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The complete report of Human Anatomy and Physiology experiment unit II


with experiment title ³Blood Type and Blood Glucose Test´ created by:
Name : Nuni Rismayanti Nurkalbi
Reg. no : 071 404 193
Class : ICP Biology
Group : V (fifth)
Have been investigation by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator and this
report is accepted.

Makassar, December 2009

Assistant Coordinator Assistant

         
Reg. No: 061 404 042 Reg. No: 061 404 042

Known by,
Lecturer of responsible

    
NIP: 1964 04 16 1988 03 10 02
 
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If we talking about the transport system or circulation system in animal
body, so we definitely talking about blood. The blood is one kind of a basic
tissue which becomes the important component in organism. The chief function
of blood is to distribute all material which important to metabolism in body of
organism. At other animal, the main function of blood is to transport the oxygen
of the lungs or gill to the all tissue of the body. The blood contains hemoglobin
as to bind the oxygen. Hemoglobin is transport protein of oxygen is more
effective and it find at vertebrates. Inside the body, the blood have own distribute
way, which is through blood vessels and capillary. Many interesting things if we
talking about blood, start with it distribute of blood components until if the blood
out of body by a wound like freezing blood.
Blood is one kind of tissues which semi liquid condition where it is very
important to human and can¶t be separate from human livings system. Each
metabolism of organism especially in human are take place in blood circulation.
It is very important, if that is a trouble in it will make imbalance in human body
condition. Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances
to the body's cells ± such as nutrients and oxygen ± and transports waste products
away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells
suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. Plasma, which comprises 55% of
blood fluid, is mostly water (90% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins,
glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium
for excretory product transportation), platelets and blood cells themselves. The
blood cells present in blood are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or
erythrocytes) and white blood cells, including leukocytes and platelets. The most
abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin,
an iron-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen by
reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in
blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellular
dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion.
Blood is composed of specialized cells and a liquid, plasma, in which
they are suspended. The cells are the red blood cells, or erythrocytes, the white
blood cells,? and the platelets. Ordinarily, the constant motion of the blood keeps
the cells well dispersed throughout the plasma, but if a sample of blood is
allowed to stand (clotting prevented), the cells slowly sink to the bottom. This
process can be speeded up by centrifuging. By this means, the percentage of total
blood volume which is cells, known as the hematocrit, can be determined. The
normal hematocrit is approximately 45 percent. The total blood volume of an
average man is approximately 8 percent of his total body weight. According short
explanation above us had been done this observation to determine blood type of
human and to test them blood glucose.
?  "!
The purpose of this experiment is to determine blood type and blood
glucose of probandus.
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The benefit of this experiment is the student can know and determine
blood type and blood glucose.

 
 
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Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the


body's cells ± such as nutrients and oxygen ± and transports waste products away
from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in a
liquid called blood plasma. Plasma, which comprises 55% of blood fluid, is mostly
water (90% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins, glucose, mineral ions,
hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product
transportation), platelets and blood cells themselves. The blood cells present in blood
are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells,
including leukocytes and platelets. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are
red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which
facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and
greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely
transported extracellular dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ion (Anonyma, 2009).
According Syaifuddin (2006), in ABO system there are four blood types and
this dividing based on fact as follows:
a.? Blood serum of human is containing agglutinin, some antibody that is a
substance which can lump erythrocyte from another with different blood
type if both are mixed.
b.? Erythrocyte has agglutinogen some antigen on it cell membrane which can
stimulate agglutinin formed.
Blood types and the transfusion reactions related to them are other examples
of basic antigen-antibody processes. The membranes of human erythrocytes contain a
host of polysaccharide antigens. These same antigens are probably present in most of
the body's cells, but attention was first drawn to erythrocytes because of transfusion
reactions. It was very early recognized that the transfusion of blood into a person
was, more often than not, rapidly followed by clumping and hemolysis of erythro-
cytes with the appearance of hemoglobin in the plasma. If severe, this was associated
with jaundice, fever, and a variety of tissue damage because of liberation of eryth-
rocyte contents. With the identification of the erythrocyte antigens, it was ultimately
demonstrated that the red cell damage was caused by antigen-antibody reaction.
Among the large numbers of erythrocyte membrane antigens, we still recognize those
designated A, B, and 0 as most important. These antigens are inherited, A and B
being dominant. Thus, an individual with the genes for either A and 0 or B and 0 will
develop only the A or B antigen. Accordingly, the possible blood types are A, B, 0,
and AB. If the typical pattern of antibody induction were followed, one would expect
that a type A person would develop antibodies against type B cells only if the B cells
were introduced into his body. However, what is atypical of this system is that even
without initial exposure the type A person always has a high plasma concentration of
anti-B antibody. The sequence of events during early life which lead to the presence
of the so-called natural antibodies in all type A persons is unknown. Similarly, type B
persons have high levels of anti-A antibodies; type AB persons obviously have
neither anti-A nor anti-B anti-? body; type 0 persons have both; anti-0 antibodies are
usually not present in anyone (Vander, 1970).
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on
the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood
cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoprotein, or
glycolipids, depending on the blood group system, and some of these antigens are
also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these
red blood cell surface antigens, that stem from one allele (or very closely linked
genes), collectively form a blood group system. The ABO system is the most
important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A
antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually "Immunoglobulin M", abbreviated IgM,
antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization
to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses. The "O" in ABO is
often called "0" (zero/null) in other languages (Anonymb, 2009).
According Tambayong (2001), Blood type is very important to know because
it connect with blood transfuse that is entering someone blood into another through
vein blood vessel. In human blood serum there are substance called agglutinin or
lumped matter which consists of two kinds that are agglutinin Į and agglutinin ȕ
while in erythrocyte also containing some substance called agglutinogen A and
agglutinogen B. According these factors, Landsteiner is divided blood into:
a.? A blood type is has agglutinogen A in it erythrocyte and contain ȕ
agglutinin in it serum.
b.? B blood type is has agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte and contain Į
agglutinin in it serum.
c.? AB blood type is has agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte
and has not contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum.
d.? 0 blood type is has not agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it
erythrocyte and contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum.

