o gim chng xung ti a. gim n ngun sng th cn iu
chnh cc yu t nh hng trc tip n s thng ging ca bc x pht ra. S thng
ging ny thng xut pht t s bt n nh t ngun in, nhit , bung cng
hng (trong trng hp ngun l laser). gim n ca nn th tt nht l thc hin
php o trong bng ti hoc che chn, s dng cch knh lc mu, chn tt c cc
bc x khng cn thit cho php o. Nu cng sut ca cc bc x khng cn thit
gim v rt nh so vi cng sut ca bc x cn o th s thng ging cc bc x
khng cn thit ny nh hng khng ng k n tn hiu cn o. n in t hay
cn gi l n c th lin quan n s bt n nh khi trong qu trnh chuyn ha s
photon ti thnh s in tch v qu trnh ghi nhn cc in tch. n ny ph thuc
vo tc chuyn ha, nhit ca u thuCn v n photon th do s photon pht
ra trong mt n v thi gian l ngu nhin v tun theo phn b Poisson. Nn s bin
thin dng in do s ngu nhin ny gy ra b biu hin thnh nhiu.

44

Tm gn li, gim n nhiu ti a th t l (cng sut bc x cn


o)/(cng sut bc x khng cn thit + tn hiu khi khng h c bc x ti u thu)
phi cc i.

IV.1 u thu nhit


u thu nhit hot ng trn nguyn l bin i cng sut bc x thnh s thay
i nhit . S thay i nhit ny l nguyn nhn lm thay i hiu in th hoc
in tr. V t cc gi tr hiu in th hay cng dng in m ta xc nh c
cng sut ca ngun sng. V vy yu t cm bin trong u thu nhit thng c
bi en gia tng ti a kh nng hp th bc x. Chnh im ny m u thu nhit
rt t ph thuc vo bc sng (so vi u thu photon). u im ca u thu nhit l
chng c nhy cao trn mt vng ph rng, c bit l trong vng hng ngoi. N
c bit ph hp vi vic o cng sut trung bnh ca cc ngun sng laser c cng
sut ln. C rt nhiu loi u thu nhit nhng ta c th tm chia n lm hai nhm
nh sau:
u thu nhit ph hp vi o bc x lin tc. V d nh pin nhit in. Trong
u thu ny c nhng cp nhit in, l mi hn gm hai kim loi khc nhau.
S tng nhit do bc x ti lm sinh ra mt hiu in th gia hai mi hn.
u thu nhit ph hp vi o bc x xung. V d nh u thu ha in. Cc
vt liu dng cho u thu ha in l nhng tinh th cch in tt, chng c
tnh phn cc in ni ti ph thuc vo nhit . Khi b t, vt liu ny n ra
th s phn cc in ni ti bn trong vt liu thay i, ko theo s thay i v
phn b in tch trn cc b mt i din ca vt liu. Nu ni hai mt i
din ny thnh mt mch kn th s c dng in xut hin khi c bc x xung
i vo u thu.

IV.2 u thu photon


u thu photon chuyn bin trc tip, mt cch lng t, tn hiu quang thnh
tn hiu in. y l im khc bit c bn so vi u thu nhit. Chnh v vy m khi
45

nhn vo cc ch s k thut nh gi u thu th cn phn bit xem n l loi u


thu g. V d nh khi nhn vo nhy tuyt i (hiu in th hay cng dng
in trn cng sut bc x ti) th i vi u thu u thu photon, nhy ny ph
thuc vo bc sng. Bi v, vi cng cng sut bc x, s lng photon trong vng
t ngoi t hn rt nhiu so vi vng hng ngoi, m tn hiu in do u thu photon
to ra l t l vi s photon ti. Cn vi u thu nhit th s tng nhit ch ph
thuc vo cng sut bc x ti v vy nhy tuyt i t ph thuc vo bc sng.
Cc loi u thu photon thng gp l :
Quang diode (photodiode) : c lm trn c s nhng cht bn dn pha tp.
Khi lp tip xc p-n c ri sng th s hp th photon s to ra cc cp in
t - l trng. S hp th ny ch thc hin c khi nng lng ca photon ti
(hoc ca hai photon ti i vi trng hp hp th hai photon) ln hn hoc
bng chnh lch nng lng gia vng dn v vng ha tr. Trong cc loi
quang diode th photodiode silicon l c s dng ph bin nht. Sau l
photodiode InGaAs, loi ny thng c ng dng do cc bc x hng
ngoi gn t 0,8 n 1,7 m.
Dy diode quang : khi sp xp nhiu diode quang nh trong mt dy (diode
arrays) th to thnh dy diode quang.
Diode thc l (Avalanche diodes) : nhng diode ny khuch i c dng
quang in.
T bo quang in : l u thu photon hot ng da trn hiu ng quang in
Nhn quang in (Photomultipliers) : cn gi l PM, nguyn tc hot ng ca
PM l ging vi t bo quang in nhng c thm b phn khuch i dng
quang in nh vo vic s dng bc x in t th cp.
u thu a knh :
u thu a knh cho php thu ton b ph mt cch trc tip. Khc vi
phng php c truyn, l s dng photodiode v o cng ti tng bc sng,
sau y lp ghp li thnh ph hon chnh. Vi phng php c truyn th h tn sc
(cch t hoc lng knh) phi quay thc hin tng php o. Trong k thut o ph
vi u thu a knh th h tn sc nm yn (tr khi ph qu rng) v b mt u thu
46

rng nhn ton b s phn b v mt khng gian ca ph. V d khi chiu mt


vt sng ln knh nh (knh nh c xem l u thu a knh u tin). K thut o
ph vi u thu a knh ang thay th dn cc phng php c truyn. Trong k thut
ny c hai loi u thu thng s dng : Dy quang diode (Photodiode Array) [6] v
camera CCD (Charge coupled device) [8].

47

Chng V

CC MC NNG LNG CA PHN T

V.1 Lin kt phn t


Phn t c cu to t s lin kt ca hai nguyn t tr ln, v ngun gc
ca s lin kt ny l cc lc in to ra bi cc nguyn t. Mc d vy mt nguyn
t c lp l trung ha v in tch, do tnh cht i xng. Khi phn t hnh thnh th
nng lng ton phn nh hn tng nng lng ca cc nguyn t thnh phn.
chnh lch nng lng ny chnh l nng lng lin kt ca phn t. V vy, cc phn
ng ha hc lun km theo s ta hoc thu nng lng, chnh l do c s thay i v
nng lng lin kt. gii thch s lin kt trong phn t, ngi ta thng da vo
hai kiu lin kt ch yu l : lin kt cng ha tr, lin kt ion.

Lin kt cng ha tr:


Lin kt cng ha tr l mt loi lin kt ha hc, trong y cc nguyn t a
ra nhng in t ha tr (in t lp ngoi cng) ca mnh to thnh mt hoc
nhiu cp in t chung gia cc nguyn t. Nh vy s hnh thnh nhng vng in
tch tri du gia cc nguyn t lm chng lin kt li vi nhau bi tn ti lc ht
tng h, c nh hng cao, gia cc nguyn t. C th gii thch cch khc, lin kt
cng ha tr c hnh thnh khi c s giao nhau ca cc orbital nguyn t, Hnh 5. 1.
Cng nh s giao nhau ny m cc orbital phn t c hnh thnh (khng minh ha
trong hnh). Cn lu rng lin kt cng ha tr ch c thit lp gia cc phi kim,
v d nh phn t H2, Cl2

48

Hnh 5-1. S gp chung in t ca lin kt cng ha tr.

Lin kt ion:
Lin kt ion l mt loi lin kt ha hc, thng c thit lp gia mt cp
nguyn t kim loi - phi kim. Nguyn t kim loi cho mt hoc nhiu in t tr
thnh ion dng (cation). Nguyn t phi kim th ngc li, nhn in t v chuyn
thnh ion m (anion). Cp ion ny khi hnh thnh thng s hu mt cu hnh in t
nh kh him. Ngc li vi lin kt cng ha tr, lin kt ion khng c s nh
hng r rt v v tr xc nh. Trong nhng tinh th ion ha cc cation v anion ht
ln nhau trong tt c cc hng, bi lc columbien, nn khng c s hnh thnh tng
cp nguyn t ring l lin kt vi nhau. Ngay c mui n, c cng thc ha hc
NaCl, th khng c ngha tn ti tng phn t NaCl tch bit vi cc phn t khc.V
vy, thi nng chy hoc ha tan th cc ion c th dch chuyn t do v tham gia
dn in.
Cn lu l c hai kiu lin kt trn cho php gii thch mt cch n gin v
phn t. Trong cch gii thch ny th ch c cc in t ha tr (nm phn lp ngoi
cng) tham gia vo s hnh thnh lin kt. Cc in t cn li khng tham gia vo
lin kt. Nu mun gii thch mt cch y hn v s ng gp ca cc in t
cn li vo lin kt phn t th cn vn dng ti l thuyt Orbitan phn t trong ha
hc lng t. Thuyt ny xem phn t nh mt ht thng nht, vi cc ht nhn
nguyn t ng vai tr l li phn t, cn cc in t th chuyn ng quanh phn t
trong cc vng khng gian gii hn, c gi l orbital phn t. xc nh cc
orbital phn t ngi ta s dng phng php kt hp tuyn tnh cc orbital nguyn
49

t. Ngha l xy dng orbital phn t t nhng orbital nguyn t ca tt c cc


nguyn t thnh phn trong phn t. y l phng php c Sir John Lennard
Jones, nh vt l - ha hc l thuyt ngi Anh, a ra vo nm 1929. Tng t nh
nguyn t, theo nguyn l loi tr Pauli, mi orbital phn t ch cha ti a hai in
t c s lng t spin i nhau.

V.2 Cc mc nng lng ca phn t: in t, Dao ng, Quay


Nu sp xp theo th t ln v nng lng th cc kt qu thc nghim
ch ra rng:
(5.1)
Ba thnh phn nng lng k trn, cu thnh nng lng ca phn t.
hiu n gin v cc mc nng lng ca phn t, ta c th tm hiu hin
tng thng thy cc cht mu l s hp th v pht x nh sng. Cc ph hp th
v pht x m ta thng thy l kt qu ca cc qu trnh kch thch hi phc khi c
s tng tc gia nh sng v vt cht. Sau khi cht mu hp th nh sng, in t
ca phn t nhy ln orbital trng c mc nng lng cao hn. Nh vy phn nh
sng b hp th gy ra s kch thch phn t. S dch chuyn in t ny c gi
l chuyn dch t trng thi c bn ln trng thi kch thch. Qu trnh ny ko theo s
phn b li v in t trong cc orbital phn t. Nn ko theo s bin i v tnh
trng dao ng ca cc nguyn t trong phn t. Ngha thay i v phn b cc mc
nng lng dao ng (vibration). Ngoi ra s bin i v tnh trng dao ng ca
phn t cn ko theo s bin i v tnh trng quay (rotation) ca phn t. Theo
nguyn l Franck Condon, s dch chuyn in t gia hai mc nng lng xy ra
tc thi (rt nhanh vo khong 10-15 s) nn cc nguyn t khng kp thay i v tr,
ngha l cu hnh ca phn t khng thay i. Chnh v vy m trong cc s biu
din s hp th hay pht x nh sng, th qu trnh dch chuyn gia hai mc in t
(electronic) ny c biu din bng mt mi tn thng.
ng vi mi mc nng lng in t ca phn t (electronic) th c cc mc
con khc nhau, l mc dao ng (vibration). S phn b phn t trong cc trng thi
50

dao ng ny thng ph thuc vo nhit v cc tnh cht khc ca h nh: th, s


bc t do ca phn t. Trong mi mc nng lng dao ng li c chia tch thnh
cc mc nh hn l cc mc quay (rotation).
Ty theo i tng v mc ch nghin cu m cc phng php quang ph s
tp trung vo cc mc nng lng khc nhau. V d nh: nu o ph hp th v pht
x trong vng UV n hng ngoi gn th ngi ta quan tm ch yu n s dch
chuyn gia cc mc in t, cn nu o ph bc x nhit hay tn x Raman th li
tp trung vo s dch chuyn gia cc mc dao ng v quay

V.3 Gin Jablonski


Gin Jablonski hay cn gi l gin cc mc dch chuyn in t, cho
php minh ha cc qu trnh kch thch, hi phc din ra trong phn t, Hnh 5-2. Tn
gi ca gin ny gn lin vi tn tui ca nh vt l Ba Lan Alexander Jablonski.
nh sng (cc photon) khi b hp th bi mt s lng ln cc phn t th lm
ko theo s dch chuyn ca electron trong phn t, t trng thi in t c bn bi
n (singlet), S0, ln trng thi kch thch, Sn (n>1). Trong trng thi ny phn t c
th bc x tr v trng thi c bn hoc hi phc theo hai bc ni tip:
- Bc mt: phn t trng thi Sn tr v trng thi kch thch thp nht S1 bi ta ra
mt phn nng lng ca n vo mi trng xung quanh. Hin tng ny thng
c gi l chuyn i ni b (internal conversion: ic).
- Bc hai: t trng thi kch thch S1, phn t chuyn xung trng thi c bn S0
thng qua nhiu hnh thc cnh tranh khc nhau:
* Pht ra photon (dch quang), vi mt hng s t l bc x kr
* Tiu tn nng lng di dng nhit. y l s hi phc khng bc x, vi
hng s t l ki.
* Phn t trong trng thi kch thch chuyn giao mt phn nng lng sang
cc phn t khc. S chuyn giao nng lng ny chim mt phn ng vi hng s t
l kq (nu ngng pht quang bi truyn nng lng qua va chm vi phn t khc)

51

hoc vi hng s t l kt (nu ngng pht quang bi chuyn giao nng lng, khng
qua va chm, vi phn t gn n).
* Dch chuyn sang trng thi bi ba (triplet) T1 c mc nng lng thp hn
S1 vi hng s t l kisc (inter-system crossing: isc). i vi mi trng thi kch thch
S, tn ti tng ng mt trng thi kch thch T vi mc nng lng thp hn. Trng
thi bi ba l trng thi kch thch nn v mt nng lng n khng n nh v c xu
hng t gii phng nng lng tr v trng thi c bn.
Khi phn t trong trng thi kch thch bi ba, s hi phc cng din ra di
nhiu hnh thc cnh tranh khc nhau, tng t nh trng hp hi phc t trng thi
kch thch S1:
Pht ra photon vi hng s t l kp. Hin tng ny c gi l ln quang (s
pht quang do ln quang c thi gian rt di so vi dch quang).
Tiu tn nng lng khng km theo bc x vi hng s ki.
Truyn nng lng sang phn t khc khong cch gn y (hng s t l kt)
hoc va chm vi phn t khc (hng s t l kq).

Hnh 5-2. Gin Jablonski.


Trng thi bi n (S), bi ba (T) l kt qu ca s ph thuc vo s lng t
spin ca in t. i vi trng thi bi n th spin ca in t orbital cao ngc
du vi spin in t orbital thp, cn vi trng thi bi ba th ngc li. Theo
52

nguyn l loi tr Pauli, hai in t trong cng mt orbital khng th c cng chung
bn s lng t, v vy s spin ca chng phi khc nhau. Hai s lng t spin khc
nhau ny ca in t ly cc gi tr -, . Chnh v vy m trng thi kch bi n
tr v trng thi c bn mt cch nhanh chng, cn trng thi bi ba th cn mt thi
gian di mi tr v c, do s chuyn dch trc tip l b cm.
Cn lu l chuyn ng t quay quanh trc ca in t l rt nh so vi vn
tc nh sng, nn s ng gp ca thnh phn t trng vo qu trnh hp th l
khng ng k so vi thnh phn in trng. V l do ny m khi xt n vn
tng tc gia nh sng v vt cht ngi ta ch ch n thnh phn in trng v
thng b qua thnh phn t trng.
Theo gin Jablonski, trong qu trnh hi phc t trng thi kch thch c rt
nhiu qu trnh xy ra ng thi v cnh tranh vi nhau. Nh vy, cc tnh cht ca
nh sng (mu sc, cng ..) m ta nhn thy pht ra t h nghin cu l ph thuc
vo cc mc nng lng bn trong h v yu t mi trng cha h.
Gin Jablonski cn c gi l gin dch chuyn cc mc in t. y
cc mc in t ca cc cht hp th mu hoc cc cht pht quang l thnh phn
chnh trong cc biu din v s dch chuyn gia cc trng thi. Khi cht hp th mu
pht ra photon th c gi l cht pht quang. Tuy nhin, cht hp th mu khng
nht thit l cht pht quang v c nhiu cht ch c hp th m khng c pht x. V
d, Rodamin v Malachit Green l hai cht mu c cng thc ha hc gn nh nhau
nhng Rodamin pht quang rt mnh cn Malachit Green th hu nh khng pht
quang. Bi cng pht quang cn ph thuc vo thi gian sng trong trng thi
kch thch. Trong nhiu trng hp thi gian pht quang ph thuc vo cu trc ca
cht pht quang. Tht vy, vi mt s cu trc nh retine trong protein, Malachite
Green trong dung dch c nht thp, ngay sau khi b kch thch cc phn t
nhanh chng quay v trng thi c bn bng hnh thc chuyn i cu hnh, lm h
ngng pht quang. Thng thng th cng pht quang (ta ang xt dch quang)
gim mt cch exponentiel theo thi gian. V, thi gian sng ca dch quang dch
quang c nh ngha l thi gian m mt phn t trong trng thi kch thch
gim i 1/e ln so vi lc h va c kch thch.
53

Chng VI

K THUT O QUANG PH

VI.1 Quang ph hp th
VI.1.1. K thut o ph hp th
o ph hp th l php o n gin nht trong cc k thut quang ph. V mt
k thut th my ch thc hin c php o ph truyn qua T, t kt qu ny mi tnh
ra ph hp th A, bi:
(

( )

(6.1)

Trong , l h s hp th L.mol-1.cm-1: ph thuc vo bc sng nh sng,


bn cht mi trng; C l nng cht hp th mol.L-1; l l chiu di mi trng m
nh sng i qua, cm. Cng sng trc, Io, v sau, I, khi i qua mu vt lin h vi
(

nhau bi nh lut Lambert-Beer,

). S gim cng sng do hp

th ny c minh ha trn Hnh 6-1. hp th A l i lng khng c th nguyn


nhng n thng c gn n v l mt quang hc OD (optical density).

Hnh 6-1. Cng sng gim do b hp th bi dung dch, c nng C v h s


hp th , cha trong ng nghim c b dy l.

Nu bit h s hp th ti bc sng ca mt cht no th t kt qu mt


quang hc OD ta xc nh c nng ca cht cha trong mu vt hoc ngc
li. hin th ph hp th chnh xc, khi thc hin php o cn phi loi b cc yu
54

t nh: s hp th, tn x (Mie, Raleight) ca dung mi v s phn x, hp th ca


ng nghim. Vic loi b ny l rt n gin, bng cch dng ph hp th ca ng
nghim c cha cht cn o tr i ph hp th ca ng nghim ch cha dung mi
(ng nghim chun).
C hai kiu thit k my o ph hp th: loi mt chm tia v loi hai chm
tia, Hnh 6-2. Nu l my o ph mt chm tia th ta thc hin hai ln o khc nhau:
o ph ca ng nghim chun trc, ri o ph ca ng nghim cha dung dch. Nu
l my hai chm tia th php o thc hin cng mt lc trn hai ng nghim, Hnh 62. Trong hai loi my o ph hp th ny th loi mt chm tia l thng dng nht.
Loi hai chm tia tuy t thng dng hn nhng n c u im l hn ch c s sai
lch gy ra bi s thng ging hay bin thin ca ngun sng trong qu trnh o. Tt
nhin v mt cu to th phc tp hn.

Hnh 6-2. Nguyn l ca my o ph hp th: a) My o ph hp th mt chm tia;


b) My o ph hp th hai chm tia.

Do i tng o ph hp th thng gp nhiu nht l cc cht mu v sinh


hc th lng (hp th mnh trong vng kh kin v UV) nn phn ln cc my o
ph hp th bn trn th trng c thit k cho php o trn rng ph t t
ngoi gn n hng ngoi gn. Khi thc hin php o ta c th chn ch o ph
55

hp th hoc ph truyn qua, v o ti mt bc sng c nh hay trn mt rng


ph ty chn. Ngun sng ca cc my o ny thng do hai loi n m nhim.
n th nht qut t hng ngoi gn n kh kin, n th hai t kh kin n t
ngoi gn. Vic o ph hp th ca cc bc sng ngn di 200 nm th phc tp
hn, v cn phi rt chn khng (trnh s hp th ca N2) v s dng ng nghim c
bit cho php UV truyn qua.
VI.1.2 Cc tnh cht c bn ca ph hp th
Ph hp th l kt qu ca cc chuyn dch gia cc trng thi: in t, dao
ng, quay. Nhng nh cc i trn ph hp th tng ng vi cc vch dch chuyn
t mc c bn ln mc in t bc cao, phn cn li ca ph c to bi hng loi
vch vi s tham gia ca cc dch chuyn dao ng v quay. V vy ph hp th kh
nhy cm vi nhit . Khi nhit tng th cc mc nng lng dao ng v quay
u tng, dn n rng ph n ra v cc nh ph dch chuyn v pha mu (do
khong chnh lch nng lng t mc c bn n cc mc in t bc cao b gim
i).
Yu t tnh phn cc ca dung mi cng nh hng ng k ln ph hp th
bi gia cc phn t ca cht mu v ca dung mi lun c s tng tc lng cc
in lng cc in. Vi nhng dung mi c tnh phn cc thp th s tng tc
ny yu nn cc nh ca bng hp th dch chuyn v pha bc sng di. Ngc li
th cc nh ca bng hp th dch chuyn v pha cc bc sng ngn. Ngoi ra
pH cng c tc dng mnh ln ph hp th, iu ny th hin rt r mt s cht ch
th mu, chuyn dng xc nh pH ca mi trng.
Hnh dng ca ph hp th (cc bng hp th rng hay hp) ty thuc vo s
lng cc trng thi dao ng, m iu ny ph thuc ch yu vo cu trc phn t.
Cng hp th ph thuc vo mt phn t dch chuyn t trng thi c bn ln
trng thi kch thch, nu mt dch chuyn ny cng ln th hp th th hin trn
ph cng cao. Khi cp ti hnh dng ph, ngi ta thng quan tm ti hai thng
s sau: v tr nh ph, (theo bc sng hoc tn s) v rng ph, , ti v tr
ng vi mt na cao tnh t nh ph. rng ny l hiu hai bc sng ng vi
hai v tr c cng cao so vi nh ph, xem minh ha trn Hnh 6-3.
56

= 1 2

(6.2)

Mt cht c th c mt hoc nhiu nh hay bng hp th, xem v d Hnh 6-3.


Bng nm v tr c bc sng di nht th ng vi mc nng lng ca trng thi
kch thch thp nht, c gi l bng hp th u tin. Trong vng bc sng t 200
n 400 nm, Coumarin 2 c ba bng hp th. Cc bng ny ng vi cc dch chuyn
t trng thi c bn, So, ln cc trng thi kch thch S1, S2 v S3.

Hnh 6-3. Ph hp th ca Coumarin 2 trong dung mi ethanol.

VI.2 Quang ph pht x

Hnh 6-4. Cht mu pht x nh sng kh kin sau khi hp th nh sng UV. Hin
tng ny c gi l quang-hunh quang.
57

Ph pht x l kt qu ca php o cc bc x pht ra t mu vt. Cc bc x


ny gm c hai nhm : bc x nhit v hunh quang (luminescence). Ring, hunh
quang th c th c hiu mt cch n gin rng: l nh sng di ra so vi bc x
nhit ca vt nhit tng ng.
S pht x nh sng m chng ta s cp trong mc ny l kt qu ca vic
kch thch mu vt bng phng php quang hc, nn hu nh khng c s tng nhit
. V vy ph pht x thu c bng phng php kch thch ny chnh l ph hunh
quang.
Hin tng hunh quang cn c phn loi theo cch kch thch. Nu hunh
quang do nh sng kch thch gy ra th gi l quang-hunh quang
(photoluminescence), xem Hnh 6-4, do in trng kch thch th gi l in-hunh
quang, do phn ng ha hc hay do qu trnh sinh hc th gi l ha-hunh quang,
sinh-hunh quang, cn do cc tia phng x, tia X...th li c cc tn gi tng ng. V
gii hn ca chuyn quang ph, chng ta ch xt n hin tng quang-hunh
quang, mc d trong s pht x nh sng ca vt l c nhiu hin tng c lp vi
phng php kch thch. Cn lu l, quang-hunh quang l thut ng chung bao
gm c hai loi pht sng : dch quang (fluorescence) v ln quang (phophorescence),
xem Hnh 5-2.
VI.2.1 K thut o ph pht x
o ph pht x th trc tin phi kch thch mu vt pht quang, Hnh 6-4.
nh sng pht ra t mu vt c gom li nh thu knh hi t hoc gng parabol
ri a vo h o, Hnh 6-5. Vic kch thch mu vt pht sng th c nhiu cch:
nhit, in, quang.. Trong , vic s dng nh sng pht ra t ngun laser l
cch lm thng dng nht. Bi l do n gin l cng sng kch thch mnh v
ta kim sot c chnh xc mc nng lng a vo h. V d nh ta c th ch
ng a h ln mc in t S1, S2, S3 hay mt mc dao ng, quay no bng
cch gi vo h mt tia sng c ph hp. Cu to ca my o ph pht x l tng
i ging vi my o ph hp th, xem Hnh 6-5. Ch khc nhau phn ngun sng,
cch b tr ngun sng v cch thu gom tn hiu. Thng thng th tia laser dng
kch thch mu vt (M) c phng vung gc vi quang trc ca thu knh lm nhim
58

v gom nh sng pht x. Vic b tr ny l trnh s phn x, ti b mt mu vt,


ca tia laser i v hng u thu. Ring thnh phn tn x ca laser th c lc b
bi knh lc mu (F).Vi my o ph pht x ngi ta thng thc hin hai php o
c bn sau :
C nh iu kin ngun sng kch thch (bc sng, cng ), o ph pht
x.
C nh iu kin ca nh sng pht x (bc sng, cng ), o ph kch
thch.

Hnh 6-5. S nguyn l my o ph pht x. Laser kch thch mu vt (M)


pht quang, knh lc mu (F) chn thnh phn tn x ca tia laser, thu knh gom
nh sng pht x ri a v quang ph k.

Khi o ph pht x th cn lu n vn ti hp th (photon pht x b hp


th li ngay bn trong mu vt) v pht x th cp (pht x do ti hp th), xem Hnh
6-6. hn ch vn ny th nn ch vo cch b tr tia sng kch thch trn mu
vt, b dy mu vt phi mng v nng cht cn o khng c qu cao.

59

Hnh 6-6. Ph hp th v pht x ca Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP)


trong nc. Vng ph xung quanh v tr 500 nm c th xy ra hin tng ti hp th,
gy hn ch chnh xc khi o ph pht x.

VI.2.1 Cc mi lin h c bn gia tnh cht ph pht x v tia sng kch thch
a) Theo nguyn l bo ton nng lng th photon pht x khng th c nng
lng ln hn photon b hp th. y ta khng cp ti s pht x do hp th hai
photon. Trong hin tng ny th nh sng pht x cha nhiu photon mang nng
lng ln hn nng lng ca cc photon b hp th, nhng nng lng ca mt
photon pht ra khng th ln hn tng nng lng ca hai photon b hp th. T
mi quan h gia nng lng v bc sng,

, ta suy ra bc sng pht x

em lun ln hn bc sng kch thch a.


Nh vy cc im cc i trn ph pht x dch chuyn v pha mu (bc
sng di) so vi cc im cc i trn ph hp th, xem v d trn Hnh 6.11A. S
dch chuyn ph v pha mu ny c Sir George Stokes quan st ln u tin
vo nm 1852, v t y hin tng ny gn lin vi tn gi Stokes. Chnh v vy m
trong cc hin tng vt l khc, khi c trng hp dch chuyn ph v pha mu
xanh th c gi l Anti-Stokes (v d tn x Anti-Stokes Raman).

60

b) Nh ch trong gin Jablonski, Hnh 5-2, s pht x t cc trng thi


in t bc cao, S1, S2.. thng khi u t mc nng lng dao ng thp nht ca
cc trng thi . Vy th, ng theo nguyn l, hnh dng ph pht x khng ph
thuc v bc sng kch thch.
c) S hi phc t trng thi kch thch c din ra vi s cnh tranh ca
nhiu qu trnh khc nhau, trong c nhng qu trnh hi phc khng bc x. Nu
nh s cnh tranh ca cc qu trnh hi phc khng bc x cng km th s hi phc
qua hunh quang l cng ln. V vy cng pht x ph thuc vo hiu sut
lng t, c nh ngha l:
(6.3)
vi

l cng pht x,

l cng hp th. Do khng phi tt c cc

phn t b kch thch u pht x nn hiu sut

lun nh hn 1.

Cng pht x ti mt bc sng chnh xc 2 lin h vi hiu sut lng


t ca cht pht quang v cng tia kch thch ti bc sng 1 qua mi quan h:
( )
Trong k l hng s,

( )

( )

(6.4)

l cng ca tia sng chiu vo mu, l h s

hp th phn t (L.mol-1.cm-1), C l nng (mol.L-1), l qung ng quang hc (cm1

). Nh vy, cng pht x t l vi cng tia sng kch thch, hiu sut lng

t v hp th,

. V h s hp th phn t ph thuc vo bc sng nn

cng pht x cng ph vo bc sng kch thch 1.


d) S lng bng trong ph pht x, ng vi cc dch chuyn t trng thi kch
thch bc n v trng thi c bn l ph thuc vo v tr kch thch trn ph hp th. V
d, Hnh 6-11A, khi kch thch bi bc sng 420 nm, ng vi s chuyn dch S0
S2 th ph pht x thu c c hai bng vi cc i ti 480 nm v 680 nm. Hai bng
ny tng ng vi cc chuyn dch S2 S0, S1 S0. Nu bc sng kch thch nm
trong khong 590 n 630 nm th ta ch c duy nht mt bng pht x t S1 S0.
e) Hng phn cc ca nh sng dch quang ph thuc vo hng phn cc
ca nh sng kch thch. Qui lut ca s ph thuc ny cn thay i ty theo tnh cht
61

ca phn t v mi trng cha phn t. Chnh v vy m t php o phn cc


(2.9) ca hunh quang ta c th rt ra c nhiu thng tin nh: gc to bi gia
hng phn cc ca nh sng hp th v hng phn cc ca nh pht x, chuyn
ng quay ca phn t trong trng thi kch thch

VI.3 Quang ph phn gii theo thi gian


Quang ph phn gii theo thi gian hay cn gi l quang ph cc nhanh
(ultrafast spectroscopy), n ch dng nghin cu nhng hin tng xy ra mc
t femto giy ti vi trm pico giy. y l phng tin chuyn s dng trong
ngnh khoa hc Femtochemistry. i vi quang ph phn gii theo thi gian th c
ba k thut o c bn thng c s dng nhiu nht: o ph hp th bng Bm
Qut (Pump Probe) quang hc, o ph dch quang t tn hiu tng hai tn s (Upconversion fluorescence) v o tn hiu tn x Raman bng hiu ng bc x cng
bc (Stimulated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering).

VI.3.1 Quang ph hp th phn gii theo thi gian


d hiu v nguyn l vt l ca cc k thut ny ta c th bt u tm hiu k
thut n gin nht l Bm - Qut. Phng php ny cn t nht hai xung laser cc
ngn. Xung th nht gi l Bm c nhim v a h nghin cu ln trng thi kch
thch mc thi gian t (thng chn t = 0). Xung th hai, ng vai tr Qut i qua
mi trng b kch thch trong mt khong thi gian ngn sau ti t = t. m
bo xung qut khng lm thay i trng thi ca h cn o, nng lng ca n phi
nh hn 10-3 ln so vi nng lng ca xung bm. Mi trng trong trng thi kch
thch s lm thay i ph ca xung qut. S thay i ph ca xung qut ny ph
thuc vo gi tr t, l khong chnh lch thi gian gia xung bm v xung qut. Nu
thc hin nhiu php o ti cc gi tr thi gian t khc nhau th ta thu c tn hiu
v bin thin ca ph hp th theo thi gian. Nguyn l ca php o ny c trnh
by trn Hnh 6-7.

62

Hnh 6-7. Nguyn l php o Bm Qut quang hc.

thu c ti a thng tin v cc trng thi in t ca h nghin cu, ngi


ta thng s dng nhng xung qut c ph rng. V mt thc nghim, c hai phng
php cho php to ra nhng xung nh vy: hoc l s dng laser pht ph rng [7,9],
hoc l to ra xung nh sng trng (Suppercontinuum) [10].
u thu s dng trong k thut ny c th l mt hoc mt chui photodiode,
mt PM, hay mt camera CCD. i vi k thut o phn gii theo thi gian trn ph
rng th camera CCD l hiu qu nht. ng vi mi thi im t = t , u thu thc
hin hai php o:

o ph xung qut khi cc phn t trong h cha b kch thch (khng c s


xut hin ca xung bm), Io().

o ph xung qut khi cc phn t trong h trong trng thi kch thch (c s
xut hin ca xung bm), I(,t).
V mt thc nghim ngi ta quan tm n vic xc nh s thay i hp
th A :
A( , t ) log

vi

I 0 ( )
i , j ( ) N i ( t )l
I ( , t ) i j

N ( t ) N
i

63

N 0 ( t )

(6.5)

Trong y No l mt trong trng thi c bn, N i ( t ) l mt trng thi


th i ti thi im t. i,j() l h s dp tt ti bc sng ca tt c cc dch chuyn
c th t trng thi th i . l l chiu di ca mu vt b kch thch.
mi mc thi gian s hp th ca cc bc sng khc nhau ph thuc vo
h s dp tt i,j(): v vy ta c th xc nh bin thin ph hp th ca mu vt b
kch thch theo tng thi im t, (xem th nghim minh ha trn Hnh 6-12). i vi
mt bc sng c nh , s thay i t ko theo s bin thin v hp th A(t).
bin thin ny ph thuc vo mt ca Ni(t) : iu ny cho php tm ra qui lut
ng hc ca mt (xem th nghim minh ha trn Hnh 6-11B).

VI.3.2 Phn tch nh tnh d liu Bm - Qut


a) ng hc hi phc phn t v cc qu trnh tng tc gia photon v in
t trong phn t.
Khi mt h phn t b kch thch bi xung Bm, h t hi phc v nhng trng
thi khc n nh hn vi ba kh nng xy ra : 1) Hi phc bi phn ng ha hc.
Trong trng hp ny, nng lng ca photon b hp th gy ra mt phn ng ha
hc, v d nh lm t mch phn t hoc oxy ha phn t. 2) Hi phc bi pht x
photon thng qua hin tng dch quang hoc ln quang. Ngha l in t quay v
trng thi c bn v pht ra nh sng. 3) Hi phc khng bc x bi chuyn i ni
hoc chuyn i t trng thi bi n sang trng thi bi ba. Trng hp khng bc
x ny, nng lng b hp th thng t tiu tn i thng qua cc dao ng in t
hoc un cong cu hnh phn t
S bin thin v hp th trong th nghim Bm - Qut l tng hp tt c cc
tn hiu khc nhau trong qu trnh tng tc gia cc photon v in t trong phn t.
Nu nh nng lng ca cc photon Bm a h phn t ln trng thi kch thch th
cc phn t trong trng thi kch thch ny li lm bin i xung Qut bi cc hiu
ng quang vt l. Chng hn nh : mt kh nng hp th (photobleached), pht x
cng bc, hp th t trng thi kch thch, hay hp th t mt sn phm mi to ra.
Cc hin tng ny c minh ha Hnh 6-8.
64

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Hnh 6-8. Cc hnh thc tng tc khc nhau gia photon v in t trong
phn t. y l ngun gc ca s bin thin v hp th trong Bm Qut quang
hc: a) hp th photon bm, b) mt kh nng hp th, c) pht x cng bc, d) hp
th t trng thi kch thch, e) hp th t sn phm mi.

Tn hiu to ra t s mt kh nng hp th l do s gim mt trong trng


thi c bn N 0 (t ) 0 . V 0, j ( ) 0 , nn tn hiu hp th ny ly gi tr m, do
du ca n c xc nh bi tch 0, j ( )N 0 (t ) . Ba tn hiu khc l kt qu ca s
gia tng nng N i (t ) 0 . Tuy nhin ch c hai tn hiu, l hp th t trng thi
kch thch v t sn phm mi, cho gi tr dng v h s dp tt ca chng i , j ( ) 0 ,
cn tn hiu bc x cng bc th ly gi tr m v i , j ( ) 0 . V mt thc nghim th
tt c cc loi tn hiu trn u trn ln vi nhau v to nn s bin thin hp th
A theo thi gian.

65

Hnh 6-9. Minh ha v s bin thin hp th A, ti mt thi im, (ng


lin nt) vi s ng gp ca ba tn hiu: mt kh nng hp th (Ground State
Bleaching: GSB), hp th t trng thi kch thch (Exited State Absorption: ESA),
pht x cng bc (Stimulated Emission: SE). Gin v mc nng lng tng ng
c trnh by bn phi.

minh bch vn , chng ta xt mt v d thc nghim v tn hiu Bm


Qut ca phn t Malachit Green trong dung mi ethanol, Hnh 6-10. D liu ny thu
c sau khi bm vo dung dch xung laser 50 femto giy, bc sng 420 nm
(S0S2) v qut vi xung nh sng trng c bc sng t 460 nm n 1050 nm [1].
Nu kt hp vi Hnh 6-11A, (xem ph hp th v pht x) th ta c th xc nh mt
cch nh tnh cc tn hiu nh: mt kh nng hp th (ti 620 nm), hp th S2 Sn
(t 680 nm n 1050 nm trong khong thi gian t < 0,2 ps), pht x cng bc S1
S0 (t 700 nm n 900 nm, trong khong thi gian 0,2 ps < t < 0,7 ps), hp th t
sn phm mi (t 640 nm n 730 nm, trong khong thi gian t > 2ps).

66

600

700

800

900

nm

1000

500

-20x10

-3

ps 10

-10

Hnh 6-10. Bin thin hp th trong qu trnh hi phc sau kch thch dung
dch Malachit Green/ ethanol t S0 -> S2 bng xung laser bm c bc sng 420 nm.
Hnh nh 3D vi hp th c biu din bng s khc nhau ca mu sc.

d quan st s bin thin hp th theo thi gian ta c th xem lt ct ti


681 nm, Hnh 6-11B. Bc sng ny nm chn ca bng hp th v pht x ca S1,
xem Hnh 6-11A. iu cho php quan st t nht l hai tn hiu: mt kh nng hp
th v pht x cng bc.

Hnh 6-11. A) Ph hp th, pht x ca Malachit Green. B) Bin thin hp


th bi cc hnh thc khc nhau (xem gii thch b, c, d, e trn Hnh 6-8.), ng
chm trn l thc nghim, ng lin nt l hiu chnh theo hm tng cc
exponentiel xc nh thi gian sng ca tng trng thi.
67

VI.3.3 Cu trc chi tit ca mt th nghim phn gii thi gian cc nhanh vi
ph rng
Cu trc ca h o quang ph femto giy, s dng lm th nghim trn
Malachit Green, c trnh by Hnh 6-10. H o ny c xy dng trn c s
mt bung cng hng laser Titane:saphir. Laser ny pht ra cc xung c di thi
gian 50 fs, tn s pht xung 27 MHz, nng lng xung c 13 nJ, bc sng trung
tm l 800 nm, vi rng ph l 25 nm. Tia laser pht ra t ngun c tch lm
hai bi mt gng bn m S. 20 % nng lng c hi t vo mt on dy quang
hc phi tuyn, c chiu di 6 mm, to ra xung nh sng trng [11] nhm phc v
vic Qut. 80% nng lng cn li c hi t vo mt tinh th BBO c b di 1 mm
nhn i tn s (Second Harmonic Greneration: SHG), nhm phc v vic Bm.
Khong lch thi gian t gia xung Bm v xung Qut c kim sot bi h thng
thay i qung ng quang hc L. Vic hi t hai tia Bm, Qut vo cng mt v
tr trong mu th nghim c m bo bi mt gng parabol (P) c tiu c 25 mm.
u im ca gng parabol so vi thu knh l trnh c s gin xung do tn sc.
Sau khi qua mu, ch c tia Qut c gi vo ph k, cc mu khc nhau ca tia
Qut c tch ra bi cch t v hi t trn u thu ca camera CCD. o c s
bin thin hp th, camera CCD phi thu c hai ph: ph tia Qut khi khng c
s xut hin ca tia bmTia Bm v ph tia Qut vi s xut hin ca tia Bm. iu
ny c gii quyt bng cch thm vo trn ng i ca hai tia Bm Qut mt b
phn iu ch cho php ngt m hai tia vi tn s ca tia Qut ln hn hai ln so vi
tn s ca tia Bm. Tn s ca b phn iu ch ny c kt ni vi camera CCD
cho php phn bit c u l tia Qut i qua h trong trng thi kch thch (c tia
Bm ) v u l tia Qut i qua h trong trng thi c bn (khng c tia Bm).

68

Hnh 6-12: S ca ph k femto giy. S : bn m ; M : gng ; /2 : bn


na bc sng ; P1P3 : parabole ; OM : thu knh hi t ca knh hin vi ; PCF :
si quang hc phi tuyn; SHG : nhn i tn s ; E : chantillon; L : kim sot thi
gian ; F : knh lc mu BG39.

VI.3.4 Quang ph dch quang phn gii theo thi gian


Trong phn o bin thin hp th Bm Qut chng ta thy rng d liu
th nghim thu c b chng cho bi bn loi tn hiu. Nn vic xc nh thi gian
sng ca cc trng thi thch thch l kh khn, c bit nhng vng bc sng m
tn hiu mt kh nng hp th chim u th. S thun li hn trong vic xc nh thi
gian sng ca cc trng thi kch thch nu ta ch o duy nht thi gian dch quang.
Ngha l o thi gian m mu vt pht x nh sng (khng xt ti ln quang) sau khi
b kch thch. Vic o ny thc hin kh n gin nu ta dng Streak cameras [6]. L
mt loi u thu phn ng nhanh, cho php o trc tip s phn b cng theo
thi gian ca nhng xung nh sng c thi gian ko di t vi chc pico giy tr ln.
Tuy nhin phng php ny khng p dng c cho nhng i tng m thi gian
dch quang vo khong vi chc femto n pico giy. Trong trng hp ny, ta phi
dng n phng php o phn gii theo thi gian mt cch gin tip qua tn hiu
tng hp hai tn s (up-converstion fluorescence). M hnh th nghim ca phng
php ny c gii thiu trn Hnh 6-13.
69

Hnh 6-13. S th nghim o ph dch quang phn gii theo thi gian t tn
hiu tng hp hai tn s (up-converstion fluorescence).

Xung laser pht ra t ngun c tch lm hai: phn th nht, gi l xung


Bm (p), phn th hai gi l l xung To tn hiu (g). Xung Bm kch thch mu vt
pht dch quang (f). nh sng pht ra c gom li bng mt h parabol ri hi t
vo tinh th phi tuyn BBO. Khi cc photon ca xung To tn hiu cng cc photon
dch quang gp nhau trong tinh th BBO, v vi iu kin hp pha c m bo, th
tn hiu tng hp hai tn s c sinh ra:
(6.6)
Hng ca cc photon tn hiu pht ra khng cng phng vi tia g v f l do
yu t bo ton ng lng, ks = kg + kf. Cn bc sng th ngn hn bi mi lin
h:
(6.7)
Do nh sng dch quang f c ph rng nn mun to ra tn hiu tng hp hai
tn s (6.6) cho tt c cc bc sng th ta phi quay tinh th BBO khi o. ng vi
mi gi tr t, lch thi gian gia xung Bm v xung To tn hiu, ta thc hin
php o ph ca tn hiu tng hp hai tn s. Nh vy, khi tp hp mt chui cc

70

php o theo t th ta c c ph Tn hiu theo thi gian. T ph Tn hiu ta suy ra


c ph dch quang phn gii theo thi gian bi mi lin h (6.7).

VI.3.5 Quang ph tn x phn gii theo thi gian


Khc vi hin tng phn x v khc x, tn x nh sng c nhiu ngun gc
vt l khc nhau. V vy hin tng ny c kh nhiu tn gi. n gin trong vn
phn bit ngi ta thng chia ra lm hai nhm. Nhm th nht l nhng tn x
n hi (khng trao i nng lng gia nh sng v vt cht), gm c : tn x
Rayleigh, tn x Mie. Nhm th hai l nhng tn x khng n hi (c trao i nng
lng gia nh sng v vt cht), gm c : tn x Brillouin, tn x Raman, tn x tia
X, tn x Compton. Trong , tn x Raman, gn lin vi tn tui ca nh vt l n
, c quan st bng thc nghim vo nm 1928. Vi cng trnh nghin cu v tn
x, Raman c trao gii Nobel vo nm 1930.
So vi cc loi tn x khc th Raman l c nhiu ng dng nht. t bit l
kh nng chn on nhit , xc nh thnh phn ha hc v t l ca cc thnh
phn trong hn hpTrong mn nhit hc ta bit, cc mc nng lng dao ng
v quay ca phn t ph thuc rt mnh vo yu t nhit . Ph tn x Raman cha
ng thng tin v cc mc nng lng ny. Chnh v vy m vi k thut o ph tn
x Raman th nhit c chn on mt cc chnh xc. Hn na y l phng
php o gin tip nn n c th thc hin c nhng php o trong iu kin kh
khn, v d o nhit ca tn la ang bay hay xc nh nhit ca mt tri.
Trong gii hn ca chuyn mc ny ta th tm hiu k thut o ph tn x kt
hp Anti-Stockes Raman phn gii theo thi gian (time resolved coherent AntiStockes Raman spectroscopy: CARS), xem Hnh 6.14.

71

A)

B)

Hnh 6.14. A) Xung Bm v xung Stokes gp nhau trong h v cng a h ln


trng thi kch thch dao ng-quay, bng cch truyn cho h phn nng lng ng
bng chnh lch nng lng ca hai photon Bm v Stockes. Xung qut i ti vi
tr thi gian t v lm sinh ra xung tn hiu (Anti-Stockes), theo hng hp pha.
Xung tn hiu c tn s l : Anti-Stockes = bm + qut - stockes. B) Cch b tr cc tia
laser theo cu hnh Boxcars. [2]

i vi ph CARS, ngi ta thng quan tm n cc thng s sau : hnh


dng, cng , rng v v tr cc im cc i. y l nhng thng s cha ng
cc thng tin v m ca h nh nhit v nng ca cc cht bn trong h. Hnh
6-15, gii thiu mt v d v tn hiu ph phn gii theo thi gian CARS ca hn hp
50% H2, 50% N2, ti 296 oK.

72

Hnh 6-15, gii thiu mt v d v tn hiu ph phn gii theo thi gian CARS
ca hn hp 50% H2, 50% N2, ti 296 oK. [3]

73

Ph lc

Cc t ting Anh chuyn ngnh trong quang ph hc

Absorption (n): the process by which a substance or object takes in a liquid, gas,
waves, or chemical and makes it a part of itself. Using a special numerical procedure,
they calculated the absorption spectrum (the range of light waves that are left when
some have been absorbed by something that they passed through). Hp th.
Beam (n): a line of light that shines from a bright object. Tia sng.
Birefringence (n): double refraction. Lng chit.
Coefficient (n): a number or symbol that is written in front of and multiplies another
number or symbol; A coefficient is also a number that is used to measure the
characteristics of a substance. H s.
Diagram (n): simple plan which represents a machine, system or idea, etc., often
drawn to explain how it works. S nguyn l.
Diffusion (n): Diffusion is also the way light spreads when it is reflected from a
rough surface or passed through a translucent substance (substance that allows only
some light to pass through). Khuch tn.
Dispersion (n): the separation of light into different colors. Tn sc.
Diffraction (n): to break up light or sound waves by making them go through a
narrow space or across an edge. Nhiu x.
Emission (n): when gas, heat, light, etc. is sent out. S pht ra.
Excitate (v): to make someone have strong feelings of happiness and enthusiasm.
Kch thch.

74

Excitation (n): In physics there is a specific technical definition for energy level
which is often associated with an atom being excited to an excited state. S kch
thch.
Excited state: is any state with energy greater than the ground state. Trng thi kch
thch.
Excited-state lifetime: is equal to the mean time during which molecules remain in
the excited state. Thi gian sng ca trng thi kch thch.
Electromagnetic force: is the form of energy that causes all reactions between
particles (extremely small pieces) of matter, which have either positive or negative
electrical characteristics. Lc in t.
Fluorescent (adj): Fluorescent colours are very bright and can be seen in the dark.
Tnh dch quang.
Fluorescence (n): giving off light (from singlet state). S dch quang.
Fluorescence quantum yield: is defined by the rate of photons emitted/photons
absorpbed. Hiu sut lng t ca dch quang.
Interference (n): Interference between two waves happens when they have the same
frequency and produce a force that is either stronger or weaker than one wave alone.
Giao thoa.
Internal conversion: is a transition from a higher to a lower electronic state in a
molecule or atom. It is sometimes called "radiationless de-excitation", because no
photons are emitted. S dch chuyn t trng thi bi n cao v trng thi bi n
thp m khng km theo s bc x photon.
Intersystem crossing: when a singlet state nonradiatively transitions to a triplet state,
or conversely a triplet transitions to a singlet, that process is known as intersystem
crossing. S dch chuyn t trng thi bi n sang trng thi bi ba, hoc ngc li,
m khng km theo s bc x photon.

75

Orbital (n): the path that an electron or electrons take around the nucleus (central
part) of an atom. m my in t.
Laser (n): is a device that produces a powerful, highly controlled, narrow beam of
light. LASER is acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation. My pht Laser.
Lifetime (n): the period of time during which someone lives or something exists.
Thi gian sng.
Light (n): the brightness that comes from the sun, fire, etc. and from electrical
devices, and that allows things to be seen. nh sng.
Molecule (n): the simplest unit of a chemical substance, usually a group of two or
more atoms. Phn t.
Momentum (n): the force or speed of an object in motion, or the increase in the rate
of development of a process. Momen.
Monochromatic (adj): containing or using only one color. n sc.
Quantum (n): the smallest amount of energy that can be measured. Lng t.
Ground state: is lowest-energy state. Trng thi c bn.
Quenching (n): refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a
given substance. A variety of processes can result in quenching, such as excited state
reactions, energy transfer, complex-formation and collisional quenching. S tt, gim
cng dch quang.
Polarization (or polarisation) (n): is a property of certain types of waves that
describes the orientation of their oscillations. Phn cc nh sng.
Phophorescence (n): giving off light (from trilet state) after radiation has hit it. Ln
quang.
Photoluminescence (n): is a process in which a substance absorbs photons
(electromagnetic radiation) and then re-radiates photons. Quang hunh quang.

76

Polarity (n): the quality in an object that produces opposite magnetic or electric
charges. Phn cc.
Phase (n): A phase is one of the forms in which matter can exist, such as solid, liquid,
or a gas; A phase is also one of the stages or points in a repeating process measured
from a specific starting point. Pha.
Prism (n): a transparent object, often glass, that separates white light into different
colors. Lng knh.
Radiation (n): energy in the form of waves or particles (any of the smallest pieces of
matter that make up atoms). Bc x.
Refraction (n): When water or glass, etc. refracts light or sound, etc., it causes it to
change direction or to separate when it travels through it. The glass prism refracted
the white light into the colours of the rainbow. Khc x.
Reflection (n): the image of something in a mirror or on any reflective surface. Phn
x.
Sample (n): a small amount of a substance that a doctor or scientist collects in order
to examine it. Mu th.
Scattering (n): is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as
light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by
one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. Tn
x.
Solution (n): a liquid in which other substances have been mixed and dissolved.
Dung dch.
Solvent (n): a liquid in which another substance can be dissolved. Dung mi.
Spectroscopy (n): Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and
radiated energy. Quang ph hc.
Spectrum (n): the set of colors into which a beam of light can be separated. Ph nh
sng.

77

Spectral light: the set of colours into which a beam of light can be separated. Ph
nh sng.
Stimulate (v): to encourage something to grow, develop, or become active. Kch
thch.
Second harmonic generation: is a nonlinear optical process, in which photons
interacting with a nonlinear material are effectively "combined" to form new photons
with twice the energy, and therefore twice the frequency and half the wavelength of
the initial photons. It is a special case of sum frequency generation. Nhn i tn s.
Torsion (n): the act of twisting, the force which causes twisting, or the state of being
twisted. S xon.
Transparent (adj): If a substance or object is transparent, you can see through it very
clearly. Trong sut.
Wavelength (n): the distance between two waves of energy. Bc sng.

Ti liu tham kho


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basse pression, Journal de Physique IV, 135 (2006), 155156.
78

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th

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79