Picture: he ABO Blood System


 
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1.? Blood type test
Day / date : Monday, November 29th 2009
Time : At 10.00 until 11.50 am
Place : Biology Laboratory 2nd floor West side of FMIPA
UNM
2.? Blood glucose test
Day / date : Monday, December 6th 2009
Time : At 10.00 until 11.50 am
Place : Biology Laboratory 2nd floor West side of FMIPA
UNM
? !!*  $ *
1.? Blood type test
a.? Tools
i.? Object glass
ii.? Blood lancet
b.? Materials
i.? Alcohol
ii.? Cotton
iii.? A Anti-serum
iv.? B Anti-serum
v.? Blood of probandus
vi.? Churn stick
2.? Blood glucose test
a.? Tool : Glucometer
b.? Material : Glucometer strip
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1.? Blood type test
Cleaned tip hand of probandus used cotton which wet by alcohol
before. Jabbed tip of probandus hand with blood lancet and throw away first
blood drop. Dropped the probandus blood on object glass. Dropped each
antiserum on blood and swirled with churn stick. Observed what happen with
blood and wrote in observation result.
2.? Blood glucose
Checked off strip with glucometer. Cleaned tip hand of probandus
used cotton which wet by alcohol before. Jabbed tip of probandus hand with
blood lancet and throw away first blood drop. Dropped the probandus blood
on glucometer strip. Read glucose rate which as described at glucometer.
Wrote the result in temporary report.
 
 
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1.? Blood type test
The blood type
No. Name
A B AB O
1. Wahyuddin Zainuddin +
2. A. Nurlaeli +
3. Jamaluddin +
4. Yanthi Tandi +
5. Widyarti +
6. Jupri +
7. Rini Ayusaraswaty +
8. Nuni Rismayanti Nurkalbi +
9. St. Nurul Muhlizah +
10. Titin Mutmainnah +
11. Irma Erviana +
12. Syamsidar +
13. Salmaniah +
14. Fitrianti Arif +
15. Mutmainna Ekawati +
16. Syamsuriani +
17. Selvianti +
Total 3 5 0 9
2.? Glucose blood test
Name Sex Glucose blood level mg/dl
Nurul Ekawati Female 109
Wahyuddin Zainuddin Male 99
Muh. Anshari Male 105
Jupri Male 105
Jamra Female 115


*!!$"" $ 

ȈÈ ÈÈ
% A blood type = x 100%
ȈÈ


= x 100%

= 17, 64%
ȈÈÈÈ
% B blood type = x 100%
ȈÈ


= x 100%

= 29, 41%
ȈÈÈÈ ÈÈ
% AB blood type = x 100%
ȈÈ


= x 100%

= 0, 00 %
ȈÈÈÈÈ
% 0 blood type = x 100%
ȈÈ


= x 100%

= 52, 94%
?   !
1.? Blood type test
Based on observation result we are know that from 17 probandus
which we takes them blood, there are 9 probandus have 0 blood type with
percentage 52, 94%, 3 probandus have A blood type with percentage 17, 64%,
5 probandus have B blood type with percentage 29, 41% and there is no one
has AB blood type. From those data we can see 0 blood types have high
percentage of all blood types. According Wulangi (1993), 0 blood type is
blood type have most number at almost 47% resident in world.
If the blood sample have lump in antiserum A, so that it mean that
person is have A blood type. Same thing at the blood sample if we drop the
antiserum B and then there is lump on it that is meaning it blood is B blood
type. If the blood is drop by antiserum A and B and occurs the lump so that is
AB blood type and if no lump at the blood with drop by antiserum A and
antiserum B that is mean the mine of it blood sample is 0 blood types.
According Tambayong (2001), Blood type is very important to know because
it connect with blood transfuse that is entering someone blood into another
through vein blood vessel. In human blood serum there are substance called
agglutinin or lumped matter which consists of two kinds that are agglutinin Į
and agglutinin ȕ while in erythrocyte also containing some substance called
agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B. According these factors, Landsteiner is
divided blood into:
a.? A blood type is has agglutinogen A in it erythrocyte and contain ȕ
agglutinin in it serum.
b.? B blood type is has agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte and contain Į
agglutinin in it serum.
c.? AB blood type is has agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it
erythrocyte and has not contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it
serum.
d.? 0 blood type is has not agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it
erythrocyte and contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum.
0 blood type is has not agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it
erythrocyte and contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum so 0 blood
types can mix to all blood types without occur clotting, it is called universal
donor but only can recipient of itself. Therefore, a group 0 individual can
receive blood only from a group 0 individual, but can donate blood to
individuals of any ABO blood group (ie A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a
blood transfusion in a dire emergency, and if the time taken to process the
recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, 0 Negative bloods can be
issued (Anonymb, 2009). AB blood type is has agglutinogen A and
agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte and has not contain Į agglutinin and ȕ
agglutinin in it serum. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can
receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate
blood only to another type AB individual (Anonymb, 2009).
2.? Blood glucose test
Based on observation result we are know that highest rate of blood
glucose is Jamra with rate is 115 mg/dl and lowest rate of blood glucose is
Wahyuddin Z. with rate is 99 mg/dl. Existence of difference of this glucose
rate because of difference amount of foods which come into body which later
hydrolysis will by body become blood sugar or glucose. Sugar blood rate
controlled by insulin which isn't it by pancreas gland. Too high Glucose rate
in blood will cause health trouble, namely disease diabetes mellitus. Rate
glucose height in blood isn't it some factors, like the happening of trouble at
pancreas gland so that unable to isn't it enough insulin in number in veins and
can also because of less active it receptor at surface of goals cell in body to
insulin. Glucose rate in blood can be degraded by isn't it become through
glycogen process glycogenesis that happened at liver and muscle.
 
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After done this experiment that can conclude several things, that are A
blood type is has agglutinogen A in it erythrocyte and contain ȕ agglutinin in it
serum. B blood type is has agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte and contain Į
agglutinin in it serum. AB blood type is has agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B
in it erythrocyte and has not contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum. 0
blood type is has not agglutinogen A and agglutinogen B in it erythrocyte and
contain Į agglutinin and ȕ agglutinin in it serum. Existence of difference of this
glucose rate because of difference amount of foods which come into body which
later hydrolysis will by body become blood sugar or glucose.
? + $ !
1.? Ought to the assistant can more seriously to guide its practicant when done the
experiment and to be on time.
2.? Ought to the laborer prepare equipment and materials so activity can work in
good. 
3.? Ought to the apprentice can do this experiment without make some noisy so
the activity can work to effisien and effective.
 
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Anonyma. 2009. Blood. http://www.wikipedia.com/ accessed at Makassar on
December 6th 2009.

Anonymb. 2009. Blood ype. http://www. wikipedia.com/ accessed at Makassar on


December 6th 2009.

Vander, Arthur J; James H. Sherman; and Dorothy S. Luciano. 1970. @uman


Phisiology: he Mechanisms of Body Function. USA: Mc-Graw Hill Book
Company.

Syaifuddin. 2006. Anatomi Fisiologi untuk Mahasiswa Keperawatan Edisi 3. Jakarta:


EGC Penerbit Buku Kedokteran.

Tambayong, Jan. 2001. Anatomi dan Fisiologi untuk Keperawatan. Jakarta: EGC
Penerbit Buku Kedokteran.

Taiyeb, A.M; R. Ngitung dan M. Rijal. 2008. Penuntun Praktikum Anatomi dan
Fisiologi Manusia. Makassar: Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNM.