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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

==========

BI GING MN HC

VT L 2 V TH NGHIM

Bin son:
TS. V TH THANH H
TS. NGUYN TH THY LIU

H NI 2013

Li ni u

LI NI U
Vic o to i hc v cao ng theo m hnh Tn ch nhm kch thch tnh c lp,
sng to v t hc ca sinh vin, nng cao trnh ca ngi hc trong thi k hi nhp. Tuy
nhin thc hin c mc nh trn ngi dy v ngi hc phi c cc trang thit b
cn thit m trc ht l gio trnh, ti liu tham kho.
Theo chng trnh ci cch gio dc do B Gio dc v o to thng qua (1990) v
cng Vt l i cng c Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng thng qua ngy 26
thng 6 nn 2009, c mt ti liu st vi chng trnh o to cho sinh vin h i hc
chnh quy ca Hc vin chng ti vit bi ging ny.
B bi ging gm c:
Tp BI GING VT L 1 V TH NGHIM: do Ts. L Th Minh Thanh, ThS.
Hong Th Lan Hng v ThS. V Hng Nga bin son nm 2010. Dng cho Sinh vin nm
th nht ngnh in t - Vin thng v Cng ngh thng tin.
Tp BI GING VT L 2 V TH NGHIM: do TS. V Th Thanh H v TS.
Nguyn Th Thy Liu bin son nm 2011. Dng cho sinh vin nm th 2, chuyn ngnh
in t - Vin thng.
Tp BI GING VT L 3 V TH NGHIM: do TS. V Th Thanh H v TS.
Nguyn Th Thy Liu bin son nm 2011. Dng cho sinh vin nm th 2, chuyn ngnh
Cng ngh thng tin.
Tp BI GING VT L I CNG: do TS. L Th Minh Thanh v TS. Nguyn
Th Thy Liu bin son. Dng cho sinh vin nm th 1, chuyn ngnh Cng ngh a
phng tin.
Sau 2 nm s dng, ph hp hn vi nhu cu v trnh ca Sinh vin theo m hnh
tn ch. Nm 2013 cc tp bi ging c hiu chnh li.
Tp bi ging Vt l 2 v th nghim do TS.Nguyn Th Thy Liu v ThS. Hong Th
Lan Hng hiu chnh.
Tp bi ging vt l 2 gip cho sinh vin trang b nhng kin thc c bn, c c s vt
l tip tc hc cc mn chuyn ngnh in t- Vin thng ca mnh. Ni dung gm c 10
chng v 4 bi th nghim. Chng u tin trnh by v dao ng v sng lm c s cho
quang hc sng. Tip theo chng 2, 3, 4, 5 th hin cc hin tng c trng cho tnh cht
sng ca nh sng l s giao thoa, nhiu x, tn sc, hp th, tn x v phn cc nh sng.
Chng 6 ni n s ph thuc vo chuyn ng ca khng gian, thi gian v khi lng ca
vt khi chuyn ng vi vn tc gn bng vn tc nh sng. Chng 7 th hin tnh cht ht
ca nh sng l cc hin tng: Bc x nhit, hin tng quang in v hi ng
Compton. Chng 8 cung cp kin thc v chuyn ng ca vt th vi m trong th gii vi
m, gip gii quyt nhiu vn c lin quan n cc tnh cht vt l ca vt cht mc
su sc hn. Chng 9 vn dng nhng kt qu ca c hc lng t nghin cu ph v
c tnh ca cc nguyn t. Chng 10 nghin cu v vt rn v cht bn dn.
Trong mi chng l thuyt u c: Mc ch, yu cu gip sinh vin nm c trng
tm ca chng; Tm tt ni dung gip sinh vin nm bt c vn t ra, hng gii
1

Li ni u

quyt v nhng kt qu chnh cn nm vng; Cu hi l thuyt gip sinh vin t kim tra phn
hc v hiu ca mnh; Bi tp gip sinh vin t kim tra kh nng vn dng kin thc l
thuyt gii quyt nhng bi ton c th.
Cc bi th nghim Vt l 2 cho thy c bn cht lng tnh sng- ht ca nh sng
v nhng ng dng c bn trong thc t ni chung v chuyn ngnh ni ring trong cc qu
trnh ca sng, cc qu trnh in- quang, quang - in .
Tp th bin son hy vng rng vi b bi ging ny cc bn sinh vin s t kt qu tt
trong qu trnh hc tp mn Vt l i cng.
Trong qu trnh vit bi ging ny chng ti nhn c s ng vin, khch l ca
Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng v s gp qu bu ca cc cn b ging dy
trong b mn Vt l. Chng ti xin chn thnh cm n nhng s gip qu bu ny.
Trong qu trnh bin son, khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Chng ti rt mong
nhn c s ng gp kin ca cc ng nghip v bn c.

NHM TC GI

MC LC

Chng 1: DAO NG V SNG

11

A.

Dao ng.

11

1. 1.

Dao ng c

11

1. 1. 1. Dao ng c iu ha

11

1. 1. 2. Dao ng c tt dn..

12

1. 1. 3. Dao ng c cng bc

14

1. 2.

15

Dao ng in t

1. 2. 1. Dao ng in t iu ho.

15

1. 2. 2. Dao ng in t tt dn

17

1. 2. 3. Dao ng in t cng bc.

19

1. 3.

22

S tng hp dao ng

1. 3. 1. Tng hp hai dao ng iu ha cng phng, cng tn s.

22

1. 3. 2. Tng hp hai dao ng iu ha c phng vung gc, cng tn s

23

B.

Sng ..

26

1. 1.

Sng c, sng m v hiu ng Doppler

26

1. 1. 1. Mt s khi nim c bn v sng..

26

1. 1. 2. Sng c..

27

1. 1. 3. Sng m v hiu ng Doppler...

31

1. 2.

34

Sng in t...

1. 2. 1. Th nghim ca Hertz to ra sng in t..

34

1. 2. 1. Nhng tnh cht ca sng in t..

35

HNG DN HC CHNG 1..

37

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

37

II.

Tm tt ni dung ..

38

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

42

IV.

Bi tp

44

Chng 2: GIAO THOA NH SNG..

48

2. 1

48

C s ca quang hc sng.

2. 1. 1. Thuyt in t v nh sng ca Maxwell..

49

2. 1. 2. Quang l.

49

2. 1. 3. nh l Malus v quang l.

50

2. 1. 4. Hm sng nh sng

50

2. 1. 5. Cng nh sng

51

2. 1. 6. Nguyn l chng cht cc sng.

51

2. 1. 7. Nguyn l Huyghen- Fresnel.

51

2. 2.

52

Hin tng giao thoa nh sng..

2. 2. 1. nh ngha..

52

2. 2. 2. Kho st hin tng giao thoa...

52

2. 3

Giao thoa gy bi cc bn mng

57

2. 3. 1. Th nghim ca Lloyd

57

2. 3. 2. Giao thoa gy bi bn mng..

58

2. 4.

Cc ng dng ca hin tng giao thoa

62

2. 4. 1. Kim tra cc mt knh phng li

63

2. 4. 2. Kh phn x cc mt knh.

63

2. 4. 3. Giao thoa k Rayleigh

64

2. 4. 4. Giao thoa k Michelson

65

HNG DN HC CHNG 2..

62

I.

Mc ch, yu cu...

62

II.

Tm tt ni dung

66

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

69

IV.

Bi tp

70

Chng 3: NHIU X NH SNG.

77

3. 1.

Hin tng nhiu x nh sng

77

3. 2.

Nhiu x nh sng ca sng cu

79

3. 2. 1. Phng php i cu Fresnel.

79

3. 2. 2. Nhiu x qua l trn...

80

3. 2. 3. Nhiu x qua mt a trn..

81

3. 3.

82

Nhiu x gy bi sng phng. Cch t nhiu x

3. 3. 1. Nhiu x nh sng ca sng phng qua mt khe hp

82

3. 3. 2. Nhiu x ca sng phng qua nhiu khe Cch t nhiu x

84

3. 3. 3. Nhiu x trn tinh th.

87

HNG DN HC CHNG 3..

88

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

88

II.

Tm tt ni dung...

88

III.

Cu hi l thuyt..

92

IV.

Bi tp..

92

Chng 4: TN SC, HP TH V TN X NH SNG .

97

4. 1.

97

S tn sc nh sng...

4. 1. 1. Hin tng tn sc bi lng knh...

97

4. 1. 2. ng cong tn sc v tn sc..

98

4. 2.

S hp th nh sng..

100

4. 2. 1. Hin tng hp th nh sng

100

4. 2. 2. Gii thch theo quan im c in

100

4. 2. 3. nh lut Bouguer v s hp th nh sng.

100

4. 3.

L thuyt v s tn sc v hp th nh sng

102

4. 4.

S tn x nh sng.............

105

4. 4. 1. Hin tng tn x nh sng

105

4. 4. 2. Tn x Tyndall...

106

4. 4. 3. Tn x phn t...

108

4. 4. 4 Tn x Raman....

109

4. 4. 5. Tn x Mandelstam Brillouin.

111

4. 5.

112

Cu vng...

HNG DN HC CHNG 4..

114

I.

Mc ch, yu cu.

114

II.

Tm tt ni dung

114

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

117

Chng 5: PHN CC NH SNG

119

5. 1.

119

S phn cc nh sng

5. 1. 1. nh sng t nhin..

119

5. 1. 2. nh sng phn cc

120

5. 1. 3. nh lut Malus v phn cc nh sng..

120

5. 1. 4. S phn cc nh sng do phn x v khc x

122

5. 2.

Phn cc do lng chit.

123

5. 2. 1. Tnh lng chit ca tinh th.

123

5. 2. 2. Mt sng trong mi trng tinh th n trc.

124

5. 2. 3. Cc loi knh phn cc..

126

5. 3.

128

nh sng phn cc elip, phn cc trn..

5. 3. 1. Bn phn t bc sng.

129

5. 3. 2. Bn na bc sng

130

5. 3. 3. Bn mt bc sng

130

5. 4.

Lng chit nhn to

131

5. 4. 1. Lng chit do bin dng c hc...

131

5. 4. 2. Lng chic do in trng...

132

5. 5.

S quay mt phng phn cc.

133

5. 6.

Mt s ng dng khc

135

HNG DN HC CHNG 5..

135

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

135

II.

Tm tt ni dung.

136

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

139

IV.

Bi tp

140

Chng 6: THUYT TNG I HP EINSTEIN

144

6. 1.

144

Hai tin Einstein

6. 1. 1. Khng gian tuyt i v te..

144

6. 1. 2. Cc php o thi gian v di - Mt vn nguyn l..

145

6. 1. 3. Cc tin Einstein...

145

6. 2.

Php bin i Lorentz v cc h qu.

146

6. 2. 1. Mu thun ca php bin i Galileo vi thuyt tng i Einstein

146

6. 2. 2. Php bin i Lorentz

147

6. 2. 3. Cc h qu ca php bin i Lorentz...

148

6. 3.

ng lc hc tng i tnh H thc Einstein..

152

6.3.1.. Phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng cht im...

152

6. 3. 2. ng lng v nng lng

152

6. 3. 3. Cc h qu..

153

HNG DN HC CHNG 6..

154

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

154

II.

Tm tt ni dung

155

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

156

IV.

Bi tp

156

Chng 7: QUANG HC LNG T...

159

7. 1.

159

Bc x nhit...

7. 1. 1. Bc x nhit cn bng

159

7. 1. 2. Cc i lng c trng ca bc x nhit cn bng..

159

7. 1. 3. nh lut Kirchhoff

161

7. 2.

161

Cc nh lut pht x ca vt en tuyt i.

7. 2. 1. nh lut Stephan-Boltzmann

161

7. 2. 2. nh lut Wien...

162

7. 2. 3. S khng hong vng t ngoi...

162

7. 3.

Thuyt lng t ca Planck v thuyt photon ca Einstein...

163

7. 3. 1. Thuyt lng t nng lng ca Planck

163

7. 3. 2. Thnh cng ca thuyt lng t nng lng.

163

7. 3. 3. Thuyt phtn ca Einstein...

164

7. 3. 4. ng lc hc photon..

164

7. 4.

164

Hin tng quang in...

7. 4. 1. nh ngha..

165

7. 4. 2. Cc nh lut quang in v gii thch...

166

7. 5.

167

Hiu ng Compton.

7. 5. 1. Th nghim Compton.

167

7. 5. 2. Gii thch hiu ng Compton.

168

HNG DN HC CHNG 7..

169

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

170

II.

Tm tt ni dung

170

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

173

IV.

Bi tp..

173

Chng 8: C HC LNG T

178

8. 1.

Lng tnh sng-ht ca cc vi ht

178

8. 1. 1. Lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng.

178

8. 1. 2. Gi thuyt de Broglie.

179

8. 1. 3. Thc nghim xc nhn tnh cht sng ca cc ht vi m..

173

8. 2.

H thc bt nh Heisenberg.

181

8. 3.

Hm sng..

182

8. 3. 1. Biu thc ca hm sng.

182

8. 3. 2. ngha thng k ca hm sng.

183

8. 3. 3. iu kin ca hm sng

183

8. 4.

Phng trnh Schrodinger..

184

8. 5.

ng dng ca phng trnh Schrodinger..

185

8. 5. 1. Vt th vi m chuyn ng trong ging th nng

185

8. 5. 2. Hiu ng ng ngm..

188

8. 5. 3. Dao ng t iu ha lng t..

191

HNG DN HC CHNG 8..

192

I.

Mc ch, yu cu.. 192

II.

Tm tt ni dung

III.

Cu hi l thuyt 194

IV.

Bi tp 194

192

Chng 9: VT L NGUYN T...

200

9. 1.

200

Nguyn t Hyr.........

9. 1. 1. Chuyn ng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir.. 200


9. 1. 2. Cc kt lun...

202

9. 2.

205

Nguyn t kim loi kim...

9. 2. 1. Nng lng ca electrn ha tr trong nguyn t kim loi kim..

205

9. 2. 2. Quang ph ca nguyn t kim loi kim...

206

9. 3.

Mmen ng lng v mmen t ca electron 207

9. 3. 1. Mmen ng lng qu o... 207


9. 3. 2. Mmen t... 208
9. 3. 3. Hin tng Zeeman...

209

9. 4.

210

Spin ca electron

9. 4. 1. S tn ti spin ca electron

210

9. 4. 2. Trng thi v nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t

212

9. 4. 3. Cu to bi ca vch quang ph

213

9. 5.

H thng tun hon Mendeleev.

214

9. 6.

H ht ng nht v thng k lng t..

215

9. 6. 1. H ht ng nht....................................................................................................

215

9. 6. 2. Thng k lng t.................................................................................................. 216


HNG DN HC CHNG 9..

218

I.

Mc ch, yu cu..

218

II.

Tm tt ni dung

218

III.

Cu hi l thuyt

222

IV.

Bi tp 222

Chng 10: VT L CHT RN V BN DN..

226

10. 1. Vt l cht rn

226

10. 1. 1. Cu trc mng tinh th ca cht rn

226

10. 1. 2. L thuyt vng nng lng.. 227


10. 2.

Vt l bn dn

233

10. 2. 1. S vng nng lng ca cht bn dn

233

10. 2. 2. Khi nim in t dn v l trng

234

10. 2. 3. Hm phn b Fermi Dirac

236

10. 2. 4. Bn dn thun......................................................................................................

237

10. 2. 5. Bn dn pha tp cht...........................................................................................

239

10. 2. 6. Chuyn tip p-n. Diode..

241

10. 2. 7. Laser bn dn

244

HNG DN HC CHNG 10

248

I.

Mc ch, yu cu. 248

II.

Tm tt ni dung

III.

Cu hi l thuyt.. 249

248

HNG DN GII BI TP V P S. 250


CC BI TH NGHIM VT L 2.

273

Bi 1: Kho st hin tng giao thoa nh sng ........ 273


Bi 2: Kho st hin tng nhiu x nh sng . 282
Bi 3: Kho st hin tng phn cc nh sng .... 293
Bi 4: Kho st hin tng quang in ...

300

Ph lc: Mt s hng s Vt l c bn.. 307


Ti liu tham kho...

308

10

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

CHNG 1

DAO NG V SNG
Dao ng l chuyn ng trong mt khng gian hp v xung quanh mt v tr cn bng.
Trong t nhin, dao ng hay chuyn ng tun hon l nhng chuyn ng rt thng gp. C
rt nhiu hiu ng tun hon nh nhp tim ca ng vt, cc ma trong nm, s lc l ca con
lc ng h, s ung a ca cnh l, s dp dnh ca cc vt ni trn mt nc, s dao ng
ca cc nguyn t trong cht rn, dng in trong dy dn ca bng n in. thang cc v
mt s nh v tr cng tin rng ton th v tr cng dao ng vi chu k hng chc t nm.
Khi nhng dao ng lan truyn trong khng gian ta c cc sng. Nu nhng dao ng xy ra
theo hng vung gc vi hng lan truyn ta c sng ngang, cn khi xy ra theo hng song
song vi hng lan truyn ta c sng dc. Chng ta s thy di y sng in t lan truyn
trong chn khng l mt kiu sng ngang, cn sng m trong khng kh l mt kiu sng dc.
Nhng dao ng in hnh trong vt l l dao ng c, dao ng in t vi s lan truyn
dao ng s cho sng c v sng in t. Sau y chng ta s nghin cu nhng c trng c
bn ca dao ng v sng.
A. DAO NG
1. 1. DAO NG C
1. 1. 1. Dao ng c iu ho
Dao ng iu ho l dao ng m lch khi v tr cn bng ca vt l hm tun
hon (c dng sin hay cosin) theo thi gian.
Di y ta xt mt con lc l xo gm mt
qu cu nh m c th trt khng ma st trn
mt thanh ngang xuyn qua tm, u kia ca l
xo gn c nh (hnh 1-1)
Ko vt lch khi v tr cn bng sau
bung tay vt s dao ng mi quanh v tr cn
bng di tc dng ca lc n hi:
Fh = -kx
Theo nh lut II Newton ta c phng trnh:

Hnh 1-1

ma = F = -kx

11

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Dn n:

/ x
A0

k
x' ' x 0
m

x' '02 x 0

Hay

(1-1)

A0

k
l tn s gc ca dao ng).
m
Nghim ca phng trnh (1-1) c dng:
(trong 0

t
Hnh 1-2

x A0 cos0 t

(1-2)

l phng trnh ca dao ng iu ho ca con lc l xo, ta cng s tm c phng trnh


ging nh vy cho con lc n.
* Cc i lng c trng ca dao ng iu ha
- Bin ca dao ng:

A0 xmax

- Ly ca dao ng:

- Pha ca dao ng:

0t

- Pha ban u ca dao ng:


- Tn s ca dao ng:

1 0

T0 2

- Tn s gc ca dao ng:

- Chu k ca dao ng:

T0

- Vn tc ca dao ng:

v x ' A00 sin 0t

- Gia tc ca dao ng:

a v ' x '' A002 cos 0t

- Cng thc lin h gia vn tc v to :

x2
v2

1
A02 02 A02

- ng nng ca con lc ti thi im t: W


- Th
h nng ca con lc ti thi im t: Wt

mv 2 1
m02 A2 sin 2 0t
2
2

kx 2 1
m02 A2cos 2 0t
2
2

- Nng lng dao ng ca con lc: W W Wt

1
mA202 const
2

1. 1. 2. Dao ng c tt dn
Dao ng iu ho l dao ng l tng, trong thc t th cc dao ng tt dn mi l
ph bin. Nguyn nhn ca dao ng tt dn l do lc cn trong c lc ma st v sc cn ca
12

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

mi trng. Thc t chng t rng vi cc vn tc khng qu ln nh my bay, t, tu thu,


tn la,.v.v..th lc cn mi trng t l vi vn tc:

FC rv
(r l h s cn ca mi trng)
* Phng trnh dao ng c tt dn
Phng trnh dao ng tt dn khc vi dao ng iu ho ch c thm lc cn ca mi
trng. Theo nh lut II Newton tra c

F FC kx rv ma
k
m
ca dao ng ring.
Ta t:

2m

d 2 x r dx k
m 2
x0
dt
m dt m

hay

Fc

v gi l tn s gc

l h s tt dn
Hnh 1-3
x' '2x'02 x 0

Suy ra:

(1-3)

Nghim ca phng trnh (1-3) c dng:


x A0 e t cost

Hay

x A0 e t sint

A0 e t
(1-4).

l phng trnh ca dao ng tt dn ca


con lc l xo, ta cng s tm c phng
trnh ging nh vy cho con lc n, vn
khc gia chng ch l tn s.
Ngoi nhng i lng quen thuc ni
trn cn c thm:

-A

A0 e t
Hnh 1-4

* H s tt dn:

* Bin dao ng tt dn l: A0e t gim dn theo thi gian theo hm e m.


* Tn s gc ca dao ng tt dn: 02 2
* Chu k dao ng tt dn:

02 2

S tt dn ca dao ng cn th hin ch: lim x 0


t

13

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

* c trng cho s tt dn ngi ta a ra khi nim gim lng lga vi nh ngha


nh sau: Gim lng loga l lga t nhin ca t s gia hai bin ca dao ng ti hai thi
im cch nhau mt chu k.

A0 e t
ln
ln
T
A (t T )
A0 e t T
A (t )

(1-5)

1. 1. 3. Dao ng c cng bc
Trn thc t cc dao ng t n s tt dn theo thi gian. duy tr dao ng ta phi b
vo phn nng lng hao ph sau mi chu k bng cch tc dng ln n mt lc tun hon:

(1-6)
F H cost

Khi dao ng c gi l dao ng cng bc, l tn s cng bc, H l bin ca


lc cng bc (trong trng hp ny ta chn pha ban u ca lc cng bc bng 0).
* Phng trnh dao ng c cng bc
Phng trnh dao ng cng bc khc vi dao
ng tt dn ch c thm lc cng bc:
ma = -kx rv + Hcost
m

F Fc

d2 x
dx
kx r
H cos t
2
dt
dt
x' '

Ta t: 0

k
m

r
k
x' x H cost
m
m

Hnh 1-5

l tn s gc ca dao ng ring;
x' '2x'02 x H cos t

Suy ra:

Nghim ca phng trnh (a) c dng:


x A0 cost

2m

l h s tt dn.
(1-7)

(1-8)

l phng trnh ca dao ng cng bc ca con lc l xo, ta cng s tm c phng trnh


ging nh vy cho con lc n vn khc gia chng ch l tn s. Trong :
* Tn s cng bc:
* Bin :

* Pha ban u :

2
0

tg

4 2 2

2
02 2

(1-9)

(1-10)

* Ngoi ra ta c nhn xt khi tn s dao ng ring bng tn s ngoi lc kch thch th

14

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

bin dao ng cc i : 02 2 0 0
ACH

H
H

2 20

(1-11)

Hin tng ny gi l hin tng cng hng.


1. 2. DAO NG IN T
Dao ng in t l s bin thin tun hon theo thi gian ca cc i lng in v t, c
th nh in tch q trn cc bn t in, cng dng in i trong mt mch in xoay chiu,
hiu in th gia hai u mt cun dy hay s bin thin tun hon ca in trng, t trng
trong khng gian ... Tu theo cu to ca mch in, dao ng in t trong mch chia ra: dao
ng in t iu ho, dao ng in t tt dn v dao ng in t cng bc.
1. 2. 1. Dao ng in t iu ho
a. Mch dao ng in t LC
Xt mt mch in gm mt t in c in
dung C, mt cun dy c h s t cm L. B qua
in tr trong mch. Trc ht, t in C c b
ngun tch in n in tch Q0, hiu in th U0.
Sau , ta b b ngun i v ng kho ca mch
dao ng. Trong mch c bin thin tun hon
theo thi gian ca cng dng in i, in tch
q trn bn t in, hiu in th gia hai bn t,
nng lng in trng ca t in, nng lng t
trng ca ng dy .

Hnh 1-6. Mch dao ng in t ring

Cc dao ng in t ny c dng hnh sin vi tn s 0 v bin dao ng khng


i. Do , cc dao ng ny c gi l cc dao ng in t iu ho. Mt khc trong mch
ch c mt cc yu t ring ca mch nh t in C v cun cm L, nn cc dao ng in t
ny c gi l cc dao ng in t ring.
Ta xt chi tit hn qu trnh dao ng ca mch trong mt chu k T. Ti thi im t = 0,
in tch ca t l Q 0 , hiu in th gia hai bn l U 0 Q 0 / C , nng lng in trng ca
t in c gi tr cc i bng:

We max

Q02
2C

(1-12)

Cho t phng in qua cun cm L. Dng in do t phng ra tng t ngt t khng,


dng in bin i ny lm cho t thng gi qua cun cm L tng dn. Trong cun cm L c
mt dng in t cm ngc chiu vi dng in do t C phng ra, nn dng in tng hp
15

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

trong mch tng dn, in tch trn hai bn t gim dn. Lc ny nng lng in trng ca t
in We= q 2 / 2C gim dn, cn nng lng t trng trong lng ng dy Wm = Li 2 / 2 tng
dn. Nh vy, c s chuyn ho dn t nng lng in trng sang nng lng t trng.
Khi t C phng ht in tch, nng lng in trng We = 0, dng in trong mch t
gi tr cc i I0, nng lng t trng trong ng dy t gi tr cc i Wm max LI 02 / 2 , l
thi im t = T/4. Sau dng in do t phng ra bt u gim v trong cun dy li xut hin
mt dng in t cm cng chiu vi dng in do t phng ra. V vy dng in trong mch
gim dn t gi tr I0 v khng, qu trnh ny xy ra trong khong t t = T/4 n t = T/2. Trong
qu trnh bin i ny cun L ng vai tr ca ngun np in cho t C nhng theo chiu ngc
li, in tch ca t li tng dn t gi tr khng n gi tr cc i Q0. V mt nng lng th
nng lng in trng tng dn, cn nng lng t trng gim dn. Nh vy c s chuyn
ho t nng lng t trng thnh nng lng in trng, giai on ny kt thc ti thi im
t = T/2, lc ny cun cm gii phng ht nng lng v in tch trn hai bn t li t gi tr
cc i Q0 nhng i du hai bn, nng lng in trng li t gi tr cc i

We max Q02 / 2C . n y, kt thc qu trnh dao ng trong mt na chu k u (Hnh 1-7).

Hnh 1-7. Qu trnh to thnh dao ng in t ring


T C phng in vo cun cm theo chiu ngc vi na chu k u, cun cm li c tch
nng lng ri li gii phng nng lng, t C li c tch in v n cui chu k (t = T) t C
c tch in vi du in tch trn cc bn nh ti thi im ban u, mch dao ng in t
tr li trng thi dao ng ban u. Mt dao ng in t ton phn c hon thnh.
Di y ta thit lp phng trnh m t dao ng in t trn.
b. Phng trnh dao ng in t iu ho
V khng c s mt mt nng lng trong mch, nn nng lng in t ca mch
khng i:
We Wm W const

Thay We

16

q2
Li 2
v Wm
vo (1-10), ta c:
2C
2

(1-13)

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

q 2 Li 2

const
2C
2

(1-14)

Ly o hm c hai v ca (1-14) theo thi gian ri thay dq / dt i , ta thu c:


q Ldi

0
C dt

(1-15)

Ly o hm c hai v ca (1-15) theo thi gian ri thay dq/dt =i, ta c:


d 2i
dt 2

1
02 , ta c:
LC

d 2i
dt

1
i0
LC

(1-16)

02 i 0

(1-17)

l phng trnh vi phn cp hai thun nht c h s khng i. Nghim tng qut ca (1-17)
c dng:
(1-18)
i I 0 cos0 t
trong I0 l bin ca cng dng in, l pha ban u ca dao ng, 0 l tn s gc
ring ca dao ng:

1
LC

(1-19)

T tm c chu k dao ng
ring T0 ca dao ng in t iu ho:
2
T0
2 LC
0

q Q0 sin 0 t

(1-20)

Cui cng ta nhn xt rng in tch


ca t in, hiu in th gia hai bn t.
cng bin thin vi thi gian theo nhng
phng trnh c dng tng t nh (1-18).

i I 0 cos 0 t

Hnh 1-8. ng biu din dao ng iu ho

1. 2. 2. Mch dao ng in t tt dn
a. Mch dao ng in t RLC

Hnh 1-9. Mch dao ng in t tt dn

Trong mch dao ng by gi c thm mt in


tr R tng trng cho in tr ca ton mch
(hnh 1-9). Ta cng tin hnh np in cho t C,
sau cho t in phng in qua in tr R v
ng dy L. Tng t nh trnh by phn
1.2.1.(dao ng in t iu ho), y cng
xut hin cc qu trnh chuyn ho gia nng
lng in trng ca t in v nng lng t
trng ca ng dy.
17

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Nhng do c s to nhit trn in tr R, nn cc dao ng ca cc i lng nh i, q,


u,. khng cn dng hnh sin hay cosin na, cc bin ca chng khng cn l cc i
lng khng i nh trong trng hp dao ng in t iu ho, m gim dn theo thi gian.
Do , loi dao ng ny c gi l dao ng in t tt dn. Mch dao ng RLC trn c
gi l mch dao ng in t tt dn.
b. Phng trnh dao ng in t tt dn
Do trong mch c in tr R, nn trong thi gian dt phn nng lng to nhit trn in
tr Ri dt bng gim nng lng in t -dW ca mch. Theo nh lut bo ton v chuyn
ho nng lng, ta c:
2

dW Ri 2 dt

Thay

(1-21)

q 2 Li 2
vo (1-21), ta c:

2C
2
q 2 Li 2
Ri 2 dt
d

2C
2

(1-22)

Chia c hai v ca phng trnh (1-22) cho dt, sau ly o hm theo thi gian v thay
dq/dt=i, ta thu c:
q
di
L Ri
C
dt

(1-23)

Ly o hm c hai v ca (1-23) theo thi gian v thay dq/dt = i, ta thu c:

d 2i
dt
t

R di
1

i0
L dt LC

(1-24)

R
1
2 ,
02 , ta thu c phng trnh:
L
LC

d 2i
dt

di
02i 0
dt

(1-25)

l phng trnh vi phn cp hai thun nht c h s khng i. Vi iu kin h s

1 R

tt nh sao cho 0 > hay
LC 2L

th nghim tng qut ca phng trnh(1-25) c

i I 0 e t cost

dng:

(1-26)

trong I0, l hng s tch phn ph thuc vo iu kin ban u, cn l tn s gc ca dao


ng in t tt dn v c gi tr:

18

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

1 R

LC 2L

(1-27)

Chu k ca dao ng in t tt dn:

1 R

LC 2 L

(1-28)

2
2
0

Nh vy, chu k dao ng tt dn ln hn chu k dao ng ring trong mch.


i lng I 0 e t l bin ca dao ng tt dn. N gim dn vi thi gian theo qui
lut hm m. Tnh cht tt dn ca dao ng in t c c trng bng mt i lng gi l
lng gim lga, k hiu bng ch nh c trnh by trong mc 1.1.2. Theo nh ngha ta c:

ln

I 0 e t

I 0 e t T

trong R / 2L , r rng l nu R cng ln th


cng ln v dao ng tt cng nhanh. iu ph hp
vi thc t.

(1-29)
I0e-t
Hnh 1-10. ng biu din
dao ng in t tt dn

Ch : trong mch dao ng RLC ghp ni tip, ta


ch c hin tng dao ng in t khi:
2

1
L
R
hay R 2
LC 2 L
C
Tr s R 0 2

t
-I0e-t

L
c gi l in tr ti hn ca mch. Nu R R0 trong mch khng c dao
C

ng.
1. 2. 3. Dao ng in t cng bc
a. Hin tng:
duy tr dao ng in t trong mch dao ng
RLC, ngi ta phi cung cp nng lng cho mch
in b li phn nng lng b tn hao trn in
tr R. Mun vy, cn mc thm vo mch mt ngun
in xoay chiu c sut in ng bin thin tun hon
theo thi gian vi tn s gc v bin E 0:

Hnh 1-11: Mch dao ng


in t cng bc

E = E 0sint
Lc u dao ng trong mch l chng cht ca hai dao ng: dao ng tt dn vi tn
s gc v dao ng cng bc vi tn s gc . Giai on qu ny xy ra rt ngn, sau
19

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

dao ng tt dn khng cn na v trong mch ch cn dao ng in t khng tt c tn s gc


bng tn s gc ca ngun in. l dao ng in t cng bc.
b. Phng trnh dao ng in t cng bc
Trong thi gian dt, ngun in cung cp cho mch mt nng lng bng Eidt. Phn nng
lng ny dng b p vo phn nng lng to nhit Joule - Lenx v tng nng lng in
t trong mch. Theo nh lut bo ton v chuyn ho nng lng, ta c :
dW Ri 2 dt Eidt

(1-30)

q 2 Li 2
Ri 2 dt Eidt
d

2
C
2

(1-31)

Thc hin php ly vi phn v thay E= E0sint ta c:

di
q
Ri E0 sin t
dt
C

(1-32)

Ly o hm hai v theo thi gian ca (1-32), thay dq/dt = i, ta c:


L

d 2i
dt 2

di i
E0 cos t
dt C

(1-33)

R
1
2 ,
02 , ta thu c phng trnh:
L
LC

d 2i
dt 2

E
di
02i 0 cos t
dt
L

(1-34)

Phng trnh vi phn (1-34) c nghim l tng ca hai nghim:


- Nghim tng qut ca phng trnh thun nht. chnh l nghim ca phng trnh dao
ng in t tt dn.
- Nghim ring ca phng trnh khng thun nht. Nghim ny biu din mt dao ng in
t khng tt do tc dng ca ngun in. Nghim ny c dng:
i I 0 cost

(1-35)

trong l tn s gc ca ngun in kch thch, I0 l bin , l pha ban u ca dao


ng, c xc nh bng:
1
L
E0
C
I0
, cot g
2
R
1

R 2 L

20

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

t Z R L
: gi l tng tr
C

ca mch dao ng.


2

1
ln lt l cm khng
C
v dung khng ca mch dao ng.

Z L L v Z C

Hnh 1-12. ng biu din


dao ng in t cng bc
c. Hin tng cng hng
Cng thc trn chng t bin I0 ca dng in cng bc ph thuc vo gi tr tn s
gc ca ngun xoay chiu kch thch. c bit, vi mt in tr R nht nh, bin I0 t gi
tr cc i khi tn s gc c gi tr sao cho tng tr Z ca mch dao ng cc tiu, gi tr
ca phi tho mn iu kin:

1
0 hay
C

(1-36)

LC

ta thy gi tr ny ca ng bng tn s gc ca mch dao ng ring:


ch 0

(1-37)

Hin tng bin dng in ca mch dao ng in t cng bc t gi tr cc i


c gi l hin tng cng hng in. Vy hin tng cng hng in xy ra khi tn s gc
ca ngun xoay chiu kch thch c gi tr bng tn s gc ring ca mch dao ng.
Gi tr ch ca ngun xoay chiu kch thch c gi l tn s cng hng. ng biu
din (1-13) cho ta thy r s bin thin ca bin dng in I0 ca mch dao ng cng bc
theo tn s gc ca ngun xoay chiu kch thch.
Trong thc t, mun xy ra cng hng in, ta
dng hai phng php sau:

I0
I0max

- Hoc thay i tn s gc ca ngun kch thch sao


cho n bng tn s gc ring 0 ca mch dao ng.
- Hoc thay i h s t cm L v in dung C ca
mch dao ng sao cho tn s gc ring 0 ng bng
tn s gc ca ngun kch thch.

ch=0

Hnh1-13. ng biu din


cng hng in

Hin tng cng hng in c ng dng rt rng ri trong k thut v tuyn in, th
d trong vic thu sng in t (mch chn sng).

21

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

1. 3. S TNG HP DAO NG
1. 3. 1. Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho cng phng, cng tn s
Gi s c mt cht im tham gia ng thi hai dao ng iu ho cng phng v cng
tn s:
x1 A1 cos(0 t 1 )

(1-38)

x 2 A 2 cos(0 t 2 )

(1-39)

Hai dao ng ny cng phng Ox v cng tn s gc 0, nhng khc bin v pha


ban u. Dao ng tng hp ca cht im bng tng ca hai dao ng thnh phn

x x1 x 2 A cost

(1-40)

C th tm dng ca x bng phng php cng lng gic. Nhng thun tin, ta dng
phng php gin Fresnel.

V hai vc t OM1, OM2 cng t ti im O, c ln bng bin A1, A2 ca hai dao


ng . thi im t = 0, chng hp vi trc Ox cc gc 1 v 2 l pha ban u. Khi tng

hp ca OM1, OM2 l mt vc t

(1-41)
OM OM1 OM 2

vc t OM trng vi ng cho ca hnh bnh hnh OM1MM2, c ln bng A v hp vi


trc Ox mt gc v c xc nh bi h thc:

A A12 A22 2A1A2 cos2 1 , tg

A1 sin 1 A 2 sin 2
A1 cos 1 A 2 cos 2

(1.42)

Hnh 1-14. Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho cng phng, cng tn s.

Hai vc t OM1 v OM 2 quay xung quanh im O theo chiu dng vi cng vn tc


gc khng i bng tn s gc 0 . thi im t, hai vc t ny s hp vi trc Ox cc gc
(0t + 1) v (0t + 2) ng bng pha dao ng x1 v x2. Hnh chiu trn phng Ox ca hai

vc t OM1 v OM 2 c gi tr bng:
22

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

hc ox OM1 A1 cos0 t 1 x1

hc ox OM 2 A 2 cos0 t 2 x 2

(1-43)
(1-44)

V hai vc t OM1 v OM 2 quay theo chiu dng vi cng vn tc gc 0 , nn hnh


bnh hnh OM1MM2 gi nguyn dng khi n quay quanh im O. Do , thi im t, vc t

tng hp OM vn c ln bng A v hp vi trc Ox mt gc (0t + ). Hnh chiu trn

phng Ox ca vc t tng hp OM c tr s bng:

(1-45)
hc ox OM A cos0 t x

Mt khc, ta c:
(1-46)
hc ox OM hc ox OM1 hc ox OM 2

Nh vy, tng hp hai dao ng iu ho x1 v x2 cng phng, cng tn s gc cng l


mt dao ng iu ho x c cng phng v cng tn s gc 0 vi cc dao ng thnh phn,
cn bin A v pha ban u ca n c xc nh bi (1-42). H thc (1-42) cho thy bin
A ca dao ng tng hp x ph thuc vo hiu pha (1 2 ) ca hai dao ng thnh phn
x1 v x2:
- Nu (2 1) 2k , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th cos2 1 1 v bin A t
cc i:
A A1 A 2 A max

(1-47)

Trong trng hp ny, hai dao ng x1 v x2 cng phng, cng chiu v c gi l hai dao
ng cng pha.
- Nu (2 1) (2k 1) , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th cos2 1 1 v bin A
t cc tiu:

A A1 A 2 A min

(1-48)

Trong trng hp ny, hai dao ng x1v x2 cng phng ngc chiu v gi l hai dao ng
ngc pha.
1. 3. 2 Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc, cng tn s
Gi s mt cht im tham gia ng thi hai dao ng iu ho x v y c phng vung
gc v cng tn s gc 0 :
x A1 cos0 t 1

x
cos 0 t cos 1 sin 0 t sin 1
A1

y A 2 cos0 t 2

y
cos 0 t cos 2 sin 0 t sin 2
A2

(1-49)

(1-50)

23

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Hnh 1-15. Hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc


Ln lt nhn (1-49) v (1-50) vi cos 2 v cos 1 , ri cng v vi v:
x
y
cos 2
cos 1 sin 0 t sin 2 1
A1
A2

(1-51)

Tng t, ln lt nhn (1-49) v (1-50) vi sin 2 v sin 1 , ri cng v vi v:


x
y
sin 2
sin 1 cos 0 t sin 2 1
A1
A2

(1-52)

Bnh phng hai v (1-51), (1-52) ri cng v vi v


x2
A12

y2
A 22

2xy
cos 2 1 sin 2 2 1
A1A 2

(1-53)

Phng trnh (1-53) chng t qu o chuyn ng tng hp ca hai dao ng iu ho


c phng vung gc v c cng tn s gc l mt ng elip. Dng ca elip ny ph thuc vo
gi tr ca hiu pha 2 1 ca hai dao ng thnh phn x v y.
- Nu (2 1 ) 2k , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th (1-53) tr thnh:

x2
A12

y2
A 22

2xy
y
x
0 hay

0
A1A 2
A1 A 2

Hnh1-16. Qu o ca cht im khi


2 1=2k

24

(1-54)

Hnh 1-17. Qu o ca cht im


khi 2 1 =(2k+1)

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Phng trnh (1-54) chng t cht im dao ng theo ng thng nm trong cung
phn t I v III, i qua v tr cn bng bn ca cht im ti gc O v trng vi ng cho ca
hnh ch nht c hai cnh bng 2A1 v 2A 2 .
- Nu (2 1 ) (2k 1) , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th (1-53) tr thnh:

x2
A12

y2
A 22

2xy
y
x
0 hay

0
A1 A 2
A1 A 2

(1-55)

Phng trnh (1-55) chng t cht im dao ng theo ng thng nm trong cung
phn t II v IV, i qua v tr cn bng bn ca cht im ti gc O v trng vi ng cho ca
hnh ch nht c hai cnh bng 2A1 v 2A 2 .

- Nu ( 2 1 ) (2k 1) , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th (1-53) tr thnh:


2

x2
A12

y2
A 22

(1-56)

Phng trnh (1-56) chng t cht im dao ng trn mt qu o lip dng chnh tc
c hai bn trc l A1 v A 2 . c bit nu A1 A 2 A th (1-56) tr thnh:

x 2 y2 A2

(1-57)

Trong trng hp ny, qu o ca cht im l ng trn c tm ti gc to O v bn


knh bng A.

Hnh 1-18. Qu o ca cht im khi

Hnh 1-19. Qu o ca cht im khi

2-1=(2k+1)/2

2-1=(2k+1)/2 v A1=A2

- Nu ( 2 1 ) c cc gi tr khc vi cc gi tr nu trn th cht im s chuyn ng


trn nhng qu o lip xin.
Nh vy: Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc vi nhau v cng tn s
gc l mt dao ng c dng elip.

25

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

2 1 = 0

0 < 2 - 1 < /2

2 1=/2

/2 < 2 1 <

2 1 =

< 2 - 1 <3/2

2 1 = 3/2

3/2 < 2 1 <2

2 1 =2

Hnh 1-20. Cc dng qu o ca cht im khi 2 1= 0 2 v A1 = A2


B. SNG

Hnh 1-21. Sng trn mt nc


Khi chng ta c sch, thng tin n vi chng ta di dng sng nh sng phn x t
trang giy. Khi chng ta nghe, thng tin n tai di dng sng m. Cc sng rt quan trng v
trong mt lng ln cc tip xc vi mi trng xung quanh n vi chng ta di dng sng.
Hn na, khi vt cht kch c ca cc ngun t v nh hn u th hin mt tnh cht sng ni
ti. V th hiu bn cht ca cc phn t, nguyn t v ht nhn th trc tin chng ta phi
nghin cu v sng. Trong vt l, sng c th mang theo nng lng, lan truyn trong nhiu
26

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

mi trng khc nhau, c th b i hng (bi khc x, phn x, tn x, nhiu x...) v thay i
nng lng (bi hp th, bc x, ...) hay thm ch thay i cu trc (nh thay i tn s, bi mi
trng phi tuyn tnh, ...). Trong phn ny chng ta cp n hai loi sng l sng c v
sng in t.
1. 1. SNG C SNG M V HIU NG DOPPLER
1. 1. 1. Mt s khi nim c bn v sng
nh ngha: Sng l qu trnh lan truyn dao ng trong mi trng. Da vo cch
truyn sng, ngi ta chia sng thnh hai loi: sng ngang v sng dc.
- Sng ngang l sng m phng dao ng ca cc phn t vung gc vi phng
truyn sng, v d nh sng nc, sng dy, sng in t.
- Sng dc l sng m phng dao ng ca cc phn t trng vi phng truyn sng,
v d nh sng ca dao ng l xo.

Hnh1-22. M t sng ngang v sng dc


Khng gian c sng truyn qua c gi l trng sng. Mt sng l qi tch nhng
im dao ng cng pha trong trng sng. Gii hn gia phn mi trng m sng truyn
qua v cha truyn ti gi l mt u sng. Nu sng c mt u sng l mt cu th c gi l
sng cu v nu mt u sng l mt phng th c gi l sng phng. i vi mi trng
ng cht v ng hng, ngun sng nm tm ca mt sng cu, tia sng (phng truyn
sng) vung gc vi mt u sng (hnh 1-23). Nu ngun sng rt xa phn mi trng m ta
kho st th mt sng l nhng mt phng song song, cc tia sng l nhng ng thng song
song vi nhau v vung gc vi cc mt sng (hnh 1-24).

Hnh 1-23. Sng cu

Hnh 1-24. Sng phng

27

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

1. 1. 2. Sng c
a. nh ngha: Qa trnh truyn dao ng trong mi trng n hi gi l sng c. Phn t
u tin pht ra dao ng gi l ngun sng.
b. Cc i lng c trng ca sng c
Trc ht phi ni rng sng l dao ng c truyn i nn n c cc c trng nh
dao ng iu ho: bin , tn s, pha,Ngoi ra n cn c thm cc c trng ring ca sng
nh vn tc truyn sng, bc sng, mt u sng,...
Vn tc truyn sng l qung ng sng (pha ca sng) truyn c trong mt n v
thi gian: v (khng nn nhm ln vn tc truyn sng vi vn tc dao ng ca cc phn t mi
trng)
Mt u sng ca sng phng v sng cu: Mt u sng l qu tch ca tt c nhng
im m sng truyn ti cng mt lc. Ta d dng nhn ra sng phng th mt u sng l mt
phng cn sng cu th mt u sng l mt cu. Bc sng l qung ng m sng i c
trong mt chu k dao ng.

Hnh 1-25. Bc sng

Hnh 1-26. Chu k

c. Phng trnh sng c


* Phng trnh sng phng
Trc ht ta vit phng trnh cho sng phng v sau s suy ra cho sng cu. Sng
c pht ra t O v truyn theo trc Ox vi vn tc khng i (hnh 1-27). Phng trnh sng
u U 0 cos0 t
ti tm O l:
Phng trnh sng ti M cch O mt on y
no phi mun pha v thi gian so vi tm sng O
y
mt lng l
v
Ngha l:

Hnh 1-27

y
u U 0 cos 0 t
v

Do mi lin h gia: tn sf, tn s gc , chu k T v vn tc truyn sng v :

Nn ta c:

28

vT

y
t y

uM .t U 0 cos 2 U 0 cos 2 t

(1-57)

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

* Phng trnh sng cu


Ngi ta chng minh c rng phng trnh sng cu cng c dng tng t nh sng
phng nhng chng khc nhau biu thc bin . Ngha l:
y
u A cos 0 t
v

(1-58)

Trong bin ca sng cu t l nghch vi khong cch n im ang xt tnh t tm


U
sng, U t l vi 1/y cho nn: A k 0
(U0 l bin sng phng). Do phng trnh
y
sng cu:

uk

U0
y
cos 0 t
y
v

(1-59)

Trng hp sng truyn theo phng ngc li

uk

U0
y

cos 0 t
y
v

(1-60)

d. Nng lng sng c


Sng c l sng vt cht nn c nng lng. Ngi ta chng minh c rng trong mi
y
trng ng tnh v ng hng mt sng phng c phong trnh: u U 0 cos 0 t , th
v
nng lng sng trong th tchV ca mi trng l:

y
W U02 V 02 sin 2 0 t
v
y
0 sin 2 0 t 1
v
1
W V 02 U 02
2

Do
Nn nng lng trung bnh:

Mt nng lng sng:

W 1
02 U 02
V 2

(1-61)

Nng thng ca sng c qua mt din tchS no t trong mi trng truyn sng
l i lng c gi tr bng nng lng sng c gi qua din tch y trong mt n v thi gian.

v
W
v

Ngha l:
S
t
M:

Nn:

v
Hnh 1-28

W V vtS

1
2

Wv 02 U02 vS

(1-62)

29

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

e. Nguyn l chng cht v s giao thao sng c


*Nguyn l chng cht sng:
Khi hai hay nhiu sng c bin nh, ng thi truyn qua min no ca mi trng n
hi th dao ng ca mi im trong min l tng hp cc dao ng gy bi tng sng ring
r. Cc sng khng lm nhiu lon nhau. Sau khi gp nhau, cc sng vn truyn i nh
khi chng truyn i ring r.
* S giao thoa sng c
Khi c hai sng kt hp (l 2 ngun c hiu pha khng i theo thi gian) gp nhau th
trong min gp nhau c nhng ch bin dao ng cc i, nhng ch bin dao ng cc
tiu.

Hnh1-29. Giao thoa sng nc

Hnh 1-30. Giao thoa to bi hai sng kt hp

Xt im M trong trng giao thoa. Gi r1v r2 l khong cch t hai ngun n M


(hnh 1-30)
Phng trnh dao ng ti ngun S1:

x(S1 ) A1 cos t

Phng trnh dao ng ti ngun S2:

x(S2 ) A2 cos t

Phng trnh dao ng do S1gi ti M::

x1 A1 cos( t

Phng trnh dao ng do S2 gi ti M::

x2 A2 cos( t

2r1

2r2

V hai dao ng ny cng phng nn dao ng tng hp ti M l dao ng iu ha c:


- Bin dao ng tng hp cc i khi:

(r1 r2 ) 2k r1 r2 k ; k 0,1, 2, ..

- Bin dao ng tng hp cc tiu khi:


30

(r1 r2 ) (2k 1) r1 r2 2k 1 ; k 0,1, 2, ....

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

f . Nguyn l Huyghen v hin tng nhiu x sng c


* Nguyn l Huyghen: " Mi im trong khng gian nhn c sng t ngun sng thc S
truyn n u tr thnh ngun th cp pht sng v pha trc n".
* Nhiu x sng c:
Hin tng cc tia sng i phng truyn khi i qua cc chng ngi vt gi l hin
tng nhiu x
Gii thch:
Xt sng phng truyn trong mi trng
ng cht ng hng. Trn ng truyn gp l
nh AB, cc im trn l nh tr thnh cc ngun
sng th cp pht ra sng cu, bao hnh cc mt
cu ny chnh l mt sng pht ra t AB, ch c
phn gia mt sng l mt phng, hai bn
cnh mt sng b un cong.

Hnh 1-31: Hin tng nhiu x sng

1. 1. 3. Sng m v hiu ng Doppler


a. Sng m: gi tt l m, l sng dc lan truyn trong mi trng, (c bin nh m thnh
gic ca ta c th nhn bit c). V d sng pht ra t mt dy n, t mt mt trng ang
rung ng.
Sng m l mt loi ca sng c v th mi khi nim v hin tng v sng c nh
c trnh by phn trn u c p dng cho sng m. Mi m c mt tn s ring. n v
ca tn s l hc (Hz)
Hc l tn s ca mt qu trnh dao ng m m c mi giy thc hin c mt dao
ng.
Nhng dao ng m c tn s trong khong t 20 Hz n 20 000 Hz. Nhng dao ng
c tn s nh hn 20 Hz gi l sng h m, nhng dao ng c tn s ln hn 20 000 Hz gi l
sng siu m.
Nh vy sng m nghe c c bc sng t 2cm n 20m.
m truyn i theo nhng tia m v cng c th b phn x, khc x, nhiu x v hp
th. Khi tia m truyn qua hai mi trng c vn tc truyn m khc nhau th mt phn
cch hai mi trng, mt phn tia m b phn x, mt phn b khc x. Gc phn x bng gc
ti. Cn gc khc x nh hn hay ln hn gc ti l ty theo vn tc truyn m trong hai mi
trng. Khi tia m truyn t mi trng c vn tc m ln hn sang mi trng c vn tc m
nh hn th gc khc x nh hn gc ti v ngc li (hnh 1- 32).

31

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

v ln

v nh

v nh

v ln
r

Hnh: 1-32: Tia m phn x v khc x


Ring trong cht kh vn tc m v c tnh bng cng thc:

v
Vi R l hng s kh l tng,

RT

(1-63)

CP
, T l nhit tuyt i ca cht kh, l khi lng
CV

ca mt kilmol kh. Cng thc (1-63) chng t kh cng nh, vn tc truyn m trong cht kh
cng ln. Khi truyn trong mi trng do b hp th nn nng lng m b hp th dn, v
th khi cng xa ngun, m cng b dn i ri tt hn.
Vi sng siu m, rt t b khc x khi qua mt phn cch gia hai mi trng, do c
th nh hng truyn sng siu m mt cch d dng. Ngoi ra chm tia siu m cn c c
tnh l kch thc nh v t b phn k. Trong cht lng siu m b hp th rt t. (H s hp th
ca sng siu m trong nc nh hn mt phn nghn ln so vi mi trng khng kh). Do
nhng c tnh ny, siu m c s dng rt rng ri trong k thut nh o chiu su ca
y sng, y bin; d tm di nc; tm cc l hng trong dng c bng kim loi; mi bng
siu m; hn nhm bng siu m;.
b. Hiu ng Doppler
L mt hiu ng c t tn theo Christian Andreas Doppler, trong tn s v bc
sng ca cc sng m, sng in t hay cc sng ni chung b thay i khi ngun pht sng
chuyn ng tng i vi ngi quan st. Sau y chng ta s xem xt s thay i ny.
Gi s ngun m A pht ra m c tn s truyn ti my thu B vi vn tc u ; my thu
B chuyn ng i vi ngun A vn tc u, vn tc truyn m l v (v ch ph thuc mi trng
truyn m v khng ph thuc s chuyn ng ca ngun m). Quy c nu ngun m i n
gn my thu th u >0, i xa my thu th u<0; nu my thu i n gn ngun m th u>0, i xa
ngun m th u<0. Ngoi ra ta nhn xt rng tn s ca m do ngun pht ra, v tr s bng
s sng m truyn i trong mt n v thi gian.
Thc vy, ta c:

32

1
v
v

T vT

(1-64)

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

v
biu din s sng m truyn i trong mt n v thi gian. V vy mun tm tn s ca

m do my thu nhn c, ta ch cn tnh s sng m m my thu nhn c trong mt n


v thi gian. Ln lt xt cc trng hp sau y:
T s

* Trng hp tng qut, ngun m v my thu u chuyn ng (u 0, u 0).


Gi s ngun m v my thu i ti gp nhau (u > 0, u > 0) (hnh 1-33). V my thu i
ti gn ngun m nn c th coi nh vn tc truyn m v c tng thm mt lng u v bng:
v= v+u.

u>0
v
*
A

u>0

b
*
u> 0 B

v
a

*A

*B

uT

Hnh. 1-33. Trng hp ngun m v


my thu i ti gp nhau

Hnh 1-34. S truyn sng m t ngun


n my thu

Nh c bit, vn tc m v ch ph thuc mi trng truyn m m khng ph thuc


s chuyn ng ca ngun m, nn khi ngun m chuyn ng th v khng thay i, m ch c
bc sng ca m pht ra b thay i. Thc vy , ta bit rng sng m c tnh cht tun hon
trong khng gian vi chu k bng bc sng . Ngha l hai sng lin tip pht ra cch nhau
mt khong thi gian bng chu k T th s cch nhau mt on = vT. Nu ngun m A ng
yn (hnh 1-34) th sau mt khong thi gian bng chu k T sng a do ngun pht ra c
truyn i mt on = vT. Vy sng b (ng cong t nt), do ngun A va pht ra, phi cch
sng a mt on bng bc sng . Nhng thc ra trong khong thi gian T ny, ngun A
di chuyn c mt on bng uT, v trong trng hp ngun A i ti gp my thu B (u>0),
th sng b (by gi l ng cong lin nt b) va pht ra phi cch sng a mt on:
= - uT
Do c th coi bc sng ca m do ngun A pht ra b gim bt mt lng uT v tr
thnh .
Cui cng ta tnh c tn s ca m m my thu nhn c trong trng hp ngun
m v my thu i ti gp nhau:

'
Ta c

v' v u'

' uT

vT v

T
33

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

'

Vy

vu'

vu

(1-65)

Cng thc (1-65) chng t rng trong trng hp ngun m v my thu i ti gp nhau
th tn s ca m m my thu nhn c s ln hn tn s ca m do ngun pht ra, ( > ).
Ni cch khc l m do my thu nhn c s cao hn m do ngun pht ra.
Nu ngun m v my thu i xa nhau u <0, u<0 th theo cng thc (1-65) ta s c
< . Ngha l m do my thu nhn c s thp hn m do ngun pht ra.
* Trng hp ngun ng yn, my thu chuyn ng: trng hp ny ta c u=0, u 0 nn t
cng thc (1-65) suy ra:

'

vu'

' (1

Hay

u'
)
v

(1-66)

Nu my thu i ti gp ngun m (u >0) th theo (1-66) ta c > , ngha l m


nhn c s cao hn m pht ra.
Cn nu my thu i ra xa ngun m (u<0) th suy ra < , ngha l m nhn c s
thp hn m pht ra.
* Trng hp ngun chuyn ng, my thu ng yn: trng hp ny ta c u 0, u=0 nn t
cng thc (1-65) suy ra:

'

v-u

(1-67)

Nu ngun m i ti gp my thu (u >0) th theo (1-67) ta c > , ngha l m nhn


c s cao hn m pht ra.
Cn nu ngun m i ra xa my thu (u<0) th suy ra < , ngha l m nhn c s
thp hn m pht ra.
Hiu ng Doppler c rt nhiu ng dng trong khoa hc k thut nh trong k thut v
tuyt in, trong quang hc.
1. 2. SNG IN T
Sng in t l trng in t bin thin truyn i trong khng gian (l qu trnh truyn
dao ng in t trong khng gian.)
1. 2. 1.Th nghim Hertz to ra sng in t
Nm 1887, gn 10 nm sau khi J.C.Maxwell qua i, ln u tin bng thc nghim, nh
vt l ngi c H. R.Hertz thu c cc sng in t.

34

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Dng mt ngun xoay chiu cao tn ni qua hai ng dy t cm L, L n hai thanh kim
loi D, D trn u hai thanh kim loi ny c gn hai qu cu kim loi A, B kh gn nhau.
Ngi ta iu chnh hiu in th v khong cch AB th no c hin tng phng in gia
AB (Hnh 1-35).
Nh vy, gia AB xut hin mt in trng bin thin theo thi gian (xoay chiu).
Nu dng cc dng c pht hin, ta s thy ti mi im M trong khng gian c cp vector

cng in trng E v cng t trng H , chng cng bin thin theo thi gian. Th
nghim Hertz chng t: in t trng bin thin c truyn i trong khng gian. Qu trnh
c gii thch nh hai lun im Maxwell.
Th d ti mt im O, ta to ra mt in

trng bin thin: vector cng in trng E


bin thin theo thi gian. Theo lun im th hai ca
Maxwell, in trng O bin thin theo thi gian s
to ra t trng, ngha l ti cc im M, M,

M..xut hin cc vector cng t trng H ,


H ' , H ' ' . V E bin thin tun hon theo thi gian

nn H , H ' , H ' ' cng bin thin tun hon theo


thi gian. Theo lun im th nht ca Maxwell, t
trng bin thin gy ra in trng xoy, ti cc
im M, MXut hin cc vector cng in

trng E ' , E ' ' ,.

E
M

Hnh 1-35. Th nghim Hertz


Nh vy ta thy cp vector E , H c truyn n mi im trong khng gian, qu
trnh truyn to thnh sng in t.

1. 2. 2. Nhng tnh cht ca sng in t


a. H phng trnh Maxwell ca sng in t
Ta bit nhng phng trnh Maxwell ca trng in t (dng vi phn) trong trng
hp tng qut c th vit nh sau:

D
B
rotE
rotH j
(1-68)
t
t

divB 0
divD
V nu l mi trng ng cht, ng hng th:

D 0E
B 0 H

j E

(1-69)

Theo trn, sng in t l trng in t bin thin v y ta ch xt sng in t t


do, ngha l sng in t trong mt mi trng khng dn (khng c dng in) v khng c

j 0 , =0.
in tch. Do :
35

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Kt qu, ta vit c cc phng trnh Maxwell ca sng in t nh sau:

D
B
rotE
rotH
t
t

divD 0
divB 0

V
D 0E
B 0 H

(1-70)

(1-71)

b. Nhng tnh cht tng qut ca sng in t


T thc nghim v dng cc phng tnh Maxwell chng minh, ngi ta i n
cc kt lun sau y v tnh cht ca sng in t:
- Sng in t tn ti trong chn khng v trong mi trng cht (khc vi sng c,
khng tn ti trong chn khng)
- Sng in t l sng ngang.
- Vn tc truyn sng in t trong mi
trng ng cht, ng hng cho bi:

Trong c

0 0

Hnh1-36

3.10 8 m / s ; v l hng s in mi v t thm ca mi trng;

n gi l chit sut tuyt i ca mi trng. Trong chn khng =1, =1, vy v = c,


nh th c = 3.108m/s l vn tc truyn sng in t trong chn khng, n cng bng vn tc
truyn sng nh sng trong chn khng. Thc nghim chng t n 1, do : v c, Ngha l vn
tc truyn sng in t trong chn khng l ln nht so vi cc mi trng khc.
c. Sng in t phng n sc
Sng in phng n sc l sng in t c nhng c tnh sau:
- Cc mt sng l nhng mt phng song song, ngha l phng truyn sng l nhng
ng thng song song v ngun sng coi nh rt xa.

- Cc vc t E v H c phng khng thay i v c tr s ca chng l hm sin hoc


cos theo thi gian t. Nh vy sng in t phng n sc c mt tn s xc nh (ngha l chu
2
k T
xc nh). Trong mt s mi trng nht nh n c bc sng xc nh:

vT
Ngi ta chng minh c rng i vi sng in t phng n sc:

36

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

+ Hai vc t E v H ( hay B ) lun vung gc vi nhau


v vung gc vi phng truyn sng.


+ Ba vc t E , H , v theo th t hp thnh tam din
thun.

+ E v H lun lun dao ng cng pha., c th l lun

lun c tr s t l vi nhau:
0 E 0 H

Hnh 1-37

Phng trnh dao ng ca E v H :

x
x
E E0 cos t ; H H 0 cos ) t
v
v

d. Nng lng sng in t


Bn cht sng in t l trng in t bin thin. Nng lng sng in t l nng
lng ca trng in t; nng lng ny nh x trong khng gian c sng in t.
Mt nng lng sng in t:
1
2

1
2

0E 2 0 H 2
i vi sng in t phng n sc ta c:

0 E
T suy ra:

0 H

0E 2 0 H 2 0 E 0 H

Mt khc ta c cng sng in t l i lng c tr s bng nng lng truyn qua


mt n v din tch trong mt n v thi gian.
Do cng sng in t t l vi bnh phng bin ca cng in trng
hay cng t trng.
Sng in t c dng nhiu trong cc ng dng truyn tin nh truyn thanh , truyn
hnh khng dy

37

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

HNG DN HC CHNG 1
DAO NG - SNG
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c dao ng iu ho, dao dng tt dn, dao cng bc, hin tng cng hng trong
dao ng c v dao ng in t.
2. Nm c phng php tng hp hai dao ng iu ho cng phng v cng tn s, hai dao
ng iu ho cng tn s v c phng vung gc.
3. Nm c mt s khi nim c bn v sng.
4. Nm c cc c trng v sng c; sng m ; Sng in t.
5. Nm c hiu ng Doppler trong sng m.
II. TM TT NI DUNG
A. DAO NG
1. Dao ng c
* Dao ng iu ho l dao ng m lch khi v tr cn bng ca vt l hm ca sin hay
cosin theo thi gian. Phng trnh ca dao ng c iu ho: x A0 cos0 t
* Dao ng c tt dn khc vi dao ng iu ho do c thm lc cn ca mi trng. Phng
trnh dao ng c tt dn: x A0 e t cost
c trng cho s tt dn l gim lng loga: ln

At
A t T

ln

A0 e t
T
A0 e t T

* Dao ng c cng bc


Sau mi chu k, tc dng ln h mt lc tun hon: F F0 coct
Phng trnh dao ng cng bc c dng: x A0 cost
Trong :

- Tn s cng bc:
- Bin :

- Pha ban u :

38

F0
2
0

4 2 2
tg

2
02 2

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Hin tng ny gi l hin tng cng hng: : 02 2 0 0

F0
F0

2 20

ACH
2. Dao ng in t:
* Dao ng in t iu ho
- Mch dao ng in t LC

i I 0 cos0 t

- Phng trnh dao ng in t iu ho :

trong I0 l bin ca cng dng in, l pha ban u ca dao ng, 0 l tn s

1
LC

gc ring ca dao ng:


* Dao ng in t tt dn
- Mch dao ng in t RLC

- Phng trnh dao ng in t tt dn: i I 0 e t cost


Vi iu kin h s tt nh sao cho 0 > hay

ln

Gim lng lga :

I 0 e t

I 0 e t T

1 R
;
LC 2L

1 R

LC 2L

* Dao ng in t cng bc
- Mc thm vo mch RLC mt ngun in: E = E 0sint
- Phng trnh dao ng in t cng bc: i I 0 cost
Trong l tn s gc ca ngun in kch thch, I0 l bin , l pha ban u ca dao
ng, c xc nh bng:

I0

E0
1

R 2 L

*. Hin tng cng hng: L

, cot g

1
0 hay
C

1
C

1
LC

ch 0

39

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

3. Tng hp hai dao ng


* Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho cng phng, cng tn s
Hai dao ng ny cng phng Ox v cng tn s gc 0, nhng khc bin v pha
ban u. Dao ng tng hp ca cht im bng tng ca hai dao ng thnh phn

x x1 x 2 A cost
A A12 A22 2A1A2 cos2 1 , tg

A1 sin 1 A 2 sin 2
A1 cos 1 A 2 cos 2

- Nu (2 1) 2k , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th cos2 1 1 v bin A t


cc i: A A1 A 2 A max
- Nu (2 1) (2k 1) , vi k 0, 1, 2, 3,... , th cos2 1 1 v bin A
t cc tiu: A A1 A 2 A min
* Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc, cng tn s
Phng trnh qu o chuyn ng tng hp ca hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc
v c cng tn s gc l :

x2
A12

y2
A 22

2xy
cos 2 1 sin 2 2 1
A1A 2

Tng hp hai dao ng iu ho c phng vung gc vi nhau v cng tn s gc l mt


dao ng c dng elip.
B. SNG
1. Mt s khi nim c bn v sng
Sng l qu trnh lan truyn dao ng trong mi trng. Sng c chia sng thnh hai
loi: sng ngang v sng dc.
Sng ngang l sng m phng dao ng ca cc phn t vung gc vi phng truyn
sng.
Sng dc l sng m phng dao ng ca cc phn t trng vi phng truyn sng.
Khng gian c sng truyn qua c gi l trng sng. Mt sng l qi tch nhng im dao
ng cng pha trong trng sng. Gii hn gia phn mi trng m sng truyn qua v
cha truyn ti gi l mt u sng. Nu sng c mt u sng l mt cu th c gi l sng
cu v nu mt u sng l mt phng th c gi l sng phng.
2. Sng c sng m v hiu ng Doppler
2.1 Sng c:
* Qa trnh truyn dao ng trong mi trng n hi gi l sng c. Phn t u tin pht ra
dao ng gi l ngun sng.
* Cc i lng c trng ca sng c:
40

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

y
u U 0 cos 0 t
v

- Phng trnh sng phng:

y
- Phng trnh sng cu: u A cos 0 t
v
U
Trong bin ca sng cu: A k 0 (U0 l bin sng phng). Do phng
y
U
y

trnh sng cu: u k 0 cos 0 t


y
v
U
y

Trng hp sng truyn theo phng ngc li: u k 0 cos 0 t


y
v
W 1
- Mt nng lng sng:
02 U 02
V 2

* Nguyn l chng cht sng: Khi hai hay nhiu sng c bin nh, ng thi truyn qua
min no ca mi trng n hi th giao ng ca mi im trong min l tng hp cc
dao ng gy bi tng sng ring r. Cc sng khng lm nhiu lon nhau.. Sau khi gp
nhau, cc sng vn truyn i nhkhi chng truyn i ring r.
* S giao thao sng c: Khi c hai sng kt hp gp nhau th trong min gp nhau c nhng
ch bin dao ng cc i, nhng ch bin dao ng cc tiu.
* Nguyn l Huyghen: - " Mi im trong khng gian nhn c sng t ngun thc S
truyn n u tr thnh ngun th cp pht sng v pha trc n".
* Nhiu x sng c: Hin tng cc tia sng i phng truyn khi i qua cc chng ngi vt
gi l hin tng nhiu x
2.2. Sng m v hiu ng Doppler
* Sng m: l sng dc lan truyn trong mi trng,(c bin nh m thnh gic ca ta c th
nhn bit c).
Nhng dao ng m c tn s trong khong t 20 Hz n 20 000 Hz. Nhng dao ng c tn s
nh hn 20 Hz gi l sng h m, nhng dao ng c tn s ln hn 20 000 Hz gi l sng siu
m.
Ring trong cht kh vn tc m v c tnh bng cng thc: v
Vi R l hng s kh l tng,

RT

CP
, T l nhit tuyt i ca cht kh, k khi lng
CV

ca mt kilmol kh
* Hiu ng Doppler: L mt hiu ng trong tn s v bc sng ca cc sng m, sng
in t hay cc sng ni chung b thay i khi ngun pht sng chuyn ng tng i vi
ngi quan st.
- Trng hp tng qut, ngun m v my thu u chuyn ng: '

vu'

vu
41

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

- Trng hp ngun ng yn, my thu chuyn ng: ' (1


- Trng hp ngun chuyn ng, my thu ng yn: '

u'
)
v

vu

3. Sng in t
* Sng in t l trng in t bin thin truyn i trong khng gian
* Nhng tnh cht ca sng in t
- H phng trnh Maxwell ca sng in t:

D
B
rotE
rotH
t
t

divD 0
divB 0

D 0E
B 0 H
- Sng in t tn ti trong chn khng v trong mi trng cht (khc vi sng c,
khng tn ti trong chn khng)
- Sng in t l sng ngang.
- Vn tc truyn sng in t:

* Sng in t phng n sc: l sng in t c nhng c tnh sau:


- Cc mt sng l nhng mt phng song song, ngha l phng truyn sng l nhng
ng thng song song v ngun sng coi nh rt xa.

- Cc vc t E v H c phng khng thay i v c tr s ca chng l hm sin hoc


cos theo thi gian t.
- sng in t phng n sc c mt tn s xc nh (ngha l chu k T

xc

nh).
- Trong mt s mi trng nht nh n c bc sng xc nh: vT

:- Hai vc t E v H ( hay B ) lun vung gc vi nhau v vung gc vi phng


truyn sng.

- Ba vc t E , H , v theo th t hp thnh tam din thun.

- E v H lun lun dao ng cng pha, c th l lun lun c tr s t l vi nhau:

0 E 0 H

Phng trnh dao ng ca E v H :

42

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

x
x
E E0 cos t ; H H 0 cos ) t
v
v
1
1
* Mt nng lng sng in t: 0E 2 0 H 2
2
2

* cng sng in t t l vi bnh phng bin ca cng in trng hay cng


t trng.
III. CU HI L THUYT
1.Thit lp phng trnh dao ng iu ho ring khng tt (cho dao ng c v dao ng in
t.)
2. Vit biu thc tn s v chu k ca dao ng ring khng tt.
3. M t mch dao ng c / in t tt dn. Thit lp biu thc ca dng in trong mch dao
ng in t tt dn.
4. Vit biu thc tn s v chu k ca mch dao ng c / dao ng in t tt dn. So snh
chu k dao ng tt dn vi chu k dao ng ring.
5. M t mch dao ng c / dao ng in t cng bc. Thit lp biu thc ca dng in
trong mch dao ng in t cng bc. Nu ngha ca cc i lng c trong biu thc.
6. Hin tng cng hng l g? Khi no xy ra hin tng cng hng?
7. Vit phng trnh dao ng tng hp ca hai dao ng iu ho cng phng, cng tn s.
Khi no th bin dao ng tng hp t gi tr cc i v cc tiu?
8. Vit phng trnh dao ng tng hp ca hai dao ng iu ho cng tn s c phng
vung gc vi nhau. Vi iu kin no th dao ng tng hp c dng ng thng, elip vung,
ng trn?
10.Vit phng trnh sng phng c / in v nu cc i lng c trng.
11. Sng in t H phng trng Maxwell v cc tnh cht c trng.
12. Thit lp mi quan h tn s ca ngun pht v ngun thu ca sng m khi ngun pht v
thu c s chuyn ng i vi nhau.
IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm mt cun dy thun cm c h s t cm L
= 5.10-2H v mt t in c in dung C = 2.10-6F, t c tch in ti hiu in th cc i
U0= 120V. Tnh:
a. Tn s dao ng ca mch.
b. Nng lng in t ca mch.
43

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

c. Dng in cc i trong mch.


Bi gii:
a. Tn s dao ng ca mch:

1
1
1

500 Hz
T 2 LC 2.3,14. 5.102.2.106

1
1
b. Nng lng dao ng ca mch: W CU 02 2.106.(120)2 0, 014 J
2
2

c. Dng in cc i trong mch:


CU 02
1
1
2.106.(120)2
W CU 02 LI 02 I 0

0,76 A
2
2
L
5.102

Th d 2: Mt mch dao ng in t gm mt t in c in dung C = 7F, cun dy c h s


t cm L = 0,23H v in tr R = 40. Ban u in tch trn hai bn t Q0 = 5,6.10-4C. Tm:
a. Chu k dao ng in t trong mch.
b. Lng gim lga ca mch dao ng in t tng ng.
c. Phng trnh bin thin theo thi gian ca cng dng in trong mch v hiu
in th gia hai bn t in.
Bi gii:
a.V in tr R = 40 0 nn dao ng in t trong mch l dao ng in t tt dn. Phng
q Q 0 e t cost

trnh dao ng ca in tch trn hai bn t:

Khi t = 0 th q Q 0 cos , nhng theo gi thit q Q0 nn = 0 phng trnh dao ng ca


in tch trn hai bn t: q Q0 e t cos t
Chu k dao ng ca mch:
2

1 R

LC 2L

2.3,14

40

6 2.0,23
0,23.7.10
b. Lng gim lga ca dao ng in t trong mch:
RT 40.8.10 3
T

0,7
2L
2.0,23
1

8.10 3 s

c. Phng trnh bin thin theo thi gian ca cng dng in v hiu in th gia hai bn
dq

250 rad / s , i
0, 44e87t cos(250 t ) A
t in:
T
dt
2
u

44

q
80e 87t cos 250t V
C

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

Bi tp t gii
1. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm mt t in c in dung C = 2F v mt cun dy
thun cm c t cm L = 0,5H. T c tch n hiu in th cc i U0= 100V.Tm: Nng
lng in t ca mch v dng in cc i trong mch.
2. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm mt t in c in dung C = 0,25F v mt cun
dy thun cm c t cm L = 1,015H. in tch cc i trn hai bn t Q0= 2,5C. Tm:
a.. Chu k, tn s dao ng ca mch.
b. Nng lng in t ca mch.
c.. Dng in cc i trong mch.
3. Mt mch dao ng in t c in dung C = 0.25F, h s t cm L = 1,015 H v in tr
R = 0. Ban u hai ct ca t in c tch in Q0 =2,5.10-6C
a. Vit phng trnh dao ng ca mch in i vi in tch q v dng in i.
b. Nng lng in t ca mch.
c. Tn s dao ng ca mch.
4. Mt mch dao ng in t c in dung C= 0,405F H s t cm L = 10-2 H v in tr R
= 2. Tm:
a. Chu k dao ng ca mch
b. Sau thi gian mt chu k, hiu in th gia hai ct ca t in gim bao nhiu ln?
5. Mt mch dao ng gm t in c in dung C=1,1.10-9F, cun dy c t cm L=5.10-5H
v lng gim lga = 0,005. Tm thi gian nng lng in t trong mch gim i 99%.
Coi gn ng chu k dao ng ca mch T 2 LC .
6. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm mt cun dy thun cm c h s t cm L = 1H
v mt t in c in tch trn hai bn t bin thin iu ho theo phng trnh
q

5.10 5
cos 400t (C) .

a. Tm in dung ca t v nng lng in t ca mch.


b. Vit phng trnh bin thin theo thi gian ca cng dng in trong mch.
7. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm t in c in dung C = 6,3.10 -7F v mt dy
thun cm c h s t cm L. Phng trnh biu din s bin thin theo thi gian ca cng
dng in trong mch i 0,02sin 400 t

A . Tm:

a.Chu k, tn s dao ng.


b. H s t cm L.
c. Nng lng in trng cc i v nng lng t trng cc i.

45

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

d. Hiu in th cc i trn hai bn t.


8. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm t in c in dung C = 9.10-7F v cun dy thun
cm c h s t cm L. Hiu in th gia hai bn t in bin thin iu ho theo phng
trnh u 50 cos 10 4 t V .
a.Tm chu k v tn s dao ng.
b Tm h s t cm L.
c. Vit phng trnh bin thin ca cng dng in trong mch theo thi gian.
d. Tm nng lng in t ca mch.
9. Mt mch dao ng gm t in c in dung C = 0,4.10-6F, mt cun dy c h s t cm
L = 10-2H v in tr R = 2.
a. Tm chu k v tn s dao ng ca mch.
b. Sau thi gian mt chu k hiu in th gia hai ct ca t in gim i bao nhiu ln.
10. Mt mch dao ng in t gm t in c in dung C = 0,4F, cun dy c t cm
L = 10-2H v in tr thun ca ton mch R = 2. Xc nh:
a. Chu k dao ng ca mch v lng gim loga.
b. Sau thi gian bao lu bin hiu in th trn hai bn t gim i 3 ln
11. Mt mch dao ng in t gm t in c in dung C = 0,2.10-6F, mt cun dy c t
cm L = 5,07.10-3H v in tr R.Tm:
a. Lng gim lga, bit hiu in th trn hai bn t gim i 3 ln sau 10-3s. Coi gn
ng chu k dao ng ca mch theo cng thc T 2 LC .
b. in tr R ca mch.
12. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ho gm mt cun dy thun cm c t cm
L = 3.10-5H v mt t in. Mch dao ng cng hng vi bc sng = 750m. Tm in
dung ca t in. Cho c= 3.108m/s.
13. Mt mch dao ng in t iu ha gm cun dy thun cm c t cm L = 1H v t
in c din dung C. in tch trn hai bn t bin thin theo thi gian theo phng trnh:
q = 5.10-6cos4000t (C). Tm:
a. Chu k dao ng, in dung ca t.
b. Vit phng trnh cng dng in tc thi trong mch.
c. Tnh nng lng in t trong mch
d. Tm bc sng cng hng ca mch dao ng.
14. Mt mch dao ng in t gm mt t in c in dung C = 2,5.10 -6 F, mt cun dy c
h s t cm L = 120mH, in tr thun R= 40 . Hy tm:

46

Chng 1: Dao ng - sng

1. Chu k dao ng in t trong mch, gim lng loga.


2. Qui lut bin thin ca in tch trn mt bn ca t in trong mch bit lc u t in
c in tch cc i Q0 = 40 C.
15. Mt mch dao ng m cng dng in dao ng trong mch c biu thc:
i = 10-2cos 1000t (A). H s t cm ca cun cm l 0,3H. Xc nh in dung ca t in v
tnh t s nng lng in v nng lng t ti thi im t = T/8.
16. Mt mch thu v tuyn c t in bin thin vi in dung bin i trong cc gii hn t C1
n C2 = 9 C1. Tm di tn s cc sng m my thu c th bt c nu in dung C1 tng ng
vi bc sng 1 = 3m.
17. Phng trnh biu din s bin thin theo thi gian ca cng dng in trong mch dao
ng c vit di dng i = 0,02 sin400t (A), h s t cm L ca mch bng 1H. Tm:
a. Chu k dao ng v in dung C ca mch
b. Hiu in th cc i trn hai bn t
c. Nng lng in trng cc i v nng lng t trng cc i
18. M t ma ch dao ng i n t R ,L,C co L = 0,1/ (H), R = 2. Hi sau thi gian bao lu bin
dao ng giam i e l n .
19. Hai im sng cch nhau mt khong y = 2m trn phng truyn sng phng, bc sng
= 1m. Tm hiu pha ca cc dao ng hai im ti cng mt thi im.
20. Mt ngun sng O dao ng vi phng trnh x = sin 2,5t (cm). Tm ly dao ng ca
mt im M cch ngun mt khong y = 20m ti thi im t = 1s. Bit vn tc truyn sng
u = 100 m/s
21. Mt con di bay theo hng ti vung gc vi mt bc tng vi vn tc 6 m/s. Con di
pht ra mt tia siu m c tn s 4,5.104 Hz. Hi di nhn c m phn x c tn s l bao
nhiu? Bit vn tc m truyn trong khng kh l 340 m/s.
22. Mt ngun m pht ra mt m c tn s 500Hz chy li gn ngi quan st vi vn tc l
200km/h. Hi ngi quan st nghe thy m c tn s l bao nhiu? Bit vn tc m truyn l
340m/s
23. Mt vin n bay vi vn tc 200m/s. Hi cao ca ting rt thay i bao nhiu ln khi
vin n bay qua trn u mt ngi quan st ang ng yn. Bit vn tc m l 333m/s
24. Mt mch dao ng in t gm mt ng dy c h s t cm L = 3.10-5 H mc ni tip vi
mt t in phng c din tch cc ct S = 100 cm 2. Khong cch gia hai ct t in l d = 0,1
mm. Hi hng s in mi ca mi trng cha y trong khong khng gian gia hai ct t
in l bao nhiu, bit rng mch in dao ng cng hng vi sng c bc sng 750m? Cho

0 8,86.10

12

C2
2
m N

47

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

CHNG 2

GIAO THOA NH SNG


Quang hc l mn hc nghin cu v nh sng. Cng vi s pht trin ca khoa hc k
thut m quan nim nh sng ca con ngi tri qua nhiu giai on bin i.
Thi k c Hy lp, cho rng t mt ngi pht ra nhng tia nhn. Cc tia ny n p
vo cc vt v lm cho mt ngi nhn thy vt. Tuy nhin ngay c trong thi k ny cng c
nhiu trit gia cho rng nh sng pht xut t cc vt pht sng.
Thi k C hc c in thng tr (cui th k 17), Newton cho rng nh sng l mt
dng ht bay t vt pht sng theo mt ng thng, ng gii thch nhiu hiu ng quang hc
bng l thuyt ht ca nh sng. Nh vt l ngi H Lan Christian Huygens (1629-1695),
ngi cng thi vi Newton li gi thit rng nh sng l sng lan truyn trong mt mi trng
c gi l ete v tr, song l thuyt ca ng khng thnh cng mt phn v ng gi thit
rng cc sng nh sng l sng dc.
n u th k 19, trn c s gi thuyt v sng nh sng, Fresnel gii thch y
cc hin tng quang hc c bit thi .
Sau khi thuyt in t ca James Clerk Maxwell ra i (1864) a ra bng chng l
thuyt c sc thuyt phc khng nh nh sng l sng in t (sng ngang), m vn tc v cc
tnh cht khc ca n c th suy ra c t cc phng trnh Maxwell. Tnh cht sng ca nh
sng c Thomas Young (1773-1829) xc lp t thc nghim vo nm 1800.
Vo cui th k 19, u th k 20, nhiu thc nghim chng t rng mi vt pht x hay
hp th nh sng theo nhng lng gin on m ln ca chng ph thuc vo tn s nh
sng. y l c s gi thit rng nh sng l dng cc ht c gi l Photon.
Nh vy nh sng va c tnh cht sng, va c tnh cht ht, vt l hin i chng t
lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng.
Trong chng 2 ny s trnh by v s giao thoa nh sng, s hin din ca hin tng
giao thoa nh sng l mt bng chng y thuyt phc v bn cht sng ca nh sng.
kho st hin tng giao thoa nh sng, trc ht chng ta cn hiu bit v c s
ca quang hc sng.
2. 1. C S CA QUANG HC SNG
Quang hc sng nghin cu cc hin tng da trn bn cht sng in t ca nh sng
(v d: giao thoa, nhiu x, phn cc.... ). Christian Huygens, Ngi u tin ra thuyt sng
nh sng, nm 1687. Theo Huygens, nh sng l sng n hi truyn trong mt mi trng c
bit gi l te v tr lp y khng gian. Thuyt sng nh sng gii thch c cc hin
48

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

tng ca quang hnh hc nh phn x, khc x nh sng. Vo u th k th 19, da vo thuyt


sng nh sng Fresnel gii thch cc hin tng giao thoa, nhiu x nh sng. Nhng khi hin
tng phn cc nh sng c pht hin th quan nim v sng n hi trong te v tr
bc l r nhng thiu st. Hin tng phn cc nh sng chng t sng nh sng l sng ngang
v nh chng ta bit, sng n hi ngang ch c th truyn trong mi trng cht rn. n
nm 1865, da vo nhng nghin cu l thuyt ca mnh v trng in t v sng in t,
Maxwell nu ln thuyt in t v sng nh sng.
2. 1. 1. Thuyt in t v nh sng ca Maxwell
nh sng l sng in t, ngha l trng in t bin thin theo thi gian truyn i
trong khng gian. Sng nh sng l sng ngang, bi v trong sng in t vect cng in
trng E v vect cm ng t B lun dao ng vung gc vi phng truyn sng. Khi nh
sng truyn n mt, vect cng in trng tc dng ln vng mc gy nn cm gic sng.
Do vect cng in trng trong sng nh sng gi l vect sng. Ngi ta biu din
sng nh sng bng dao ng ca vect sng E vung gc vi phng truyn sng.

Hnh 2.1. nh sng lan truyn di dng sng


Mi sng nh sng c bc sng 0 xc nh gy nn cm gic sng v mt mu sc xc
nh v gi l nh sng n sc. Tp hp cc nh sng n sc c bc sng 0 nm trong
khong t 0,4 m n 0,76 m to thnh nh sng trng.
2. 1. 2. Quang l
Xt hai im A, B trong mt mi trng ng tnh chit sut n, cch nhau mt on
d
bng d. Thi gian nh sng i t A n B l t , trong v l vn tc nh sng trong mi
v
trng.
nh ngha: Quang l gia hai im A, B l on ng nh sng truyn c trong
chn khng vi cng khong thi gian t cn thit sng nh sng i c on ng d trong
mi trng chit sut n.

49

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

c
L ct d nd
v

(2-1)

Chit sut n = c/ v vi c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng.


Nh vy khi nh sng truyn trong mi trng cht, vi vic s dng khi nim quang
l chng ta chuyn qung ng nh sng i c trong mi trng chit sut n sang qung
ng tng ng trong chn khng v do ta c th s dng vn tc truyn ca nh sng
trong chn khng l c thay cho vn tc v truyn trong mi trng.
Nu nh sng truyn qua nhiu mi trng chit sut n1, n2, n3 ... vi cc qung ng
tng ng d1, d2, d3 ... th quang l s l

L ni di

(2-2a)

Nu nh sng truyn trong mi trng m chit sut thay i lin tc th ta chia on


ng AB thnh cc on nh ds coi chit sut khng thay i trn mi on nh v
B

L nds

quang l s l

(2-2b)

2. 1. 3. nh l Malus v quang l
a. Mt trc giao : l mt vung gc vi cc tia ca mt chm sng.

Hnh 2-2. Mt trc giao


Theo nh ngha nu chm sng l ng qui th mt trc giao l cc mt cu ng tm,
cn nu l chm sng song song th mt trc giao l cc mt phng song song.
b. nh l Malus: Quang l ca cc tia sng gia hai mt trc giao ca mt chm sng th
bng nhau.
2. 1. 4. Hm sng nh sng
Xt sng nh sng phng n sc truyn
theo phng y vi vn tc v trong mi trng
chit sut n (hnh 2-3). Gi s ti O phng trnh
ca dao ng sng l:

E
v
X

Hnh 2-3
x(O ) A cos t
50

(2-3)

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

th ti im M cch O mt on d, phng trnh dao ng sng l:


L
x( M ) A cos (t ) A cos (t )
c
2 L
2L
A cos( t
) A cos( t
)
T c

(2-4)

trong l thi gian nh sng truyn t O n M, L l quang l trn on ng OM, l


2L
bc sng nh sng trong chn khng, A l bin dao ng v
l pha ban u.

Phng trnh (2-4) c gi l hm sng nh sng


2. 1. 5. Cng nh sng
Cng sng c trng cho sng ti mi im trong khng gian c sng nh sng
truyn qua.
nh ngha: Cng sng ti mt im l i lng c tr s bng nng lng trung
bnh ca sng nh sng truyn qua mt n v din tch t vung gc vi phng truyn sng
trong mt n v thi gian.
V mt nng lng ca sng in t t l thun vi bnh phng bin ca vct
cng in trng nn cng sng ti mt im t l vi bnh phng bin dao ng
sng ti im :
I = kA2
k: H s t l. Khi nghin cu cc hin tng giao thoa, nhiu x c trng cho tnh cht sng
ca nh sng, ngi ta ch cn so snh cng sng ti cc im khc nhau m khng cn tnh
c th gi tr ca cng sng, do qui c ly k = 1:
I = A2

(2-5)

2. 1. 6. Nguyn l chng cht cc sng


Khi c hai hay nhiu sng nh sng truyn ti giao nhau ti mt im no trong
khng gian th s tng hp ca cc sng tun theo nguyn l chng cht cc sng. Nguyn l ny
c pht biu nh sau:
Khi hai hay nhiu sng nh sng gp nhau th tng sng ring bit khng b cc sng
khc lm cho nhiu lon. Sau khi gp nhau, cc sng nh sng vn truyn i nh c, cn ti
nhng im gp nhau dao ng sng bng tng cc dao ng sng thnh phn.
2. 1. 7. Nguyn l Huygens Fresnel
Nguyn l Huygens - Fresnel c pht biu nh sau:
- " Mi im trong khng gian nhn c sng sng t ngun sng thc S truyn n
u tr thnh ngun sng th cp pht sng sng v pha trc n".

51

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

- Bin v pha ca ngun th cp l bin v pha do ngun thc gy ra ti v tr


ca ngun th cp.

Hnh 2-4. M t nguyn l Huygens


2. 2. HIN TNG GIAO THOA NH SNG
2. 2. 1. nh ngha:
Hin tng giao thoa nh sng l hin tng gp nhau ca hai hay nhiu sng nh
sng, kt qu l trong trng giao thoa s xut hin nhng vn sng v nhng vn ti xen k
nhau.
Hin tng giao thoa ch xy ra i vi sng nh sng kt hp, l nhng sng c cng
tn s v hiu pha khng thay i theo thi gian, y chnh l iu kin c giao thoa.
Nguyn tc to ra hai sng nh sng kt hp l t mt sng duy nht tch ra thnh hai
sng ring bit.

a. Khe young

c.

Lng lng knh Fresnel

b.

Gng Fresnel

d. Gng Lloyd

Hmh 2 - 5.a,b,c,d: Mt s cch to ra sng nh sng kt hp


52

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

Dng c to ra cc sng nh sng kt hp: khe Young, gng Fresnel, lng lng
knh Fresnel, bn thu knh Billet, gng Lloyd... Trn hnh 2-5 l s nguyn l mt s cch
to ra hai sng nh sng kt hp.
2. 2. 2. Kho st hin tng giao thoa
a. Th nghim Young
Nm 1801, Thomas Young ln u tin chng minh bng thc nghim rng, hai chm
nh sng c th giao thoa vi nhau tng t nh sng nc, cho thy bn cht sng nh sng v
t to ra c s vng vng xy dng l thuyt sng v nh sng.
Trong th nghim u tin ny Young dng kim di mt l nh S0 trn mt mn chn M1
cho nh sng mt tri truyn qua (hnh 2-6). nh sng ta ra t S0 nh mt ngun sng im
chiu ti hai l nh S1 v S2 cng c di bng kim trn mn M2. Trn mn M3 t sau M2 ni
hai chm sng t S1 v S2 ta ra giao nhau, bc tranh giao thoa c quan st thy gm cc vn
sng, vn ti xen k, cch u. Nh vy c nhng im trong khng gian ti cng
nh sng c tng cng (vn sng) v nhng im ti cng nh sng b trit tiu (vn
ti). Hai l thng S1 v S2 ng vai tr nh hai qu cu trn mt nc c ni vi mt b
rung c hc to ra giao thoa sng nc bit.

Hnh 2-6: S b tr th nghim giao thoa nh sng ca Young


C th to ra cc vn giao thoa c cng sng mnh hn, ngi ta dng cc khe hp
di song song vi nhau thay cho cc l nh nh Young dng. Thc cht y l th nghim
giao thoa vi hai khe sng hp nhng thng vn c gi l th nghim Young. Trn hnh 2-6
m t th nghim giao thoa vi hai khe sng hp.
Sau y s kho st giao thoa vi hai khe hp. Hai khe sng hp song song c chiu
sng bi mt sng phng n sc bc sng . Mn quan st E c t cch mt phng hai
khe mt khong D >> , vi = S1S2. Ti S1 v S2 sng nh sng i ra l ng pha v cc sng
th cp pht ra t cng mt mt sng phng. gii thch s giao thoa ta xt mt im M trn
mn E.
53

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

Hai ngun sng nh


sng n sc kt hp S1 v S2
c phng trnh dao ng
sng ca chng ti v tr ca
S1 v S2 l:

x(S1 ) A1 cos t
v

x(S2 ) A 2 cos t

Ti M ta nhn c
hai dao ng sng:
x1 A1 cos( t

2L1
)

x 2 A 2 cos( t

Hnh 2-7. S th nghim giao thoa vi hai khe

2L 2
)

L1 v L2 l quang l trn on ng r1 v r2.

b. iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa


V khong cch S1S2 nh hn rt nhiu so vi khong cch t mt phng ca hai khe n
mn quan st nn ta coi y l trng hp tng hp ca hai dao ng cng phng, cng tn s.
Ta bit rng bin dao ng sng tng hp ti M ph thuc vo hiu pha ca hai dao ng:

2
(L1 L 2 )

Nu hai dao ng cng pha, hiu pha 2k , th bin dao ng sng tng hp ti M s c
gi tr cc i v cng sng ti im M l cc i. Nh vy iu kin cc i giao thoa l:

2
(L1 L 2 ) 2k

L1 L 2 k

vi

(2-6)

k 0,1,2...

(2-7)

Nu hai dao ng ngc pha, hiu pha (2k 1) , th bin dao ng sng tng
hp ti M s c gi tr cc tiu v do cng sng cc tiu. Nh vy iu kin cc tiu
giao thoa l:
2
(L1 L 2 ) (2k 1)

L1 L 2 (2k 1)
vi
2

c. V tr ca vn giao thoa

54

(2-8)

k 0,1,2...

(2-9)

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

H thng khe Young nh hnh v, c t


trong khng kh. Xt im M trn mn E, im M
cch im O mt khong l y. T S2 k S2H S1M.
V S1S2 = rt nh v khong cch D t khe n
mn E ln nn S1H r1-r2 = sin tg v
y
(2-10)
r1 r2
D
Trong khng kh nn L1 - L2 = r1 - r2.

Hnh 2-8. V tr ca vn giao thoa

T iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa ta d dng tnh c v tr cc vn sng v vn ti.


* V tr cc vn sng (cc i giao thoa):

r1 r2
ys k

.y s
k
D

vi k 0, 1, 2...

(2-11)

* V tr cc vn ti (cc tiu giao thoa):

r1 r2

y t

(2k 1)
D
2

y t (2k 1)

D
2

vi

k 0, 1, 2...

(2-12)

T cc cng thc (2-11) v (2-12) ta thy nh giao thoa trn mn E c cc c im:


- Vi k = 0 th ys = 0, tc l gc O trng vi vn cc i giao thoa. Vn ny c gi l
vn cc i gia.
- Cc vn cc i giao thoa ng vi k 1, 2... v cc vn cc tiu giao thoa nm xen
k cch u nhau c hai pha i vi vn cc i gia. i vi vn sng, bc giao thoa trng vi

k . i vi vn ti, khi k > 0 bc giao thoa trng vi k 1 , khi k < 0 bc giao thoa trng vi
k.
- Khong cch gia hai vn sng k tip:
i y k 1 y k (k 1)

D
D D
k

(2-13)

Tng t, khong cch gia hai vn ti k tip cng l i - c gi l khong vn.

55

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

2E02

Hnh 2-9a. Phn b cng sng vn giao thoa theo v tr.

Hnh 2-9b. nh chp giao thoa nh sng qua hai khe.


Cc vn giao thoa l cc on thng nm trn mt phng vung gc vi mt phng hnh
v, do nu dch chuyn ng thi S1 v S2 theo phng vung gc vi mt phng hnh v th
h thng vn ch trt trn mnh n v khng thay i g. Do ta c th thay hai ngun sng
im S1 v S2 bng hai ngun sng khe t vung gc vi mt phng hnh v cho hnh nh
giao thoa r nt hn.
Trn hnh 2-9a v 2-9b l s phn b cng sng theo v tr v nh chp giao thoa
nh sng qua 2 khe.
d. H vn giao thoa khi dng nh sng trng

Hnh 2-10. Ph nh sng kh kin


Ngun sng S1 v S2 pht nh sng trng gm mi nh sng n sc c bc sng
0,4 0,76m , trn hnh 2-10 cho ph nh sng kh kin (nh sng trng).

56

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

Hnh 2-11. Giao thoa gy bi nh sng trng


Mi nh sng n sc s cho mt h vn giao thoa c mu sc ring v rng i khc
nhau. Ti gc ta O, mi nh sng n sc u cho cc i, nn vn cc i gia l mt vn
sng trng, hai mp vin mu (trong tm, ngoi ). Nhng vn cc i khc ng vi cng mt
gi tr ca k l nhng vn c mu sc khc nhau nm chng ln nhau to thnh nhng vn sng
nhiu mu sc. Cc vn ny cng b nhe dn khi xa vn sng trng trung tm (hnh 2-11)
2. 3. GIAO THOA GY BI BN MNG
Trong thin nhin, nh sng c th giao thoa m khng cn b tr cc ngun sng im
hay khe hp. l trng hp giao thoa trn cc bn mng c chiu sng bi nh sng mt
tri hoc n kch thc ln (cc ngun sng rng). Khi nhn vo mng x phng, vng du trn
mt nc, ta thy mu sc sc s. Mu sc ny khng phi l do khc x nh sng m c to
nn bi s giao thoa ca cc tia phn x trn hai mt ca bn mng. Cc sng giao thoa c th
tng cng hoc trit tiu mt s mu sc no ca nh sng mt tri ri ti, to ra mu sc
ca bn mng.
Trc khi i vo nghin cu v giao thoa gy bi bn mng chng ta xem xt th
nghim Lloyd v hin tng giao thoa do phn x.
2. 3. 1.Th nghim Lloyd
nghin cu hin tng giao thoa do phn x
Lloyd lm th nghim sau: Gng G c bi en
ng sau, chit sut ca thy tinh ln hn chit sut ca
khng kh ntt > nkk. Ngun sng S rng v cch xa. Mn
E c t vung gc vi gng. Mt im M trn mn
E s nhn c hai tia sng t S gi n. Tia truyn trc
tip SM v tia SIM phn x trn gng, sau n M.
Hai tia ny giao thoa vi nhau (hnh 2-12).
Theo

thuyt:

nu

r1 r2 L1 L2 k

Hnh 2-12. Th nghim ca Lloyd


th

im

sng,

nu

th im M s ti. Tuy nhin thc nghim li thy rng: nhng


2
im l thuyt d on l sng th kt qu li l ti v ngc li, nhng im l thuyt d on l
ti th li l sng. Vy hiu pha dao ng ca hai tia sng trong trng hp ny khng phi l
r1 r2 L1 L 2 (2k 1)

57

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

2
2
(L1 L 2 ) m phi l
(L1 L 2 ) . thm mt lng th pha dao

ng ca mt trong hai tia phi thay i mt lng . V tia SM truyn trc tip t ngun n
im M, nn ch c tia phn x trn gng mi thay i, c th l pha dao ng ca n sau khi
phn x s thay i mt lng . Tng ng vi vic pha thay i mt lng l th quang
l ca n s thay i mt lng l:

2
L1

'1

2
2
L1
L1 ;

L1 L1

(2-14)

Trong 1 v L1 l pha v quang l khi cha tnh n s thay i pha do phn x, cn

1' v L'1 l pha v quang l ca tia sng khi c tnh n s phn x trn thy tinh l mi trng
chit quang hn mi trng nh sng ti. Trong trng hp phn x trn mi trng c chit
sut nh hn chit sut mi trng nh sng ti, v d ta cho nh sng truyn trong mi trng
thy tinh n mt phn cch gia thy tinh v khng kh ri phn x li, khi pha dao ng v
quang l ca tia phn x khng c g thay i.
Kt lun: Khi phn x trn mi trng chit quang hn mi trng nh sng ti, pha
dao ng ca nh sng thay i mt lng , iu cng tng ng vi vic coi quang l

ca tia phn x di thm mt on .


2
2. 3. 2. Giao thoa gy bi bn mng
a. Bn mng song song (c b dy khng i) - vn cng nghing
n gin ta xt mt bn mng trong
sut c b dy d khng i, chit sut n. (hnh 213.). Ri sng bn bng mt ngun sng rng. Xt
mt chm sng song song chiu ln bn di gc
ti l i. Mi tia ca chm khi chiu ln bn b
tch thnh hai: mt phn phn x ngay mt trn,
cn mt phn i vo bn mng, phn x mt
di, i ln trn v l ra ngoi. Khi ra ngoi khng
kh hai tia phn x song song vi nhau. V t mt
tia tch ra nn hai tia l hai tia kt hp. Nu
dng mt thu knh hi t cho hai tia gp nhau ti
M trong mt phng tiu th chng s giao thoa vi
nhau.

Hnh 2-13.

Ta d dng tnh c hiu quang l ca hai chm tia ny nh sau :

58

L=L1-L2 = (IJK) (IH)

(2-15)

IJK 2nIJ - 2n

(2-16)

d
cos t

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

IH IH IK sin i 2dtg t sin i


2

S hn

(2-17)

xut hin do tia sng phn x ti I.


2

Theo nh lut khc x :

sin i n sin t

(2-18)

IH 2d .n.

Do

Suy ra

1
sin 2 t
L 2nd

cos t cos t

Vi ch l:

cos t 1 sin 2 t 1

sin 2 t

cos t
2

2nd cos t
2
2

(2-19)

sin 2 i 1

1 sin 2 i
n
n2

Ta c hiu quang l ca hai tia l:


L L1 L2 2d n 2 sin 2 i

(2-20)

V d khng i do hiu quang l ch ph thuc gc nghing i.


Nu gc nghing i ca chm c gi tr sao cho: L1 L2 = k th M l im sng, cn
nu gc nghing i tha mn iu kin L1 L2 2k 1

th M l im ti.

Do bn c chiu bng ngun sng rng, cho nn c nhiu chm sng ri ln bn di


cng gc ti i. Xt chm sng c cng gc ti i v nm xung quanh trc ca thu knh. Cc
chm sng ny s hi t ti mt im nm trn ng trn c tm ti F.
Cng sng ti cc im trn ng trn u bng nhau v ng trn chnh l
vn giao thoa. Vi cc gc nghing khc nhau ta c cc vn giao thoa khc nhau. Cc vn
giao thoa l nhng ng trn ng tm v c gi l vn giao thoa cng nghing.
b. Bn mng c b dy thay i - vn cng dy
* Vn cng dy
Xt mt bn mng c b dy thay i, chit sut ca bn l n, t trong khng kh c
chiu sng bi ngun sng rng n sc bc sng t kh xa bn mng.
Mt im S ca ngun sng gi n im K hai tia: tia SK gi trc tip v tia gi sau
khi khc x I v phn x J. T K hai tia s n mt ngi quan st (hnh 2-14).
Nh vy, t mt im S, c hai sng nh sng tch ra ri gp nhau ti L, l hai sng
nh sng kt hp. Chng gy ra hin tng giao thoa ti K. Do ta quan st c vn giao
thoa ngay trn mt bn.

59

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

Gia hai tia giao thoa c hiu quang l bng:

L L1 L2 SI n( IJ JK) - SK
2

S hng

(2-21)

xut hin do tia SK phn x ti K. K IH vung gc vi SK.


2

C th coi SK SI HK
L1 L2 n( IJ JK) - HK -

Do

(2-22)

Gi d l b dy ca bn ti A, i l gc ti.

nIJ JK 2nd .

Ta c

1
cos t

HK 2dtg t sin i
Tng t bn song song, sau mt vi bin i lng gic ta rt ra:

L1 L2 2d n 2 sin 2 i

(2-23)

V rng con ngi ca mt nh cho nn mt


ch nhn c nhng tia nghing t i vi
nhau. Do trong cng thc (2-23), i coi nh
khng i v hiu quang l ch ph thuc vo
b dy d ca bn. Vi nhng im cng b
dy d th hiu quang l l nh nhau v ti cc
im c cng sng ging nhau. Nhng
im ng vi b dy sao cho: L1 L2 = k
s l v tr ca cc vn sng, cn nhng im

c b dy sao cho L1 L2 2k 1 s l v
2
tr ca cc vn ti.
Mi vn ng vi mt gi tr xc nh ca b
dy d, v vy cc vn ny c gi l vn
cng dy.

Hnh 2-14

Nu chiu bn mng bng nh sng trng th mi nh sng n sc s cho mt h thng


vn v trn bn ta s quan st c cc mu sc. l mu sc ca bn mng.
Ta xt vn cng dy trong mt vi trng hp:

60

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

* Giao thoa gy bi nm khng kh


Nm khng kh l mt lp khng kh
hnh nm gii hn bi hai bn thu tinh phng
G1, G2 c dy khng ng k, t nghing
vi nhau mt gc nh .
Chiu chm tia sng n sc song
song, vung gc vi mt G2. Tia sng t
ngun S i vo bn thu tinh G1 ti M chia
lm hai: Mt tia phn x i ra ngoi (tia R1),
mt tia i tip vo nm khng kh, n K trn
G2 v phn x ti ri i ra ngoi (tia R2).
Ti M c s gp nhau ca hai tia phn x ni

Hnh 2-15. Nm khng kh

trn v chng giao thoa vi nhau (hnh 2-15). Trn mt G1 ta nhn c vn giao thoa. Tia R2
(l tia phn x trn mt G2) phi i thm mt on 2d so vi tia R1 (l tia phn x trn mt G1)
v v tia R2 phn x trn mt trn ca G2 (thy tinh) chit quang hn mi trng nh sng n
(khng kh) nn quang l ca tia ny di thm mt on l / 2 . Cn tia R1 phn x trn mt
di ca G1 th khng thay i pha v y l phn x trn mi trng khng kh, km chit
quang hn mi trng nh sng ti (mi trng thy tinh). Hiu quang l ca hai tia l:
L2 L1 2d

(2-24)

d l b dy ca lp khng kh ti M. Cc im ti tho mn iu kin:

L 2 L1 2d
dt k

Do :

(2k 1)
2
2

vi

k = 0,1,2...

(2-25)

Tp hp cc im c cng b dy d ca lp khng kh l mt on thng song song vi cnh


nm, ti cnh nm d = 0, ta c mt vn ti.
Cc im sng tho mn iu kin:

L2 L1 2d
d s (2k 1)

Do :

vi

k =1,2,3...

(2-26)

Vn sng cng l nhng on thng song song vi cnh nm v nm xen k vi vn ti.


* Vn trn Newton
H cho vn trn Newton gm mt thu knh phng - li t tip xc vi mt bn thy
tinh phng (hnh 2-16). Lp khng kh gia thu knh v bn thy tinh l bn mng c b dy

61

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

thay i. Chiu mt chm tia sng n sc song song vung gc vi bn thy tinh. Cc tia sng
phn x mt trn v mt di ca bn mng ny s giao thoa vi nhau, to thnh cc vn giao
thoa c cng dy, nh x mt cong ca thu knh phng- li.
Ging nh nm khng kh, cc tiu vn
giao thoa (vn ti) nm ti v tr ng vi b dy
ca lp khng kh:
dt k

vi k = 0,1,2...

(2-27)

v cc i vn giao thoa (vn sng) nm ti v tr


ng vi b dy lp khng kh:
d s (2k 1)

vi k = 1,2,3...

(2-28)

Do tnh cht i xng ca bn mng nn cc


vn giao thoa l nhng vng trn ng tm gi l
vn trn Newton.
Ta tnh bn knh ca vn th k:
Hnh 2-16

rk2 R 2 (R d k ) 2

trong R l bn knh cong ca thu knh, dk l b dy ca lp khng kh ti vn th k.


V d k R

rk2 2Rd k

do :

Nu vn th k l vn ti, ta c d t k

, do :

rk R . k

(2-29)

Nh vy bn knh ca cc vn ti t l vi cn bc hai ca cc s nguyn lin tip.


2. 4. CC NG DNG CA HIN TNG GIAO THOA
Hin tng giao thoa c ng dng nhiu trong ngnh k thut . Nhng my o da
vo hin tng giao thoa nh sng gi l Giao thoa k. Nh giao thoa k c th pht hin c
nhng bin thin chng vi phn trm bc sng. V vy giao thoa k l mt trong nhng
my o chnh xc nht v php o bng phng php giao thoa nh sng l mt trong nhng
php o chnh xc nht. Giao thoa k c nhiu kiu khc nhau tu theo cng dng ca mi
my,(v d o di cc vt vi chnh xc cao (10-8m n 10-9m), xc nh chit sut ca
cc mi trng trong sut, kim tra phm cht cc mt quang hc (chnh xc n 1/50 ca ),
o bin thin nh ca chiu dy, xc nh chnh xc cc gc rt b gia cc mt phng hoc
o bc sng nh sng,. ). Nguyn l hot ng ca tt c cc loi giao thoa k u ging
nhau l: mt chm sng n sc c phn lm hai chm ring bit nhau, truyn theo hai
62

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

ng khc nhau, sau li gp nhau v cho hnh nh giao thoa. Nguyn tc ny c p dng
trong cc giao thoa k Rayleigh, Michelson, Linhit?, giao thoa k Mach-Zehnder dng trong
chuyn mch quang . Nh vy cc giao thoa k ch khc nhau cch to sng kt hp v mc
ch cng vic. Sau y l mt s ng dng in hnh c bn.
2. 4. 1. Kim tra cc mt knh phng v li
kim tra phng ca mt tm knh hoc cong ca mt mt cu li ngi ta t
chng trn mt tm thy tinh c phng chun to ra mt bn mng hnh nm hoc mt h
cho vn trn Newton. Nu tm knh khng tht phng hoc mt cu khng cong u th cc vn
giao thoa s khng thnh nhng ng song song cch u hoc khng phi l nhng vn trn
ng tm m b mo m ti nhng ch b li.
2. 4. 2. Kh phn x cc mt knh
Khi mt chm sng ri vo mt thu knh hay
lng knh th mt phn nh sng s b phn x tr li.
nh sng phn x ny s lm nh b m. kh phn
x, ngi ta ph ln thy tinh mt mng mng trong
sut, c chiu dy d v chit sut n.
Khi chiu chm tia sng song song theo
phng vung gc vi mng mng th c s giao thoa
ca hai tia phn x, tia th nht phn x trn mt gii
hn gia mng mng-thy tinh v tia th hai phn x
trn mt phn cch gia khng kh-mng mng.

Hnh 2-17.
Kh nh sng phn x

Chit sut n v b dy d ca mng c chn sao cho hai tia phn x ngc pha nhau.
Gi nkk v ntt l chit sut ca khng kh v chit sut ca thy tinh th nkk n ntt . Hiu quang
l ca hai tia phn x tha mn iu kin cc tiu giao thoa:

L 2nd
suy ra:

2nd (2k 1)
2 2
2

d (2k 1)

4n

(2-30)

l bc sng nh sng trong chn khng. dy nh nht ca mng mng l:


d min

4n

(2-31)

Ta thy khng th kh ng thi mi nh sng phn x c bc sng khc nhau. Trong


thc t thng chn b dy d tha mn iu kin (2-31) ng vi nh sng mu xanh lc
0,55m l nh sng nhy nht vi mt ngi.

63

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

2. 4. 3. Giao thoa k Rayleigh (Rly)


Giao thoa k Rayleigh l dng c dng o chit sut (hay nng ) ca cht lng v
cht kh vi chnh xc cao. S ca giao thoa k Rayleigh c trnh by trn hnh 2-18.

Hnh 2-18. Giao thoa k Rayleigh


nh sng n sc t ngun S sau khi qua thu knh hi t L1 v hai khe S1, S2 b tch
thnh hai chm tia song song. Hai chm s giao thoa vi nhau trn mt phng tiu ca thu
knh hi t L2. Nh th knh L ta c th quan st c h thng vn giao thoa .
Trn ng i ca hai chm tia ban u ta t hai ng chiu di d ng cng mt cht
lng chit sut no bit. Ghi h thng vn giao thoa trn mn quan st. Sau thay cht lng
trong mt ng bng cht lng cn nghin cu. V chit sut ca cht lng ng trong hai ng
by gi khc nhau nn hiu quang l ca hai chm tia b thay i mt lng
L L1 L2 (n no )d

(2-32)

n l chit sut ca cht lng cn o. Kt qu l h thng vn giao thoa b dch chuyn. m s


vn giao thoa b dch chuyn ta c th tnh c chit sut ca cht lng. Ta bit rng khi hiu
quang l thay i mt bc sng th h thng vn dch chuyn mt khong vn. Do nu h
thng vn giao thoa dch chuyn m khong vn th hiu quang l s thay i mt khong bng:
L (n no )d m

(2-33)

T suy ra chit sut ca cht lng cn o l:


n

m
no
d

(2-34)

Ta cng c th o chit sut mt cht kh bng cch s dng giao thoa k Rayleigh, so
snh cht kh vi mt cht kh c chit sut bit trc.
2. 4. 4. Giao thoa k Michelson (Maikenxn)
Giao thoa k Michelson dng o di cc vt vi chnh xc cao. Trn hnh 2-19
trnh by m hnh ca giao thoa k Michelson .

64

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

nh sng t ngun S chiu ti bn bn m P


(c trng mt lp bc rt mng) di gc 45o. Ti
y nh sng b tch thnh hai tia: tia phn x truyn
n gng G1 v tia khc x truyn n gng G2.
Sau khi phn x trn hai gng G1 v G2 cc tia sng
truyn ngc tr li, i qua bn P v ti giao thoa
vi nhau knh quan st. V tia th nht ch i qua
bn P mt ln cn tia th hai i qua P ba ln nn
hiu quang l ca hai tia ln, vn giao thoa quan st
c l nhng vn bc cao, nn nhn khng r nt.
khc phc iu ny ngi ta t bn P ging ht
P nhng khng trng bc trn ng i ca tia th
nht.

Hnh 2-19. Giao thoa k Michelson

Nu ta dch chuyn gng G2 song song vi chnh n dc theo tia sng mt on bng
na bc sng th hiu quang l ca hai tia s thay i mt bc sng, kt qu h vn giao thoa
s thay i mt khong vn. Vy mun o chiu di ca mt vt ta dch chuyn gng G2 t
u ny n u kia ca vt v m s vn dch chuyn. Nu h thng vn dch chuyn m
khong vn th chiu di ca vt cn o l:

(2-35)

Giao thoa k Michelson dng o chiu di vi chnh xc rt cao, ti phn trm


micrmet (10-8m).

HNG DN HC CHNG 2
GIAO THOA NH SNG
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c mt s khi nim lm c s ca quang hc sng nh quang l, cng sng,
hm sng nh sng, nh l Malus v nguyn l Huygens.
2. Nm c nh ngha giao thoa nh sng, iu kin c giao thoa nh sng v cch to ra
cc sng kt hp.
3. Kho st hin tng giao thoa nh sng (iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa, v tr vn sng,
vn ti) trong th nghim Young, giao thoa ca nh sng trng,
4. Nm c hin tng giao thoa gy bi bn mng (bn mng c b dy khng i v bn
mng c b dy thay i), nm khng kh, vn trn Newton.
5. ng dng hin tng giao thoa trong o lng, kim tra phng, cong ca cc vt, kh
phn x...

65

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. C s quang hc sng
* Thuyt in t v nh sng ca Maxwell: nh sng l sng in t, sng nh sng l sng
ngang, dao ng sng c biu din bng vect sng E vung gc vi phng truyn sng.
* Quang l : Quang l gia hai im A, B l on ng nh sng truyn c trong chn
khng vi cng khong thi gian t cn thit sng nh sng i c on ng d trong mi
c
trng chit sut n.
L ct d nd
v
* nh l Malus v quang l: Quang l ca cc tia sng gia hai mt trc giao ca mt chm
sng th bng nhau.
* Hm sng nh sng: Xt sng nh sng phng n sc truyn theo phng y vi vn tc v
trong mi trng chit sut n.
Gi s ti O phng trnh ca dao ng sng l: x(O ) A cos t
th ti im M cch O mt on d, phng trnh dao ng sng l: x( M ) A cos( t

2L

L l quang l trn on ng OM, l bc sng nh sng trong chn khng, A l bin


2L
dao ng v
l pha ban u.

* Cng nh sng: Cng sng ti mt im l i lng c tr s bng nng lng


trung bnh ca sng nh sng truyn qua mt n v din tch t vung gc vi phng truyn
sng trong mt n v thi gian.
I = A2
* Nguyn l chng cht cc sng: Khi hai hay nhiu sng nh sng gp nhau th tng sng
ring bit khng b cc sng khc lm cho nhiu lon. Sau khi gp nhau, cc sng nh sng vn
truyn i nh c, cn ti nhng im gp nhau dao ng sng bng tng cc dao ng sng
thnh phn.
* Nguyn l Huygens Fresnel:
- " Mi im trong khng gian nhn c sng sng t ngun sng thc S truyn n
u tr thnh ngun sng th cp pht sng sng v pha trc n".
- Bin v pha ca ngun th cp l bin v pha do ngun thc gy ra ti v tr
ca ngun th cp.

66

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

2. Hin tng giao thoa nh sng


* nh ngha: Hin tng giao thoa nh sng l hin tng gp nhau ca hai hay nhiu sng
nh sng, kt qu l trong trng giao thoa s xut hin nhng vn sng v nhng vn ti xen k
nhau.
* iu kin giao thoa: hin tng giao thoa ch xy ra i vi sng nh sng kt hp, l nhng
sng c cng tn s v hiu pha khng thay i theo thi gian.
Nguyn tc to ra hai sng nh sng kt hp l t mt sng duy nht tch ra thnh hai sng
ring bit.
* Kho st hin tng giao thoa
a. Th nghim Young
b. iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa
- iu kin cc i giao thoa l:
2
(L1 L 2 ) 2k

L1 L 2 k
vi
k 0,1,2...

- iu kin cc tiu giao thoa l:


2
(L1 L 2 ) (2k 1)

L1 L2 (2k 1)

vi k 0,1,2...

c. V tr ca vn giao thoa
* V tr cc vn sng: y s k

vi k 0, 1, 2...

* V tr cc vn ti: yt (2k 1)

D
2

* Khong cch gia hai vn sng k tip:

vi k 0, 1, 2...
i

d. H vn giao thoa khi dng nh sng trng

3. Giao thoa gy bi bn mng


*Th nghim Lloyd :
Kt lun: Khi phn x trn mi trng chit quang
hn mi trng nh sng ti, pha dao ng ca nh
sng thay i mt lng , iu cng tng
ng vi vic coi tia phn x di thm mt on

2
67

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

* Bn mng song song - vn cng nghing:


Ta c hiu quang l ca hai tia l:
L L1 L2 2d n 2 sin 2 i

V d khng i do hiu quang l ch ph


thuc gc nghin i.
Vi cc gc nghing khc nhau ta c cc
vn giao thoa khc nhau. Cc vn giao thoa l
nhng ng trn ng tm v c gi l vn giao
thoa cng nghing
* Bn mng c b dy thay i - vn cng dy
Hiu quang l: L1 L2 2d n 2 sin 2 i

Vi nhng im cng b dy d th hiu quang l l


nh nhau v ti cc im c cng sng ging
nhau, cc vn ny c gi l vn cng dy

- Giao thoa gy bi nm khng kh


Hiu quang l ca hai tia l: L 2 L1 2d

d l b dy ca lp khng kh ti M. Cc im ti
tho mn iu kin:

L 2 L1 2d

(2k 1)
2
2

dt k

vi
k = 0,1,2...
2
Tp hp cc im c cng b dy d ca lp khng kh
l mt on thng song song vi cnh nm. Ti cnh
nm d = 0, ta c mt vn ti.
Cc im sng tho mn iu kin:

L 2 L1 2d

k
2

d s (2k 1)

vi

k =1,2,3...

Vn sng cng l nhng on thng song song vi cnh nm v nm xen k vi vn ti.

68

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

- Vn trn Newton
Cc tiu vn giao thoa (vn ti) nm ti v tr ng vi
b dy ca lp khng kh:
dt k

vi k = 0,1,2...

v cc i vn giao thoa (vn sng) nm ti v tr ng


vi b dy lp khng kh:
d s (2k 1)

Ta

tnh

vi k = 1,2,3...
bn

knh

ca

vn

th

k:

rk R . k
Nh vy bn knh ca cc vn ti t l vi cn bc hai ca cc s nguyn lin tip.
4. ng dng ca hin tng giao thoa
* Kim tra cc mt knh phng v li bi s giao thoa gy bi bn mng v vn cng dy
* Kh phn x cc mt knh bi s giao thoa gy bi mng mng
* Giao thoa k Rayleigh xc nh chit sut ca mi trng.
* Giao thoa k Michelson: o di nhng vt c kch thc rt nh (tm c bc smg snh
sng)
III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Nu nh ngha hin tng giao thoa nh sng, iu kin giao thoa nh sng. Th no l sng
nh sng kt hp ?
2. Tm iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa. Xc nh v tr cc vn giao thoa cc i v cc
tiu, b rng ca cc vn giao thoa.
3. M t hin tng giao thoa khi dng nh sng trng.
4. Trnh by hin tng giao thoa gy bi bn mng c b dy thay i v bn mng c b dy
khng i.
5. Trnh by hin tng giao thoa cho bi nm khng kh v ng dng.
6. Trnh by hin tng giao thoa cho bi h vn trn Newton v ng dng.
7. M t v nu ng dng ca giao thoa k Rayleigh.

8. M t v nu ng dng ca giao thoa k Milchelson.

69

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 1mm, c chiu bng nh sng n sc
c bc sng = 0,6m. Mn quan st c t cch mt phng cha hai khe mt on D=2m.
a.Tm khong vn giao thoa.
b. Xc nh v tr ca ba vn sng u tin ( coi vn sng trung tm l vn sng bc
khng).
c. Xc nh dch ca h vn giao thoa trn mn quan st nu trc mt trong hai khe
t mt bn mng song song, trong sut c b dy e =2m, chit sut n = 1,5.
Bi gii
a. Khong vn giao thoa: i

0,6.10 6.2
1,2.10 3 m
3
10

b. V tr ca vn sng c xc nh bi cng thc:


ys

kD
, k 0, 1, 2 , 3...

2D
0,6.10 6.2
y s1

1,2.10 3 m , y s 2
2,4.10 3 m ;
3

10

ys 3

3D
3,6.10 3 m

c. dch chuyn ca h vn:


Khi t bn mng trong sut trc mt trong hai khe, hiu quang l gia cc tia sng t
hai khe n mt im trn mn thay i. Mun bit h vn dch chuyn nh th no, ta phi tnh
hiu quang l ca hai tia sng ti mt im trn mn.

T hnh v ta c hiu quang l:

L1 L2 r1 e ne r2 r1 r2 n 1e
M r1 r2

y
,
D

do L1 L 2

70

y
(n 1)e V tr vn sng c xc nh bi iu kin:
D

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

L1 L2

y s
kD n 1eD
n 1e k y s

V tr vn ti c xc nh bi iu kin:
y
D
D n 1eD
L1 L 2 t n 1e 2k 1
yt 2k 1

D
2
2

Mt khc: y s

2k 1D
kD
, yt

H vn dch chuyn mt khong: y

e(n 1).D 2.10 6.0,5.2

2.10 3 m
3

10

Th d 2: Mt chm sng song song c bc sng = 0,6m chiu vung gc vi mt nm


khng kh. Tm gc nghing ca nm. Cho bit rng ca 10 khong vn k tip mt trn
ca nm bng b = 10mm.
Bi gii:

Hiu quang l hai tia:

L 2d

2k 1

2
dk

dy ca nm khng kh ti v tr vn ti th k:

k
, k 0,1, 2, 3...
2

dy ca nm khng kh ti v tr vn ti th k+10:
d k 10

k 10 sin d k 10 d k
I1 I 2

k 10 k
2
b

2 5 3.10 4 rad
b

Th d 3: Mt chm sng n sc song song chiu vung gc vi mt phng ca bn mng


khng kh nm gia bn thu tinh phng t tip xc vi mt cong ca thu knh phng - li.
Bn knh ca mt li thu knh l R = 6,4m. Quan st h vn trn Newton trong chm sng phn
x, ngi ta o c bn knh ca hai vn ti k tip ln lt l 4,0mm v 4,38mm. Xc nh
bc sng ca chm sng chiu ti v s th t ca cc vn ni trn.
Bi gii:
Bn knh ca hai vn ti k tip th k v k + 1 trong h vn trn Newton c xc nh
bi cng thc:

rk kR ,

rk 1

k 1R
71

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

Bc sng chm nh sng chiu ti:

rk21 rk2
R

2
2

4,38.10 3 4.10 3

0,497.10 6 m

6,4

S th t ca vn ti th k:
k

rk2
R

4.103 2

6,4.0,497.10 6

S th t ca vn ti k tip l 6.
Bi tp t gii
1. Khong cch gia hai khe trong my giao thoa Young = 1mm khong cch gia mn quan
st ti mt phng cha hai khe D =3m. Khi ton b h thng t trong khng kh. Ngi ta o
c khong cch gia hai vn sng lin tip i= 1,5mm.
a) Tm bc sng ca nh sng ti
b) Xc nh v tr ca vn sng th ba v vn ti th t.
c) t trc mt trong hai khe sng mt bn mng phng c hai mt song song, chit
sut n = 1,5, b dy e = 10m. Xc nh dch chuyn ca h thng vn giao thoa trn mn
quan st.
d) Trong cu hi c) nu y nc (chit sut n = 1,33) vo khong cch cch gia
mn quan st v mt phng cha khe th h thng vn giao thoa c g thay i? Hy tnh khong
cch gia hai vn sng lin tip trong trng hp ny.
2. Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 1mm, c chiu bng nh sng n sc c bc
sng cha bit. Mn quan st c t cch mt phng cha hai khe mt on D = 2m. Khong
cch t vn sng th nht n vn sng th by l 7,2mm. Tm:
a) Bc sng ca nh sng chiu ti.
b) V tr ca vn ti th ba v vn sng th t.
c) dch chuyn ca h vn giao thoa trn mn quan st, nu t trc mt trong hai
khe mt bn mng song song, trong sut, chit sut n =1,5, b dy e = 0,02mm.
3. Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 2mm, c chiu bng nh sng n sc c bc
sng = 0,6m. Mn quan st c t cch mt phng cha hai khe mt on D = 1m.
a) Tm v tr vn sng th t v vn ti th nm.
b) t trc mt trong hai khe mt bn mng song song, trong sut, chit sut n = 1,5,
h vn giao thoa trn mn quan st dch mt khong 2mm. Tm b dy ca bn mng.
4. Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 1mm, c chiu bng nh sng n sc bc
sng = 0,5m. Mn quan st c t cch mt phng cha hai khe mt on D = 2m.

72

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

a) Tm khong vn giao thoa.


b) t trc mt trong hai khe mt bn mng song song, trong sut, b dy e = 12m,
h vn giao thoa trn mn quan st dch mt khong 6mm. Tm chit sut ca bn mng.
5. Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 1mm, c chiu bng nh sng n sc c bc
sng cha bit. Khi h thng t trong khng kh cho khong cch gia hai vn sng lin tip i
= 0,6mm. Mn quan st c t cch mt phng cha hai khe D = 1m.
a) Tm bc sng ca nh sng chiu ti.
b) Nu vo khong gia mn quan st v mt phng cha hai khe mt cht lng th
khong cch gia hai vn sng lin tip i/ = 0,45mm. Tm chit sut ca cht lng.
6. Hai khe Young cch nhau mt khong = 1,2 mm, mn quan st c t cch mt phng
cha hai khe D = 1,2m. Chiu nh sng n sc mu xanh c bc sng 1 = 0,56.10-6 m.
a) H thng khe t trong khng kh. Nu thay nh sng n sc mu xanh 1 = 0,56.10-6
m trn bng mt nh sng n sc mu c bc sng 2 = 0,7.10-6 m th rng ca mi
khong vn mu tng ln bao nhiu ln so vi khong vn mu xanh
b) Cng hi nh trn nu h thng khe t trong cht lng c chit sut n
7. Mt chm sng trng c ri vung gc vi bn thu tinh mng hai mt song song, b dy e
= 0,4 m, chit sut n = 1,5. Hi trong phm vi quan ph thy c ca chm nh sng trng
(bc sng t 0,4 n 0,7 m), nhng chm tia phn chiu c bc sng no s c tng
cng?
8. o chit sut ca kh Clo, ngi ta lm th nghim sau: Trn ng i ca chm tia sng
do mt trong hai khe ca my giao thoa Young pht ra. Ngi ta t mt ng thy tinh di d=
2cm c y phng v song song vi nhau.Lc u trong ng cha khng kh, sau thay khng
kh bng kh Clo, ngi ta quan st thy h thng vn giao thoa dch chuyn i mt on bng
20 ln khong cch gia hai vn sng lin tip (tc l 20 ln khong vn). Ton b th nghim
c thc hin trong bung yn tnh v c gi mt nhit khng i. My giao thoa (giao
thoa k Rayleigh) c chiu bng nh sng vng Natri c bc sng = 0,589 m. Chit sut
ca khng kh n =1,000276. Tm chit sut ca kh Clo.
9. Trn mt ca mt bn thy tinh phng chit sut n = 1,5, ngi ta ph mt mng mng trong
sut chit sut n= 1,4. Chiu mt chm sng n sc c bc sng o = 0,6 m theo phng
vung gc vi mt bn thy tinh. Khng kh c chit sut no= 1. Hy xc nh dy nh nht
ca mng mng cc cp tia sng phn x trn hai mt ca mng mng giao thoa vi nhau v
cho cng sng cc tiu.
10. lm gim s mt mt nh sng do phn chiu trn mt tm thu tinh ngi ta ph ln
thu tinh mt lp mng cht c chit sut n' n , trong n l chit sut ca thy tinh. Trong
trng hp ny, bin ca nhng dao ng sng phn x t hai mt ca lp mng s bng
nhau. Hi b dy nh nht ca lp mng mng bng bao nhiu kh nng phn x ca thy
tinh theo hng php tuyn s bng 0 i vi nh sng c bc sng = 0,6m?

73

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

11. Mt lp mng l lng trong khng kh c dy 0,42 m v chit sut n = 1,5 c ri


sang bng nh sng trng ti p vung gc vo mt lp mng. Tm bc sng ca nh sng
kh kin ( 0,45 m 0,75 m) phn x t hai mt ca lp mng cho cc i giao thoa
12. Mt chm nh sng n sc, song song c chiu vung gc vi mt di ca nm thy
tinh chit sut n = 1,5. Ti im M cch cnh nm mt khong = 30mm, c dy d = 15m
quan st thy vn ti bc 70 (coi cnh nm l vn ti bc khng). Tm gc nghing ca nm v
bc sng nh sng chiu ti.
13. Mt chm nh sng n sc c bc sng 1 = 0,6.10-6 m chiu vung gc vi mt di ca
bn mng nm khng kh. Tm gc nghing ca bn mng ny. Cho bit rng ca 10 khong
vn k tip l 10 mm.
14. Mt chm nh sng n sc c bc sng cha bit chiu vung gc vi mt di ca bn
mng nm khng kh c gc nghing a =1' . Cho bit rng ca 10 khong vn k tip l 10
mm. Tm bc sng nh sng chiu vo.
15. Mt chm nh sng n sc song song c bc sng = 0,5m chiu vung gc vi mt
mt ca nm khng kh. Quan st trong nh sng phn x, ngi ta o c rng ca mi
vn giao thoa bng i = 0,5mm.
a) Xc nh gc nghing ca nm.
b) Chiu ng thi vo mt nm khng kh hai chm tia sng n sc c bc sng ln
lt l 1 0,5m , 2 0,6m . Tm v tr ti cc vn ti cho bi hai chm sng ni trn
trng nhau. Coi cnh ca bn mng nm khng kh l vn ti bc khng.
16. Mt bn mng nm thu tinh c gc nghing 2 v chit sut n = 1,52. Chiu mt chm
sng n sc song song vung gc vi mt mt ca bn. Xc nh bc sng ca chm sng
n sc nu khong cch gia hai vn ti k tip bng i = 0,3mm.
17. Xt mt h thng cho vn trn Newton. Xc nh b dy ca lp khng kh ta quan st
thy vn sng u tin, bit rng nh sng ti c bc sng = 0,6m. Coi tm ca h vn trn
Newton l vn s 0.
18. Cho mt chm sng n sc song song bc sng = 0,6m, chiu vung gc vi mt
phng ca bn mng khng kh nm gia bn thu tinh phng t tip xc vi mt cong ca mt
thu knh phng - li. Tm b dy ca lp khng kh ti v tr vn ti th t ca chm tia phn
x. Coi tm ca h vn trn Newton l vn s 0.
19. Cho mt chm sng n sc song song chiu vung gc vi mt phng ca bn mng khng
kh nm gia bn thu tinh phng t tip xc vi mt cong ca mt thu knh phng - li. Bn
knh mt li thu knh l R = 8,6m. Quan st h vn trn Newton qua chm sng phn x v o
c bn knh vn ti th t l r4 = 4,5mm. Xc nh bc sng ca chm sng n sc. Coi
tm ca h vn trn Newton l vn s 0.
20. Trong th nghim vn trn Newton, thu knh c bn knh cong R = 5m, bn knh ca vn
sng ngoi cng l 10mm. Hi c bao nhiu vn sng nhn thy c khi bc sng ca nh
sng chiu ti l 589nm, h thng t trong cht lng c n =1,4, thu tinh c chit sut 1,6.
74

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

21. Cho mt chm sng n sc song song chiu vung gc vi mt phng ca bn mng khng
kh nm gia bn thu tinh phng t tip xc vi mt cong ca mt thu knh phng - li. Bn
knh mt li thu knh l R = 15m. Quan st h vn trn Newton qua chm sng phn x v o
c khong cch gia vn ti th t v vn ti th hai mi lm bng 9mm. Xc nh bc
sng ca chm sng n sc. Coi tm ca h vn trn Newton l vn s 0.
22. Mt chm sng n sc c bc sng = 0.6 m c ri vung gc vi mt nm thu tinh
(chit sut n = 1,5). Xc nh gc nghing ca nm. Bit rng s vn giao thoa cha trong
khong l = 1 cm l N = 10.
23. Mt thu knh c mt mt phng v mt mt li, vi mt cu c bn knh cong R = 12,5m,
c t trn mt bn thy tinh phng. nh ca mt cu khng tip xc vi bn thy tinh
phng v c mt ht bi. Ngi ta o c cc ng knh ca vn trn ti Newton th 10 v
th 15 trong nh sng phn chiu ln lt bng D1=10mm v D2=15mm. Xc nh bc sng
nh sng dng trong th nghim.
24. Hai khe Yong c chiu bng nh sng n sc bc sng 480nm. Sau khe th nht t
tm thy tinh mng chit sut 1,4, cn sau khe th hai t tm thy tinh mng chit sut 1,7. V
tr vn sng chnh gia trc khi t cc tm thy tinh th by gi l v tr vn sng th nm.
Xc nh dy ca tm thy tinh (cho hai tm thy tinh dy nh nhau).
25. Trong mt nm khng kh to bi hai tm thy tinh phng t tip xc nhau, ngi ta quan
st c 4001 vn ti khi quan st vi nh sng n sc phn x. Khi khng kh c ht ht
khi nm th ch quan st thy 4000 vn ti. Tnh chit sut ca khng kh.
26. Trong h thng ca vn trn Newton, ngi ta y mt cht lng c chit sut nh hn
chit sut ca thy tinh vo khe gia thu knh thy tinh v bn thy tinh phng. Xc nh chit
sut ca cht lng nu ta quan st vn phn chiu v thy bn knh ca vn ti th 3 bng 3,65
mm. Cho bn knh cong ca thu knh l R = 10 m, bc sng ca nh sng ti = 0,589 m,
vn ti tm l vn ti s 0 (k = 0).
27. Mt cu ca mt thu knh mt mt phng, mt mt li c t tip xc vi mt bn thy
tinh phng. Chit sut ca thu knh v ca bn thy tinh ln lt bng n 1 = 1,5 v n2 = 1,7.
Bn knh cong ca mt cu ca thu knh l R = 100 cm., khong khng gian gia thu knh v
bn phng cha y mt cht c chit sut n = 1,63. Xc nh bn knh ca vn ti Newton th
5 nu quan st vn giao thoa bng nh sngphn x. Cho bc sng ca nh sng = 0,5 m.
28. Ngi ta dng giao thoa k Michelson o dn n di ca mt vt. nh sng n sc
dng trong th nghim c bc sng = 0,6.10-6m. Khi dch chuyn gng di ng t v tr ban
u (ng vi lc vt cha b nung nng) n v tr cui (ng vi lc sau khi vt b nung
nng), ngi ta quan st thy c 5 vch dch chuyn trong knh quan st. Hi sau khi dn n vt
di thm bao nhiu?
29. Trong th nghim dng giao thoa k Michelson, khi dch chuyn gng di ng mt khong
L = 0,161mm, ngi ta quan st thy hnh giao thoa dch i 500 vn. Tm bc sng ca nh
sng dng trong th nghim.

75

Chng 2: Giao thoa nh sng

30. o chit sut ca kh Amoniac, trn ng i ca mt chm tia trong giao thoa k
Michelson, ngi ta t mt ng rt chn khng c di l = 14 cm, u ng c nt
kn bi cc bn thy tinh phng mt song song. Khi bm y kh Amoniac vo ng, ngi ta
thy hnh giao thoa dch i 180 vn. Tm chit sut ca khAmoniac, bit rng nh sng dng
trong th nghim c bc sng = 0,59 m.

76

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

CHNG 3

NHIU X NH SNG
Ging nh hin tng giao thoa nh sng, hin tng nhiu x cng l mt hin tng
chung ca sng, c xut hin khi mt phn mt sng b che khut. Nu gp mt vt cn trong
sut hoc c, mt vng ca mt sng b bin i v bin hoc pha, th khi nhiu x s
xy ra. Nhng phn khc nhau ca mt sng truyn vt khi vt cn s giao thoa vi nhau gy
nn s phn b v mt nng lng c th c gi l bc tranh nhiu x. Tuy nhin
thuyt sng c hon chnh, n cn phi gii thch cc nh lut c bn ca quang hnh hc v
s truyn thng, s phn x, s khc x nh sng. T hin tng nhiu x nh sng, nguyn l
Huygens Fresnel c khng nh. Bng nguyn l Huygens Fresnel cng vi phng php
i cu Fresnel (hay tng ca phng php ny) gii quyt trn vn bi ton v nhiu x
ca sng cu cng nh nhiu x ca sng phng nh sng qua khe hp v nhiu x nh sng qua
cch t, lm c s gii thch hin tng nhiu x ca cch t truyn qua v cch t phn x
Bragg. Cch t truyn qua v cch t phn x Bragg. l hai loi cch t quang c bn nht ang
c ng dng trong thc t. c bit, kh ph bin l cch t phn x trong cc b lc tn s,
b ghp knh xen/r ADM v trong chuyn mch quang. V d cch t phn x Bragg hnh
thnh trn c s ca cc hiu ng in - quang xy ra trong tinh th LiNbO3. Cng t hin tng
nhiu x cho thy quang hnh hc ch l mt trng hp ring ca quang hc sng.
3. 1. HIN TNG NHIU X NH SNG
nh sng t ngun S truyn qua mt l trn nh
trn mn P. Sau P t mn quan st E, trn mn E ta nhn
c hnh trn sng ng knh BD ng dng vi l
trn BD. Theo nh lut truyn thng ca nh sng, nu
thu nh l trn P th hnh trn sng trn mn E nh li.
Thc nghim chng t rng khi thu nh l trn n mt
mc no th trn mn E xut hin nhng vn trn sng
ti xen k nhau. Trong vng ti hnh hc ( ngoi BD ) ta

Hnh 3-1. Hin tng nhiu x


nh sng

cng nhn c vn sng v trong vng sng hnh hc (vng BD) cng c vn ti. Ti C c
th nhn c im ti hay sng ph thuc vo kch thc ca l trn v khong cch t mn E
n mn P. Nh vy nh sng khi i qua l trn b lch khi phng truyn thng. Hin
tng ny cng xy ra khi cho nh truyn qua l hp hoc mp chn hoc n gn mp bin
hay vt cn c kch thc nh cng c bc sng ca nh sng chiu ti. Trong cc hin tng
trn nguyn k truyn thng ca nh sng khng cn nghim ng v ngi ta gi chng l
hin tng nhiu x nh sng.

77

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

* nh ngha: Hin tng tia sng b lch khi phng truyn thng khi i gn cc chng
ngi vt c kch thc nh c gi l hin tng nhiu x nh sng.
V phng din Vt l khng c s khc bit ln gia giao thoa v nhiu x. Ngi ta
thng ni s giao thoa khi xem xt s chng cht ca ch mt vi sng v nhiu x l khi phi
s l mt s ln sng. Mc d vy, giao thoa nhiu chm tia v nhiu x bi cch t vn c
xem l hai trng hp khc nhau.
* Nguyn l Huygens - Fresnel
Trc khi c thuyt sng in t v nh sng, Fresnel v Huygens a ra l thuyt gii
thch y hin tng nhiu x nh sng. xy dng l thuyt truyn sng nh sng
Christian Huygens (nh Vt l ngi H Lan 1629 -1695) a ra nguyn l (cho n nay
vn gi l nguyn l Huygens) pht biu nh sau: Mi im ca mt sng c th xem l mt
ngun pht sng cu th cp. Ti mt thi im sau mt sng s l bao hnh ca tt c cc
sng th cp ny. Cc sng cu th cp truyn i vi vn tc v tn s nh sng s cp ti mi
im trong khng gian. Nguyn l ny cha cp n bin v pha ca sng nn khng th
gii thch cc hin tng nhiu x. gii quyt bi ton v nhiu x, Fresnel b sung thm
quan nim giao thoa (gi l b Fresnel) v hnh thnh mt nguyn l c gi l nguyn l
Huygens Fresnel. Nguyn l ny c pht biu nh sau
- Mi im trong khng gian c sng nh sng t ngun thc gi n u tr thnh
ngun sng th cp pht sng nh sng v pha trc.
- Bin v pha ca ngun th cp l bin v pha do ngun thc gy ra ti v tr ca
ngun th cp.

Hnh 3-2. Gii thch nh tnh hin tng nhiu x


Nh c trnh by trong chng 1, da vo nguyn l Huygens-Fresnel c th gii thch
nh tnh hin tng nhiu x nh sng (Theo nguyn l HuygensFresnel, khi nh sng chiu
n l trn, cc im trn l trn u tr thnh ngun th cp pht sng cu th cp. Bao hnh ca
cc mt sng cu th cp l mt sng. mp ca l trn mt sng b un cong v tia sng lun
vung gc vi mt sng, do mp bin cc tia sng b i phng so vi phng ca sng ti
(hnh 3-2)

78

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

3. 2. NHIU X NH SNG CA SNG CU


Theo nguyn l Huygens Fresnel, mi ngun sng th cp trn mt l trn BD c bin
v pha dao ng ng bng bin v pha dao ng do ngun sng S gy ra ti im .
Dao ng sng ti mi im trn mn nh E s bng tng cc dao ng sng do nhng ngun
sng th cp trn l trn BD gy ra ti im . T biu thc ca hm sng, da vo nguyn l
Huygens-Fresnel ngi ta c th tm c biu thc nh lng ca dao ng sng ti mt im
M trn mn hnh E, nhng vic tnh ton kh phc tp v phi tnh tch phn. Fresnel a ra
mt phng php tnh n gin gi l phng php i cu Fresnel.
3. 2. 1. Phng php i cu Fresnel
a. nh ngha:
Xt ngun sng im S pht nh sng n sc v im c chiu sng M. Ly S lm
tm dng mt cu bao quanh S, bn knh R < SM. t MB = b. Ly M lm tm v cc mt

... , trong l bc sng do ngun


2
2
S pht ra. Cc mt cu 0 , 1, 2 ... chia mt cu thnh cc i gi l i cu Fresnel.
cu 0 , 1 , 2 ... c bn knh ln lt l b, b

, b2

Hnh 3-3. i cu Fresnel


b. Tnh cht ca i cu Fresnel: Vi cch dng nh trn, ngi ta chng minh c rng:
- Din tch cc i cu bng nhau v bng:

Rb
Rb

(3-1)

Rb
k
vi k = 1, 2, 3...
(3-2)
Rb
Theo nguyn l Huygens, mi i cu tr thnh ngun sng th cp pht nh sng ti
im M. Gi ak l bin dao ng sng do i cu th k gy ra ti M. Khi k tng, cc i cu
cng xa im M v gc nghing tng (hnh 3-3), do ak gim: a1 > a2 > a3 ... Khi k kh ln
th ak 0 .
- Bn knh rk ca i cu th k bng:

rk

V khong cch t i cu n im M v gc nghing tng rt chm nn ak gim chm, ta c


th coi ak do i cu th k gy ra l trung bnh cng ca ak-1 v ak+1:
79

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

1
ak (ak 1 ak 1 )
2

(3-3)

Khong cch ca hai i cu k tip ti im M khc nhau / 2 . Cc i cu u nm


trn mt sng , ngha l pha dao ng ca tt c cc im trn mi i cu u nh nhau. Kt
qu, hiu pha ca hai dao ng sng do hai i cu k tip gy ra ti M l:

( L1 L2 )

2
.
2

(3-4)

Nh vy hai dao ng sng ngc pha nhau nn chng s kh ln nhau. V M kh


xa mt , ta coi cc dao ng sng do cc i cu gy ra ti M cng phng, do dao ng
sng tng hp do cc i gy ra ti M s l:

a a1 a2 a3 a4 ... an

(3-5)

Trong an l bin dao ng sng ca i cu th n gi n M v du + nu i n


l l v du - nu i n l chn. Ta c th vit:

an

a a
a
a a
2
a 1 1 a2 3 3 a4 5 ...
a
a
2 2
2 2
2
n1 an n
2
2
a a
Kt hp vi (3-3) ta c:
a 1 n
2 2
Ly du + nu i n l l v du - nu i n l chn.

(3-6)

Sau y chng ta s s dng phng php i cu Fresnel kho st hin tng nhiu
x ca nh sng qua l trn, a trn .
3. 2. 2. Nhiu x qua l trn
Xt ngun sng im S, pht nh sng n sc qua
l trn AB trn mn chn P n im M, S v M nm trn
trc ca l trn. Ly S lm tm dng mt cu ta vo l
trn AB. Ly M lm tm v cc i cu Fresnel trn mt .
Gi s l cha n i cu. T (3-6) ta c bin dao ng
a a
sng tng hp ti M l:
a 1 n
2
2
(du + nu i n l l v du - nu i n l chn).

Hnh 3-4. Nhiu x qua l trn

Ta xt cc trng hp sau:
* Khi khng c mn chn P hoc kch thc l trn rt ln: n , a n 0 nn cng
sng ti M:

80

I0 a2

a12
4

(3-7)

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

* Nu l cha s l i cu :

a1 a n

2
2

a a
I 1 n
2 2

(3-8)

I > I0, im M sng hn khi khng c mn P. c bit nu l cha mt i cu

a1 a1
a1
2 2

I a12 4I 0

(3-9)

Cng sng gp 4 ln so vi khi khng c l trn, nh vy im M rt sng.


* Nu l cha s chn i cu:

a1 a n

2 2

a a
I 1 n
2 2

(3-10)
2

(3-11)

I < I0, im M ti hn khi khng c l trn. Nu l trn cha hai i cu th a

a1 a 2

0,
2 2

do I = 0, im M ti nht.
Tm li im M c th sng hn hoc ti hn so vi khi khng c l trn ty theo kch
thc ca l v v tr ca mn quan st.
3. 2. 3. Nhiu x qua mt a trn
Gia ngun sng S v im M c mt
a trn chn sng bn knh ro. Gi s a che
khut m i cu Fresnel u tin. Bin
dao ng ti M l:
a am1 am2 am3 ....

am1 am1
a

am2 m3 ...
2
2
2

T (3-3) suy ra:

Hnh 3-5. Nhiu x qua mt a trn

a
a m1
2

(3-12)

Nu a ch che t i cu th am+1 khng khc a1 l my, do cng sng ti M


cng ging nh trng hp khng c chng ngi vt gia S v M. Trong trng hp a che
nhiu i cu th am+1 0 do cng sng ti M bng khng.

81

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

3. 3. NHIU X GY BI SNG PHNG- CCH T NHIU X


3. 3. 1. Nhiu x nh sng ca sng phng qua mt khe hp
to ra chm sng song song, ngi ta t ngun sng S ti tiu im ca thu knh
hi t Lo. Chiu chm sng n sc song song bc sng vo khe hp c b rng b (hnh 36). Sau khi i qua khe hp, tia sng s b nhiu x theo nhiu phng. Tch cc tia nhiu x theo
mt phng no chng s gp nhau v cng. Mun quan st nh nhiu x chng ta s
dng thu knh hi t L, chm tia nhiu x s hi t ti im M trn mt phng tiu ca thu
knh hi t L. Vi cc gi tr khc nhau chm nhiu x s hi t ti cc im khc nhau. Ty
theo gi tr ca im M c th sng hoc ti. Nhng im sng ti ny nm dc trn ng
thng vung gc vi chiu di khe hp v c gi l cc cc i v cc tiu nhiu x.
V nh sng gi n khe l sng phng
nn mt phng khe l mt sng, cc sng th
cp trn mt phng khe dao ng cng pha. Xt
cc tia nhiu x theo phng =0, chng hi t
ti im F. Mt phng khe v mt quan st l hai
mt trc giao do theo nh l Malus, cc tia
sng gi t mt phng khe ti im F c quang

Hnh 3-6. Nhiu x qua mt khe hp

l bng nhau v dao ng cng pha nn chng tng cng nhau. im F rt sng v c gi l
cc i gia.
Xt trng hp 0 . p dng tng ca phng php i cu Fresnel ta v cc mt
phng 0 , 1, 2 ,... vung gc vi chm tia nhiu x v cch u nhau mt khong /2, chng
s chia mt khe thnh cc di sng nm song song vi b rng ca khe hp. B rng ca mi di
l

2 sin

v s di trn khe s l:

b 2b sin

(3-13)

Theo nguyn l Huygens, nhng di ny l ngun sng th cp dao ng cng pha (v


nm trn cng mt mt sng) v pht nh sng n im M. V quang l ca hai tia sng t hai
di k tip n im M khc nhau /2 nn dao ng sng do hai di k tip gi ti M ngc
pha nhau v chng s kh nhau. Kt qu l nu khe cha s chn di (N = 2k) th dao ng sng
do tng cp di k tip gy ra ti M s kh ln nhau v im M s ti v l cc tiu nhiu x.
iu kin im M ti l:
N
sin k

hay

82

2b sin

2k

vi k 1, 2, 3...

(3-14)

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

Nu khe cha mt s l di (N = 2k+1) th dao ng sng do tng cp di k tip gi ti


im M s kh ln nhau, cn dao ng sng do di cui cng gi ti th khng b kh. Kt qu
im M s sng v c gi l cc i nhiu x bc k. Cng sng ca cc cc i ny nh
hn rt nhiu so vi cc i gia. iu kin im M sng l:

N
hay

sin (2k 1)

2b sin

2k 1

vi k 1, 2, 3...

2b

(3-15)

Tm li ta c cc iu kin cc i, cc tiu nhiu x qua mt khe hp nh sau:


- Cc i gia (k=0) :

sin 0

- Cc tiu nhiu x :

sin k

- Cc i nhiu x :

sin k 3 , 5 , ...
2 b
2b
2b

th phn b cng sng


trn mn quan st cho bi hnh 3-7. Nhn
xt thy cc cc i nhiu x bc k =
1,2,3...nm xen gia cc cc tiu nhiu
x v phn b i xng hai bn cc i
gia. Cc i gia c b rng gp i cc
cc i khc. S d nh vy l do cc
cc i I1 v I2 ch dao ng ca mt di
gy ra, cn cng sng cc i gia I0
l do cc sng cng pha ca ton b mt
phng khe gy ra. Mt cch gn ng c
th coi ton b nh sng tp trung cc
i gia.

, 2 , 3 ,...
b
b
b

Hnh 3-7. Hnh nhiu x ca sng phng


qua mt khe hp

T cng thc (3-14) v (3-15) cho thy v tr im sng v ti khng ph thuc vo v tr


ca khe. Nu dch chuyn khe song song vi chnh n (gi c nh thu knh L v mn quan
st) th hnh nhiu x khng thay i.
Nghin cu nhiu x ca sng phng qua khe hp bng phng php biu : chia mt

phng khe thnh cc di hp ging nhau. Dao ng sng A ca mi di c bin khng i


cn pha chm hn so vi di trc n mt lng , ph thuc vo gc lch xc nh hng
truyn n im quan st M.

83

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

Khi = 0, hiu pha = 0 v biu vect c dng hnh 3-8a. Cc vc t dao ng

sng A nm trn mt ng thng , do bin dao ng sng tng cng: a0 n A .


ch l bin dao ng sng cc i gia. Khi tho mn iu kin : bsin = th cc dao

ng t cc b ca khe khc nhau 2 v cc vct A hp thnh mt vng trn chiu di a0


(hnh 3-8b). Dao ng tng cng c bin bng khng v sin = /b chnh l cc tiu th
nht.
Khi tho mn iu kin : bsin = 3/2 th
cc dao ng t cc b ca khe khc nhau 3 v cc

vct A hp thnh mt vng trn ri vi chiu


di tng cng bng a0. Dao ng tng cng c bin
2
a1
a0 (hnh 3-8c) chnh l cc i th nht.
3
Cng cc i th nht:
2

2
2
I 1 a0 a02 I 0 0,045I 0
3
3
3

Hnh 3-8. Nghin cu nhiu x qua


khe hp bng phng php th

Bng cch l lun tng t ta thy khi tng s quan st c cc cc i v cc cc


tiu khc. Cng ca cc cc i tun theo h thc sau y:
2

2 2 2
I 0 : I1 : I 2 : I 3 : ... 1 : : :
: ... 1 : 0,045 : 0,016 : 0,008 : ...
3 5 7
3. 3. 2. Nhiu x ca sng phng qua nhiu khe hp - cch t nhiu x
*Cch t phng : l mt h nhiu khe hp ging nhau c rng b, nm song song cch u
trn cng mt mt phng. (hnh 3-9)
Khong cch d gia hai khe k tip c gi
l chu k ca cch t.
S khe hp trn mt n v chiu di:
1
N c gi l hng s cch t.
d
Hnh 3-9. Cch t phng
Xt mt cch t phng c N khe hp. B rng ca mt khe l b, chu k ca cch t l d. Chiu

chm sng n sc song song bc sng vung gc vi mt cch t. V cc khe c th coi l


ngun kt hp, do ngoi hin tng nhiu x gy bi mt khe cn c hin tng giao thoa
gy bi cc khe. Do nh nhiu x qua cch t s phc tp hn nhiu so vi nh nhiu x qua
mt khe hp. Ta s kho st nh nhiu x qua cch t (hnh 3-10).

84

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

- Tt c N khe hp u cho cc tiu nhiu x ti nhng im trn mn nh tha mn iu kin:

vi k = 1,2,3...
(3-16)
sin k
b
Nhng cc tiu ny c gi l cc tiu chnh.

Hnh 3-10. Nhiu x qua cch t


+ Xt phn b cng sng gia hai cc tiu chnh:
Hiu quang l ca hai tia sng xut pht t hai khe k tip n im M l
L1 L 2 d sin . Nu hiu quang l bng s nguyn ln bc sng L1 L 2 d sin m
th dao ng sng do hai tia gy ra ti M cng pha v tng cng ln nhau. Kt qu im M
sng. Cc im c gi l cc i chnh. V tr cc cc i chnh l:
sin m

vi m = 0, 1, 2, 3...

(3-17)

S nguyn m l bc ca cc i
chnh. Cc i chnh gia (m = 0) nm
ti tiu im F ca thu knh. V d > b
nn gia hai cc tiu chnh c th c
nhiu cc i chnh.
V d: k=1 v
nn m k

3 . Do m k
d
b
b

d
3 , ngha l m=0,1, 2
b

Hnh 3-11. nh nhiu x qua ba khe hp

Nh vy gia hai cc tiu chnh c 5 cc i chnh (hnh 3-11).


+ Xt phn b cng sng gia hai cc i chnh:
Ti im chnh gia hai cc i chnh k tip, gc nhiu x tha mn iu kin:

sin (2m 1)

2d

vi m = 0,1,2...

Ti cc im ny, hiu quang l ca hai tia gi t hai khe k tip c gi tr l:


d sin (2m 1)

2
85

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

y l iu kin cc tiu giao thoa, hai tia s kh ln nhau. Tuy nhin im chnh gia
cha chc ti (hnh 3-12).

Hnh 3-12. Phn b cng gia hai


cc tiu chnh

sin

Hnh 3-13. biu din phn b


cng sng qua nhiu khe hp

minh ha c th ta xt hai trng hp n gin sau:


+ Nu s khe hp N = 2 (s chn) th cc dao ng sng do hai khe hp gi ti s kh
nhau hon ton v im chnh gia s ti. im ti c gi l cc tiu ph.
+ Nu s khe hp N = 3 (s l) th cc dao ng sng do hai khe hp gi ti s kh nhau,
cn dao ng sng do khe th ba gy ra khng b kh. Kt qu l gia hai cc i chnh l mt
cc i. Cc i ny c cng kh nh, nn c gi l cc i ph.
R rng gia cc i ph ny v hai cc i chnh hai bn phi c hai cc tiu ph.
Ngi ta chng minh c rng, nu cch t c N khe hp th gia hai cc i chnh s c N-1
cc tiu ph v N-2 cc i ph. Hnh 3-11, v hnh 3-13 biu din phn b cng sng qua
ba khe hp, v qua nhiu khe (N=2,3,4,5,10).
Cch t phng c th dng o bc sng nh sng, ng dng trong my n sc... T
cng thc (3-17) nu ta bit c chu k ca cch t, bng cch o gc ng vi cc i chnh
bc m ta c th xc nh c bc sng nh sng.
* Nhiu x ca nh sng trng qua cch t

86

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

Mi n sc ca nh sng trng to nn mt h thng cc cc i chnh ng vi cc gi tr


m khc nhau:

sin m

vi m = 0, 1, 2, 3...

Tp hp cc cc i chnh c cng gi tr
m to nn mt quang ph bc m. Trong mi
quang ph, vch tm nm pha trong, vch
nm pha ngoi. Ra xa vn trng gia, cc
vch quang ph bc khc nhau c th chng
ln nhau (Hnh 3-14). Cc quang ph cho bi
cch t c gi l quang ph nhiu x.

Hnh: 3-14. Nhiu x nh sng trng

Do cch t c kh nng nhiu x nh sng theo mt hng nht nh ph thuc vo bc


sng. V vy mt tia sng c nhiu bc sng khc nhau chiu vo cch t th mi bc sng s
nhiu x mt hng khc nhau. Hoc ngc li, cc bc sng i ti cch t t cc hng khc
nhau c th kt hp theo cng mt hng. Gc nhiu x ph thuc vo chu k cch t v gc
chm sng ti. ng vi bc sng, c mt hng ra c cng sut ra ln nht. Do ta c th
tch c bc sng ra mong mun, bng cch t si quang ti cc v tr c gc n nh sng
thch hp. V th cch t c s dng nh b tch knh tch cc sng, hoc nh b ghp
knh kt hp cc sng. Hin nay c mt hng nghin cu mi s dng cc quang si c li
l cc cch t Bragg ch to cc thit b b tn sc trong mng thng tin quang.
3. 3. 3. Nhiu x trn tinh th
Cc nguyn t (phn t hay ion) cu to nn vt rn tinh th c sp xp theo mt cu
trc tun hon gi l mng tinh th, trong v tr ca cc nguyn t (phn t hay ion) gi l nt
mng. Khong cch gia cc nt mng, c trng cho tnh tun hon, c gi l chu k ca
mng tinh th. Trn hnh 3-15 biu din s cu trc mng tinh th.
dd

Hnh 3-15. S biu din mng tinh th

Hnh 3-16. Nhiu x trn tinh th

Chiu ln tinh th mt chm tia Rnghen, mi nt mng tr thnh tm nhiu x v mng


tinh th ng vai tr nh mt cch t vi chu k l chu k ca mng tinh th. Chm tia Rnghen
s nhiu x theo nhiu phng, tuy nhin ch theo phng phn x gng (phng m gc phn
x bng gc ti), cng ca tia nhiu x ln ta c th quan st c nh nhiu x.
87

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

Nhng tia nhiu x ny s giao thoa vi nhau v cho cc i nhiu x nu hai tia nhiu
x k tip c hiu quang l bng s nguyn ln bc sng
L 2d sin k

sin k

hay

2d

(3-18)

Trong d l khong cch gia hai mt phng nguyn t ca vt rn tinh th (chu k mng tinh
th). Cng thc (3-18) gi l cng thc Vulf-Bragg. y l cng thc c bn phn tch cu
trc ca vt rn tinh th bng tia Rnghen. Nu bit bc sng ca tia Rnghen v o gc ta
c th xc nh c chu k d ca mng tinh th, ngha l xc nh c cu trc ca tinh th.

HNG DN HC CHNG 3
NHIU X NH SNG
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c nguyn l Huygens Fresnel v phng php i cu Fresnel tnh bin dao
ng sng tng hp ti mt im no .
2. Vn dng phng php i cu Fresnel xt nhiu x qua mt l trn nh, mt a trn nh
v mt khe hp.
3. Nm c nhiu x qua cch t, nhiu x trn tinh th v ng dng ca chng.
II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. Hin tng nhiu x nh sng
* nh ngha: Hin tng nhiu x nh sng l hin tng tia sng b lch khi phng truyn
thng khi i qua cc chng ngi vt c kch thc nh nh l trn, khe hp, a trn...
* Nguyn l Huygens - Fresnel:
- Mi im trong khng gian c sng nh sng t ngun thc gi n u tr thnh
ngun sng th cp pht sng nh sng v pha trc.
- Bin v pha ca ngun th cp l bin v pha do ngun thc gy ra ti v tr
ca ngun th cp.
2. Nhiu x nh sng bi sng cu
* nh ngha i cu Fresnel, tnh cht ca i cu Fresnel:

88

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

- Din tch cc i cu bng nhau v bng:

Rb
k
Rb

rk

- Bn knh rk ca i cu th k bng:

Rb

Rb

vi k = 1, 2, 3...

- Bin dao ng sng ak do i cu th k gy ra l: a k

1
(a k 1 a k 1 )
2

- Hiu pha ca hai dao ng sng do hai i cu k tip gy ra ti M l:


( L1 L2 )

2
.
2

-Dao ng sng tng hp do cc i gy ra ti M s l:

a a1 a2 a3 ....

a1 an

2 2

Ly du + nu i n l l v du - nu i n l chn.
* Nhiu x qua l trn:
p dng phng php i cu Fresnel, ta c bin ca nh sng tng hp ti M, cch ngun
a a
S mt khong R+b:
a 1 n
2
2
Ly du + nu n l l v du - nu n l chn. Ta xt cc trng hp sau:
- Khi khng c mn chn P hoc l trn rt ln: n , a n 0
a2
a
I0 a2 1
ti M:
a 1
4
2
- Nu l cha s l i cu:

a a
a 1 n
2
2

nn cng sng

a a
I 1 n
2
2

I > I0, im M sng hn khi khng c mn P. c bit nu l cha mt i cu

a1 a1
a1
2 2

I a12 4I 0

Cng sng gp 4 ln so vi khi khng c l trn, nh vy im M rt sng.


- Nu l cha s chn i cu :

a1 a n

2 2

a a
I 1 n
2
2

I < I0, im M ti hn khi khng c l trn. Nu l trn cha hai i cu th a

a1 a 2

0,
2 2

do I = 0, im M ti nht.
Tm li im M c th sng hn hoc ti hn so vi khi khng c l trn tu theo kch
thc ca l v v tr ca mn quan st.

89

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

* Nhiu x qua mt a trn


a a m1 a m 2 a m3 ....

- Bin dao ng ti M l:

a m1
2

- Nu a ch che t i cu th am+1 khng khc a1 l my, do cng sng ti M cng


ging nh trng hp khng c chng ngi vt gia S v M. Trong trng hp a che nhiu
i cu th M bng khng.
3.Nhiu x nh sng ca sng phng cch t nhiu x
* Nhiu x nh sng ca sng phng qua mt khe hp
- Cc tia nhiu x theo phng =0, chng hi t ti im F - rt sng v c gi l
cc i gia.
- Trng hp 0 . p dng tng ca phng php i cu Fresnel, ta chng s
chia mt khe thnh cc di sng nm song song vi b rng ca khe hp.
+ Nu khe cha s chn di (N = 2k) th im M s ti v l cc tiu nhiu x.
iu kin im M ti l:

2b sin

2k

hay sin k

vi k 1, 2, 3...

+ Nu khe cha mt s l di (N = 2k+1) im M s sng v c gi l cc i nhiu


x bc k. Cng sng ca cc cc i ny nh hn rt nhiu so vi cc i gia.
2b sin

vi k 1, 2, 3...
2k 1 hay sin (2k 1)

2b
V tr im sng v ti khng ph thuc vo v tr ca khe. Nu dch chuyn khe song song vi
chnh n (gi c nh thu knh L v mn quan st) th hnh nhiu x khng thay i.

iu kin im M sng l: N

- Nghin cu nhiu x ca sng phng qua khe hp bng phng php biu ta c:
2

2
2
I 1 a0 a02 I 0 0,045I 0
3
3
3
2

2 2 2
I 0 : I 1 : I 2 : I 3 : ... 1 : : :
: ... 1 : 0,045 : 0,016 : 0,008 : ...
3 5 7
* Nhiu x ca sng phng qua nhiu khe hp - cch t nhiu x
Cch t phng l mt h nhiu khe hp ging nhau c rng b, nm song song cch u trn
cng mt mt phng
Xt mt cch t phng c N khe hp. B rng ca mt khe l b, chu k ca cch t l d.
Chiu chm sng n sc song song bc sng vung gc vi mt cch t.
- Tt c N khe hp u cho cc tiu nhiu x ti nhng im trn mn nh tha mn iu

kin: sin k vi k = 1,2,3... Nhng cc tiu ny c gi l cc tiu chnh.


b
90

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

+ Xt phn b cng sng gia hai cc tiu chnh:


Hiu quang l ca hai tia sng xut pht t hai khe k tip n im M l

vi m = 0, 1, 2, 3...
L1 L 2 d sin . V tr cc cc i chnh l: sin m
d
+ Xt phn b cng sng gia hai cc i chnh: Ti im chnh gia hai cc i

chnh k tip, gc nhiu x tha mn iu kin: sin (2m 1)


vi m = 0,1,2...
2d
Ti cc im ny, hiu quang l ca hai tia gi t hai khe k tip c gi tr l:

d sin (2m 1) . y l iu kin cc tiu giao thoa, hai tia s kh ln nhau. Tuy nhin
2
im chnh gia cha chc ti
* Nhiu x ca nh sng trng qua cch t
Mi n sc ca nh sng trng to nn mt h thng cc cc i chnh ng vi cc gi tr m
khc nhau: sin m

vi m = 0, 1, 2, 3...

p hp cc cc i chnh c cng gi tr m to nn mt quang ph bc m. Cc quang ph cho


bi cch t c gi l quang ph nhiu x
* Nhiu x trn tinh th
Chiu ln tinh th mt chm tia Rnghen, nhng tia nhiu x trn cc nt mng tinh th
s giao thoa vi nhau v cho cc i nhiu x nu hai tia nhiu x k tip c hiu quang l bng

s nguyn ln bc sng L 2d sin k hay sin k


2d
Trong d l khong cch gia hai mt phng nguyn t ca vt rn tinh th (chu k mng tinh
th).
III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Nu nh ngha hin tng nhiu x nh sng. Dng nguyn l Huygens gii thch nh tnh
hin tng nhiu x.
2. Pht biu nguyn l Huygens-Fresnel.
3. Trnh by phng php i cu Fresnel.
4. Gii thch hin tng nhiu x nh sng qua l trn nh. Xt cc trng hp l trn cha mt
s l i cu, mt s chn i cu, c bit cha mt i cu v hai i cu.
5. Kho st hin tng nhiu x nh sng qua mt khe hp. Tm iu kin cc i, cc tiu
nhiu x. V nh nhiu x ca sng phng qua mt khe hp.

91

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

6. Trnh by nghin cu nhiu x ca sng phng qua khe hp bng phng php biu
tnh cng cc i nhiu x bc k i vi cng nhiu x cc i gia.
7. Kho st hin tng nhiu x nh sng qua nhiu khe hp. V nh nhiu x ca sng phng
qua nhiu khe hp.
8. nh ngha cch t phng v nu ng dng ca cch t.
9. Trnh by nhiu x ca tia X trn tinh th. Cng thc Vulf- Bragg. Nu ng dng ca hin
tng nhiu x tia X.
IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Mt ngun sng im chiu nh sng n sc bc sng = 0,5m vo mt l trn
c bn knh r = 0,5mm. Khong cch t ngun sng n l trn R = 1m.Tm khong cch t l
trn n mn quan st tm nhiu x l ti nht.
Bi gii:
tm ca hnh nhiu x l ti nht th l trn ch cha 2 i cu Fresnel, bn knh ca
l trn bng bn knh ca i cu th 2
Rr22
2Rb
0,25.10 6
1
r2
rb

m
2

6
Rb
3
2R r2 2.0,5.10 0,25.10

Th d 2: Mt chm tia sng n sc c bc sng = 0,5m c chiu vung gc vi mt


khe hp ch nht c b rng b = 0,1mm, ngay sau khe hp t mt thu knh hi t. Tm b rng
ca vn cc i gia trn mn quan st t ti mt phng tiu ca thu knh v cch thu knh D
= 1m.
Bi gii: B rng ca vn cc i gia l khong
cch gia hai cc tiu nhiu x u tin hai bn
cc i gia. ln ca gc nhiu x ng vi

cc cc tiu nhiu x l: sin .


b

2 D 2.1.0,5.106

1cm
T hnh v ta thy: 2Dtg 2D sin
b
0,1.103
Th d 3: Cho mt chm tia sng n sc song song c bc sng = 0,5m, chiu vng gc
vi mt ca mt cch t phng truyn qua. st pha sau ca cch t ngi ta t mt thu knh
hi t c tiu c f = 50cm. Khi trn mn quan st t ti mt phng tiu ca thu knh, hai
vch quang ph bc nht cch nhau mt khong a = 10,1cm. Xc nh:
a.. Chu k cch t v s khe trn 1cm chiu di ca cch t.
b.. S vch cc i chnh trong quang ph nhiu x.

92

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

Bi gii:
a. V tr cc cc i chnh trong quang
ph nhiu x xc nh bi cng thc:
sin

m
, m 0, 1, 2, 3...
d

Do vy v tr hai vch cc i chnh ca quang ph bc nht ng vi gc lch 1 bng:

sin 1 , v 1 rt nh nn tg1 sin 1 .


d
T hnh v, ta c tg1

M1F L
;

OF 2f

Chu k cch t:

2f 2.50.10 2.0,5.10 6
d

4,95m
L
10,1.10 2

S khe trn 1cm chiu di ca cch t:


b. T cng thc: sin

So snh tg 1 vi sin 1 ta c :

1
2020khe / cm
d

m
d 4,95.106
9,9
, m sin 1 m
0,5.106
d

V m nguyn nn c th ly cc gi tr: 0, 1,2 ,3 ,4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.


Do cc vch cc i chnh ti a trong quang ph nhiu x ca cch t bng:
Nmax = 2.9 + 1 = 19 vch.
Bi tp t gii
1. Tnh bn knh ca bn i cu Fresnel u tin, bit rng nh sng truyn ti l sng cu c
bn knh mt sng R=1m, bc sng l = 0,5 m v im quan st nm cch tm sng nh
sng mt khong 2 m.
2. Tnh bn knh ca 5 i Fresnel trong trng hp sng phng. Bit rng khong cch t mt
sng n im quan st l b=1m bc sng nh sng dng trong th nghim = 5.10-7 m.
3. Chiu nh sng n sc bc sng = 0,5m vo mt l trn bn knh cha bit. Ngun
sng im t cch l trn 2m, sau l trn 2m t mn quan st. Hi bn knh ca l trn bng
bao nhiu tm ca hnh nhiu x l ti nht.
4. Mt mn nh c t cch mt ngun sng im n sc (= 0,5 m) mt khong 2m.
Chnh gia khong y c t mt l trn ng knh 0,2cm. Hi hnh nhiu x trn mn nh c
tm sng hay ti.

93

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

5. Mt ngun sng im chiu nh sng n sc bc sng = 0,5m vo mt l trn c bn


knh r = 1mm. Khong cch t ngun sng n l trn R= 1m. Tm khong cch t l trn n
mn quan st l trn cha ba i Fresnel.
6. Gia ngun sng im v mn quan st, ngi ta t mt l trn. Bn knh ca l trn bng r
v c th thay i c trong qu trnh th nghim. Khong cch gia l trn v ngun sng R =
100 cm, gia l trn v mn quan st b = 125cm. Xc nh bc sng nh sng dng trong th
nghim nu tm ca hnh nhiu x c sng cc i khi l r1 = 1,0 mm v c sng cc i
tip theo khi bn knh l r2 = 1,29 mm
7. Mt ngun sng im S nm trn trc ca l trn, cch l trn 2m. nh sng n sc pht ra
t ngun c bc sng = 0,5 m chiu vo mt l trn. Sau l trn 2 m c t mn quan st
vung gc vi trc ca l trn. Hy xc nh bn knh r ca l trn tm ca nh nhiu x trn
mn quan st l ti nht. Mun tm ca nh nhiu x l sng nht th bn knh ca l trn thay
i nh th no
8. Mt ngun sng S t cch mn quan st mt khong x = 2m. nh sng do ngun S pht ra
c bc sng = 0,5 m. chnh gia khong cch x, ngi ta t mt mn chn sng trn
c mt l trn ng knh D = 2m. Ngun sng S nm trn trc ca l trn v mn quan st t
vung gc vi trc ca l trn. Trong trng hp ny tm ca nh nhiu x trn mn quan st l
sng hay ti.
9. t mt mn quan st cch mt ngun sng im pht ra nh sng n sc bc sng =
0,6m mt khong x. Chnh gia khong x t mt a trn nh chn sng ng knh 1mm.
Hi x bng bao nhiu im M0 trn mn quan st c sng gn ging nh cha t a trn,
bit im M0 v ngun sng u nm trn trc ca a trn.
10. Mt chm tia sng n sc song song bc sng = 0,589m chiu thng gc vi mt khe
hp c b rng b = 2m. Hi nhng cc tiu nhiu x c quan st di nhng gc nhiu x
bng bao nhiu? (so vi phng ban u)
11. Chiu mt chm tia sng n sc song song vung gc vi mt khe hp. Bc sng nh
1
sng bng
b rng ca khe hp. Hi cc tiu nhiu x th ba c quan st di gc lch
6
bng bao nhiu?
12. Mt chm tia sng n sc song song (= 5.10-5 cm) c ri thng gc vi mt khe hp
c b rng bng b = 2.10-3 cm. Tnh b rng ca nh ca khe trn mt mn quan st t cch
khe mt khong d = 1m ( b rng ca nh l khong cch giahai cc tiu u tin hai bn
cc i gia.)
13. Mt chm tia sng n sc song song chiu vung gc vi mt khe ch nht hp. rng
ca khe hp l b = 0,10 mm. St pha sau khe hp c t mt thu knh hi t tiu c f =100 cm.
Ngi ta o c rng ca cc i trung tm trn mn quan st l 12 mm. Hy xc nh
bc sng ca nh sng chiu vo.
14. Chiu mt chm tia sng n sc song song (bc sng = 4358,34 A0) vung gc vi mt

94

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

cch t truyn qua. Tm gc lch ng vi vch quang ph th ba,bit rng trn 1mm ca cch t
c 500 vch.
15. Mt chm tia sng c ri vung gc vi mt cch t. Bit rng gc nhiu x i vi vch
quang ph 1 = 0,65m trong quang ph bc hai bng 1 = 450. Xc nh gc nhiu x ng vi
vch quang ph 2 = 0,5m trong quang ph bc ba.
16. Cho mt chm tia sng n sc song song c bc sng = 0,7m chiu vung gc vi mt
ca mt cch t truyn qua. Trn mt phng tiu ca thu knh hi t t st pha sau cch t,
ngi ta quan st thy vch quang ph bc ba lch 48036 . Xc nh:
a. Chu k cch t v s khe trn 1cm chiu di ca cch t.
b. S cc i chnh nm trong khong gia hai cc tiu chnh bc nht trong nh nhiu
x. Cho bit mi khe ca cch t c rng b = 0,7m, sin 480 36 0,75
17. Cho mt cch t phng c chu k cch t d = 2m. Sau cch t t mt thu knh hi t,
trn mn quan st t ti mt phng tiu ca thu knh ngi ta quan st thy khong cch gia
hai quang ph bc nht ng vi bc sng 1 = 0,4044m v 2 = 0,4047m bng 0,1mm. Xc
nh tiu c ca thu knh.
18. Mt chm nh sng trng song song chiu vung gc vo mt mt cch t phng. Cho bit
trn mi milimet chiu di ca cch t c n = 50 khe. Pha sau cch t t mt thu knh hi t.
Xc nh hiu s cc gc nhiu x ng vi vch c bc sng 1 = 0,76m nm cui quang
ph bc nht v vch tm c bc sng 2 = 0,4m nm u quang ph bc hai.
19. Cho mt chm tia sng n sc song song chiu vung gc vo mt ca mt cch t phng
c chu k d = 2m. Xc nh bc ln nht ca cc vch cc i trong quang ph nhiu x cho
bi cch t i vi nh sng c bc sng 1 = 0,7m v i vi nh sng tm c bc sng
2 = 0,42m.
20. Trong th nghim o bc sng nh sng, ngi ta dng mt cch t phng truyn qua di
5cm, nh sng ti vung gc vi mt ca cch t. i vi nh sng Natri ( = 0,589 m ) gc
nhiu x ng vi vch quang ph bc nht l 17018 i vi nh sng n sc c bc sng
cn o, ngi ta quan st thy vch quang ph bc ba di gc nhiu x 38022.
a. Tm tng s khe trn cch t.
b. Xc nh bc sng nh sng n sc cn o.
21. Cho mt cch t c chu k l 2m
a. Hy xc nh s vch cc i chnh ti a cho bi cch t nu nh sng dng trong th
nghim l nh sng vng ca ngn la Natri ( = 5890A0 )
b. Tm bc sng cc i c th quan st c trong quang ph cho bi cch t .
22. nh sng c bc sng 600nm n di vung gc vi mt cch t nhiu x. Hai cc i k
tip xut hin ti cc gc nhiu x sin = 0,2 v sin = 0,3. Cc i ca ph bc 4 khng quan
st c. Tnh

95

Chng 3: Nhiu x nh sng

a. Chu k cch t.
b. Khong cch gia hai cc i chnh bc nht trn mn quan st t ti tiu im ca
thu knh hi t tiu c f = 50cm.
23. Chi u m t chum tia sang n s c song song bc song = 0,5 m vung goc vi m t cach
t nhiu xa truy n qua. Pha sau cch t t mt thu knh hi t tiu c f = 50cm, khi o trn
mn quan st t ti mt phng tiu din ca thu knh thy hai vch cc i chnh ca quang
ph b c m t cach nhau a = 10,1cm.
a. Xc nh chu k cch t.
b. S cc a i chin h quan sat c trn man quan sat .
24. Mt chm sng song song c bc sng = 5.10-5 cm, chiu vung gc vi cch t truyn
qua c chu k d = 10-2 mm, rng ca mt khe b = 2,4.10-3 mm.
a. Tm gc nhiu x ng vi cc i chnh bc hai.
b. C bao nhiu cc i chnh nm gia hai cc tiu chnh bc nht.
25. Mt chm tia sng n sc song song c bc sng = 589 nm chiu vung gc vi mt
khe ch nht hp. rng ca khe hp l b = 0,20 mm. Pha sau khe hp v cch n mt
khong D = 2 m c t mt mn quan st song song vi khe hp. Hy xc nh:
a. V tr cc cc tiu nhiu x bc mt v bc hai trn mn quan st.
b. rng ca cc i nhiu x trung tm trn mn quan st.
26. Mt chm tia sng n sc song song chiu vo mt cch t phng. Pha sau cch t t
mt thu knh hi t. Hy xc nh vch sng no trong quang ph bc ba s trng vi vch
sng ng vi bc sng 1 = 670 nm trong quang ph bc hai trn mn quan st t trng
vi mt tiu ca thu knh.

96

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

CHNG 4

TN SC, HP TH V TN X NH SNG
Khi nh sng truyn n mi trng vt cht, do tng tc ca nh sng vi cc phn t
nguyn t cu to nn mi trng lm xy ra mt s hin tng: hp th, tn x v tn sc nh
sng. Nu qu trnh tng tc lm cho cng nh sng truyn trong mi trng b gim ta c
hin tng hp th hoc tn x nh sng. Nu qu trnh tng tc lm cho vn tc nh sng b
hn so vi vn tc nh sng truyn trong chn khng ta c hin tng tn sc nh sng. Trong
qu trnh truyn nh sng qua si quang, hin tng tn sc nh sng lm tn hiu quang b
mo i khi nh sng qua mt ng truyn di. Trong thin nhin, mt th hin rt p ca
hin tng tn sc l cu vng.
4. 1. S TN SC NH SNG
4. 1. 1 Hin tng tn sc nh sng bi lng knh
Ngi u tin nghin cu hin tng tn sc v a ra gii thch ng n l Newton
(1672). Th nghim tn sc nh sng vi lng knh ca Newton cho thy mt chm hp nh sng
mt tri truyn qua mt lng knh sau khi khc x b phn tch thnh mt di mu ging nh
mu sc cu vng gm by mu chnh: , cam, vng, lc, lam, chm, tm. Trong mu tm b
lch nhiu hn c v pha y lng knh. Cc mu ny thay i mt cch lin tc, gia chng
khng c ranh gii xc nh. Hin tng ny c gi l hin tng tn sc nh sng bi lng
knh. Di mu c mu sc thay i lin tc t n tm c gi l ph ca nh sng trng.
Khi thay lng knh bng lng knh rng cha nc hoc cc dung dch trong sut khc
nhau ngi ta vn quan st thy hin tng tn sc nh sng vi ph c di khc nhau. V d
lng knh cha dung dch Carbon Sunfua cho quang ph l mt vt di gp nm ln lng knh
cha nc.
Nh vy , hin tng tn sc c th xy ra trong mi mi trng th rn, lng, kh.
Ngc li, khi b tr th nghim tng hp cc nh sng nhiu mu sc t n tm,
Newton cng thu c nh sng trng.
T nhng th nghim trn dn n kt lun nh sau:
- nh sng trng (nh sng mt tri, n dy tc, h quang) l hn hp ca nhiu nh
sng mu sc khc nhau, cc nh sng ny gi l nh sng n sc. Mi mt bc x n sc
tng ng vi mt sng nh sng c tn s (bc sng) xc nh.
- Chit sut ca mi trng lm lng knh ph thuc vo bc sng nh sng ti:
n = f()

97

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

- Khi nh sng trng i qua mt lng knh, cc chm n sc c chit sut khc nhau s khc
x v b lch nhng gc khc nhau v pha y ca lng knh to thnh quang ph ca nh sng
trng. Tia tm b lch nhiu nht do c chit sut ln nht.
Nguyn nhn ca hin tng tn sc nh sng chnh l do s ph thuc ca chit sut
mi trng vo bc sng ca nh sng ti. T ta thy rng hin tng tn sc nh sng
khng phi ch xy ra khi nh sng i qua mt lng knh. Chit sut khc nhau dn n vn tc
sng nh sng trong mi trng s khc nhau. Khi nh sng truyn qua mt si quang, do hin
tng tn sc nh sng, mu c chit sut nh hn, vn tc ln hn nn s truyn nhanh hn
nh sng xanh. Kt qu l tn hiu quang b mo i sau mt ng truyn di.
Ta c nh ngha nh sau:
S tn sc nh sng l s ph thuc ca chit sut mt cht vo bc sng ca nh sng,
(hay l: s ph thuc ca vn tc lan truyn pha u ca sng vo bc sng ).
n = f()

hay

u = f()

Cc mi trng trong c s ph thuc trn c gi l mi trng tn sc.


4. 1. 2. ng cong tn sc v tn sc
ng cong biu din s ph thuc ca chit sut ca mt cht theo bc sng gi l
ng cong tn sc ca cht y. Bng thc nghim ngi ta xc nh c ng cong tn
sc ca nhiu cht (hnh 4-1).

Hnh 4-1. S tn sc v ng cong tn sc


Bng l thuyt te n hi, Cauchy a ra cng thc v s ph thuc ca chit sut
vo bc sng theo hm s n = f() nh sau:
n A

98

2
0

40

...

(4-1)

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

trong 0 l bc sng nh sng trong mi trng chn khng. A, B, C, l nhng hng s


xc nh bng thc nghim i vi mi cht xc nh. Hng s C cng nh cc hng s ca cc
s hng sau C nh hn B rt nhiu nn c th b qua.
dc ca ng cong tn sc ti mi im gi l tn sc ca cht ang xt.
D

df dn

d
d

tn sc D cho bit tc bin thin chit sut theo bc sng. i vi a s cc


cht, tn sc D tng khi chit sut tng.
ng cong tn sc trn hnh 4-1 cng cho thy thng thng chit sut tng khi bc
sng gim v l mt ng lin tc.
Tuy nhin khi s dng nh sng bc sng thay i trong mt vng rng, ngi ta thy
gn min hp th ca cht lm lng knh, chit sut bin thin nhanh hn v chit sut tng
khi bc sng tng. Hin tng ny gi l tn sc d thng (hnh 4-2).

Hnh 4-2. S tn sc d thng


Nh vy, ta c nhn xt :
- Nu D

dn
0 : ngha l chit sut tng khi bc sng gim ta c hin tng tn sc
d

thng.
- Nu D

dn
0 : ngha l chit sut tng khi bc sng tng ta c hin tng tn sc
d

d thng
- Nu D

dn
0 : s tn sc khng xy ra.
d

Nu mi trng c nhiu m hp th th mi m l mt min tn sc d thng. Khi


ng cong tn sc c nhiu cc i v cc tiu lin tip. Thu tinh, thch anh i vi nh
sng kh kin (0.4 0,7 m) c chit sut tng chm khi bc sng gim ng vi tn sc
thng. Trong vng hng ngoi v t ngoi s c tn sc d thng.

99

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

4. 2. S HP TH NH SNG.
4. 2. 1. Hin tng hp th nh sng
Khi nh sng chiu vo mt mi trng, mt phn nh sng phn x, tn x, mt phn
truyn qua v mt phn b mi trng hp th chuyn sang dng nng lng khc, thng l
nhit nng. Mi mi trng u hp th nh sng cc mc khc nhau.
4. 2. 2. Gii thch theo quan im c in
S hp th nh sng l kt qu ca s tng tc ca sng nh sng vi mi trng.
Di tc dng ca in trng ca sng nh sng c tn s v , cc electron ca nguyn t v
phn t dch chuyn i vi ht nhn tch in dng v thc hin dao ng iu ha vi tn s
v . Electron dao ng tr thnh ngun pht sng th cp. Do s giao thoa ca sng ti v sng
th cp m trong mi trng xut hin sng c bin khc vi bin ca sng ti. Do ,
cng ca nh sng sau khi qua mi trng cng thay i: khng phi ton b nng lng b
hp th bi cc nguyn t v phn t c gii phng di dng bc x m c s hao ht do s
hp th nh sng. Nng lng b hp th c th chuyn thnh cc dng nng lng khc, (v d
nng lng nhit, khi vt s b nng ln).
4. 2. 3. nh lut Bouguer v s hp th nh sng
Xt mt chm sng n sc cng I0
chiu vo mi trng gi hn bi hai mt song
song dy l, gi I l cng nh sng khi i
qua dy l ca mi trng (hnh 4-3). Ta d
dng xc nh biu thc ca I nh sau:
Gi i l cng nh sng ti lp c
dy dx ti v tr x, di l bin thin cng
sng do hp th sau khi truyn qua dx, ta c:
Hnh 4-3: S hp th nh sng

-di = kidx

Du - biu th cng gim do hp th, k l h s t l, c gi l h s hp th ca mi


trng. Suy ra:
I

di
di
kdx kdx I I 0 e kl
i
i
I0
0

(4-.2)

y chnh l biu thc ca nh lut Lambert: Khi dy mi trng tng theo cp s


cng, cng sng gim theo cp s nhn, hay c th pht biu nh sau: Cng nh sng
truyn qua mi trng hp th gim theo quy lut hm s m.
y ta b qua phn x v tn x. Hn na iu ny ch nghim ng vi nh sng
cng khng qu ln. Vi cng nh sng mnh, v d chm Laser, cc hiu ng phi
tuyn c th xy ra, quy lut trn s khng cn nghim ng na.

100

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

nh lut ny c Bouguer thit lp bng thc nghim (1729) v c Lambert rt ra


t l thuyt (1760) nn cn gi l nh lut Bouguer Lambert.
H s hp th k ca hu ht cc cht ph thuc vo bc sng. ng cong biu din s
ph thuc ca k vo bc sng ca nh sng b hp th cho ta ph hp th ca mi trng.

Hnh 4-4. Ph hp th ca n tinh th Nd:YAG (a) v kh XeKr (b)


Thc nghim cho thy ph hp th ca cc cht rn v lng cha nhng m hp th
rng. Bc x b hp th c bc sng bin thin lin tc trong mt min quang ph rng (10
100 nm). Ph hp th ca cht kh cha nhng m hp hn nhiu. Trn hnh 4-4 l ph hp
th ca n tinh th Nd:YAG v kh XeKr. Cc ng cong ny l v d in hnh cho thy s
khc bit ni trn.
Mu sc ca vt trong sut ph thuc vo s hp th lc la cc bc x trong vng nhn
thy. Nu h s hp th ln i vi mi bc sng th vt c mu en, xm. Nu h s hp th
nh i vi mi bc sng kh kin th vt trong sut. Khi vt hp th lc la bc sng th vt
s c mu ca bc x khng b hp th hoc t hp th. Mu sc ca vt cn tu thuc vo
quang ph ca chm sng ri ti.V d nu chiu ti mt tm knh mu mt chm sng mu
lc th knh s c mu en.
i vi mt dung dch hoc cht lng ng nht, nh lut Lambert vn nghim ng
nh i vi tinh th. Ngoi ra h s hp th k cn tu thuc vo nng dung dch: k = C.
Vi l h s t l c trng cho cht tan. Beer kim nghim rng h s t l khng ph
thuc nng dung dch. Phi hp vi nh lut Lambert ta c nh lut Lambert Beer:
I = I0e-Cl

(4-3)

Nh vy c ngha l hp th ca mt cht t l vi s phn t cht hp th trn di


ng truyn nh sng m khng ph thuc vo cc phn t xung quanh. iu ny ch nghim
ng vi cc dung dch c nng long. Khi nng tng, khong cch gia cc phn t
gim, tng tc gia cc phn t tng mnh nn s c sai lch. Ngoi ra, trong mt s trng
hp, h s cn ph thuc dung mi. nh lut Lambert Beer l c s quan trng cho vic
phn tch nh lng bng ph hp th trong ho hc, sinh hc, dc hc...

101

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng


4. 3. L THUYT V S TN SC V HP TH

Theo l thuyt sng in t Maxwell, chit sut mi trng in mi c xc nh bi


cng thc: n r r r do r 1 i vi mi trng in mi.
Nh vy, chit sut l mt hng s ty thuc hng s in mi t i r ca mi trng
m khng ph thuc vo bc sng nh sng. L do chnh l do hng s in mi r t i c
xem l khng i. iu ny nghim ng i vi trng tnh in hoc in t trng tn s
thp, cng khng ln. Trong vng sng quang hc tn s sng in t kh ln, gii thch
hin tng tn sc ta s dng thuyt in t ca H.A.Lorentz. Theo Lorentz, phn t ca mi
cht c cu to bi ion v in t. Trong mi trng in mi, cc in t chuyn ng dao

ng quanh v tr cn bng no to nn cc lng cc in p e.r . Bnh thng cc in t


dao ng hn lon. Khi nh sng truyn qua mi trng, cc in t s dao ng cng bc
di tc dng ca in trng nh sng. Cc mmen lng cc in phn t s nh hng li.
Ngi ta ni rng mi trng b phn cc. phn cc ca mi trng l tng cc mmen
lng cc in trong mt n v th tch mi trng.

(4-4)
P N . p N .e.r
vi N l s dao ng in t trong mt n v th tch mi trng, r l li dao ng in t.

Mt khc, gia cm ng in D , cng in trng E v phn cc P ca in


P
D r 0 E 0 E P r 1
mi c h thc:
(4-5)
0E
Nu bit phn cc P ca mi trng khi c in trng nh sng E tc dng, t (4-5)
ta s xc nh c r v do l chit sut ca mi trng theo cng thc n2 = r (n l chit
sut phc ca mi trng). y l c s l thuyt xc nh cc cng thc tn sc v hp th.
xc nh c biu thc (4-4) ta phi tm li dao ng in t di tc dng ca
in trng nh sng.Phng trnh dao ng in t c xc nh t phng trnh dao ng
iu ha ca mt ht:

mr kr FD
(4-6)
trong FD l lc gi n hi, m - khi lng ht, k - h s gi n hi.
Nghim ca phng trnh (4-6) c dng:
r = acos(0t) vi 0

k
m

l tn s dao ng ring ca ht.

Trong thc t, do in t chuyn ng khng trnh khi va chm v b tt dn bi mt

lc cn t l vi vn tc chuyn ng: Fg g.r , h s t l ph thuc vo mi trng.

102

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng


Do in t dao ng di nh hng ca in trng nh sng E E0 cos t nn in

t cn chu mt lc cng bc FE eE 0 cos t , nh vy phng trnh dao ng cng bc ca


mr kr gr eE0 cos t

in t l:

(4-6)

y ta xem in t khng vn tc ban u v do ba lc FD , Fg v FE cng


phng nn b du vect v b qua lc Lorentz tc dng bi t trng nh sng.
Chia hai v phng trnh (4-6) cho m v t
r r 02 r

g
k
; 02
ta c:
m
m

e
E0 cos t
m

(4-7)

gii phng trnh ny, ta chuyn biu thc in trng nh sng sang dng s phc:
E = E0cost E = E0eit v vit li phng trnh (4-7) nh sau:
e
r r 02 r E0 .eit
m

(4-7)

Nghim ca phng trnh (4-.7) c dng r = r0eit. Thay biu thc ny vo phng trnh (4-7)
e
E0
m
ta thu c:
(4-8)
r0 2
0 2 i
Theo phng trnh (4-4) ta c:

Theo (4-5)

P N .e.r N .e.r0 .eit

Ne 2
E0 e it
Ne 2
E
P

m 02 2 i
m 02 2 i

P
Ne 2
1
2

n r 1
1
2
m 0 0 2 i
0E

(4-9)

Vi n l chit sut phc. t n n i v thay vo (4-9). Sau khi ng nht phn thc
v phn o hai v ca phng trnh ta c:

02 2
Ne 2
n 1
m 0 (02 2 ) 2 2 2

(4-10)

Ne 2

2
m 0 (0 2 ) 2 2 2

(4-11)

2n

T biu thc (4-10) ta c th dn n cng thc cho s tn sc nh sau.


Gi thit n 1 ta c n2 1 = (n+1)(n-1)=2(n-1). Xem rng 2 <<1, biu thc (4-10) c
th vit li l:

n 1

02 2
Ne 2
2m 0 ( 02 2 ) 2 2 2

(4-12)

103

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

Cng thc (4-12) cho thy s ph thuc ca chic sut vo tn s nh sng ti , gi l


cng thc tn sc.
ng biu din n=f() c trnh by trn
hnh 4-5. Ta thy r trong vng tn s M n N
gn tn s 0, chit sut gim khi tn s tng
(bc sng gim) ng vi tn sc d thng.
Trong thc t, mi nguyn t c nhiu in
t, mi in t c th c nhiu tn s dao ng
ring 0k. Khi biu thc phn cc ca mi
trng phi l tng mmen lng cc ca cc dao
ng ring khc nhau. Kt qu biu thc (4-9) s
c dng:

n 2 1

Hnh 4-5. ng cong tn sc trong


vng tn sc d thng

fk
Ne 2

2
2m 0 k (0 k 2 ) i k

(4-13)

vi fk l h s gi l lc dao ng t. Nh vy mi trng s c nhiu vng tn s 0k xy


ra tn sc d thng (hnh 4-.2).
T biu thc (4-11), ta c th dn n cng thc hp th nh sau:
Gi s sng nh sng c in trng E = E0eit i qua mi trng dy l. Biu thc

El E0 e

sng li ra l:

El E e
'
0

i t n l

E0 e

l i t nl

i t nl

E0' E0 e k l ; k '
'

vi

E0 e

i t n i l

( L n l )

Cng nh sng sau khi truyn qua dy l l:

Jl

E0'2 E02 2 k 'l

e
J l J 0 e kl
2
2

k 2k '

vi

(4-14)

So snh vi nh lut Lambert ta c: k 2k '

(4-15)
4

trng. Kt hp vi biu thc (4-11) vi gi thit n 1 ta c:

2n

104

Ne 2

2
m 0 (0 2 ) 2 2 2

vi k l h s hp th ca mi

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

2
Ne 2
2

c
m 0 c (02 2 ) 2 2 2

(4-16)

Hnh 4-6. Hp th v tn sc d thng.


Nh vy khi tn s ca nh sng ti tin ti gn tn s dao ng ring 0 ca mi
trng, h s hp th tng mnh, tng ng vi cc m hp th ca mi trng. Cng chnh
vng ny xy ra tn sc d thng. Hnh 4-6 cho ng cong hp th v tn sc d thng.
4. 4. S TN X NH SNG
4. 4. 1. Hin tng tn x nh sng
Khi nh sng truyn qua mt mi trng, mt phn nh sng b i hng, cng
nh sng b phn b li trong khng gian. Hin tng ny gi l tn x nh sng.
Gi s ta c mt mi trng trong sut, ng tnh quang hc v ng hng. Mt chm
nh sng song song i qua mt mi trng nh vy s truyn thng v khng b tn x. iu
ny hon ton ph hp vi l thuyt sng nh sng v l thuyt in t. Theo nguyn l
Huygens Fresnel, mt sng ca chm song song trong mi trng ng tnh ng hng l
cc mt phng song song.

Hnh 4-7. S tn x nh sng


Xt mt cp im P1 v P2 trn mt mt sng (hnh 4-7). Di tc dng ca sng nh
sng, cc electron ca hai phn t hai im ny dao ng cng bc vi tn s nh sng ti,

105

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

to thnh mt lng cc in dao ng v bc x ra mi pha. Theo phng khc vi phng


truyn , hiu quang l ca hai sng th cp l:
= P1P2 sin
vi l gc gia v .
Ta c th chn hai im P1, P2 sao cho = (m+1/2) cng nh sng giao thoa
ca chng trit tiu. V mt sng ln nn lun chn c cc cp tm pht sng P1, P2 c
cng giao thoa trit tiu. Do c th ghp cc tm pht sng trn mt thnh nhng cp trit
tiu do giao thoa nn theo phng khng c nh sng tn x. Theo phng =0 sng th cp
ti mi im trn mt l ng pha nn s cho cc i giao thoa. Nh vy nh sng ch truyn
theo phng vi = 0.
Tuy nhin nu mi trng khng ng tnh v mt quang hc th mt sng khng cn l
phng na. Khng th ghp tt c cc tm pht sng th cp trn mt sng thnh nhng cp
trit tiu ln nhau. Kt qu l c mt phn nh sng truyn theo phng .
Nh vy, khi nh sng truyn qua mi trng khng ng nht v mt quang hc s b
tn x. Mi trng khng ng tnh v mt quang hc s l mi trng c chit sut khng
ng nht mi im. C nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau gy nn s khng ng nht v chit
sut ca mi trng, dn n tn x nh sng. Sau y ta s phn loi cc tn x theo nguyn
nhn dn n hin tng ny.
4. 4. 2 Tn x Tyndall
Trong cc nguyn nhn khc nhau dn n s khng ng nht v mi trng d thy
nht l mi trng b vn. V d, mt cc nc trong b nhim bn, khng kh b bi bc ln,
khi, sng m to vo khng kh Ta c th quan st thy vt sng ca n pha t chiu
qua bi. Mt tia laser chiu ngang qua s c thy r khi th vo khng kh mt ln khi thuc
l. Khi mi trng trong sut c nhng ht nh khng ng tnh vi mi trng xut hin ta ni
mi trng b vn. nh sng i qua mi trng vn b tn x theo cc phng khc nhau. Hin
tng tn x do mi trng vn c Tyndall nghin cu bng thc nghim, Rayleigh
nghin cu l thuyt, thit lp nn 3 nh lut sau:
1). Cng nh sng tn x t l nghch vi lu tha bc 4 ca bc sng nh sng
ti:
I = k.I0/4
trong I0 l cng nh sng ti; I l cng nh sng tn x; k l h s t l, ph thuc
vo nng v kch thc ht tn x.
Nh vy, khi nh sng trng b tn x, mu tm c bc sng ngn s tn x mnh hn
mu .Trong thnh phn ca nh sng tn x mu tm v mu xanh c cng t i mnh
hn mu lm cho nh sng chuyn thnh mu lam.

106

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

T c th gii tch c mu lam ca ln khi bay ln t mi bp. Ngc li mu


vng ca rng chiu l kt qu do nh sng mt tri bui chiu i ngang qua kh quyn nhiu
hi nc hoc cc m my chiu tn x mnh mu lam tm., cn li cc mu vng c
cng t i mnh hn.
2). nh sng tn x b phn cc mt phn. Khi phng quan st vung gc vi
phng truyn ( = /2) th nh sng tn x phn cc hon ton.
3). Cng nh sng tn x theo phng c tr s:
I = I/2 (1 + cos2)
trong I/2 l cng nh sng theo phng vung gc vi phng truyn.
ng cong m t s ph thuc ca cng nh sng tn x theo gc quang st c
dng nh trn hnh 4-8. Cc quy lut ny c kim chng bng thc nghim.
C th d dng suy lun hiu cc quy lut 2 v 3. Gi s nh sng truyn theo phng
. nh sng ti t nhin c phn tch thnh hai thnh phn phn cc thng E y v Ez theo hai
phng vung gc Oy v Oz. Khi quan st theo phng Oz ( = /2) ch cn thnh phn Ey, r
rng nh sng phn cc hon ton.
t

Ey = Ez=E ,

ta c

I
2

E y2
2

Nu quan st theo phng () nm trong mt phng xOz, t hnh 4-8 ta c:


Ey = Ey
Ez = Ez cos = E cos
Do

I = (Ey2 + Ez2)/2 = E2 (1 + cos2)/2

Suy ra

I = I/2 (1 + cos2) vi I/2 = E2/2

Hnh 4-8. a. phn b cng nh sng tn x theo phng quan st.


b. S phn cc ca nh sng tn x.
Ch rng 3 quy lut trn ch ng khi cc ht gy tn x c kch thc nh hn bc sng
(vo c mt phn nm n mt phn mi ca ) v l ht trn, ng hng. Ht to dn n sai

107

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

lch nhiu, l thuyt phc tp hn. C th phng chng kch thc ht trong dung dch hoc
m vn qua mu sc ca nh sng tn x.
4. 4. 3.Tn x phn t
Khi mi trng rt sch do lc ht bi, bn, v d khng kh, nc sch, ngi ta vn
quan st thy nh sng tn x, tuy nhin cng nh sng tn x nh hn nhiu. Bng cc th
nghim chnh xc quan st nh sng tn x, ngi ta thy khng kh sch tn x 2,7.10 -7 nng
lng nh sng ti, kh H2 tn x t hn khng kh 4 ln, nc sch tn x nhiu hn 185 ln,
thch anh nhiu hn gp 7 ln.
Mi trng sch v trong sut khng phi l ng tnh hon ton v quang hc. Do
chuyn ng nhit phn t, phn b mt phn t trong mi trng s c nhng thng ging
ngu nhin. Chnh s thng ging mt phn t ca mi trng dn n s khng ng nht
v chit sut ca mi trng v l nguyn nhn gy ra s tn x nh sng. V vy hin tng tn
x ny gi l tn x phn t.
Gi N l s phn t trong mt n v th tch mi trng. Trong vi phn th tch dV ca
mi trng, do chuyn ng nhit hn lon ca phn t dn n thng ging dN. Thng ging
mt dN dn n thng ging hng s in mi v do l thng ging chit sut. Theo lp
lun nh vy, nhng tnh ton ca Einstein dn n biu thc cng nh sng tn x phn
2

t theo phng nh sau:

I I 0

kT
n

sin 4
4

trong : I0: cng sng ti; : H s t l; : H s chu nn ca mi trng; : Khi lng


ring; T: Nhit (K); n: chit sut mi trng.
Nh vy, cng nh tn x Tyndall, cng nh sng tn x t l nghch vi 4. Nhng
y cng nh sng tn x tng theo v t cc i khi = 900 (ch vi mi trng
trong sut theo phng = 0 cng nh sng truyn qua xp x I0, gi tr I ch l thnh
phn nh sng tn x rt yu so vi I0.)
c bit l trong tn s Tyndall, cng nh sng tn x I khng ph thuc vo nhit
T, cn trong tn x phn t I tng theo T. Theo phng = 900 nh sng tn x cng phn
cc nhng khng hon ton. Ngi ta ni rng nh sng tn x b kh cc. kh cc ca nh
sng tn x trn cht kh c vi %. Nhng i vi cht lng kh cc c vi chc % (c th
ti 80 %).
T quy lut trn ta c th gii thch c mu xanh ca bu tri nhng ngy nng khng
my. Khi quang my, bu tri l mt mi trng sch, khng vn. nh sng tn x l do thng
ging mt phn t trong chuyn ng nhit ca phn t. Cng nh sng tn x vn t l
nghch vi 4 nn ta quang st thy mu xanh da tri. Cng nh sng tn x phn t cn tu
thuc h s chu nn . Cht kh trng thi ti hn c h s tng khc thng nn nh sng
tn x rt mnh, mi trng b c t ngt. Ngoi ra, do cng nh sng tn x, ngi ta c
th xc nh h s k ( hng s Boltzman), t suy ra hng s kh R theo cng thc: k = R/N A
vi NA l s Avgadr.
108

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

4. 4. 4. Tn x Raman
Hin tng tn x nh sng c th xy ra trong s tng tc ca nh sng vi tng phn
t ring bit. T u th k th 19 nhiu nh Vt l tin on rng bc x b tn x bi phn
t khng ch cha phton vi tn s nh sng ti m cn gm phton vi tn s b thay i.
Tin on ny c khng nh vo nm 1928 vi th nghim tn x nh sng trn
cht lng Benzen do Chandresekhara Venkata Raman (n ) thc hin. Raman c gii
Nobel v t hin tng tn x ny c mang tn tn x Raman. V sau ngi ta pht hin ra
hin tng tn x ny cn xy ra trn nhiu cht lng, dung dch v c cc cht th kh v rn
(dng bt hoc tinh th). Hin tng tn x ny c dng phn tch thnh phn ca nhiu
cht cng nh nghin cu cu trc phn t ca chng.
Trong th nghim u tin ny, mt n thu ngn c dng lm ngun sng n sc
chiu ti cuvet ng Benzen tinh khit. Mt knh lc s dng dung dch Nitrit Natri cho nh
sng n sc tn s 0 chiu vo mu. nh sng tn x c quan st theo phng vung gc
qua my quang ph lng knh. Kt qu thu c mt vch ph ng vi tn s nh sng ti 0
(gi l vch Rayleigh) v ngoi ra cn c cc vch ph cng yu v rt yu hai bn vch
Rayleigh 0. Mt vch ph ng vi tn s 0 - gi l vch Stock v mt vch ng vi tn
s 0+ (rt yu) gi l vch i Stocke. thu c hiu ng tn x Raman cn c mt bc
x n sc cng ln. Cc laser rt thch hp lm ngun kch thch tn x Raman.
Quy lut ca tn x Raman l:
+ Trong nh sng tn x, ngoi tn s ca nh sng ti ( bc x Rayleigh) cn c cc tn
s khc b dch i so vi tn s ca nh sng ti (bc x Stock v i Stock).
+ dch chuyn tn s c trng cho mi trng vt cht cho trc v c lp vi
tn s nh sng ti.
+ Cc nghin cu cho thy dch tn s ng bng tn s dao ng ring ca phn
t cu to nn mi trng = i. Mt h phn t c th c nhiu tn s dao ng ring I nn
c th c nhiu dch chuyn Stock v i Stock khc nhau
+ Cng nh sng ca thnh phn Stock ln hn thnh phn i Stock. Khi nhit
tng th thnh phn i Stock tng nhanh.

Hnh 4-9. S mc nng lng tn x Raman


109

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

Hin tng tn x Raman c th gii thch bng quan im lng t nh sau: Tn x


Raman l kt qu tng tc ca chm photon vi phn t mi trng. Mt h phn t do dao
ng s c nng lng. Cc nng lng dao ng c c trng bi cc s lng t dao ng
v= 1, 2, 3
Nu photon ti tng tc vi cc phn t ang mc nng lng thp v = 1 phn t s
hp th nng lng photon h0 chuyn ln trng thi trung gian T. T c th xy ra hai kh
nng:
- T trng thi T phn t chuyn v trng thi v = 1 th s bc x tn s = 0 ng vi
tn x Rayleigh.
- T trng thi T, nu phn t chuyn v mc dao ng kch thch v = 2 th s bc x tn
s S
h0 = hS + hV
S = 0 - V
Cho vch Stock, vi V l tn s dao ng phn t (v = 2)
Nu photon tng tc vi phn t ang trng thi dao ng kch thch v = 2 th phn t
s hp th photon chuyn ln mc trung gian T. T T khi chuyn v trng thi c bn (v =
1) phn t s bc x tn s dS:
h0 = hdS - hV
dS = 0 + V ng vi vch i Stock
Theo quan im ng lc hc, mt lng cc in dao ng s tr thnh ngun bc x
sng in t vi tn s bng tn s dao ng ca lng cc in. Sng ny s truyn trong
khng gian theo mi hng, tr hng dc theo trc lng cc (hng mmen lng cc in
cm ng)
Gi s thnh phn in trng nh sng ti:
Mmen lng cc in cm ng:

E = E0cos(20t)
P = E0cos(20t)

H s t l gi l tnh phn cc c trng cho phn t.


Tnh phn cc l hm ca dng v kch thc phn t thng l bt ng hng.
Trong qu trnh dao ng phn t, c th thay i hnh dng v kch thc. Do thay i.

0 Q Q


l s bin thin ca trong qu trnh dao ng phn t, Q l to chun trc m t
Q 0

dch chuyn ht nhn nguyn t ca phn t quanh v tr cn bng.


To Q bin thin tun hon trong qu trnh dao ng phn t

110

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

Q = A cos (2t).
A l bin gdao ng phn t tn s . Suy ra:

0 Q A cos(2t )

Th vo biu thc ca P ta c:
A E cos(2 t ) cos(2 t )
P 0 E0 cos(2 0 t )
0

0 0
1
A E cos2 ( )t cos2 ( )t
0 E0 cos(2 0 t )
0
0

Q
0 0
2

y ta s dng cng thc:

coscos= cos( - ) + cos ( +)

Nh vy lng cc in dao ng s l ngun bc x c 3 tn s 0, 0 tng ng


vi nh sng tn x Rayleigh v Raman.
Mt phn t c th c nhiu tn s dao ng ring , v vy c th quan st thy nhiu
hn hai thnh phn tn s khc 0.
4. 4. 5 Tn x Mandelstam Brillouin
Khi sng m tn s truyn qua mi trng bt ng nht quang hc, mt phn t b
thng ging, chit sut thay i v dn n tn x mang tn Madelstam Brillouin.
Gi thit nh sng ti c dng:

E E0 cos(0 t k 0 r )

Sng m c dng: S S 0 cos(t qr )


Sng tn x cng l sng phng n sc, tn s :

E ' E0' cos(t k ' r )


Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng:
0


Theo nh lut bo ton xung lng: k ' k 0 q
Nh vy nh sng tn x c th c thnh phn tn s:
0

Hnh 4-10.Tn x Mandelstam


Brillouin

4. 5 . CU VNG (Bi c thm)


Khi nh sng mt tri chiu ti mt ht ma, mt phn nh sng khc x vo trong, phn
x bn trong ri l ra khi ht ma. Qu trnh hai ln khc x ny lm tn sc ca nh sng mt
tri. Ph nh sng vi by sc cu vng c th quan st thy vi mu trn cao v mu tm
di.

111

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

Hin tng cu vng c th gii thch chi tit bng l thuyt tn x Mie. Tuy nhin
nhng im quan trng nht ca hin tng cu vng c R. Descartes gii thch t th k
17. Trong iu kin thun li ta c th thy hai cu vng cng mt lc. Cu vng chnh vi
sng mnh hn to bi cc tia sng mt tri phn x mt ln bn trong ht ma, mu sc xut
hin theo trt t trn tm di. Cu vng ph, sng yu hn, c th quan st thy bn
trn cu vng chnh. Cu vng ph c to bi nh sng phn x hai ln bn trong ht ma v
mu sc xut hin theo trt t ngc li vi cu vng chnh. Gc lch ca tia sng ti ht ma
ph thuc vo chit sut ht ma v v tr im ti. V tr ny c xc nh bi khong cch b
gia tia ti v mt trc i qua tm ht ma, song song vi tia ti. (hnh 4-11)

Hnh 4-11. S lch ca tia nng qua git ma

Hnh 4-12. Gc lch ca tia sng theo v tr


im ti git ma.

Cc tia song song n trn mt ht ma s tn x theo nhiu hng do im ti khc


nhau dn n khc x khc nhau v cn do phn x mt phn trn b mt ht ma. Tuy nhin
cng tp trung mnh trong mt hng xc nh. Cc tia i qua tm ht ma phn x ngc
tr li v c gc lch = 1800. Vi cc im ti ng vi b tng dn (hnh 4-9) gc lch gim ti
mt gia tr xc nh r .
Sau khi b tip tc tng th gc lch li tng ln (hnh 4-10). Xung quanh r s bin
thin ca l chm v tt c cc tia ti c gi tr b gn br s l ra trong mt gc hp dn n
cng cao. i vi git ma gc lch r ny l 1380 i vi mu v l 1400 i vi mu
tm. Gc ny cn gi l gc cu vng. C th gii thch tng t cho cu vng ph vi hai ln
phn x trong. trng hp ny cng sng tp trung quanh gc 1300.
Vng gia hai cu vng s ti hn do khng c tia sng no ng vi mt hoc hai ln
phn x trong. Vng ny uc gi l vng ti Alexander (tn mt nh trit hc Hylp nm 200
trc cng nguyn). Pha di cu vng chnh ni gn vi mu tm thng xut hin thm mt
di mu thay i gia mu lc v nht. Di mu xut hin thm ny l do hin tng giao
thoa gia cc tia ti c b cao hn v thp hn br mt cht, b lch cng mt gc. Do giao thoa
xc nh bi hiu quang l i qua git ma nn s xut hin ca di mu ny ph thuc vo
kch thc ht ma. Thng thng ta thy n xut hin pha dui nh ca cu vng chnh. Git
ma nh nht trn cao v kch thc tng dn khi xung thp. Hin tng giao thoa bin mt
pha thp khi ht c kch thc ln.
112

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

Hnh 4-13. Gc quan st cu vng

Hnh 4-14. ng i ca cc tia sng ti


mt t cc git ma

nh sng tn x trong cu vng hu nh phn cc hon ton v gc ti tia phn x bn


trong ht c gi tr gn bng gc Brewster (tg = n).
Gc quan st thy cu vng c ch ra trn hnh 4-13. Cu vng c dng cung trn l
do tnh i xng cu ca git ma. V nguyn tt, t trn cao (chng hng t my bay) ta c th
thy ton b ng trn cu vng c tm gn hnh bng ca my bay.
ng i ca tia sng v tm t hai ht ma n mt ngi quan st c ch ra trn
hnh 4-14. Hnh ny gii thch ti sao mu trn mu tm di. Cc mu trung gian gia
v tm cho bi cc ht ma khc.
Cu vng ta thy t nhng ht ma di gc xc nh. Ngi ng bn cnh s thy cu
vng n t cc ht ma khc.

Hnh 4-15. nh chp cu vng chnh (r nt) v ph (hi m trn cao).

113

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

HNG DN HC CHNG 4
TN XC, HP TH V TN X NH SNG
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c hin tng tn sc nh sng. ng cong tn sc nh sng. Phn bit tn sc
thng v tn sc d thng. Thit lp cng thc tn sc.
2. Nm c hin tng hp th nh. nh lut Bouguer - Lambert v nh lut Lambert
Beer. Thit lp cng thc hp th.
3. Nm c hin tng tn x nh sng. Phn bit s tn x Tyndall, tn x Phn t, tn x
Raman v tn x Mandelstam Brillouin.
4. Gii thch c hin tng cu vng trong thin nhin.
II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. S tn sc nh sng
* Hin tng tn sc c th xy ra mi mi trng th rn, lng, kh.
* Nhng th nghim cho kt lun:
- nh sng trng l hn hp ca nhiu nh sng mu sc kc nhau, cc nh sng ny gi l nh
sng n sc. Mi mt bc x n sc tng ng vi mt sng nh sng c tn s (bc sng)
xc nh.
- Chit sut ca mi trng lm lng knh ph thuc vo bc sng nh sng ti:
n = f()
- Khi nh sng trng i qua mt lng knh, cc chm n sc c chit sut khc nhau s khc x
v b lch nhng gc khc nhau v pha y ca lng knh to thnh quang ph ca nh sng
trng. Tia tm b lch nhiu nht do c chit sut ln nht.
Nguyn nhn ca hin tng tn sc nh sng chnh l do s ph thuc ca chit sut
mi trng vo bc sng ca nh sng ti.
nh ngha :
S tn sc nh sng l s ph thuc ca chit sut mt cht vo bc sng ca nh sng,
hay l: s ph thuc ca vn tc lan truyn pha u ca n vo bc sng .
n = f()

hay u = f()

Cc mi trng trong c s ph thuc trn c gi l mi trng tn sc.

114

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

ng cong tn sc v tn sc ca mt cht l ng con biu din s ph thuc ca


chit sut ca mt cht y theo bc sng. Cauchy a ra cng thc sau v s ph thuc ca
B C
chit sut vo bc sng trheo hm s n = f() nh sau: n A 2 4 ...

dc ca ng cong tn sc ti mi im gi l tn sc ca cht ang xt

df dn

d
d

- Nu D

dn
0 : ta c hin tng tn sc thng.
d

- Nu D

dn
0 : tn sc d thng
d

- Nu D

dn
0 : s tn sc khng xy ra.
d

2. S hp th nh sng
Khi nh sng chiu vo mt mi trng, mt phn nh sng phn x, tn x, mt phn
truyn qua v mt phn b mi trng hp th chuyn sang dng nng lng khc, thng l
nhit nng. Mi mi trng u hp th nh sng cc mc khc nhau
nh lut Bouguer Lambertt: Khi dy mi trng tng theo cp s cng, cng
sng gim theo cp s nhn, hay c th pht biu nh sau: Cng nh sng truyn qua
mi trng hp th gim theo quy lut hm s m.
I

di
di
kdx kdx I I 0 e kl
i
i
I0
0
H s hp th k ca hu ht cc cht ph thuc vo bc sng. ng cong biu din s
ph thuc ca k vo bc sng ca nh sng b hp th cho ta ph hp th ca mi trng.
nh lut Lambert Beer:
I = I0e-Cl
3. L thuyt v s tn sc v hp th
- Cng thc tn sc:

n 1

02 2
Ne 2
2m 0 (02 2 ) 2 2 2

cho thy s ph thuc ca chic sut vo tn s nh sng ti


Trong thc t, mi nguyn t c nhiu in t, mi in t c th c nhiu tn s dao
ng ring 0k. nn kt qu biu thc (4.9) s c dng:

115

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

n 2 1

fk
Ne 2

2
2m 0 k (0 k 2 ) i k

Vi fk l h s gi l lc dao ng t.

2
Ne 2
2
- Cng thc hp th : k

c
m 0 c (02 2 ) 2 2 2
4. S tn x nh sng
* Hin tng tn x nh sng
Khi nh sng truyn qua mt mi trng, mt phn nh sng b i hng, cng
nh sng b phn b li trong khng gian. Hin tng ny gi l tn x nh sng.
Sau y s phn loi cc nguyn nhn dn n hin tng ny.
* Tn x Tyndall
- Hin tng tn x do mi trng vn c c Tyndall nghin cu bng thc nghim,
Rayleigh nghin cu l thuyt, thit lp nn 3 nh lut sau:
1). Cng nh sng tn x t l nghch vi lu tha bc 4 ca bc sng nh sng
ti:
I = k.I0/4
Trong I0 l cng nh sng ti; I l cng nh sng tn x; k l h s t l, ph
thuc vo nng v kch thc ht tn x.
2). nh sng tn x b phn cc mt phn. Khi phng quan st vung gc vi
phng truyn ( = /2) th nh sng tn x phn cc hon ton.
3). Cng nh sng tn x theo phng c tr s:
I = I/2 (1 + cos2)
trong I/2 l cng nh sng theo phng vung gc vi phng truyn.
* Tn x phn t
S thng ging mt phn t ca mi trng dn n s khng ng nht v chit
sut ca mi trng v l nguyn nhn gy ra s tn x nh sng,hin tng tn x ny gi l
tn x phn t.
2

Cng nh sng tn x phn t theo phng :


Trong :

I0: cng sng ti;

: H s t l;

: H s chu nn ca mi trng;
T: Nhit (K);

116

kT
n
sin 4
I I 0 4

: Khi lng ring;

n: chit sut mi trng.

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

* Tn x Raman
Hin tng tn x nh sng c th xy ra trong s tng tc ca nh sng vi tng phn
t ring bit. Hin tng ny c khng nh vo nm 1928 do Chandresekhara Venkata
Raman (n ) thc hin. V sau ngi ta pht hin ra hin tng tn x ny cn xy ra trn
nhiu cht lng, dung dch v c cc cht th kh v rn (dng bt hoc tinh th).
Quy lut ca tn x Raman l:
+ Trong nh sng tn x, ngoi tn s ca nh sng ti ( bc x Rayleigh) cn c cc tn
s khc b dch i so vi tn s ca nh sng ti (bc x Stock v i Stock).
+ dch chuyn tn s c trng cho mi trng vt cht cho trc v c lp vi
tn s nh sng ti.
+ Cc nghin cu cho thy dch tn s ng bng tn s dao ng ring ca phn
t cu to nn mi trng = i. Mt h phn t c th c nhiu tn s dao ng ring I nn
c th c nhiu dch chuyn Stock v i Stock khc nhau
+ Cng nh sng ca thnh phn Stock ln hn thnh phn i Stock. Khi nhit
tng th thnh phn i Stock tng nhanh.
Hin tng tn x Raman c th gii thch bng quan im lng t.
* Tn x Mandelstam Brillouin
S bt ng nht quang hc ca mi trng c th gy nn khi mt sng m truyn qua.
Khi sng m tn s truyn qua mi trng, mt phn t b thng ging, chit sut
thay i v dn n tn x mang tn Madelstam Brillouin.
4. Cu vng
Khi nh sng mt tri chiu ti mt ht ma, mt phn nh sng khc x vo trong, phn
x bn trong ri l ra khi ht ma. Qu trnh hai ln khc x ny lm tn sc ca nh sng mt
tri. Ph nh sng vi by sc cu vng c th quan st thy vi mu trn cao v mu tm
di.
III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Hy nu bn cht ca s tn sc v tn x nh sng?
2. Hy nu ngha ca ng cong tn sc v tn sc. iu kin xy ra s tn sc trong
mi trng. Hy phn bit tn sc thng v tn sc d thng..
3. Hy thit lp cng thc, pht biu nh lut Bouger-Lambert v nh lut Lambert Beer v
hp th nh sng, ngha ca cc nh lut ny.
4. Dng l thuyt c in v tn sc v hp th, hy thit lp cng thc tn sc v hp th.

117

Chng 4: Tn sc, hp th v tn x nh sng

5. Trnh by hin tng tn x nh sng, cc nguyn nhn dn n hin tng tn x nh sng?


6. Hy trnh by cc loi tn x nh sng m anh (ch) c bit?
7. Cu vng th hin hin tng g ca nh sng? Hy gii thch hin tng ny.

118

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

CHNG 5

PHN CC NH SNG
Hin tng giao thoa v hin tng nhiu x nh sng, cho thy r bn cht sng ca nh
sng v phng truyn m khng cp n phng dao ng, do vy cha xc nh sng nh
sng l sng ngang hay l sng dc. Hin tng phn cc nh sng gip ta gii quyt vn
ny. Tuy nhin xt v mt lch s, hin tng phn cc nh sng, hin tng khc x kp ca
tinh th bng lan c Bactolinus pht hin vo nm 1669, trc khi Young thc hin c
th nghim u tin v giao thoa nh sng. Hn 100 nm sau, Malus khm ph ra hin tng
phn cc do phn x v l ngi u tin dng thut ng phn cc ch cho hin tng ny.
Chng ta cng bit sng in t l sng ngang. Ch c sng ngang mi c th th hin
tnh phn cc cho nn nghin cu s phn cc ca nh sng chng ta mt ln na khng nh
bn cht sng in t ca nh sng.
5. 1. S PHN CC NH SNG
5. 1. 1. nh sng t nhin
nh sng do mt ngun sng pht ra l tp hp ca v s cc on sng ni tip nhau.
Trong mi on sng, vect cng in trng E lun dao ng theo mt phng xc nh
vung gc vi tia sng (hnh 5-1a). Nhng do tnh hn lon ca chuyn ng bn trong mi
nguyn t nn vect E trong cc on sng do mt nguyn t pht ra c th dao ng theo cc
phng khc nhau vung gc vi tia sng.
Mt khc ngun sng bao gm nhiu nguyn t, do phng dao ng ca vect E
trong cc on sng do cc nguyn t pht ra cng thay i hn lon v phn b u xung
quanh tia sng.
nh ngha: nh sng c vect cng in trng dao ng u n theo mi phng
vung gc tia sng c gi l nh sng t nhin.
E
Tia sng

Hnh 5-1a

Hnh 5-1b

Hnh 5-1b biu din nh sng t nhin, trong mt phng vung gc vi tia sng cc vect E c
tr s bng nhau v phn b u n xung quanh tia sng.

119

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

5. 1. 2. nh sng phn cc
nh sng t nhin khi i qua
mi trng bt ng hng v mt
quang hc (v d bn tinh th
Tuamalin), trong nhng iu kin nht
nh no do tc dng ca mi trng
nn vect E ch dao ng theo mt
phng xc nh, nh sng ny c
gi l nh sng phn cc ton phn.

1
E

E1

Tia sng

Hnh 5-2. Biu din nh sng phn cc ton phn E1

nh ngha: nh sng c vect E ch dao ng theo mt phng xc nh c gi l nh sng


phn cc thng hay nh sng phn cc ton phn.
Hin tng nh sng t nhin bin thnh nh sng phn cc gi l hin tng phn cc
nh sng.
Vi nh ngha nh sng phn cc ton phn th mi on sng do nguyn t pht ra l
mt nh sng phn cc ton phn. Nh vy nh sng t nhin do cc nguyn t ca mt ngun
sng pht ra l tp hp ca v s nh sng phn cc ton phn, dao ng u n theo tt c mi
phng vung gc vi tia sng.
Trong mt s trng hp do tc dng ca mi trng ln nh sng truyn qua n, vect
cng in trng vn dao ng theo tt c cc phng vung gc vi tia sng nhng c
phng dao ng yu, c phng dao ng mnh. nh sng ny c gi l nh sng phn cc

mt phn. Nu nh sng phn cc trong u mt vect sng E chuyn ng trn mt ng


elip (hay ng trn) th c gi l nh sng phn cc elip (trn)
Mt phng cha tia sng v phng
dao ng ca E c gi l mt phng
dao ng, cn mt phng cha tia sng v
vung gc vi mt phng dao ng gi l
mt phng phn cc. (hnh 5-3)
Hnh 5-3
5. 1. 3. nh lut Malus v phn cc nh sng
Thc nghim chng t rng, bn tinh th Tuamalin (hp cht silicbrat aluminium) vi
chiu dy 1mm c th bin nh sng t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc thng. Nguyn nhn ca
hin tng ny l do tnh hp th nh sng khng u theo cc phng khc nhau trong tinh th
(gi l tnh hp th d hng). Trong bn Tuamalin c mt phng c bit gi l quang trc
ca tinh th (k hiu l ) . Theo phng quang trc, nh sng khng b hp th v truyn t do
qua bn tinh th, cn theo phng vung gc vi quang trc, nh sng b hp th hon ton. Khi
ta chiu mt chm tia sng t nhin vung gc vi mt ABCD ca bn tinh th tuamalin c
quang trc song song cnh AB, v nh sng l sng ngang nn tia sng sau bn tuamalin c
120

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

vect sng E song song vi quang trc ca bn (hnh 5-2). Di y ta s xt k hn v s


truyn nh sng qua bn tuamalin.
Xt nh sng t nhin truyn ti bn tuamalin T1, bt k vect sng E no ca nh sng
t nhin cng u c th phn tch thnh hai thnh phn: E1x vung gc vi quang trc 1 v

E1y song song vi quang trc 1 . Khi


E 2 E12x E12y

(5-1)

Do nh sng t nhin c E phn b u n xung quanh tia sng nn ta c th ly trung


1
bnh:
(5-2)
E12x E12y E 2
2
Do tnh hp th d hng ca bn tinh th tuamalin, thnh phn E1x vung gc vi
quang trc b hp th hon ton, cn thnh phn E1y song song vi quang trc c truyn
hon ton qua bn tuamalin T1, nh sng t nhin bin thnh nh sng phn cc ton phn c
vect sng E1 E1y song song vi quang trc 1 (hnh 5-4) v cng sng I1 sau bn T1
bng:

1
1
I1 E12 E12y E 2 I 0
2
2

(5-3)

trong I 0 E 2 l cng ca nh sng t nhin truyn ti bn T1.


Ly mt bn tuamalin T2 c quang trc 2
t sau T1. Gi l gc gia quang trc 1 v

2 . Vect sng E1 sau bn tuamalin T1 s c


phn tch thnh hai thnh phn:
E2 E1 cos : song song vi quang trc 2 v
E2 E1 sin : vung gc vi 2 .

Hnh 5-4
Thnh phn E2 s truyn qua bn T2, cn thnh phn E2 s b hp th hon ton. Nh
,
vy sau bn T2 ta cng nhn c nh sng phn cc ton phn c vect sng E 2 v cng
sng I2 bng :
I 2 E2 E12 cos2 I1 cos2
2

(5-4)

Cng thc (5-4) biu din nh lut Malus.


I1 l cng sng sau bn tuamalin T1. Nh vy nu gi c nh bn T1 v quay bn T2
xung quanh tia sng th I2 s thay i. Khi hai quang trc song song vi nhau, 0 th I2 s t

121

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

gi tr cc i v bng I1. Cn lc hai quang trc vung gc vi nhau,

th I2 s bng 0. T1
2

c gi l knh phn cc, T2 c gi l knh phn tch (hnh 5-5a)


nh lut Malus: Khi cho mt chm tia sng t nhin truyn qua hai bn tuamalin c quang
trc hp vi nhau mt gc th cng sng nhn c t l vi cos2.
1

Hnh 5-5a . S biu din nh lut Malus


Do tnh i xng ca nh sng t nhin xung quanh phng truyn nn nu ta quay bn
tuamalin xung quanh tia sng th v tr no cng c nh sng truyn qua. Cn khi tia sng
chiu n bn tuamalin l nh sng phn cc th khi quay bn tuamalin cng sng sau bn
s thay i. Nh vy bn tuamalin c th gip ta phn bit c chm sng t nhin v chm
sng phn cc.

Hnh 5-5b. Phng php phn cc nh sng bng knh phn cc


5. 1. 4. S phn cc nh sng do phn x v khc x
Thc nghim chng t rng khi cho mt tia sng t nhin chiu ti mt phn cch gia
hai mi trng di gc ti i 0 th tia phn x v tia khc x u l nh sng phn cc mt
phn. Vect cng in trng ca tia phn x c bin dao ng ln nht theo phng
vung gc vi mt phng ti, cn vect cng in trng ca tia khc x c bin dao
ng ln nht theo phng nm trong mt phng ti (hnh 5-6).

122

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Khi thay i gc ti i th mc
phn cc ca tia phn x v tia khc x cng
thay i. Khi gc ti i tha mn iu kin:
tg iB = n21

(5-5)

Khng kh

th tia phn x s phn cc ton phn,


n21

n2
n1

l chit sut t i ca mi trng

hai i vi mi trnh mt, iB c gi l


gc ti Brewter hay gc phn cc ton phn.

Thy tinh

Hnh 5-6: Phn cc do phn x v khc x

V d khi phn x t khng kh trn thu tinh th iB = 570. Tia khc x khng bao gi l
nh sng phn cc ton phn, nhng khi I = iB th tia khc x cng b phn cc mnh nht.
5. 2. PHN CC DO LNG CHIT
5. 2. 1. Tnh lng chit ca tinh th
Thc nghim chng t rng mt s tinh th nh bng lan, thch anh... c tnh cht c
bit l nu chiu mt tia sng n tinh th th ni chung ta s c hai tia. Hin tng ny gi l
hin tng lng chit. Nguyn nhn l do tnh bt ng hng ca tinh th v mt quang hc
(tc l tnh cht quang ca tinh th cc hng khc nhau th s khc nhau). nghin cu
hin tng lng chit chng ta xt tinh th bng lan..

Hnh 5-7. Tinh th bng lan

Hnh 5-8. Tnh lng chit ca tinh th

Tinh th bng lan l dng kt tinh ca canxi cacbnat (CaCO3). Mi ht tinh th bng lan
c dng mt khi su mt hnh thoi (hnh 5-7) trong ng thng ni hai nh A v A1 gi l
quang trc ca tinh th. Mt tia sng truyn vo tinh th bng lan theo phng song song vi
quang trc s khng b tch thnh hai tia khc x. Chiu mt tia sng t nhin vung gc vi
mt ABCD ca tinh th. Thc nghim chng t rng tia ny s b tch thnh hai tia khc x
(hnh 5-8).
- Tia truyn thng khng b lch khi phng truyn gi l tia thng (k hiu l tia o).
Tia ny tun theo nh lut khc x nh sng. Tia thng phn cc ton phn, c vect sng E
123

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

vung gc vi mt mt phng c bit gi l mt phng chnh ca tia (mt phng cha tia
thng v quang trc).
- Tia lch khi phng truyn gi l tia bt thng (k hiu l tia e). Tia ny khng tun
theo nh lut khc x nh sng. Tia bt thng phn cc ton phn, c vect sng E nm trong
mt phng chnh ca n (mt phng cha quang trc v tia bt thng).
Khi l ra khi tinh th, hai tia thng v tia bt thng ch khc nhau v phng phn
cc. Chit sut ca tinh th bng lan i vi tia thng lun khng i v bng no=1,659.
Chit sut ne ca tinh th bng lan i vi tia bt thng ph thuc vo phng truyn
ca n trong tinh th v thay i t 1,659 (theo phng quang trc) n 1,486 (theo phng
vung gc vi quang trc). Nh vy i vi tinh th bng lan ta c:
ne no

(5-6)

V chit sut n = c/v, vi c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng v v l vn tc nh sng


trong mi trng, do :
ve vo

(5-7)

ngha l trong tinh th bng lan, vn tc ca tia bt thng ni chung ln hn vn tc ca tia


thng.
Nhng tinh th c ne< n0 (nh tinh th bng lan) c gi l tinh th m. Cn nhng tinh
th c ne > n0 (nh tinh th thch anh) c gi l tinh th dng.
Tinh th bng lan, thch anh, tuamalin... l nhng tinh th n trc. Trong t nhin cn
c tinh th lng trc, l nhng tinh th c hai quang trc theo hai hng khc nhau. Mt tia
sng t nhin truyn qua tinh th lng trc cng b tch thnh hai tia khc x nhng c hai tia
ny u l nhng tia bt thng.
5. 2. 2. Mt sng trong mi trng tinh th n trc
nghin cu s truyn ca tia thng v tia bt thng trong tinh th (ta ch xt
trng hp tinh th n trc), ta xt mt sng ca sng nh sng trong cc tinh th .
V vn tc ca tia thng khng ph thuc phng truyn trong tinh th, do mt sng
th cp i vi nh sng thng t mt im no trong tinh th thot ra l mt mt cu (d
tinh th l dng hay m). Vi nh sng bt thng, vn tc ph thuc phng truyn, do
mt sng th cp khng phi l mt cu. Thc nghim v l thuyt chng t rng mt sng i
vi nh sng bt thng l mt mt elip trn xoay c trc quay song song vi quang trc ca
tinh th. Hnh 5-9 biu din cc mt sng th cp ca nh sng thng v nh sng bt thng
xut pht t cng mt im trong tinh th. Cc tip im ca hai mt sng nm trn quang
trc ca tinh th.
Mun xc nh tia thng v tia bt thng trong tinh th n trc, ta phi p dng
nguyn l Huygens v cc mt sng thc ca nh sng thng v nh sng bt thng
cng mt thi im no . Ni im ngun th cp vi tip im gia mt sng thc cp v
mt sng thc ng vi tia o, ta s c phng truyn ca tia thng. Tng t nh vy, nu ta
124

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

ni cng im ngun th cp y vi tip im gia mt sng th cp v mt sng thc ng vi


tia e, ta s c phng truyn ca tia bt thng.
Thch anh

Bng lan

Hnh 5-9. Dng mt sng th cp ca tia thng v tia bt thng t mt im


trong tinh th pht ra.pht ra trong trng hp: a) Tinh th dng; b) Tinh th m.
Sau y ta xc nh tia thng v tia bt thng trong mt s trng hp khi nh sng
truyn trong tinh th Bng lan. n gin ta ly chm nh sng ti l chm n sc, song
song, ri vung gc vi mt tinh th.
Trng hp 1: Quang trc nghing mt gc no so vi mt tinh th. V chm nh
sng c ri vung gc vi mt tinh th nn mt tinh th AB trng vi mt mt sng ca chm
y. Do , theo nguyn l Huygens cc im trn mt tinh th c nh sng ri ti c th coi
l nhng ngun th cp pht nh sng i vo tinh th bt u t cng mt lc (hnh 5-10). Xung
quanh cc im A v B ta thit lp hai mt sng th cp mt cu v mt elip trn xoay, hai mt
sng ny tip xc vi nhau theo phng ca quang trc. Cc mt sng th cp khc c th thit
lp xung quanh cc im mn gia A v B.
Tia sng
t nhin

Hnh5-10. Xc nh tia thng v tia bt thng khi quang trc


nghing mt gc no so vi mt tinh th
Theo Nguyn l Huygens, bao hnh ca tt c cc mt sng th cp (mt phng CD v
EF cho ta mt sng ca nh sng thng v nh sng bt thng trong tinh th. R rng khi vo
tinh th tia sng b tch thnh hai. T hnh v ta thy tia bt thng khng vung gc vi mt
sng ca n.

125

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Trng hp 2: Chm sng v quang trc cng vung gc vi mt AB ca tinh th (hnh


5-11). V theo phng quang trc, vn tc ca thia thng v tia bt thng trng nhau; do
mt sng ca nh sng thng v bt thng trng nhau. Kt qu khi vo tinh th tia sng
khng b tch thnh hai.

Tia sng
t nhin

Hnh 5-11. Xc nh tia thng v tia bt thng trong trng hp chm sng
v quang trc vung gc mt tinh th
Trng hp 3: Chm sng vung gc vi mt tinh th, cn quang trc song song vi mt
( hnh 5-12). Hnh v cho thy trong trng hp ny tia thng v tia bt thng truyn theo
mt hng nhng vn tc khc nhau.
Tia sng
t nhin

Hnh 5-12. Xc nh tia thng v tia bt thng trong trng hp chm sng
vung gc mt tinh th, cn quang trc song song vi mt .
5. 2. 3. Cc loi knh phn cc
Ngi ta s dng cc tinh th lng chit ch to knh phn cc. Knh phn cc l
nhng dng c c th bin nh sng t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc, v d nh bn tuamalin,
bn plarit, lng knh nicn...
126

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

* Bn Plarit
Mt s tinh th lng chit c tnh hp th d hng mnh i vi mt trong hai tia
thng v bt thng. V d bn tinh th tuamalin dy hn 1mm hu nh hp th hon ton tia
thng v ch cho tia bt thng truyn qua n. V vy bn tuamalin c th dng lm knh phn
cc.
Trong nhng nm gn y ngi ta ch to nhng knh phn cc lm bng xenluylit,
trn c ph mt lp tinh th nh hng sunfat-it-kinin c tnh hp th d hng mnh. Nhng
bn ny gi l bn plarit. Bn plarit dy khong 0,1 mm c th hp th hon ton tia
thng v to ra nh sng phn cc ton phn sau khi i ra khi bn.
Bn plarit tng i r nn c s dng nhiu trong ngnh vn ti. khc phc
hin tng ngi li xe t b lo mt do nh sng t cc n pha ca cc t khc chy ngc
chiu gy ra, ngi ta dn cc bn plarit ln mt knh n pha t v knh chn gi pha trc
ngi li t sao cho quang trc ca cc bn song song v cng nghing 45o so vi phng
ngang. Khi hai t chy ngc chiu ti gp nhau th cc bn plarit trn hai t ny c quang
trc bt cho nhau. Nh vy nh sng phn cc pht ra t n pha ca t th nht chy ti
khng th truyn qua knh chn gi ca t th hai chy ngc chiu chiu vo mt ngi li
xe. Trong khi ngi li xe th hai vn c th nhn thy nh sng phn cc pht ra t n pha
ca xe mnh chiu sang cc vt pha trc, v nh sng phn cc ny sau khi phn x trn cc
vt vn gi nguyn phng dao ng song song vi quang trc ca knh chn gi trc mt
ngi li xe.
* Lng knh Nicol
Lng knh Nicol (gi tt l nicn) l mt khi tinh th bng lan c ct theo mt cho thnh
hai na v dn li vi nhau bng mt lp nha canaa trong sut c chit sut n= 1,550.
Tia sng t nhin SI chiu vo mt AC ca nicol theo phng song song vi mt y CA'
b tch thnh hai: tia thng v tia bt thng. Chit sut ca tinh th i vi tia thng
no=1,659, cn chit sut ca tinh th i vi tia bt thng ne ph thuc vo hng, n thay i
t 1,486 n 1,659. V no > ne nn tia thng b khc x mnh hn tia bt thng. Chit sut ca
tinh th i vi tia thng ln hn chit sut ca lp nha v hnh dng, kch thc ca nicol
c chn sao cho tia thng khi n lp nha canaa b phn x ton phn v sau b hp
th trn lp sn en ca mt y CA'. Cn tia bt thng (ne < n) truyn qua lp nha canaa
v l ra khi nicn theo phng song song vi tia ti SI (hnh 5-13).
Nh vy, nicol bin nh sng t
nhin (hoc phn cc mt phn) truyn qua
n thnh nh sng phn cc ton phn c
mt phng dao ng trng vi mt phng
chnh ca nicol.

Hnh 5-13. Lng knh Nicol

127

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Nu cho mt chm sng t nhin qua h hai nicol N1 v N2 th cng sng I2 pha
sau bn nicol N2 cng c xc nh theo nh lut Malus (cng thc 5-4), vi l gc gia
hai mt phng chnh ca nicol N1 v N2.
Khi hai nicol N1 v N2 t v tr song song, ng vi = 0, cng sng sau nicol
N2 t cc i I2 = Imax (sng nht). Khi hai nicol t v tr bt cho, ng vi =/2, cng
sng sau nicol N2 t cc tiu I2 = Imin (ti nht) (hnh 5-14)

Hnh 5-14. a) Hai nicol song song;

b) Hai nicol bt cho

5. 3. NH SNG PHN CC ELIP V PHN CC TRN


Trong cc tit trc chng ta nghin cu nh sng phn cc thng, l nh sng c
vect sng E dao ng theo mt phng xc nh, tc l E dao ng trn ng thng.
Thc nghim ch ra rng ta c th to ra nh sng phn cc trong u mt vect sng

E chuyn ng trn mt ng elip (hay ng trn), nh sng phn cc ny c gi l nh


sng phn cc elip hay phn cc trn.

Hnh 5-15. nh sng phn cc elip


Xt bn tinh th T c quang trc v dy d. Chiu vung gc vi mt trc ca bn
tinh th mt tia sng phn cc ton phn c vect sng E hp vi quang trc mt gc . Khi
vo bn tinh th, tia sng ny b tch thnh hai: tia thng v tia bt thng. Tia thng c
vect sng E o vung gc vi quang trc, tia bt thng c vect sng E e song song vi quang
trc, c hai vect sng u nm trong mt phng vung gc vi tia sng (hnh 5-15).

128

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Vect sng tng hp ca tia thng v tia bt thng ti im M sau bn tinh th bng:
E Eo Ee

(5-8)

trong bn tinh th, hai tia ny truyn i vi vn tc khc nhau (do chit sut ca tinh
th i vi hai tia khc nhau, ne no ) v khi l ra khi bn chng li truyn i vi cng vn tc.
Do , hiu quang l ca tia thng v tia bt thng ti mt im M sau bn bng:
L Lo - Le (n o - n e )d

tng ng vi hiu pha l

(5-9)

2
2
(L o - L e )
( n o - n e )d

(5-10)

trong l bc sng nh sng trong chn khng.


Cc vect sng E o v E e dao ng theo hai phng vung gc vi nhau, do u mt vect
sng tng hp s chuyn ng trn mt ng elip xc nh bi phng trnh:
x2
A12

y2

2xy
cos sin 2
2 A A
A2
1 2

(5-11)

Vi A1 v A2 ln lt l bin v o - e l hiu pha dao ng ca hai vect


sng E o v E e . Nu trc khi vo bn tinh th, nh sng phn cc ton phn c bin l A
th A1=A.sin v A2=A.cos .
Nh vy, nh sng phn cc thng sau khi truyn qua bn tinh th s bin thnh nh
sng phn cc elip. Chng ta s xt mt vi trng hp ring ph thuc vo dy d ca bn
tinh th.
5. 3. 1. Bn phn t bc sng
Bn phn t bc sng l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng
v tia bt thng truyn qua bn bng mt s l ln ca phn t bc sng:
L (n o - n e )d (2k 1)

Khi hiu pha ca hai tia bng:

v phng trnh (5-11) s thnh:

(2k 1)
x2
A12

y2
A 22

(5-12)

(5-13)

(5-14)

Trong trng hp ny, u mt ca vect sng tng hp E pha sau bn tinh th chuyn
ng trn mt elip dng chnh tc c hai bn trc l A1 v A2 c xc nh bi phng trnh
(5-14) (hnh 5-16a). c bit, nu = 45o th A1 = A2 = A0 v phng trnh (5-14) s thnh:
x 2 y 2 A 02

(5-15)

129

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Khi u mt ca vect sng tng hp E pha sau bn tinh th chuyn ng trn ng trn
tm O, bn knh A0 c xc nh bi phng trnh (5-15) (hnh 5-16b).

Hnh 5-16a. Phn cc elip dng chnh tc

Hnh 5-16b. Phn cc trn

Nh vy, sau khi truyn qua bn phn t bc sng, nh sng phn cc thng b bin
i thnh nh sng phn cc elip dng chnh tc hoc phn cc trn.
5. 3. 2. Bn na bc sng
Bn na bc sng l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng v
tia bt thng truyn qua bn bng mt s l ln na bc sng:
L (n o - n e )d (2k 1)

(5-16)

Khi hiu pha ca hai tia bng:

(2k 1)

(5-17)

v phng trnh (5-11) s thnh:

x
y

0
A1 A 2

(5-18)

y l phng trnh ca ng thng, mt vect sng tng hp E


pha sau bn s chuyn ng trn ng thng nm trong gc phn
t th hai v th t ca h ta Oxy (hnh 5-17), ng thng
hp vi quang trc mt gc . Trc khi vo bn tinh th, mt vect
sng ca nh sng phn cc thng dao ng trn ng thng.

Hnh 5-17

Nh vy sau khi truyn qua bn na bc sng nh sng phn cc thng vn l nh


sng phn cc thng, nhng phng dao ng quay i mt gc 2 so vi trc khi i vo
bn.
5. 3. 3. Bn mt bc sng
Bn mt bc sng l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng v
tia bt thng truyn qua bn bng mt s nguyn ln bc sng:
L (n o - n e )d k

khi hiu pha ca hai tia bng:


v phng trnh (5-11) s thnh:

130

2k

x
y
0
A1 A 2

(5-19)
(5-20)
(5-21)

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

y l phng trnh ca ng thng, nm trong gc


phn t th nht v th ba ca h ta Oxy (hnh 5-18),
ng thng hp vi quang trc mt gc . Nh vy sau
khi truyn qua bn mt bc sng nh sng phn cc thng
gi nguyn khng i.

Hnh 5-18

5. 4. LNG CHIT NHN TO


Mt s cht bnh thng khng c tnh lng chit nhng khi lm bin dng, hoc tc
dng in- t trng ln chng th cc cht tr nn c tnh lng chit. Lng chit trong
trng hp ny gi l lng chit nhn to.
5. 4. 1. Lng chit do bin dng c hc
Bnh thng cc cht v nh hnh c tnh ng hng. Tuy nhin khi nn hoc ko
gin mt vt v nh hnh (nh thy tinh, xenluylit.) theo mt phng no th vt y tr
nn bt ng hng, phng nn hay phng ko gin tr thnh quang trc ca vt. S
nghin cu hin tng ny c v trn hnh 5-19.

Hnh 5-19. S nghin cu hin tng lng chit do bin dng.


N1 v N2 l hai Nicol t cho nhau, P l vt v nh hnh. Mt chm sng t nhin ri
qua hai Nicol v vt v nh hnh . Khi cha b nn hoc cha b ko dn, vt v nh hnh
khng lm thay i nh sng nhn c sau N1 , do sau N2 l ti. Khi nn hoc ko dn, vt
tr thnh c tnh bt nh hng, n bin nh sng phn cc thu c sau N1 thnh nh sng
phn cc elip. Nicol N2 khng ngn hon ton c nh sng phn cc elip ny v cho mt
phn nh sng i qua. Kt qu sau N2 cng sng c mt gi tr no . Thc nghim chng
t rng, hiu chit sut n0 n2 ca mi trng b nn hoc b ko dn i vi tia thng v tia
bt thng t l vi p sut P tc dng ln vt.
n0 ne = Cp

(5- 22)

trong C l h s t l, ph thuc bn cht ca vt v bc sng snh sng.


Hiu pha dao ng ca tia thng v tia bt thng s l:

n0 ne d

2C p

(5-23)

131

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

trong d l b dy ca vt. Bn trong vt b nn c th c nhng im chu p sut nh nhau


qua nhng im , nh sng b lng chit nh nhau, truyn qua N2 nh nhau v b p ln
mng quan st nh ca nhng im c cng cng sng. Nhng ng cng sng
c gi l ng cng sng.
Ngoi ra, v cn ph thuc vo nn nu dng nh sng trng ta s c nhng ng
ng sc c mu sc khc nhau. Nghin cu ng ng sc gip xc nh c phn b p
sut bn trong vt, phng php nghin cu ny c gi l phng php quang n hi,
phng php ny hin ang ng dng rt rng ri.
Theo phng php ny, ngi ta lm mt
mu rt gn ca vt cn nghin cu (v d cc
chi tit my) bng cht trong sut v nh hnh.
Tc dng ln mu nhng lc thu nh ca nhng
lc trong thc t v nghin cu nhng ng
cng sng. Trn hnh 5-20 l nh chp nhng
ng cng sng thu c khi nn mt chic
rng en bng thu tinh ti hai im ca n.

Hnh 5-20

5. 4. 2. Lng chit do in trng


Mt s cht lng nh sulfua ccbon, benzn... khi chu tc dng ca in trng th tr
nn bt ng hng v mt quang hc. Hin tng ny c Kerr tm ra nm 1875 v gi l
hiu ng Kerr. S th nghim v hiu ng Kerr c trnh by trn hnh 5-21.
Khi cha c in trng, cc phn t cht lng chuyn ng nhit hn lon nn cht
lng l ng hng v khng lm thay i phng ca nh sng phn cc ton phn sau nicol
N1 truyn ti n. Do nh sng phn cc ton phn ny khng th truyn tip qua nicol N 2
(bt cho vi N1) v sau nicol N2 s hon ton ti.
N1

N2

Hnh 5-21. Th nghim v hiu ng Kerr


Khi cht lng chu tc dng ca in trng gia hai bn cc ca t in, cc phn t
ca n tr thnh cc lng cc in nm dc theo phng ca in trng. Cht lng tr thnh
mi trng bt ng hng vi quang trc l phng ca in trng. Trong trng hp ny,
chm nh sng phn cc ton phn sau nicol N1 truyn ti cht lng b tch thnh tia thng v
tia bt thng. Tng hp ca hai tia ny s l nh sng phn cc elip, c th truyn tip qua
nicol N2 (bt cho vi N1), nn sau nicol N2 s sng.

132

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Thc nghim chng t vi mi nh sng n sc, hiu s chit sut no - ne ca cht lng
(chu tc dng ca in trng) i vi tia thng v tia bt thng truyn trong n c ln t
l vi bnh phng cng in trng E tc dng ln cht lng:
n o n e kE 2

(5-22)

vi k l h s t l ph thuc vo bn cht ca cht lng. Hiu pha gia hai dao ng ca tia
thng v tia bt thng sau khi i qua lp cht lng c b dy d s l:

2
2 2
( n o n e )d
kE d 2BE 2 d

(5-23)

trong B = k/ gi l hng s Kerr. Gi tr ca B ph thuc nhit ca cht lng v bc


sng nh sng.
Thi gian cc phn t nh hng theo phng ca in trng v thi gian cc
phn t tr v trng thi chuyn ng hn lon ch vo c 10-10s. Tnh cht ny ca hiu ng
Kerr c ng dng ch to van quang hc dng ng ngt nh sng rt nhanh khng c
qun tnh.
5. 5. S QUAY MT PHNG PHN CC
Mt s tinh th hoc dung dch c tc dng lm quay mt phng phn cc ca chm nh
sng phn cc ton phn truyn qua chng. Hin tng ny gi l hin tng quay mt phng
phn cc. Cc cht lm quay mt phng phn cc ca nh sng phn cc gi l cht hot quang,
th d nh thch anh, dung dch ng.....
Hin tng quay mt phng
phn cc c th hin nh sau: Cho
nh sng t nhin i qua knh phn cc
T1 v knh phn tch T2 t vung gc
vi nhau. Kt qu l nh sng khng i
qua c knh phn tch T2, sau bn T2
s ti. By gi nu t gia knh phn
cc T1 v knh phn tch T2 mt bn
tinh th thch anh c quang trc nm
dc theo phng truyn ca tia sng

Hnh 5-22: Hin tng quay mt phng phn cc

th thy nh sng i qua c knh phn tch T2, sau bn T2 s sng. Mun cho nh sng khng
i qua c ta phi quay knh phn tch mt gc . iu chng t di tc dng ca bn tinh
th nh sng phn cc thng sau bn T1 b quay i mt gc (hnh 5-22), hay ta ni bn tinh
th lm quay mt phng phn cc mt gc . l hin tng quay mt phng phn cc.
Thc nghim cho thy gc quay ca mt phng phn cc t l thun vi dy d ca
bn tinh th:

133

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

(5-24)

l h s quay, n c gi tr ph thuc bn cht, nhit ca cht rn quang hot v bc sng


ca nh sng. V d i vi bn thch anh 200C: = 21,7 /mm ng vi
= 0,589 m; = 48,9 /mm ng vi = 0,4047 m.
i vi cc dung dch, gc quay ca mt phng phn cc t l vi dy d ca lp
dung dch c nh sng phn cc truyn qua v t l vi nng c ca dung dch:

cd

(5-25)

trong [] c gi l h s quay ring, n c gi tr ph thuc bn cht v nhit ca dung


dch hot quang, ng thi ph thuc bc sng ca nh sng. V d i vi nh sng vng
Na ( = 0,589m) 200C, [] ca dung dch ng l 66,50cm2/g.

Hnh 5-23. M hnh ca ng k


Hin tng quay mt phng phn cc c ng dng trong mt dng c gi l ng k
xc nh nng ng trong dung dch (hnh 5-23)
nh sng t bng n S truyn qua knh lc sc F v knh phn cc P bin i thnh
nh sng n sc phn cc ton phn. Quan st trong ng ngm O, ng thi quay knh phn
tch A cho ti khi th trng trong ng ngm tr nn ti hon ton. Khi knh phn tch A nm
v tr bt cho vi knh phn cc P v mt phng chnh ca chng vung gc vi nhau. Gc 1
xc nh v tr ca knh phn tch A c c trn thc o gc K. t ng thu tinh H cha
y dung dch hot quang cn nghin cu vo khong gia hai knh A v P, th trng trong ng
ngm O li sng. Nguyn nhn l do dung dch hot quang lm mt phng dao ng ca nh
sng phn cc ton phn truyn qua n quay i mt gc ti v tr khng vung gc vi mt
phng chnh ca knh phn tch A na. By gi ta quay knh phn tch A cho n khi th trng
trong ng ngm O ti hon ton. c gc 2, xc nh v tr ny ca knh phn tch A. T
tm ra c gc quay ca mt phng phn cc = 2 - 1.
Theo cng thc (5-25), nu bit dy d v hng s quay ring ca dung dch hot quang,
ta d dng xc nh c nng c ca dung dch :

134

2
.d .d

(5-26)

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

5. 6. MT S NG DNG KHC
Ngy nay, trong nhng ng dng hin i, nh sng phn cc c to ra ph bin nht
bng s hp th nh sng c tp hp hng dao ng nht nh trong mi trng lc (v d nh
bn phn cc), trong trc truyn ca b lc vung gc vi s nh hng ca polymer tuyn
tnh v tinh th c cha cht phn cc. S phn cc nh sng c ng dng rt nhiu trong
thc t, chng hn s hin th tinh th lng (LCD) dng trong hng lot dng c nh ng h
eo tay, mn hnh my tnh, ng h bm gi, ng h treo tng v nhiu vt dng khc. ng
dng khc ca nh sng phn cc bao gm nhng chic knh rm Polaroid, lm knh cm
nhn chiu su vi nhng b phim ba chiu, cng nh vic s dng cc b lc phn cc c bit
dng cho thu knh camera. Nhiu thit b khoa hc a dng s dng nh sng phn cc, hoc
pht ra bi laser... Cc tinh th khng i xng c th c dng to ra nh sng phn cc
khi p in trng vo b mt . Mt dng c ph bin s dng tng ny c tn l t bo
Pockels, c th dng chung vi nh sng phn cc lm thay i hng phn cc i 90 . T
bo Pockels c th bt v tt rt nhanh bng dng in v thng c dng lm ca chn
nhanh cho php nh sng i qua trong khong thi gian rt ngn (c 10 -10 giy). Trong trng
hp c in trng cc ln, cc phn t ca cht lng v cht kh nht nh c th x s nh
tinh th d hng v sp thng hng theo kiu tng t. T bo Kerr, thit k dng cht lng v
cht kh gia dng thay cho cc tinh th, cng hot ng trn c s lm thay i gc nh sng
phn cc. Tnh cht ny c ng dng ch to van quang hc dng ng ngt nh sng
rt nhanh khng c qun tnh. nh sng phn cc cng vi hiu ng Pockel trong tinh th
LiNbO3 dng lm b bin iu trong chuyn mch quang c ng dng trong thng tin quang.

HNG DN HC CHNG 5
PHN CC NH SNG
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c s phn cc nh sng th hin nh sng l sng ngang. Phn bit nh sng t nhin
v nh sng phn cc (mt phn, ton phn). nh lut Malus v phn cc nh sng.
2. Nm c s phn cc nh sng do phn x, khc x. S phn cc do lng chit . Lng
chit nhn to v cc loi knh phn cc.
3. Nm c ng dng ca hin tng quay mt phng phn cc xc nh nng ca cc
cht hot quang trong phn cc k (ng k).

135

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. S phn cc nh sng
* nh sng c vect cng in trng dao ng u n theo mi phng vung gc tia
sng c gi l nh sng t nhin.
* nh sng c vect cng in trng ch dao ng theo mt phng xc nh c gi l
nh sng phn cc thng hay nh sng phn cc ton phn.
* nh sng c vect cng in trng dao ng theo tt c cc phng vung gc vi tia
sng nhng c phng dao ng yu, c phng dao ng mnh c gi l nh sng phn cc
mt phn.

* nh sng phn cc trong u mt vect sng E chuyn ng trn mt ng elip (hay


ng trn) th c gi l nh sng phn cc elip (trn).
Mt phng cha tia sng v phng dao ng ca E c gi l mt phng dao ng,
cn mt phng cha tia sng v vung gc vi mt phng dao ng gi l mt phng phn cc.
Trong bn Tuamalin c mt phng c bit gi l quang trc ca tinh th (k hiu l
) . Theo phng quang trc, nh sng khng b hp th, m truyn qua hon ton cn theo
phng vung gc vi quang trc, nh sng b hp th hon ton.
* nh lut Malus: Khi cho mt chm tia sng t nhin truyn qua hai bn tuamalin c quang
trc hp vi nhau mt gc th cng sng nhn c t l vi cos2.

I 2 I1 cos 2
* S phn cc do phn x, khc x:
Khi thay i gc ti i th mc
phn cc ca tia phn x v tia khc x cng
thay i. Khi tg iB = n21 th tia phn x s
phn cc ton phn, n21 l chit sut t i
ca mi trng hai i vi mi trng mt,
iB c gi l gc ti Brewster.

136

Khng kh

Thy tinh

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

2. S phn cc do lng chit


* Tnh lng chit ca tinh th
Nu chiu mt tia sng n tinh th s
thu c hai tia khc x gi l hin
tng lng chit. Tia tun theo nh
lut khc x gi l tia thng. Tia
thng phn cc ton phn, c vect
sng E vung gc vi mt phng chnh
ca tia thng. Tia khng theo nh
lut khc x gi l tia bt thng. Tia
bt thng phn cc ton phn, c
vect sng E nm trong mt phng
chnh ca n.
Khi l ra khi tinh th, hai tia thng v tia bt thng ch khc nhau v phng phn cc. i
vi tinh th bng lan ta c: ne no do : ve vo,
Knh phn cc l nhng dng c c th bin nh sng t nhin thnh nh sng phn cc, v d
nh bn tuamalin, bn plarit, lng knh nicol...
* Mt s cht lng nh sulfua ccbon, benzn... khi chu tc dng ca in trng th tr nn
bt ng hng v mt quang hc (c tnh lng chit). Hiu ng ny gi l hiu ng Kerr v
c ng dng ch to van quang hc
* Mt sng trong mi trng tinh th n trc
Mt sng th cp i vi nh sng thng t mt im no trong tinh th thot ra l
mt mt cu .Vi nh sng bt thng, mt sng th cp khng phi l mt cu. Mt sng i
vi nh sng bt thng l mt mt elip trn xoay c trc quay song song vi quan trc ca
tinh th.
* Knh phn cc
+ Bn Plarit
Ngi ta ch to nhng knh phn cc lm bng xenluylit, trn c ph mt lp tinh
th nh hng sunfat-it-kinin c tnh hp th d hng mnh, gi l bn plarit. Bn plarit
dy khong 0,1 mm c th hp th hon ton tia thng v to ra nh sng phn cc ton phn
sau khi i ra khi bn. Bn plarit c s dng nhiu trong ngnh vn ti.
+ Lng knh Nicol
Lng knh Nicol l mt khi tinh th bng lan c ct theo mt cho thnh hai na v dn
li vi nhau bng mt lp nha canaa trong sut c chit sut n= 1,550. Cho tia sng t truyn
qua s tr thnh nh sng phn cc ton phn c mt phng dao ng trng vi mt phng chnh
ca nicol.

137

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

3. nh sng phn cc elip v phn cc trn


* nh sng phn cc trong u mt vect sng E chuyn ng trn mt ng elip (hay
ng trn) c gi l nh sng phn cc elip (hay phn cc trn) .
* Chiu vung gc vi mt trc ca bn tinh th mt tia sng phn cc ton phn c vect
sng E hp vi quang trc mt gc . Ti im ngay pha sau bn u mt vect sng tng
hp s chuyn ng trn mt ng elip xc nh bi phng trnh:

x 2 y 2 2 xy

cos sin 2
A12 A22 A1 A2
x, y l di dao ng, A1, A2 l bin dao ng ca E o v E e . Hiu pha ca cc tia thng
v tia bt thng l

( Lo - Le )

(no - ne )d

* Bn phn t bc sng: l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng v


tia bt thng truyn qua bn bng mt s l ln ca phn t bc sng:

L (no - ne )d (2k 1)

Sau khi truyn qua bn , nh sng phn cc thng b bin i thnh nh sng phn cc elip
dng chnh tc hoc phn cc trn.
* Bn na bc sng: l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng v tia
bt thng truyn qua bn bng mt s l ln na bc sng:
L (no - ne )d (2k 1)

Sau khi truyn qua bn nh sng phn cc thng vn l nh sng phn cc thng, nhng phng
dao ng quay i mt gc 2 so vi trc khi i vo bn.
* Bn mt bc sng: l bn tinh th c dy d sao cho hiu quang l ca tia thng v tia bt
thng truyn qua bn bng mt s nguyn ln bc sng:

L (no - ne )d k

Sau khi truyn qua bn nh sng phn cc thng gi nguyn khng i.


4. Lng chit nhn to.
* Lng chit do bin dng c hc:
- Hiu chit sut n0 n2 ca mi trng b nn hoc b ko dn i vi tia thng v tia bt
thng t l vi p sut P tc dng ln vt.
n0 ne = Cp
C l h s t l, ph thuc bn cht ca vt v bc sng snh sng.
138

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Hiu pha dao ng ca tia thng v tia bt thng s l:

n0 ne d

2C p

Trong d l b dy ca vt. Bn trong vt b nn c th c nhng im chu p sut nh nhau


qua nhng im , nh sng b lng chit nh nhau, phng php nghin cu da trn c s
ny c gi l phng php quang n hi,
* Lng chit do in trng
- Vi mi nh sng n sc, hiu s chit sut no - ne ca cht lng (chu tc dng ca in
trng) i vi tia thng v tia bt thng truyn trong n c ln t l vi bnh phng
cng in trng E tc dng ln cht lng:
n o n e kE 2

vi k l h s t l ph thuc vo bn cht ca cht lng. Hiu pha gia hai dao ng ca tia
thng v tia bt thng sau khi i qua lp cht lng c b dy d s l:

(no ne )d

kE 2 d 2BE 2 d

trong B = k/ gi l hng s Kerr. Gi tr ca B ph thuc nhit ca cht lng v bc


sng nh sng.
Thi gian cc phn t nh hng theo phng ca in trng v thi gian cc
phn t tr v trng thi chuyn ng hn lon ch vo c 10-10s, c ng dng ch to van
quang hc dng ng ngt nh sng rt nhanh khng c qun tnh.
5. S quay mt phng phn cc
Mt s tinh th hoc dung dch c tc dng lm quay mt phng phn cc ca chm nh
sng phn cc ton phn truyn qua chng. Thc nghim cho thy gc quay d , l h s
quay, n c gi tr ph thuc bn cht v nhit ca cht rn quang hot v bc sng ca
nh sng.
i vi cc dung dch: cd , trong [] c gi l h s quay ring, n c gi tr ph
thuc bn cht v nhit ca dung dch hot quang, ng thi ph thuc bc sng ca nh
sng.
Hin tng quay mt phng phn cc c ng dng trong mt dng c gi l ng k xc
nh nng ng trong dung dch.
6. Mt s ng dng khc
III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Hin tng phn cc chng t bn cht g ca nh sng? nh sng l sng ngang hay sng
dc? Gii thch ti sao ?

139

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

2. Phn bit nh sng t nhin v nh sng phn cc ton phn, nh sng phn cc mt phn,
nh sng phn elip, phn cc (trn).
3. Thit lp, pht biu v vit biu thc ca nh lut Malus i vi s phn cc nh sng.
4. Trnh by s phn cc do phn x, khc x.
5. Trnh by s phn cc do lng chit.
6. Trnh by cc loi knh phn cc? cc bn plarit lm gim thiu chi nh th no?
7. nh ngha nh sng phn cc elip, phn cc trn. Trnh by cch to ra nh sng phn cc
elip. Xt cc trng hp b dy bn mt phn t bc sng, bn na bc sng v bn mt
bc sng
8. Trnh by tnh lng chit ca tinh th do bin dng v do in trng. Trnh by hiu ng
Kerr
9. Nu s ging nhau v khc nhau ca hai tia thng v bt thng khi i qua tinh th bng
lan.
10. Nu ng dng ca hin tng quay mt phng phn cc.
IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Hi gc nghing ca mt tri so vi chn tri phi bng bao nhiu nhng tia sng
mt tri phn chiu trn mt h b phn cc ton phn. Bit rng chit sut ca nc h n =
1,33.
Bi gii:
Theo nh lut Brewster, mun tia sng
phn chiu b phn cc ton phn th gc
ti ca n phi bng gc ti Brewster, xc
nh bi cng thc:
tgi B n 1,33 iB 5305

Do gc nghing ca mt tri so vi ng chn tri: 900 i B 36055


Th d 2: Cho mt chm tia sng phn cc thng c bc sng trong chn khng l 0 =
0,589m chiu vung gc vi quang trc ca mt bn tinh th bng lan. Chit sut ca tinh th
bng lan i vi tia thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng n0 = 1,658 v ne = 1,488. Xc nh
bc sng ca tia thng v tia bt thng.
Bi gii:
Bc sng ca nh sng truyn trong mi trng c chit sut n lin h vi bc sng 0 ca
nh sng trong chn khng:

140

0
n

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

Bc sng ca tia thng trong tinh th bng lan: t

0
n0

0,589
0,355m
1,658

Bc sng ca tia bt thng trong tinh th bng lan: bt 0 0,396m


ne
Th d 3: Mt bn na bc sng c dy nh nht bng dmin = 1,732m. Cho bit chit sut
ca bn i vi tia thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng n0 = 1,658 v ne = 1,488. Xc nh
bc sng ca nh sng truyn ti bn ny.
Bi gii:

dy d ca bn na bc sng tho mn iu kin:

L n0 ne .d 2k 1 , k 0,1, 2, 3,...
2

Bn na bc sng c dy nh nht khi k = 0.


Vy d min

2n0 ne

1,732m

Suy ra: 2.d min n0 ne 0,589m


Bi tp t gii
1. Cho bit khi nh sng truyn t mt cht c chit sut n ra ngoi khng kh th xy ra hin
tng phn x ton phn ca nh sng ng vi gc gii hn igh = 450. Xc nh gc ti Brewster
ca cht ny, mi trng cha tia ti l khng kh.
2. nh sng t nhin truyn t khng kh ti chiu vo mt bn thu tinh. Cho bit nh sng
phn x b phn cc ton phn khi gc khc x r = 330. Xc nh chit sut ca bn thu tinh.
3. Xc nh gc ti Brewster ca mt mt thu tinh c chit sut n1 = 1,57 khi mi trng nh
sng ti l:
a. Khng kh.
b. Nc c chit sut n2 = 4/3.
4. Mt chm tia sng sau khi truyn qua mt cht lng ng trong mt bnh thu tinh, phn x
trn y bnh. Tia phn x b phn cc ton phn khi gc ti trn y bnh bng 420 37 , chit
sut ca bnh thu tinh n = 1,5. Tnh:
a. Chit sut ca cht lng.
b. Gc ti trn y bnh chm tia phn x trn phn x ton phn.
5. Cho mt chm tia sng t nhin chiu vo mt ca mt bn thu tinh nhng trong cht lng.
Chit sut ca thu tinh l n1 = 1,5. Cho bit chm tia phn x trn mt thu tinh b phn cc
ton phn khi cc tia phn x hp vi cc tia ti mt gc 97 0 . Xc nh chit sut n2 ca
cht lng.
6. nh sng phn chiu trn mt mt thy tinh t trong khng kh s b phn cc ton phn khi
141

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

gc khc x r= 300. Tm chit sut ca loi thy tinh trn.


7. Chiu mt chm nh sng t nhin ln mt mt bn thy tinh nhn bng, nhng trong mt
cht lng. Tia phn x (trn mt bn thy tinh) hp vi tia ti mt gc = 97 0, v b phn cc
ton phn. Xc nh chit sut ca cht lng, cho ntt =1,5.
8. Mt chm tia sng t nhin sau khi truyn qua mt cp knh phn cc v knh phn tch,
cng sng gim i 4 ln; coi phn nh sng b hp th khng ng k. Hy xc nh gc
hp bi tit din chnh ca hai knh trn.
9. Mt phng chnh (mt phng dao ng) ca hai lng knh nicol N1 v N2 hp vi nhau mt
gc = 600 . Hi:
a. Cng nh sng gim i bao nhiu ln sau khi i qua nicol N1.
b. Cng nh sng gim i bao nhiu ln sau khi i qua c hai nicol.
Bit rng, khi truyn qua mi lng knh nicol, nh sng b phn x v hp th mt k = 5%
10. Mt chm tia sng phn cc thng c bc sng trong chn khng = 0,589 m c ri
thng gc vi quang trc ca mt bn tinh th bng lan. Chit sut ca tinh th bng lan i vi
tia thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng no = 1,658 v ne = 1,488. Tm bc sng ca tia
thng v tia bt thng trong tinh th.
11. Mt bn thch anh c ct song song vi quang trc v c dy d = 1mm. Chiu nh
sng n sc c bc sng = 0,6m vung gc vi mt bn. Tnh hiu quang l v hiu pha
ca tia thng v tia bt thng truyn qua bn thch anh, bit rng chit sut ca bn i vi
tia thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng no = 1,544, ne = 1,535.
12. Tm b dy nh nht ca bn 1/4 bc sng nu chit sut i vi tia thngv tia bt
thng ln lt l no = 1,658 v ne = 1,488, bc sng nh sng = 0,545 m.
13. Cho bit i vi nh sng n sc c bc sng = 0,545m th chit sut ca bn phn t
bc sng i vi tia thng v tia bt thng truyn trong bn c gi tr ln lt bng
no
= 1,658 v ne = 1,488. Hi bn phn t bc sng c dy nh nht bng bao nhiu?
14. Mt bn thch anh c ct song song vi quang trc ca n vi dy khng vt qu
0,5mm. Xc nh dy ln nht ca bn thch anh ny chm nh sng phn cc phn cc
thng c bc sng = 0,589m sau khi truyn qua bn tho mn iu kin sau:
a. Mt phng phn cc b quay i mt gc no .
b. Tr thnh nh sng phn cc trn.
Cho bit hiu s chit sut ca tia thng v tia bt thng i vi bn thch anh
no = 0,009.

ne

15. Mt bn tinh th c ct song song vi quang trc v c b dy d = 0,25 mm c dng


lm bn 1/4 bc sng (i vi bc sng = 0,530 m). Hi, i vi nhng bc sng no
ca nh sng trong vng quang ph thy c, n cng l mt bn 1/4 bc sng? Coi rng i
vi mi bc sng trong vng kh kin ( = 0,4 m 0,7 m), hiu chit sut ca tinh th i
vi tia bt thng v tia thng, u bng nhau v bng: no ne =0,009.
142

Chng 5: Phn cc nh sng

16. Mt bn thch anh c ct song song vi quang trc v c t vo gia hai nicol bt
cho nhau sao cho quang trc ca bn hp vi mt phng chnh ca cc nicol mt gc = 450.
Tm b dy nh nht ca bn nh sng bc sng 1 = 0,643 m c cng sng cc i,
cn nh sng bc sng 2 = 0,564 m c cng sng cc tiu, sau khi chng truyn qua h
thng hai nicol trn. Coi hiu sut ca bn thch anh i vi tia bt thng v tia thng ng
vi c hai bc sng trn u bng no ne =0,009.
17. Gia hai knh nicol song song ngi ta t mt bn thch anh c cc mt vung gc vi
quang trc. Khi bn thch anh c dy d1 = 2mm th mt phng phn cc ca nh sng n
sc truyn qua n b quay i mt gc 1 = 530. Xc nh dy d2 ca bn thch anh ny nh
sng n sc khng truyn qua c knh nicol phn tch.
18. Mt bn phn cc c dy nh nht dmin = 1,732m. Cho bit chit sut ca bn i vi tia
thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng no = 1,658, ne = 1,488. Xc nh bc sng ca nh sng
truyn ti bn, bit nh sng phn cc thng sau khi qua bn mt phng phn cc b quay i mt
gc
19. nh sng n sc c bc sng = 545 nm th chit sut ca bn phn cc i vi tia
thng v tia bt thng ln lt bng no = 1,658, ne = 1,488. Cho bit nh sng phn cc thng
i qua bn phn cc tr thnh nh sng phn cc elip. Hi bn c dy nh nht bng bao
nhiu. nh sng sau khi qua bn thnh nh sng phn cc trn cn thm iu kin g?

143

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

CHNG 6

THUYT TNG I HP EINSTEIN


Theo c hc c in (c hc Newton) th khng gian, thi gian v vt cht khng ph
thuc vo chuyn ng; khng gian v thi gian l tuyt i, kch thc v khi lng ca vt
l bt bin. Nhng n cui th k 19 v u th k 20, khoa hc k thut pht trin mnh, ngi
ta gp nhng vt chuyn ng nhanh vi vn tc c vn tc nh sng trong chn khng (3.108
m/s), khi xut hin s mu thun vi cc quan im ca c hc Newton: Khng gian, thi
gian v khi lng ca vt khi chuyn ng vi vn tc gn bng vn tc nh sng th ph thuc
vo chuyn ng. Nm 1905, lc y Albert Einstein 25 tui, ng xut l thuyt tng i. L
thuyt ca Einstein v mt ton hc khng kh, nhng n cng gy kh khn v nhn thc do
nhng tng xa l ca n v khng gian v thi gian. Thc ra chng ta b chi phi bi mi
trng m chng ta quen sng, thng tip xc vi nhng vt chuyn ng chm hn rt nhiu
ln so vi vn tc nh sng nn hnh thnh nhng khi nim khng chnh xc v khng gian v
thi gian, xem chng nh mt ci g vnh vin tuyt i, khng lin quan vi nhau.
L thuyt tng i c xem l mt l thuyt tuyt p v khng gian v thi gian. S
ng n ca l thuyt tng i cho n nay khng cn bn ci v n c th thch qua v
s th nghim sut trong 10 thp k qua. Hin nay n tr thnh tiu chun nh gi s ng
n ca mi th nghim Vt l. Nu mt th nghim no m mu thun vi thuyt tng i
th cc nh Vt l mi ni khng t vn nghi ng thuyt tng i m mc nhin khng
nh rng trong th nghim t ra c g cha n. L thuyt tng i da vo hai tin
c trnh by sau y.
6. 1. HAI TIN EINSTEIN
6. 1. 1 Khng gian tuyt i v te
T php bin i Galileo v vn tc ta suy ra rng nu mt quan st vin O nhn thy
mt tn hiu sng truyn vi vn tc c = 3.108 m/s th mi quan st vin khc chuyn ng i
vi O s thy tn hiu sng truyn vi vn tc khc c. Nh vy vn t ra l phi bit dng
vt g lm mc xc nh mt h quy chiu c bit m mt quan st vin ng yn i vi h
s c u i l thy mi tn hiu sng c lan truyn vi vn tc c?
Trc Einstein ngi ta thng tha nhn rng quan st vin cng chnh l quan st
vin m i vi anh ta cc phng trnh Maxwell c hiu lc. Tht vy cc phng trnh
Maxwell m t thuyt in t v tin on rng cc sng in t lan truyn vi vn tc
1
c
3.10 8 m / s . Khng gian ng yn so vi quan st vin c u i trn c gi

0 0

l khng gian tuyt i. Mi quan st vin chuyn ng i vi khng gian tuyt i phi
thy nh sng c vn tc khc c. Trong chng mc nh sng l sng in t, cc nh vt l ca
144

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

th k 19 cm thy cn thit phi tn ti mt mi trng nh sng lan truyn trong . V vy


h nu thnh tin l ete chon y khng gian tuyt i.
Nu mi trng te tn ti th lc mi quan st vin trn mt t chuyn ng trong
te phi chu tc dng ca mt loi gi te. Nm 1881, Michelson ri n nm 1887 cng vi
Morley hiu chnh mt thit b c nhy cao cho php o c chuyn ng ca Tri t
so vi te c gi thit trn. Tuy nhin kt qu ca cc php o khng pht hin c bt
k mt chuyn ng no i vi mi trng te.
6. 1. 2. Cc php o thi gian v di - Mt vn nguyn l
im chung duy nht gia kt qu ph nh ca th nghim Michelson v Morley v
vic cc phng trnh Maxwell ch c hiu lc i vi quan st vin c u i l vic
tn ti php bin i Galileo. Php bin i hin nhin ny c Einstein xem xt li theo
quan im c ng gi l quan im s dng. Einstein xut pht t nguyn l l mi i lng
thuc mt l thuyt Vt l u phi o c c (t ra l trn l thuyt) theo mt phng php
hon ton xc nh. Nu mt phng php nh vy khng c thit lp th i lng ang xt
khng th c s dng trong Vt l.
Einstein khng th tm c mt chng minh tha ng no cho php bin i
Galileo t = t, ngha l cho vic khng nh rng hai quan st vin c th m bo l mt bin
c xy ra ti cng mt thi im. Trong nhng iu kin Einstein loi b php bin i t
= t, v tt c cc php bin i Galileo ni chung.
6. 1. 3. Cc tin Einstein
1. Tin v tng i: (nguyn l tng i)
tng ch o ca Einstein, m ng gi l nguyn l tng i , l vic mi quan st
vin chuyn ng khng c gia tc u phi c i x bnh ng ngay c khi chng chuyn
ng thng u i vi nhau. Nguyn l c pht biu nh sau:
Cc nh lut vt l hon ton ging nhau i vi nhng ngi quan st trong mi h
quy chiu qun tnh. Khng c h no u tin hn h no
Nhc li rng h quy chiu qun tnh l h quy chiu trong mt vt khng chu tc
dng ca ngoi lc s gi nguyn trng thi ng yn hay chuyn ng thng u. Trong c hc
ngi ta tha nhn tnh cht ny m h qu quan trng l nh lut th nht Newton. Einstein
tng qut ho tnh cht ny cho mi nh lut Vt l khng nhng trong c hc m c trong
in hc, quang hc.
Ch rng tin v tng i ca Einstein khng ni rng cc gi tr o c ca tt
c cc i lng Vt l l nh nhau cho mi quan st vin qun tnh. Tin ny ch ni rng
cc nh lut vt l lin h cc s o vi nhau l nh nhau trong mi h quy chiu qun tnh.
Nh vy cc nh lut Newton v chuyn ng l ph hp vi nguyn l tng i,
nhng cc phng trnh Maxwell cng nh php bin i Galileo li mu thun vi nguyn l

145

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

. Do khng th tm c l do cho mt s khc nhau cn bn nh vy gia cc nh lut ca


ng lc hc v in t hc, Einstein suy ra tin 2 v vn tc nh sng.
2. Tin v vn tc nh sng (Nguyn l v s bt bin ca vn tc nh sng)
Vn tc nh sng trong chn khng c cng mt gi tr bng c

0 0

3.10 8 m / s

theo mi phng v trong h quy chiu qun tnh.


Cng c th ni rng Vn tc nh sng trong chn khng u bng nhau i vi mi h
qun tnh. N c gi tr bng c = 3.108 m/s v l gi tr vn tc cc i trong t nhin.
Nh vy vn tc nh sng trong chn khng l c gii hn m mi thc th mang nng
lng hay thng tin khng th vt qua c. Cc ht c khi lng khng bao gi c th t
n vn tc c d c c gia tc mnh bao nhiu v lu bao nhiu. Thc nghim nm 1964 ca
W.Bertozzi cho thy c th gia tc cc in t n vn tc 0, 999999995 ln vn tc nh sng
nhng khng bao gi t n vn tc nh sng. Thm vo ngi ta cho vn tc ca cc tia
( l mt sng in t nh nh sng) do cc ht pion chuyn ng nhanh bc x (ht pion trung
ho 0 l ht khng n nh, thi gian sng rt ngn. N b phn ra thnh hai tia ), v vn tc
ca cc tia khi ht pion ng yn. Kt qu cho thy d tia pht ra t cc pion chuyn ng
hay ng yn th vn tc ca chng lun lun bng 2,998.108 m/s.
6. 2. PHP BIN I LORENTZ V H QU
6. 2. 1. Mu thun ca php bin i Galileo vi thuyt tng i Einstein
Xt hai h qui chiu qun tnh K v K'. H K' chuyn ng thng u vi vn tc V so
vi h K, dc theo phng x. Theo php bin i Galileo, thi gian din bin mt qu trnh vt
l trong cc h qui chiu qun tnh K v K u nh nhau: t = t. Khong cch gia hai im 1
v 2 no o c trong hai h K v K u bng nhau:

x2 x1 x2 x1

trong h K

trong h K '

Vn tc v ca cht im chuyn ng trong h K bng tng cc vn tc v' ca cht


im trong h K v vn tc V ca h K' i vi h K:
v v'V

Tt c cc kt qu trn y u ng i vi v << c. Nhng chng mu thun vi l


thuyt tng i ca Einstein. Theo thuyt tng i: thi gian khng c tnh tuyt i, khong
thi gian din bin ca mt qu trnh vt l ph thuc vo cc h qui chiu. c bit khi nim
ng thi ph thuc vo h qui chiu, tc l cc hin tng xy ra ng thi trong h qui
chiu qun tnh ny s khng xy ra ng thi trong h qui chiu qun tnh khc. minh ha
chng ta xt v d sau:

146

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

Hai h qui chiu qun tnh K v K vi cc


trc ta x, y, z v x, y, z. H K chuyn ng
thng u vi vn tc V so vi h K theo phng x.
T mt im A bt k, trn trc x c t mt bng n
pht tn hiu sng theo hai pha ngc nhau ca trc x.
i vi h K bng n l ng yn v n cng
chuyn ng vi h K. Trong h K cc tn hiu sng
s ti cc im B v C cch u A cng mt lc.
Nhng trong h K, im B chuyn ng n gp tn
hiu sng, cn im C chuyn ng ra xa khi tn hiu
sng, do trong h K tn hiu sng s n im B
sm hn n im C. Nh vy trong h K, cc tn hiu
sng ti im B v im C khng ng thi.

Hnh 6-1.
Th d minh ha khi nim
ng thi c tnh tng i

nh lut cng vn tc, h qu ca nguyn l tng i Galileo cng khng p dng


c. Theo nh lut ny th nh sng truyn n B vi vn tc c +V > c, cn nh sng truyn
n C vi vn tc c -V< c. iu ny mu thun vi nguyn l th 2 trong thuyt tng i
Einstein.
6. 2. 2. Php bin i Lorentz
Lorentz tm ra php bin i cc ta khng gian v thi gian khi chuyn t h qun
tnh ny sang h qun tnh khc, tha mn cc yu cu ca thuyt tng i Einstein. Php bin
i ny c gi l php bin i Lorentz. Php bin i Lorentz da trn hai tin ca
Einstein.
Xt hai h qui chiu qun tnh K v K. Ti t = 0, hai gc O, O trng nhau, K chuyn ng
thng u so vi K vi vn tc V theo phng x. Theo thuyt tng i thi gian khng c tnh
cht tuyt i m ph thuc vo h qui chiu, ngha l t t.
Gi s ta x l hm ca x v t theo phng trnh:
x = f(x,t)

(6-1)

tm dng ca phng trnh trn ta hy vit phng trnh chuyn ng ca hai gc ta O


v O. i vi h K, gc O chuyn ng vi vn tc V. Ta c:
x = Vt

hay

x Vt = 0

(6-2)

x l ta ca gc O trong h K. i vi h K, gc O ng yn, do ta x ca n s l:
x = 0
(6-3)
Phng trnh (6-1) cng phi ng i vi im O, iu c ngha l khi ta thay x =
0 vo phng trnh (6-1) th phi thu c phng trnh (6-2), mun vy th:
x' ( x Vt )

(6-4)

trong l hng s. i vi h K, gc O chuyn ng vi vn tc V. Nhng i vi h K,


gc O l ng yn. Lp lun tng t nh trn ta c
147

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

x ( x'Vt ' )

(6-5)

trong l hng s. Theo tin th nht ca Einstein th mi h qui chiu qun tnh u
tng ng nhau, ngha l t (6-4) c th suy ra (6-5) v ngc li bng cch thay V-V, x
x, t t. Suy ra: .
Theo tin hai:

t = x/c

x = ct

x = ct t = x/c
xV

x' x
,
c

Thay t v t vo (6-4) v (6-5) ta c:

x'V

x x'

Nhn v vi v ca hai h thc trn, sau rt gn ta nhn c:

1
V2
1 2
c

Thay vo cc cng thc trn ta nhn c cc cng thc ca php bin i Lorentz.
Php bin i Lorentz:

x'

x Vt
1

V2

t'

x ' Vt '

c2
V
c2

V
c

t '

x
2

V2
c2

V
c2

(6-6)

x'

(6-7)

c2

V h K chuyn ng dc theo trc x nn y = y v z = z.


T kt qu trn ta nhn thy nu c (tng tc tc thi) hay khi V c 0 (s gn
ng c in khi V << c) th:
x = x Vt, y = y, z = z, t = t
x = x +Vt, y = y, z = z, t = t
ngha l chuyn v php bin i Galileo.
Khi V > c, ta x, t tr nn o, do khng th c cc chuyn ng vi vn tc ln
hn vn tc nh sng.
6. 2. 3. Cc h qu ca php bin i Lorentz
1. Khi nim v tnh ng thi v quan h nhn qu
Gi s trong h qun tnh K c hai bin c A1(x1, y1, z1, t1) v bin c A2(x2, y2, z2, t2)
vi x1 x 2 . Chng ta hy tm khong thi gian t 2 t1 gia hai bin c trong h K' chuyn
ng u i vi h K vi vn tc V dc theo trc x. T cc cng thc bin i Lorentz ta c:

148

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

t '2 t '1

t 2 t1

V
c2

( x 2 x1 )

(6-8)

V2
c2

T (6-8) ta suy ra rng nhng bin c xy ra ng thi trong h K (t1 = t2) s khng ng thi
trong h K v t '2 t '1 0 , ch c mt trng hp ngoi l l khi hai bin c xy ra ng thi ti
nhng im c cng gi tr ca x (y c th khc nhau). Nh vy khi nim ng thi l mt khi
nim tng i, hai bin c xy ra ng thi trong mt h qui chiu qun tnh ny ni chung
c th khng ng thi trong mt h qui chiu qun tnh khc.
Nhn vo cng thc (6-8) ta thy gi s trong h K: t2 - t1>0 (tc l bin c A1 xy ra
trc bin c A2), nhng trong h K: t2 - t1 cha chc ln hn 0, n ph thuc vo du v
V
ln ca
( x 2 x1 ) . Nh vy trong h K th t ca cc bin c c th bt k.
c2
Tuy nhin iu ny khng c xt cho cc bin c c quan h nhn qu vi nhau. Mi
quan h nhn qu l mi quan h c nguyn nhn v kt qu. Nguyn nhn bao gi cng xy ra
trc, kt qu xy ra sau. Nh vy: Th t ca cc bin c c quan h nhn qu bao gi cng
c m bo trong mi h qui chiu qun tnh. Th d: vin n c bn ra (nguyn nhn),
vin n trng ch (kt qu). Gi A1(x1, t1) l bin c vin n bn ra v A2(x2, t2) l bin c
vin n trng ch. Trong h K: t2 > t1. Gi u l vn tc vin n v gi s x2 > x1, ta c x2 - x1
= u(t2-t1). Thay vo (5-8) ta c:

t '2 t '1

t 2 t1

V
c

.u ( t 2 t1 )
V
c

V.u
( t 2 t1 ) 1

c2

(6-9)

c2

Ta lun c u << c, do nu t2 > t1 th ta cng c t '2 t1' . Trong c hai h K v K bao


gi bin c vin n trng ch cng xy ra sau bin c vin n c bn ra.
2. S co ca di (s co ngn Lorentz)
Xt hai h qui chiu qun tnh K v K'. H K' chuyn ng thng u vi vn tc V so
vi h K dc theo trc x. Gi s c mt thanh ng yn trong h K t dc theo trc x, di
ca n trong h K bng: o x' 2 x'1 . Gi l di ca thanh trong h K. T php bin i
Lorentz ta c:

x Vt 2
x '2 2
,
V2
1
c2

x Vt 1
x '1 1
V2
1
c2

Ta phi xc nh v tr cc u ca thanh trong h K ti cng mt thi im: t2 = t1, do :

149

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

x '2 x '1

x 2 x1
1

o 1

V2
c2

(6-10)

c2

H K' chuyn ng so vi h K, nu ta ng h K quan st th thy thanh chuyn ng


cng h K'. Chiu di ca thanh h K nh hn chiu di ca n trong h K'.
Vy: di (dc theo phng chuyn ng) ca thanh trong h qui chiu m thanh
chuyn ng ngn hn di ca thanh trong h m thanh ng yn.
Ni mt cch khc khi vt chuyn ng, kch thc ca n b co ngn theo phng
chuyn ng.

V2

0,5
c2
khi = 0,5 o , kch thc ca vt s b co ngn i mt na. Nu quan st mt vt hnh hp
V d: mt vt c vn tc gn bng vn tc nh sng V=260000 km/s th

vung chuyn ng vi vn tc ln nh vy ta s thy n c dng mt hnh hp ch nht, cn


mt khi cu s c dng hnh elipxoit trn xoay.
Nh vy kch thc ca mt vt s khc nhau tu thuc vo ch ta quan st n trong
h ng yn hay chuyn ng. iu ni ln rng khng gian c tnh tng i, n ph thuc
vo chuyn ng. Khi vt chuyn ng vi vn tc nh (V << c), t (6-10) ta c o , ta tr
li kt qu ca c hc c in, khng gian c coi l tuyt i, khng ph thuc vo chuyn
ng.
3. S gin ca thi gian
Xt hai h qui chiu qun tnh K, K. H K chuyn ng u vi vn tc V so vi h K
dc theo trc x. Ta t mt ng h ng yn trong h K. Xt hai bin c xy ra ti cng mt
im A trong h K. Khong thi gian gia hai bin c trong h K l t ' t '2 t '1 . Khong thi
gian gia hai bin c trong h K l t t 2 t1 . T php bin i Lorentz ta c:

t1

t '1

V
c

x'1 x' 2

x '1

V2

t2

t '2

V
c2

c2

t t 2 t1

t ' t 1

150

V2
c2

V2
c2

t '2 t '1
1

hay

x '2

V2
c2
(6-11)

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

Nh vy: Khong thi gian t ca mt qu trnh trong h K chuyn ng bao gi


cng nh hn khong thi gian t ca qu trnh xy ra trong h K ng yn.
V d: nu con tu v tr chuyn ng vi vn tc V=260000 km/s th t=0,5.t, tc l
nu khong thi gian din ra mt qu trnh trn con tu v tr l 5 nm th mt t lc thi
gian tri qua l 10 nm. c bit nu nh du hnh v tr ngi trn con tu chuyn ng vi
vn tc rt gn vi vn tc nh sng V=299960 km/s trong 10 nm n mt hnh tinh rt xa
th trn tri t 1000 nm tri qua v khi nh du hnh quay tr v tri t, ngi mi gi
thm 20 tui, nhng trn tri t 2000 nm tri qua. C mt iu cn ch l t c
vn tc ln nh vy th cn tn rt nhiu nng lng, m hin nay con ngi cha th t c.
Nhng s tri chm ca thi gian do hiu ng ca thuyt tng i th c thc nghim xc
nhn.
Nh vy khong thi gian c tnh tng i, n ph thuc vo chuyn ng. Trng
hp vn tc chuyn ng rt nh V << c, t cng thc (6-11) ta c t ' t , ta tr li kt qu
ca c hc c in, y khong thi gian c coi l tuyt i, khng ph thuc vo chuyn
ng.
4. Php bin i vn tc
Gi s v l vn tc ca cht im i vi h qun tnh K, v' l vn tc ca cht im
i vi h qun tnh K'. H K' chuyn ng thng u vi vn tc V i vi h K dc theo
phng x. Ta hy tm nh lut tng hp vn tc lin h gia v v v'. Theo php bin i
Lorentz:

dx '

dx Vdt
1

V2

dt
dt '

c2
v' x

v' y

v' z

dx

V2
c2

v V
dx'
dx Vdt

x
V
Vv
dt '
dt
dx 1 x
2
c
c2
V2

vy 1

V2

vz 1

(6-12)

V2

c2
c2
V
Vv x
dt dx
1
2
c
c2

dz 1

dz = dz

c2

dy 1

dy = dy

(6-13)

V2

c2
c2
V
Vv x
dt dx
1
c2
c2

(6-14)

151

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

Cc cng thc trn biu din nh l tng hp vn tc trong thuyt tng i. Nu V/c
<< 1 th v' x v x V , v' y v y , v'z v z nh c hc c in.
Nu v x c

v' x

c V
c
Vc
1 2
c

iu chng minh tnh bt bin ca vn tc nh sng trong chn khng i vi cc h


qui chiu qun tnh.
6. 3. NG LC HC TNG I - H THC EINSTEIN
6.3.1. Phng trnh c bn ca chuyn ng cht im
Theo thuyt tng i, khi mt vt chuyn ng vi vn tc gn bng vn tc nh sng
th khi lng ca vt khng phi l mt hng s, m ph thuc vo vn tc theo biu thc:

mo
1

(6-15)

c2

trong mo l khi lng ca cht im trong h m n ng yn, c gi l khi lng


ngh. Khi lng c tnh tng i, n ph thuc h qui chiu.
dv
khng th m t chuyn
dt
ng ca cht im vi vn tc ln c. m t chuyn ng cn c phng trnh khc tng
qut hn. Theo thuyt tng i phng trnh c dng:

Nh vy, phng trnh biu din nh lut II Newton F m

d
( mv )
dt

(6-16)

Khi v c , m = mo= const, phng trnh (6-16) s tr thnh phng trnh ca nh lut II
Newton.
6. 3. 2. ng lng v nng lng
ng lng ca mt vt bng:

mo

p mv

(6-17)

c2

Khi v c ta thu c biu thc c in: p m o v .


Ta hy tnh nng lng ca vt. Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng, tng nng lng
ca vt bng cng ca ngoi lc tc dng ln vt:

152

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

dE dA Fds
n gin ta gi s ngoi lc F cng phng vi chuyn di ds , khi :

mo v
d
ds
dE Fds
2
dt
v
1

c2

Sau khi bin i ta c:

dE

m o v dv
v2
1

c2

3/ 2

(6-18)

Mt khc t (6-15) ta c:

dm

m o v dv
2 3 / 2

c 2 1
c2

(6-19)

So snh (6-18) v (6-19) ta rt ra:


dE c 2 dm

hay

E mc 2 C

trong C l mt hng s tch phn. Do m = 0 th E = 0, ta rt ra C = 0. Vy:


E mc 2

(6-20)

H thc (6-20) c gi l h thc Einstein.


ngha ca h thc Einstein: Khi lng l i lng c trng cho mc qun tnh ca
vt, nng lng c trng cho mc vn ng ca vt. Nh vy, h thc Einstein ni lin hai
tnh cht ca vt cht: qun tnh v mc vn ng. H thc cho ta thy r, trong iu kin
nht nh, mt vt c khi lng nht nh th cng c nng lng nht nh tng ng vi khi
lng .
6. 3. 3. Cc h qu
a. Nng lng ngh ca vt: l nng lng lc vt ng yn.
E moc2

Lc chuyn ng vt c thm ng nng E:

mc 2 m o c 2 E
153

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

1
E mc 2 m o c 2 m o c 2
1

v2
1

c2

Khi v c th:

1
1

v2

1
c2
2
v

1 / 2

(6-21)

1 v2
....
2 c2

c2

1 v2
m v2
E m o c 2 1
1 o
2 c2

y l biu thc ng nng trong c hc c in.


b. Nng lng v ng lng ca vt

E mc 2

mo
1

v2

c2

c2

v2

Bnh phng hai v ta c: m o2 c 4 E 2 1


c2

Thay E mc 2 v p mv , ta c:

E 2 m o2 c 4 p 2 c 2

(6-22)

y l biu thc lin h gia nng lng v ng lng.

HNG DN HC CHNG 6
THUYT TNG I ENISTEIN
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Hiu c ngha ca nguyn l tng i Einstein, nguyn l v tnh bt bin ca vn tc
nh sng.
2. Hiu v vn dng c php bin i Lorentz. Tnh tng i ca khng gian, thi gian.
3. Nm c khi lng, ng lng tng i tnh, h thc Einstein v ng dng.

154

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

II. TM TT NI DUNG
C hc Newton ch ng dng cho cc vt th v m chuyn ng vi vn tc rt nh so
vi vn tc nh sng trong chn khng. Cc vt th chuyn ng vi vn tc ln vo c vn tc
nh sng th phi tun theo thuyt tng i hp Einstein.
1. Cc tin ca Einstein
* Nguyn l tng i: Mi nh lut vt l u nh nhau trong cc h qui chiu qun tnh.
* Nguyn l v s bt bin ca vn tc nh sng: Vn tc nh sng trong chn khng u bng
nhau i vi mi h qun tnh. N c gi tr bng c = 3.108 m/s v l gi tr vn tc cc i
trong t nhin.
2. Php bin i Lorentz
l php bin i gia cc ta khng gian v thi gian trong hai h qui chiu qun tnh K
v K chuyn ng thng u vi nhau vi vn tc V (dc theo trc x):

V
x ' ( x Vt ); y' y; z' z; t ' t
c2

V
x ( x 'Vt ); y y' ; z z' ; t t '
x
c2
trong :

1
1

V2
c2

T php bin i Lorentz ta rt ra cc h qu:


* Khi vt chuyn ng, kch thc b ngn theo phng chuyn ng:

o 1

V2

o
c2
* ng h chuyn ng chy chm hn ng h ng yn:
t ' t 1

V2
c2

* i vi cc bin c khng c quan h nhn qu vi nhau, khi nim ng thi ch c tnh


tng i. Cn i vi cc bin c c quan h nhn qu, th t xy cc bin c c m bo.
3. ng lc hc tng i tnh
E = mc2

* H thc Einstein:
trong :

mo
1

mo l khi lng ngh ca vt (khi vt ng yn)

c2

155

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

* Nng lng ngh ca vt:

Eo = moc2

* ng nng ca vt:

1
1
E E E o m o c 2

2 2
1 v / c

Nu v<<c, c th tnh gn ng:

1
v2
E m o c 2 1
1 m o v 2
2c 2
2

Ta tm li c biu thc ng nng trong c hc c in.


* Biu thc lin h gia nng lng v ng lng: E 2 m o2 c 4 p 2 c 2
IV. CU HI L THUYT
1. Nu gii hn ng dng ca c hc Newton.
2. Pht biu hai tin Einstein.
3. Vit cng thc ca php bin i Lorentz.
4. Gii thch s co ngn ca di v s gin ca thi gian.
5. Phn tch tnh tng i ca s ng thi gia cc bin c khng c quan h nhn qu vi
nhau.
6. Da vo php bin i Lorentz, chng t trt t k tip v thi gian gia cc bin c c quan
h nhn qu vi nhau vn c tn trng.
7. Chng t c hc Newton l trng hp gii hn ca thuyt tng i Einstein khi v << c hay
coi c ln v cng.
8. Vit biu thc chng t trong thuyt tng i Einstein, khi lng m ca mt vt tng ln
khi chuyn ng.
9. T cng thc cng vn tc trong thuyt tng i, tm li nh lut cng vn tc trong c hc
Newton.
10. Vit v nu ngha ca h thc Einstein v nng lng.
11. T h thc E = mc2, tm li biu thc ng nng ca mt vt chuyn ng vi vn tc v<<c
trong c hc c in.

156

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Vt chuyn ng phi c vn tc bao nhiu ngi quan st ng h qui chiu
gn vi tri t thy chiu di ca n gim i 25%.
Bi gii:
Chiu di ca vt chuyn ng xc nh theo cng thc: 0 1
0

0,25
0,75 1
0
0

v2
c2

0,75

v2
c2

, theo u bi:

v
1 0,752 0,6615 v 198600(km / s)
c

Th d 2: Tm vn tc ca ht mzn nng lng ton phn ca n ln gp 10 ln nng


lng ngh ca n.
Bi gii:
Theo thuyt tng i:

m0c 2
1

v2
c2

E0
1

v2
c2

E0

1
1

v2

10

v
0,995
c

c2

Suy ra vn tc ca ht mzn l: v 2,985.108 m / s


Bi tp t gii
1. Vt chuyn ng phi c vn tc bao nhiu kch thc ca n theo phng chuyn ng
trong h qui chiu gn vi tri t gim i 2 ln.
2. Khi lng ca electrn chuyn ng bng hai ln khi lng ngh ca n. Tm vn tc
chuyn ng ca electrn.
3. Tm vn tc ca ht electrn nng lng ton phn ca n ln gp 10 ln nng lng
ngh ca n.
4. Khi lng ca vt tng thm bao nhiu ln nu vn tc ca n tng t 0 n 0,9 ln vn tc
ca nh sng.
5. Mt ht vi m (mzn) trong cc tia v tr chuyn ng vi vn tc bng 0,95 ln vn tc
nh sng. Hi khong thi gian theo ng h ngi quan st ng trn tri t ng vi khong
thi gian sng mt giy ca ht .
6. Ht electrn phi c gia tc bi mt hiu in th U bng bao nhiu t vn tc bng
95% vn tc nh sng. Cho e = 1,6.10-19 C, me = 9,1.10-31 kg.

157

Chng 6: Thuyt tng i hp Einstein

7. Tm hiu in th tng tc U m prtn vt qua cho kch thc ca n trong h qui chiu
gn vi tri t gim i hai ln. Cho mp = 1,67.10-27 kg, e = 1,6.10-19 C.
8. Hi vn tc ca ht phi bng bao nhiu ng nng ca ht bng nng lng ngh
9. Khi lng ca ht electrn chuyn ng ln gp hai ln khi lng ca n khi ng yn.
Tm ng nng ca ht. Cho me = 9,1.10-31 kg.
10. ng nng ca ht bng mt na nng lng ngh ca n th vn tc ca ht phi bng
bao nhiu?
11. Khi nng lng ca vt bin thin 4,19 J th khi lng ca vt bin thin bao nhiu?

158

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

CHNG 7

QUANG HC LNG T
Nh c bit, cc hin tng giao thoa, nhiu x, phn cc nh sng l nhng hin
tng th hin bn cht sng ca nh sng. Nhng vo cui th k 19, u th k 20 c nhng
hin tng quang hc mi xut hin nh hin tng bc x nhit, hiu ng quang in, hiu
ng Compton. Nhng hin tng ny khng th gii thch c bng thuyt sng nh sng.
gii thch cc hin tng ny, ta phi xem nh sng l mt chm ht vi nng lng v ng
lng xc nh, tc l da vo thuyt lng t ca Planck v thuyt phtn ca Einstein. Phn
quang hc nghin cu nh sng da vo hai thuyt trn gi l quang hc lng t. Trong
chng ny chng ta s nghin cu cc hin tng bc x nhit, hiu ng quang in, hiu ng
Compton cng vi thuyt lng t ca Planck v thuyt phtn ca Einstein.
7. 1. BC X NHIT
7. 1. 1. Bc x nhit cn bng
Bc x l hin tng cc vt b kch thch pht ra sng in t. C nhiu dng bc x
khc nhau do nhng nguyn nhn khc nhau gy ra: v d do tc dng nhit (ming st nung ,
dy tc bng n chy sng), do tc dng ha hc (pht pho chy sng trong khng kh), do
bin i nng lng trong mch dao ng in t... Tuy nhin hin tng bc x do tc dng
nhit l ph bin nht v c gi l bc x nhit.
nh ngha: Bc x nhit l hin tng sng in t pht ra t nhng vt b kch thch bi tc
dng nhit.
Khi vt pht ra bc x, nng lng ca n gim v nhit ca n cng gim theo.
Ngc li nu vt hp th bc x, nng lng ca n tng v nhit ca n tng. Trong trng
hp nu phn nng lng ca vt b mt i do pht x bng phn nng lng vt thu c do
hp th, th nhit ca vt s khng i theo thi gian v bc x nhit ca vt cng khng i.
Bc x nhit trong trng hp ny c gi l bc x nhit cn bng v trng thi ny c gi
l trng thi cn bng nhit ng.
7. 1. 2. Cc i lng c trng ca bc x nhit cn bng
1. Nng sut pht x ton phn
Xt mt vt t nng c gi nhit T khng i (hnh 7-1). Din
tch dS ca vt pht x trong mt n v thi gian mt nng lng ton
d
phn dT . i lng R T T
(7-1)
dS
c gi l nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt nhit T.

Hnh 7-1

159

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

nh ngha: Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt nhit T l mt i lng c gi tr bng


nng lng bc x ton phn do mt n v din tch ca vt pht ra trong mt n v thi
gian nhit T.
n v ca nng sut pht x ton phn RT trong h n v SI l ot trn mt vung (W/m2).
2. H s pht x n sc
Bc x ton phn do vt pht ra nhit T ni chung bao gm nhiu bc x n sc.
Nng lng bc x phn b khng ng u cho tt c mi bc x c bc sng khc nhau. V
th nng lng pht x ng vi bc sng thay i trong khong n +d ch l mt vi phn
ca nng sut pht x ton phn . i lng
dR T
(7-2)
r, T
d
c gi l h s pht x n sc ca vt nhit T ng vi bc sng . N ph thuc vo
bn cht, nhit ca vt v ph thuc bc sng ca bc x n sc do vt pht ra. n v
ca h s pht x n sc: W/m3.
Bng thc nghim ta c th xc nh c r, T ng vi bc x n sc bc sng ca
vt pht ra nhit T, t ta s xc nh c nng sut pht x ton phn

R T dR T r, T d

(7-3)

3. H s hp th n sc
Gi s trong mt n v thi gian, chm bc x n sc c bc sng nm trong khong
t n +d gi ti mt n v din tch ca vt mt nng lng d, T nhng vt ch hp
th mt phn nng lng d', T . Theo nh ngha, t s

a , T

d ', T
d , T

(7-4)

c gi l h s hp th n sc ca vt nhit T ng vi bc sng . N ph thuc vo


bn cht v nhit ca vt, ph thuc vo bc sng ca chm bc x n sc gi ti.
Thng thng vt khng hp th hon ton nng lng ca chm bc x gi ti, do
a , T 1. Nhng vt m a , T 1 vi mi nhit T v mi bc sng c gi l vt en
tuyt i. Trong thc t khng c vt en tuyt i m ch c nhng vt c tnh cht gn vi tnh
cht ca vt en tuyt i, v d b hng, than bch kim.
to ra vt en tuyt i ngi ta dng mt ci
bnh rng cch nhit, c khot mt l nh, mt trong ph mt
lp b hng (hnh 7-2). Khi tia bc x lt qua l vo bnh, n
s b phn x nhiu ln trn thnh bnh, mi ln phn x nng
lng ca n li b bnh hp th mt phn. Kt qu c th coi
l tia bc x b hp th hon ton.

160

Hnh 7-2. Vt en tuyt i

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 1. 3. nh lut Kirchhoff
Gi s t hai vt c bn cht khc nhau trong mt bnh cch nhit. Cc vt ny s pht
x v hp th nhit. Sau mt thi gian trng thi cn bng nhit ng s c thit lp, hai vt
s cng mt nhit T nh trong bnh. trng thi cn bng th hin nhin vt no pht x
mnh th cng phi hp th bc x mnh. T nhn xt Kirchhoff a ra nh lut mang
tn ng nh sau:
T s gia h s pht x n sc r, T v h s hp th n sc a , T ca mt vt bt k trng
thi bc x nhit cn bng khng ph thuc vo bn cht ca vt , m ch ph thuc vo
nhit T ca n v bc sng ca chm bc x n sc.
r, T
Ngha l:
(7-5)
f , T
a , T
trong f , T l hm s chung cho mi vt nn
c gi l hm ph bin. V vt en tuyt i c
h s hp th n sc bng 1 nn hm ph bin
Hnh 7-3. ng c trng ph pht
chnh l h s pht x n sc ca vt en tuyt i.
x ca vt en tuyt i
Lm th nghim vi m hnh ca vt en tuyt i
ngi ta xc nh c f , T bng thc nghim. Hnh 7-3 l th ca hm ph bin f , T theo
bc sng nhit T. ng cong ny c gi l ng c trng ph pht x ca vt en
tuyt i. Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt i c xc nh theo cng thc (7-3)
s c tr s bng ton b din tch gii hn bi ng c trng ph pht x v trc honh .
7. 2. CC NH LUT PHT X CA VT EN TUYT I
7. 2. 1. nh lut Stephan-Boltzmann
Hnh 7-4a biu din ng c trng ph
pht x ca vt en tuyt i cc nhit khc
nhau. Ta nhn thy khi nhit tng, din tch
gia ng c trng ph pht x v trc honh
cng tng theo. Nh vy nng sut pht x ton
phn ca vt en tuyt i ph thuc vo nhit
ca vt. Stephan (bng thc nghim) v
Boltzmann (bng l thuyt) tm ra s ph Hnh 7-4a. Ph pht x ca vt en tuyt
i cc nhit khc nhau
thuc ny v thit lp c nh lut StephanBoltzmann.
nh lut Stephan-Boltzmann: Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt i t l thun
vi ly tha bc bn ca nhit tuyt i ca vt :

R T T 4

(7-6)

trong c gi l hng s Stephan-Boltzmann, =5,6703.10-8 W/m2K4.

161

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 2. 2. nh lut Wien
Nhn trn hnh 7-4b ta thy rng mi ng c
trng ph pht x ca vt en tuyt i mt nhit T
nht nh u c mt cc i ng vi mt gi tr xc
nh ca bc sng c k hiu l max v khi nhit
tng th bc sng max gim. i vi vt en tuyt i
th nhng bc x c bc sng ln cn gi tr ca max
l bc x mang nhiu nng lng nht. Nghin cu mi
quan h nh lng gia bc sng max v nhit T
ca vt en tuyt i, nm 1817 Wien tm ra nh lut
mang tn ng.

Hnh 7-4b. Ph pht x ca vt


en tuyt i cc nhit
T1<T2<T3

nh lut Wien: i vi vt en tuyt i, bc sng max ca chm bc x n sc mang


nhiu nng lng nht t l nghch vi nhit tuyt i ca vt .
b
(7-7)
max
T
b = 2,898.10-3 m.K v c gi l hng s Wien.
7. 2. 3. S khng hong vng t ngoi
Xut pht t quan nim ca vt l c in coi cc nguyn t v phn t pht x hoc hp
th nng lng mt cch lin tc, Rayleigh-Jeans tm c mt cng thc xc nh h s
pht x n sc ca vt en tuyt i nh sau:

f , T

2 2

(7-8)
kT
c2
trong k l hng s Boltzmann, T l nhit tuyt i, l tn s ca bc x n sc (tn s
v bc sng lin h vi nhau qua cng thc = c/).
Theo cng thc (7-8), f , T t l vi ly tha bc 2 ca , nn f , T s tng rt nhanh khi
tng (tc gim). Cng thc ny ch ph hp vi thc nghim vng tn s nh (bc sng
ln), cn vng tn s ln (bc sng nh), tc l vng sng t ngoi, n sai lch rt nhiu. B
tc ny tn ti sut trong khong thi gian di cui th k 19 v c gi l s khng hong
vng t ngoi.
Mt khc, t cng thc (7-8) ta c th tnh c nng sut pht x ton phn ca mt vt
en tuyt i nhit T:

R T f , T d
0

2kT 2
d
c2 0

(7-9)

Nng lng pht x ton phn ca vt mt nhit T nht nh li bng v cng. iu


ny l sai. S d c kt qu v l l do quan nim vt l c in v s pht x v hp th nng
lng bc x mt cch lin tc. gii quyt nhng b tc trn, Planck ph nh l thuyt c
in v bc x v ra mt l thuyt mi gi l thuyt lng t nng lng.

162

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 3. THUYT LNG T PLANCK V THUYT PHTN EINSTEIN


7. 3. 1. Thuyt lng t nng lng ca Planck
Pht biu: Cc nguyn t v phn t pht x hay hp th nng lng ca bc x in t
mt cch gin on, ngha l phn nng lng pht x hay hp th lun l bi s nguyn ca
mt lng nng lng nh xc nh gi l lng t nng lng hay quantum nng lng. Mt
lng t nng lng ca bc x in t n sc tn s , bc sng l:
hc
h
(7-10)

trong h l hng s Planck, h = 6,625.10-34Js, c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng.


Xut pht t thuyt lng t, Planck tm ra cng thc ca hm ph bin, tc l h s
pht x n sc ca vt en tuyt i nh sau:

f , T

2 2

(7-11)
c e
1
trong k l hng s Boltzmann, T l nhit tuyt i. Cng thc ny c gi l cng thc
Planck.
h / kT

7. 3. 2. Thnh cng ca thuyt lng t nng lng


* Cng thc Planck cho php ta v c ng c trng ph pht x ca vt en tuyt i ph
hp vi kt qu thc nghim mi vng nhit v mi vng tn s khc nhau.
* T cng thc Planck ta c th suy c cng thc ca Rayleigh v Jeans v cc cng thc th
hin cc nh lut ca vt en tuyt i. Trong min tn s nh sao cho h kT th

2 2
h
kT , ta li thu c cng
. Do cng thc Planck s thnh: f , T
kT
c2
thc ca Rayleigh v Jeans.
e h / kT 1

* T cng thc Planck ta tm c nh lut Stephan-Boltzmann:


Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt i ti mt nhit T no bng:

2 2

R T f , T d

2
e h / kT 1
0 c

(7-12)

t x = h/kT ta c
RT

2k 4 T 4 x 3dx
c2h3

0e

2k 4 T 4 4
c 2 h 3 15

Cui cng ta c R T T 4 trong =5,6703.10-8 W/m2.K4. y chnh l nh lut


Stephan-Boltzmann.
* T cng thc Planck ta tm c nh lut Wien
Nu ta ly o hm ca f,T theo v cho n trit tiu ri tm max (hay max) ti cc nhit
khc nhau, kt qu thu c l max T 2,8978.10-3 mK. y chnh l nh lut Wien.

163

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 3. 3. Thuyt phtn ca Einstein


Thuyt lng t ca Planck nu ln quan im hin i v nng lng: nng lng
in t pht x hay hp th c nhng gi tr gin on, chng lun l bi nguyn ca lng t
nng lng . Ta ni rng nng lng in t pht x hay hp th b lng t ho. Nhng
thuyt lng t ca Planck cha nu c bn cht gin on ca bc x in t. Nm 1905,
Einstein da trn thuyt lng t v nng lng ca Planck a ra thuyt lng t nh sng
(hay thuyt phtn).
Ni dung thuyt phtn ca Einstein:
a. Bc x in t gm v s nhng ht rt nh gi l lng t nh sng hay phtn.
b. Vi mi bc x in t n sc nht nh, cc phtn u ging nhau v mang mt nng
lng xc nh bng
hc
(7-13)
h

c. Trong mi mi trng (v c trong chn khng) cc phtn c truyn i vi cng vn tc c


= 3.108 m/s.
d. Khi mt vt pht x hay hp th bc x in t c ngha l vt pht x hay hp th cc
phtn.
e. Cng ca chm bc x t l vi s phtn pht ra t ngun trong mt n v thi gian.
Thuyt phtn ca Einstein gii thch c cc hin tng th hin bn cht ht ca nh sng
nh hin tng quang in, hiu ng Compton.
7. 3. 4. ng lc hc phtn
Nng lng ca phtn ng vi mt bc x in t n sc tn s l
h
Khi lng ca phtn
h h
m

c 2 c 2 c
Theo thuyt tng i m

(7-14)

(7-15)

v2
, do m o m 1 c2
v2

mo
1-

c2
Vn tc ca phtn bng c, do phtn c khi lng ngh bng 0
ng lng ca phtn
h h
p mc

(7-16)
c

Nh vy ng lng ca phtn t l thun vi tn s v t l nghch vi bc sng ca bc x


in t.

164

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 4. HIN TNG QUANG IN


7. 4. 1. nh ngha:
Hiu ng bn ra cc electrn t mt tm kim loi khi ri vo tm kim loi mt bc x
in t thch hp c gi l hin tng quang in. Cc electrn bn ra c gi l cc
quang electrn.
nghin cu hin tng quang in ngi ta lm th nghim vi t bo quang in nh
sau:
T bo quang in gm mt bnh chn khng c hai bn cc lm bng kim loi: bn cc dng
ant A v bn cc m catt K. Catt lm bng kim loi ta cn nghin cu. T bo quang in
c mc nh hnh v. Nh bin tr ta c th thay i hiu in th U gia A v K v ln v
chiu (hnh 7-5).
Khi D n v tr C: UAK = 0
Khi D bn phi C: A+ , K-, UAK > 0
Khi D bn tri C: A- , K+, UAK < 0
Khi ri chm bc x in t n sc bc
sng thch hp vo catt K, chm nh sng
ny s gii phng cc electrn khi mt bn
cc m K. Di tc dng ca in trng
gia A v K, cc quang electrn s chuyn
ng v cc dng ant, to ra trong mch
dng quang in. in th G o cng
Hnh 7-5. Th nghim quang in
dng quang in cn vn k V s o hiu
in th UAK gia A v K.
Thay i UAK ta c th dng quang in nh hnh 7-6.
* UAK > 0: Khi UAK tng th I tng theo, khi UAK t n mt gi tr no cng dng
quang in s khng tng na v t gi tr Ibh, c gi l cng dng quang in bo ha.
* Khi UAK= 0 cng dng quang in vn
c gi tr I 0 . iu chng t quang
electrn bn ra c sn mt ng nng ban
u.
* trit tiu dng quang in ta phi t ln
A-K mt hiu in th ngc Uc sao cho
cng cn ca in trng t nht phi bng
ng nng ban u cc i ca cc electrn
Hnh 7-6. th I-V
b bt khi bn K, ngha l:
1
(7-17)
eU c mv o2 max
2
Uc c gi l hiu in th cn.

165

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

7. 4. 2. Cc nh lut quang in v gii thch


T cc kt qu th nghim ngi ta tm ra ba nh lut sau y gi l ba nh lut
quang in. Cc nh lut ny ch c th gii thch c da vo thuyt phtn ca Einstein.
a. Phng trnh Einstein
Khi c mt chm nh sng thch hp ri n catt, cc electrn t do trong kim loi hp
th phtn. Mi electrn hp th mt phtn v s nhn c mt nng lng bng h . Nng
lng ny mt phn chuyn thnh cng thot Ath electrn ra khi kim loi, phn cn li chuyn
thnh ng nng ban u ca quang electrn. ng nng ban u cng ln khi electrn cng
gn mt ngoi kim loi, v i vi cc electrn su trong kim loi, mt phn nng lng m
n hp th c ca phtn s b tiu hao trong qu trnh chuyn ng t trong ra mt ngoi
kim loi. Nh vy ng nng ban u s cc i i vi cc electrn st mt ngoi kim loi.
Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng, Einstein a ra phng trnh cho hiu ng quang in
mv o2 max
2
Phng trnh ny c gi l phng trnh Einstein.
h A th

(7-18)

b. nh lut v gii hn quang in


Pht biu: i vi mi kim loi xc nh, hin tng quang in ch xy ra khi bc sng
(hay tn s ) ca chm bc x in t ri ti nh hn (ln hn) mt gi tr xc nh o
( o ), o gi l gii hn quang in ca kim loi .
Gii hn quang in o ph thuc vo bn cht ca kim loi lm catt. nh lut ny ni ln
iu kin cn c th xy ra hin tng quang in. y cn nhn mnh rng, nu chm
sng ti c bc sng o th d cng sng rt mnh, n cng khng th gy ra hin
tng quang in.

mv o2 max
Gii thch: Trong phng trnh Einstein (6-18), v
> 0 v t A th h o nn
2
h h o

o
hc hc

Ngha l chm nh sng gy ra hiu ng quang in phi c bc sng nh hn mt gi tr


xc nh o = hc/Ath ( o ). o chnh l gii hn quang in v r rng n ch ph thuc vo
cng thot Ath, tc l ph thuc vo bn cht kim loi lm catt.
c. nh lut v dng quang in bo ho
Pht biu: Cng dng quang in bo ho t l vi cng ca chm bc x ri ti.
Gii thch: Cng dng quang in t l vi s quang electrn thot ra khi catt n ant
trong mt n v thi gian. Dng quang in tr nn bo ho khi s quang electrn thot khi
catt n ant trong n v thi gian l khng i. S quang electrn thot ra khi catt t l vi

166

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

s phtn b hp th. S phtn b hp th li t l vi cng ca chm bc x. Do cng


dng quang in bo ho t l thun vi cng chm bc x ri ti.
Ne ~ Nph , Nph ~ Iph
Ne ~ Iph
Ibh ~ Ne
Ibh ~ Iph

d. nh lut v ng nng ban u cc i ca quang electrn


Pht biu: ng nng ban u cc i ca quang electrn khng ph thuc vo cng chm
bc x ri ti m ch ph thuc vo tn s ca chm bc x .
1
1
Gii thch:
h A th mv o2 max h o mv o2 max
2
2
1
mv o2 max h ( - o )
2
eU c h( - o )
Ta thy r ng nng ban u cc i ca quang electrn ch ph thuc vo tn s ca chm
bc x in t, m khng ph thuc vo cng ca bc x .
Thuyt phtn gii thch c tt c cc nh lut quang in, n a ra mt quan
nim mi v bn cht nh sng. Theo Einstein, mi phtn c mt nng lng = h. Tnh cht
ht th hin nng lng gin on. Tnh cht sng th hin tn s (v bc sng ) ca
nh sng. Nh vy nh sng va c tnh sng, va c tnh ht. Ta ni rng nh sng c lng
tnh sng-ht.
7. 5. HIU NG COMPTON
Hiu ng Compton l mt trong nhng hiu ng th hin bn cht ht ca cc bc x
in t, ng thi n chng minh s tn ti ng lng ca cc ht phtn.
7. 5. 1. Hiu ng Compton
Th nghim Compton: Cho mt chm tia X bc sng chiu vo graphit hay paraphin...Khi
i qua cc cht ny tia X b tn x theo nhiu phng. Trong ph tn x, ngoi vch c bc
sng bng bc sng ca chm tia X chiu ti cn c nhng vch ng vi bc sng

> (Hnh 7-7). Thc nghim chng t rng bc sng khng ph thuc cu to ca cc
cht c tia X ri n m ch ph thuc vo gc tn x . tng ca bc sng '-
c xc nh bi biu thc:

2 c sin 2
(7-19)
2
trong c =2,426.10-12 m l mt hng s chung cho mi cht, c gi l bc sng
Compton.
Theo l thuyt sng th khi tia X truyn n thanh grapht n lm cho cc ht mang in
trong thanh ( y l electrn) dao ng cng bc vi cng tn s ca tia X, do cc bc x
tn x v mi phng phi c cng tn s vi bc x ti. Nh vy l thuyt sng in t c in
khng gii thch c hin tng Compton.
167

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

Hnh 7-7. Th nghim Compton

Hnh 7-8a. Va chm n hi gia phtn v electrn

7. 5. 2. Gii thch hiu ng Compton


Chng ta c th coi hin tng tn x tia X nh
mt va chm hon ton n hi gia mt phtn v mt
electrn trong cht m tia X chiu ti (Hnh 7-8a). Trong
ph tn x, nhng vch c bc sng bng bc sng ca
tia X chiu ti tng ng vi s tn x ca tia X ln cc
electrn su trong nguyn t, cc electrn ny lin kt
Hnh 7-8b. Bo ton ng lng
mnh vi ht nhn, cn vch c bc sng >
tng ng vi s tn x tia X ln cc electrn lin kt yu vi ht nhn. Nng lng lin kt ca
cc electrn ny rt nh so vi nng lng ca chm tia X chiu ti, do cc electrn c
th coi nh t do. V y l va chm n hi gia phtn v electrn t do nn ta s p dng hai
nh lut bo ton nng lng v bo ton ng lng cho h kn tia X - e-". Gi thit trc va
chm electrn (e-) ng yn. Tia X c nng lng ln, khi tn x trn electrn t do tia X s
truyn nng lng cho electrn nn sau va chm vn tc ca electrn rt ln, do ta phi p
dng hiu ng tng i tnh trong trng hp ny. Chng ta xt ng lng, nng lng ca
ht phtn v electrn trc v sau va chm:
Trc va chm:

e- ng yn :
Phtn :

Nng lng : m o c 2
ng lng : 0
Nng lng : E h
ng lng : p mc

Sau va chm:

Phtn tn x: Nng lng : E' h


h h

ng lng : p
e- :

Nng lng :

mo
1-

c 2 mc 2

c2

ng lng : p e

mo
1-

(mo l khi lng ngh ca e )


168

h h

v2
c2

v mv

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng v ng lng:

h mo c 2 h mc 2

(7-20)

p p p e

(7-21)

Gi l gc gia p v p ' (hnh 7-8b). Sau khi bin i cc biu thc (7-20) v (7-21) v s
dng cng thc lin h gia nng lng v ng lng trong c hc tng i tnh (6-22), cui
cng ta c:

(7-22)
m o c 2 ( - ' ) h' (1 - cos ) 2h' sin 2
2
c
Thay vo biu thc trn ta c:

(7-23)
'- 2
sin 2 2 c sin 2
moc
2
2
trong c

h
2,426.1012 m l hng s chung cho mi cht, gi l bc sng Compton.
mo c

i lng '- l bin thin ca bc sng trong tn x, n ch ph thuc vo gc tn


x m khng ph thuc vo vt liu lm bia.
Khi phtn vo su trong nguyn t v va chm vi cc electrn lin kt mnh vi ht
nhn, ta phi coi va chm ny l va chm ca phtn vi nguyn t (ch khng phi vi
electrn), cng thc (7-23) vn ng nhng phi thay khi lng ca electrn bng khi lng
ca nguyn t, n ln hn nhiu ln so vi khi lng ca electrn. Do hu nh khng c s
thay i bc sng. Nh vy trong bc x tn x c mt nhng phtn vi bc sng khng
i.
Qua hiu ng Compton ngi ta chng minh c ht phtn c ng lng p=h/.
ng lng l mt c trng ca ht. Nh vy tnh cht ht ca nh sng c xc nhn khi
da vo thuyt phtn gii thch thnh cng hiu ng Compton.

HNG DN HC CHNG 7
QUANG HC LNG T
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c hin tng bc x nhit. Cc nh lut pht x ca vt en tuyt i. S b tc ca
quang hc sng c in trong vic gii thch s bc x ca vt en tuyt i.
2. Nm c thuyt lng t ca Planck v thnh cng ca n trong vic gii thch cc nh lut
pht x ca vt en tuyt i.
3. Nm c thuyt phtn ca Einstein v gii thch cc nh lut quang in.
4. Gii thch hiu ng Compton.
169

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. Hin tng bc x nhit
* Sng in t do cc vt pht ra gi chung l bc x. Dng bc x do cc nguyn t v phn
t b kch thch bi tc dng nhit c gi l bc x nhit. Nu phn nng lng ca vt b mt
i do pht x bng phn nng lng vt thu c do hp th th bc x nhit khng i v c
gi l bc x nhit cn bng.
* Cc i lng c trng cho bc x nhit :
dT
dS
dT l nng lng do din tch dS ca vt pht x trong mt n v thi gian.

- Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt nhit T:

RT

- H s pht x n sc nhit T, ng vi bc sng : r, T


- H s hp th n sc nhit T, ng vi bc sng : a , T

dR T
d
d ', T
d , T

d, T l nng lng ca bc x ti, d', T l nng lng vt hp th.


Thc t vt khng hp th hon ton bc x ti nn a,T < 1. Vt c a,T =1 vi mi nhit T
v mi bc sng gi l vt en tuyt i.

* nh lut Kirchhoff: T s ca h s pht x n sc v h s hp th n sc ca mt vt


trng thi cn bng nhit khng ph thuc vo bn cht ca vt m ch ph thuc vo nhit
r, T
v bc sng ca chm bc x, ngha l
f , T , trong f,T l hm s chung cho mi
a , T
vt, nn c gi l hm ph bin. i vi vt en tuyt i: r,T = f,T

Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt i bng R T dR T f , T d


0

* Cc nh lut pht x ca vt en tuyt i


- Stephan-Boltzmann thit lp c nh lut lin h gia R T v nhit T ca vt:

R T T 4 . Hng s c gi l hng s Stephan-Boltzmann.


Wien tm c nh lut lin h gia bc sng m ca chm bc x mang nhiu nng
b
lng nht (f,T ln nht) vi nhit tuyt i T ca vt : m , trong b c gi
T
l hng s Wien.
* Da vo quan nim c in coi cc nguyn t v phn t pht x v hp th nng lng mt
cch lin tc, Rayleigh-Jeans tm c mt cng thc xc nh h s pht x n sc ca vt
-

en tuyt i: f , T

2 2

kT
c2
Nhng cng thc ny gp hai kh khn ch yu:

170

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

- Cng thc ny ch ph hp vi thc nghim vng tn s nh (bc sng di), cn vng tn


s ln (bc sng ngn), tc l vng sng t ngoi, n sai lch rt nhiu. B tc ny c gi l
s khng hong vng t ngoi.
- T cng thc ny ta c th tnh c nng sut pht x ton phn ca mt vt en tuyt i
nhit T:

R T f , T d
0

2kT 2
d
c2 0

Nng lng pht x ton phn ca vt mt nhit T nht nh li bng v cng.


S d c kt qu v l l do quan nim vt l c in v s pht x v hp th nng lng bc
x mt cch lin tc. gii quyt nhng b tc trn Planck ph nh l thuyt c in v
bc x v ra mt l thuyt mi gi l thuyt lng t nng lng.
2. Thuyt lng t ca Planck v thuyt photon Einstein:
* Thuyt lng t ca Planck: cc nguyn t v phn t pht x hay hp th nng lng mt
h hc /
cch gin on
.
Xut pht t thuyt lng t, Planck tm ra cng thc ca hm ph bin, tc l h s pht x
n sc ca vt en tuyt i:

f , T

2 2
2

h
h / kT

c e
1
Cng thc ca Planck khc phc c kh khn vng t ngoi, ng c trng ph pht
x ca vt en tuyt i tnh t cng thc ny ph hp vi kt qu thc nghim mi vng
nhit , mi vng tn s khc nhau. T cng thc Planck ta c th tm li c cc cng thc
Stephan-Boltzmann v cng thc Wien.
* Thuyt phtn ca Einstein:
- Ni dung thuyt phtn ca Einstein:
a. Bc x in t gm v s nhng ht rt nh gi l lng t nh sng hay phtn.
b. Vi mi bc x in t n sc nht nh, cc phtn u ging nhau v mang mt nng
lng xc nh bng
hc
(7-13)
h

c. Trong mi mi trng (v c trong chn khng) cc phtn c truyn i vi cng vn tc c


= 3.108 m/s.
d. Khi mt vt pht x hay hp th bc x in t c ngha l vt pht x hay hp th cc
phtn.
e. Cng ca chm bc x t l vi s phtn pht ra t ngun trong mt n v thi gian.
Thuyt phtn ca Einstein gii thch c cc hin tng th hin bn cht ht ca nh sng
nh hin tng quang in, hiu ng Compton.
- ng lc hc phtn
Nng lng ca phtn ng vi mt bc x in t n sc tn s l:

171

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

Khi lng ca phtn: m

Theo thuyt tng i m

h
c

h
c

v2
, do m o m 1 c2
v2

mo
1-

c2
Vn tc ca phtn bng c, do phtn c khi lng ngh bng 0
h h
ng lng ca phtn: p mc

3. Hiu ng quang in
l hiu ng bn ra cc electrn t mt tm kim loi khi ri vo tm kim loi mt bc x
in t thch hp.
Ngi ta tm c ba nh lut quang in:
* nh lut v gii hn quang in: Hin tng quang in ch xy ra khi bc sng ca nh
sng ti phi tha mn:
< o hoc > o
o, o ty thuc vo tng kim loi v c gi l gii hn quang in ca kim loi .
* nh lut v dng quang in bo ha: Cng dng quang in bo ha t l vi cng
nh sng chiu ti kim loi.
* nh lut v ng nng ban u cc i: ng nng ban u cc i ca cc quang electron
khng ph thuc vo cng nh sng chiu ti m ch ph thuc bc sng ca nh sng
chiu ti v bn cht kim loi.
gii thch ba nh lut trn, Einstein a ra thuyt phtn. Thuyt ny cho rng nh sng
bao gm nhng ht phtn. Mi phtn mang nng lng h hc / , chuyn ng vi vn
tc c=3.108 m/s. Cng ca chm sng t l vi s phtn do ngun sng pht ra trong mt
mv o2 max
n v thi gian. Phng trnh Einstein: h A th
2

4. Hiu ng Compton
Chm nh sng (chm ht phtn) sau khi tn x ln cc ht electrn t do th bc
sng ca n tng ln

2 c sin 2
2
Thc nghim xc nh c tng bc sng ny. tng bc sng khng ph thuc
vt liu lm bia m ch ph thuc vo gc tn x. Hiu ng Compton ch c th gii thch da
vo bn cht ht ca nh sng. Chng ta coi hin tng tn x ca tia X nh mt va chm n
hi gia mt phtn v mt electrn trong cht m tia X chiu ti. Ta p dng hai nh lut bo
ton: bo ton nng lng (v va chm n hi) v bo ton ng lng (v l h kn gm ht
phtn v ht electrn). Qua hiu ng ny ngi ta chng minh c ht phtn c ng lng
p = mc = h / c = h / .

172

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

ng lng l mt c trng ca ht. Nh vy tnh cht ht ca nh sng c xc


nhn trn vn khi da vo thuyt phtn gii thch thnh cng hiu ng Compton.
III. CU HI L THUYT
1. nh ngha bc x nhit cn bng.
2. Vit biu thc v nu ngha ca cc i lng: nng sut pht x ton phn, h s pht x
n sc, h s hp th n sc ca bc x nhit cn bng nhit T.
3. nh ngha vt en tuyt i.
4. Pht biu nh lut Kirchhoff. Nu ngha ca hm ph bin. V th ng c trng ph
pht x ca vt en tuyt i.
5. Pht biu cc nh lut pht x ca vt en tuyt i .
6. Nu quan nim c in v bn cht ca bc x. Vit cng thc ca Rayleigh-Jeans. Nu
nhng kh khn m cng thc gp phi i vi hin tng bc x nhit.
7. Pht biu thuyt lng t ca Planck. Vit cng thc Planck. Nu nhng thnh cng ca
thuyt lng t.
8. nh ngha hin tng quang in. Pht biu ba nh lut quang in.
9. Pht biu thuyt phtn ca Einstein. Vn dng thuyt phtn gii thch ba nh lut
quang in.
10. Trnh by ni dung hiu ng Compton. Trong hiu ng ny, chm tia X tn x ln electrn
t do hay lin kt ?
11. Gii thch hiu ng Compton.
12. Ti sao coi hiu ng Compton l mt bng chng thc nghim xc nhn trn vn tnh ht
ca nh sng.
IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Mt l luyn kim c ca s quan st rng 8cm x 15cm pht x vi cng sut
10887W. Coi bc x c pht ra t mt vt en tuyt i. Tm nhit ca l v bc sng
ng vi nng sut pht x cc i ca l.
Bi gii: Nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt i: R T 4 , R l nng sut do mt
n v din tch pht ra trong mt n v thi gian, nn R lin h vi cng sut pht x l: P =
R.S

T 4

P
10887
4
2000 ( K )
.S
5,67.10 8.8.15.10 4

Bc sng ng vi nng sut pht x cc i ca l c xc nh theo nh lut Wien

max

b 2,896.10 3

1,448m
T
2000

173

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

Th d 2: Cng thot ca kim loi dng lm catt ca t bo quang in A = 5eV. Tm:


1. Gii hn quang in ca tm kim loi .
2. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn khi catt c chiu bng nh sng n
sc bc sng = 0,2m.
3. Hiu in th hm khng c mt electrn no n c ant.
Bi gii
1. Gii hn quang in ca catt: 0

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

2,48.10 7 m

19
A
5.1,6.10

2. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc electrn:

hc
1
2
A m e v 02 max v 0 max

2
me
v 0 max

hc

6,625.10 34.3.108

5.1,6.10 19 0,65.10 6 m / s

9,1.10 31
0,2.10 6

3. Hiu in th hm:

hc
hc
1 6,625.10 34.3.108
1
A eU h U h ( A)
5.1,6.10 19
1,2 V
1,6.10 19

e
0,2.10 6

Th d 3: Phtn mang nng lng 0,15MeV n tn x trn electrn t do. Sau khi tn x
bc sng ca chm phtn tn x tng thm = 0,015A0. Xc nh bc sng ca phtn v
gc tn x ca phtn.
Bi gii:

hc
hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

8,28.10 12 m

13

0,15.1,6.10

2 c sin 2

sin 2
0,31 sin 0,556 67 033
2
2 2 c
2

Bi tp t gii
1. Tm cng sut bc x ca mt l nung, cho bit nhit ca l bng t = 727 0C, din tch ca
ca l bng 250cm2. Coi l l vt en tuyt i.
2. Tm nhit ca mt l nung, cho bit mi giy l pht ra mt nng lng bng 8,28 calo
qua mt l nh c kch thc bng 6 cm2. Coi bc x c pht ra t mt vt en tuyt i.
3. Vt en tuyt i c dng mt qu cu ng knh d = 10cm nhit T khng i. Tm
nhit T, cho bit cng sut bc x nhit cho bng 12kcalo/pht.
4. Nhit ca si dy tc vonfram ca bng n in lun bin i v c t nng bng
dng in xoay chiu. Hiu s gia nhit cao nht v thp nht bng 800, nhit trung bnh
bng 2300K. Hi cng sut bc x bin i bao nhiu ln, coi dy tc bng n l vt en tuyt
i.
5. Nhit ca vt en tuyt i tng t 1000 K n 3000 K. Hi:
1. Nng sut pht x ton phn ca n tng bao nhiu ln?
174

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

2. Bc sng ng vi nng sut pht x cc i thay i bao nhiu ln?


6. Mt vt en tuyt i nhit T1 = 2900 K. Do vt b ngui i nn bc sng ng vi nng
sut pht x cc i thay i = 9m. Hi vt lnh n nhit bng bao nhiu?
7. Mt ngi nh gch trt va c din tch mt ngoi tng cng l 800 m 2, nhit ca mt bc
x l 27oC v h s hp th khi bng 0,8. Tnh
a. Nng lng bc x trong mt ngy m t ngi nh .
b. Bc sng ng vi nng sut pht x cc i ca ngi nh nu coi n l vt en tuyt
i.
Cho hng s Stefan Boltzman = 5,67.10-8 W/m2K4, hng s Wien b = 2,898.10-3mK)
8. Mt thi thp c c nhit 727oC. Trong mt giy, mi cm2 ca n bc x mt lng nng
lng 4J. Xc nh h s hp th ca thi thp nhit , nu coi rng h s hp th l nh
nhau i vi mi bc sng.
9. Cng sut bc x ca vt en tuyt i bng 105 kW. Tm din tch bc x ca vt nu
bc sng ng vi nng sut pht x cc i ca n bng 0,7m. Cho hng s Stefan
Boltzman = 5,67.10-8 W/m2K4, hng s Wien b = 2,898.10-3m.K.
10. B mt kim loi nng chy c din tch 10cm2 mi pht bc x ra mt lng nng lng
4.104 J. Nhit b mt l 2500K. Tm:
a. Nng lng bc x ca mt , nu coi n l vt en tuyt i.
b. T s gia cc nng sut pht x ton phn ca mt v ca vt en tuyt i cng
mt nhit .
11. Dy tc vnfram trong bng n c ng knh d = 0,03 cm v di l = 5 cm. Khi mc vo
mch in 127 V, dng in chy qua n c cng 0,31A. Tm nhit ca n, gi s
trng thi cn bng nhit ton b nhit lng do n pht ra u dng bc x. Cho bit t s
gia nng sut pht x ton phn ca vnfram vi nng sut pht x ton phn ca vt en tuyt
i nhit cn bng ca dy tc n bng 0,31.
12. Khi nghin cu quang ph pht x ca mt tri, ngi ta nhn thy bc x mang nng lng
cc i c bc sng m=0,48m. Coi mt tri l vt en l tng. Tm:
a. Cng sut pht x ton phn ca mt tri.
b. Mt nng lng nhn c trn mt tri t.
Cho bit bn knh mt tri r = 6,5.105 km, khong cch t mt tri n tri t d = 1,5.108 km,
hng s Stefan Boltzman = 5,67.10-8 W/m2K4, hng s Wien b = 2,898.10-3mK.
13. Tm bc sng ng vi nng sut pht x cc i ca
a. Dy tc bng n (3000K).
b. Mt tri (6000K)
c. Bom nguyn t khi n (107K)
Coi cc ngun l vt en tuyt i.

175

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

14. Hi cn cung cp cho mt qu cu kim loi c bi en c bn knh 2cm mt cng sut


bng bao nhiu gi cho nhit ca n cao hn nhit ca mi trng 27oC. Cho bit nhit
mi trng bng 20oC v coi nhit gim ch do bc x.
15. Tm gii hn quang in i vi cc kim loi c cng thot 2,4eV, 2,3eV, 2eV.
16. Gii hn quang in ca kim loi dng lm catt ca t bo quang in 0 = 0,5m. Tm:
a. Cng thot ca electrn khi tm kim loi .
b. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn khi catt c chiu bng nh sng
n sc bc sng = 0,25m.
17. Chiu mt bc x in t n sc bc sng = 0,41m ln mt kim loi dng lm catt
ca t bo quang in th c hin tng quang in xy ra. Nu dng mt hiu in th hm
0,76V th cc quang electrn bn ra u b gi li.Tm:
a. Cng thot ca electrn i vi kim loi .
b. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn khi bn ra khi catt
18. Cng thot ca kim loi dng lm catt ca t bo quang in A= 2,48eV. Tm:
a. Gii hn quan in ca tm kim loi .
b.Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn khi catt c chiu bng nh sng
n sc bc sng = 0,36m.
c. Hiu in th hm khng c mt electrn no n c ant.
19. Khi chiu mt chm nh sng c bc sng = 0,234m vo mt kim loi dng lm catt
ca t bo quang in th c hin tng quang in xy ra. Bit tn s gii hn ca catt 0=
6.1014Hz. Tm:
a. Cng thot ca electrn i vi kim loi .
b. Hiu in th hm khng c mt electrn no n c ant.
c. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn.
20. Khi chiu mt chm nh sng vo mt kim loi dng lm catt ca t bo quang in th c
hin tng quang in xy ra. Nu dng mt hiu in th hm 3V th cc quang electrn bn ra
u b gi li. Bit tn s gii hn ca catt 0= 6.1014Hz. Tm:
a. Cng thot ca electrn i vi tm kim loi .
b. Tn s ca nh sng chiu ti. ra t catt.
21. Cng thot ca kim loi dng lm catt ca t bo quang in A = 2,15eV. Tm:
a. Gii hn quang in ca tm kim loi .
b. Vn tc ban u cc i ca cc quang electrn khi catt c chiu bng nh sng
n sc bc sng = 0,489m.
c. Hiu in th hm khng c mt electrn no n c ant.
22. Khi chiu vo mt kim loi nhng nh sng ln lt c bc sng 2790 v 2450 th c
cc quang electron bn ra. Hiu in th hm gi chng li ln lt l 0,66V v 1,26V. Cho
bit in tch ca electron e =1,6.10-19C v vn tc nh sng c = 3.108 m/s, hy tnh hng s
Planck.
176

Chng 7: Quang hc lng t

23. Tm ng lng, khi lng ca phtn c tn s = 5.1014Hz.


24. Tm nng lng v ng lng ca phtn ng vi bc sng = 0,6m.
25. Tm nng lng v ng lng ca phtn ng vi bc sng = 10-12m.
26. Xc nh vn tc cc i ca cc quang electron b bt khi mt kim loi bc khi chiu ti
mt kim loi
a. Cc tia t ngoi c 1= 0,155m
b. Cc tia c 2 = 0,001 nm
Cho cng thot ca bc bng 0,75.10-18J.
27. Trong hin tng tn x Compton, bc sng ban u ca phtn l = 0,03 v vn tc
ca electron bn ra l v=c=0,6c. Xc nh tng bc sng v gc tn x . (c =
2,426.10-12m)
28. Phtn c nng lng 250keV bay n va chm vi mt electrn ng yn v tn x
Compton theo gc 1200. Xc nh nng lng ca phtn tn x. (c = 2,426.10-12m)
29. Phtn ban u c nng lng 0,8MeV tn x trn mt electrn t do v thnh phtn ng
vi bc x c bc sng bng bc sng Compton. Tnh:
a. Gc tn x.
b. Nng lng ca phtn tn x.
30. Tnh nng lng v ng lng ca phtn tn x khi phtn c bc sng ban u =
0,05.10-10m n va chm vo electrn t do v tn x theo gc 600, 900.
31. Trong hin tng tn x Compton, bc x Rngen c bc sng n tn x trn electrn
t do. Tm bc sng , cho bit ng nng cc i ca electron bn ra bng 0,19MeV. (c =
2,426.10-12m)
32. Trong hin tng Compton, bc sng ca chm phtn bay ti l 0,03. Tnh phn nng
lng truyn cho electron i vi phtn tn x di nhng gc 60o, 90o, 180o.
33. Tm ng lng ca electrn khi c phtn bc sng = 0,05A0 n va chm v tn x
theo gc = 900. Lc u electrn ng yn. (c = 2,426.10-12m).
34. Phtn mang nng lng ban u 0,15MeV tn x Compton trn mt electron ng yn.
Kt qu sau khi tn x, bc sng ca chm phtn tn x tng thm =0,015 so vi bc
sng ban u. Tnh gc bay ra ca electron.
35. Tm bc sng ban u ca phtn bit rng trong hin tng tn x Compton, nng lng
ca phtn tn x v ng nng ca electron bay ra bng nhau, khi gc gia hai phng chuyn
ng ca chng bng 90o.

177

Chng 8: C hc lng t

CHNG 8

C HC LNG T
Cui th k 19 u th k 20 vt l hc thu c mt lot nhng thnh tu mi: s
khm ph ra tia X, s ph thuc khi lng ca electrn vo vn tc chuyn ng, bc x nhit
ca vt en tuyt i, hiu ng quang in, hiu ng Compton Nhng hin tng ny
khng th gii thch c nu da vo nhng quan im ca Vt l c in, iu chng t c
s ca Vt l c xy dng trc bt u lung lay v ngnh Vt l ang ng trc
nhng thch thc mi. Ngi ta nhn thy khi i vo th gii ca nguyn t, phn t (kch
thc 10-9 - 10-10 m, c gi l th gii vi m) cc quy lut ca Vt l c in khng cn ng
na. y chnh l tin cho mt mn khoa hc mi ra i l mn C hc lng t.
C hc lng t l mn khoa hc nghin cu nhng tnh cht ca vt cht trong th gii
vi m. C hc lng t gii quyt nhiu vn c lin quan n cc tnh cht vt l ca vt cht
mc su sc hn, do cng c bn hn so vi vt l c in. V vy ta c th ni c hc
c in l trng hp gii hn ca c hc lng t khi ta chuyn t vic nghin cu vi m sang
nghin cu v m. C hc lng t cung cp cho ta kin thc hiu cc hin tng xy ra
trong nguyn t, ht nhn, vt rn...
8. 1. LNG TNH SNG HT CA VI HT
8. 1. 1. Lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng
Nh chng trc chng ta thy nh sng va c tnh sng va c tnh ht: hin tng
giao thoa, nhiu x th hin tnh cht sng, cn hiu ng quang in, hiu ng Compton th
hin tnh cht ht ca nh sng.
Lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng
c Einstein nu trong thuyt
phtn: nh sng c cu to bi
cc ht phtn, mi ht mang nng
h
lng E h v ng lng p .

Ta thy cc i lng c trng cho


Hnh 8-1. S truyn sng phng nh sng
tnh cht ht (E,p) v cc i lng
c trng cho tnh cht sng ( , ) lin h trc tip vi nhau. Chng ta s thit lp hm sng
cho ht phtn. Xt chm nh sng n sc, song song, mt sng l cc mt phng vung gc
vi phng truyn sng. Nu dao ng sng ti O l:

x(t ) A cos 2 t

(8-1)

th biu thc dao ng sng ti mi im trn mt sng i qua im M cch mt sng i qua O
mt on d l:
178

Chng 8: C hc lng t

d
d
d
x ( t - ) A cos 2 ( t - ) A cos 2( t - )
c
c

(8-2)
2 d
A cos( t )

trong c l vn tc nh sng trong chn khng, l bc sng nh sng trong chn khng:
c
cT , vi T l chu k, l tn s ca sng nh sng. T hnh 8-1 ta c:

d r cos r.n

(8-3)

n : vect php tuyn n v. Thay (8-3) vo (8-2) ta nhn c:


d
r.n
(8-4)
x ( t ) A cos 2 ( t )
c

l hm sng phng n sc. S dng k hiu cho hm sng v biu din n di dng hm
phc ta c

r.n
o exp 2 i t

Nu thay

(8-5)

E
h
h
, p v
vo (7-5) ta c:

2
h

o exp Et pr

(8-6)

8. 1. 2. Gi thuyt de Broglie (bri)


Trn c s lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng, de Broglie suy ra lng tnh sng ht
cho electrn v cc vi ht khc.
Gi thuyt de Broglie:
Mt vi ht t do c nng lng, ng lng xc nh tng ng vi mt sng phng n
sc. Nng lng ca vi ht lin h vi tn s dao ng ca sng tng ng thng qua h thc:
E h hay E . ng lng ca vi ht lin h vi bc sng ca sng tng ng theo h
h
thc: p hay p k .

2
. Sng de
k l vect sng, c phng, chiu l phng, chiu truyn sng, c ln k

Broglie l sng vt cht, sng ca cc vi ht.


8. 1. 3. Thc nghim xc nhn tnh cht sng ca cc ht vi m
1. Nhiu x ca electrn qua khe hp:
Cho chm electrn i qua mt khe hp. Trn mn hunh quang ta thu c hnh nh
nhiu x ging nh hin tng nhiu x ca nh sng qua mt khe hp. Nu ta cho tng electrn
ring bit i qua khe trong mt thi gian di s electrn i qua khe ln, ta vn thu c

179

Chng 8: C hc lng t

hnh nh nhiu x trn mn hunh quang. iu ny chng t mi ht electrn ring l u c


tnh cht sng.

Hnh 8-2. Nhiu x ca electrn qua mt khe hp


2. Nhiu x ca electrn trn tinh th
Th nghim ca Davisson v Germer quan st c hin tng nhiu x ca electrn
trn mt tinh th Ni (hnh 8-3). Khi cho mt chm electrn bn vo mt tinh th Ni, chm e- s
tn x trn mt tinh th Ni di cc gc khc nhau. Trn mn hnh ta thu c cc vn nhiu x.
Hin tng xy ra ging ht hin tng nhiu x ca tia X trn mt tinh th Ni. Tinh th Ni nh
mt cch t nhiu x. Hin tng electrn nhiu x trn cch t chng t bn cht sng ca
chng. Thay Ni bng cc tinh th khc, tt c cc th nghim u xc nhn chm electrn gy
hin tng nhiu x trn tinh th. Cc vi ht khc nh ntrn, prtn cng gy hin tng nhiu
x trn tinh th.
Cc kt qu th nghim trn u xc nhn tnh cht sng ca vi ht v do chng minh
s ng n ca gi thuyt de Broglie.
Cui cng, ta phi nhn mnh v ni dung gii hn ca gi thit de Broglie. Bc sng
de Broglie t l nghch vi khi lng ca ht:

h
h

p mv

do i vi nhng ht thng
thng m khi lng rt ln, thm
ch l v cng ln so vi khi lng
ca electrn chng hn th bc
sng de Broglie tng ng c gi tr
v cng b v khng cn ngha
Hnh 8-3. Nhiu x ca electrn trn tinh th
m t tnh cht sng na.
Nh vy, khi nim lng tnh sng ht thc s ch th hin cc ht vi m m thi v
sng de Broglie c bn cht c th lng t, n khng tng t vi sng thc trong vt l c
in nh sng nc hay sng in t...

180

Chng 8: C hc lng t

8. 2. H THC BT NH HEISENBERG
Do c lng tnh sng ht nn qui lut vn ng ca vi ht trong th gii vi m khc vi
qui lut vn ng ca ht trong th gii v m. Mt trong nhng im khc bit l h thc bt
nh Heisenberg. tm h thc chng ta xt hin tng nhiu x ca chm vi ht qua mt
khe hp c b rng b.
Sau khi qua khe ht s b nhiu x theo
nhiu phng khc nhau, tu theo gc nhiu x
, mt ht nhiu x trn mn s cc i
hoc cc tiu. Xt ta ca ht theo phng
x, nm trong mt phng khe v song song vi
b rng khe. Ta x ca ht trong khe s c
gi tr trong khong t 0 n b ( 0 x b ). Ni
cch khc, v tr ca ht trong khe c xc
nh vi bt nh x b .

Hnh 8-4. Nhiu x electrn qua khe hp

nh Heisenberg: Sau khi ht qua khe, ht b nhiu x, phng ng lng p thay i.


Hnh chiu ca p theo phng x s c gi tr thay i trong khong 0 p x p sin , ngha l
sau khi i qua khe, ht c th ri vo cc i gia hoc cc i ph v p x c xc nh vi
mt bt nh no . Xt trng hp ht ri vo cc i gia, bt nh v hnh chiu ca

p theo phng x l: p x p sin 1 , 1 l gc ng vi cc tiu th nht: sin 1 . Do ta


b
c:

x.p x b.p sin 1 p.


h
Theo gi thuyt de Broglie p . Thay vo biu thc trn ta nhn c h thc bt

x.p x h
y.p y h

L lun tng t:

(8-7)

z.p z h

H thc bt nh Heisenberg l mt trong nhng nh lut c bn ca c hc lng t.


H thc ny chng t v tr v ng lng ca ht khng c xc nh chnh xc mt cch
ng thi. V tr ca ht cng xc nh th ng lng ca ht cng bt nh v ngc li.
V d: Trong nguyn t e- chuyn ng trong phm vi 10-10 m. Do bt nh v vn
tc l:
v x

p x
h
6,625.1034

7.106 m / s
me
m e x 9.10 31.1010

Ta thy v x kh ln cho nn e- khng c vn tc xc nh, ngha l e- khng chuyn ng theo


mt qu o xc nh trong nguyn t. iu ny chng t rng trong th gii vi m khi nim
qu o khng c ngha.

181

Chng 8: C hc lng t

Ta xt ht trong th gii v m khi lng ca ht m = 10-15 kg, bt nh v v tr


x 10 8 m . Do bt nh v vn tc l
v x

h
6,625.1034

6,6.1011 m / s

15

8
m.x 10 .10

Nh vy i vi ht v m x v v x u nh, ngha l v tr v vn tc c th c xc nh
chnh xc ng thi.
Theo c hc c in, nu bit c to v ng lng ca ht thi im ban u th
ta c th xc nh c trng thi ca ht cc thi im sau. Nhng theo c hc lng t th
to v ng lng ca vi ht khng th xc nh c ng thi, do ta ch c th on
nhn kh nng vi ht mt trng thi nht nh. Ni cch khc vi ht ch c th mt trng thi
vi mt xc sut no . Do qui lut vn ng ca vi ht tun theo qui lut thng k.
Nm 1927 bng l thuyt C hc lng t Heisenberg tm ra h thc bt nh gia v tr v
h
ng lng :
(8 - 7)
x.p x
2
Biu thc ny c khc cht t so vi biu thc (8-.7) tm ra t hin tng nhiu x electrn,
nhng ngha vt l ca h thc th khng thay i. Khi gii cc bi tp vt l phn c hc
lng t chng ta s s dng biu thc (8- 7).
Ngoi h thc bt nh v v tr v ng lng, trong c hc lng t ngi ta cn tm
c h thc bt nh gia nng lng v thi gian:
( 8 - 8)
E.t h
ngha ca h thc bt nh gia nng lng v thi gian: nu nng lng ca h mt
trng thi no cng bt nh th thi gian h tn ti trng thi cng ngn v ngc li,
nu nng lng ca h mt trng thi no cng xc nh th thi gian tn ti ca h trng
thi cng di. Nh vy trng thi c nng lng bt nh l trng thi khng bn, cn trng
thi c nng lng xc nh v thp nht l trng thi bn.
8. 3. HM SNG
8. 3. 1. Biu thc ca hm sng
Do lng tnh sng ht ca vi ht ta khng th xc nh ng thi c ta v ng
lng ca vi ht. xc nh trng thi ca vi ht, ta phi dng mt khi nim mi l hm
sng.
Theo gi thuyt de Broglie chuyn ng ca ht t do (tc l ht khng chu mt tc
dng no ca ngoi lc) c m t bi hm sng tng t nh sng nh sng phng n sc

o exp Et pr o exp i t k r

(8-9)

Trong E ; p k v o l bin c xc nh bi:


2

o2 *

* l lin hp phc ca .
182

(8-10)

Chng 8: C hc lng t

Nu ht vi m chuyn ng trong trng th, th hm sng ca n l mt hm phc tp


ca to r v thi gian t

(r, t ) (x, y, z, t )
8. 3. 2. ngha thng k ca hm sng
Xt chm ht phtn truyn trong
khng gian. Xung quanh im M ly th
tch V bt k (hnh 8-5)
*Theo quan im sng: Cng sng
ti M t l vi bnh phng bin dao
ng sng ti M:

Hnh 8-5. Chm ht phtn truyn qua V

I ~ o2
*Theo quan im ht: Cng sng ti M t l vi nng lng cc ht trong n v th tch
bao quanh M, ngha l t l vi s ht trong n v th tch .T y ta thy rng s ht trong
n v th tch t l vi o2 . S ht trong n v th tch cng nhiu th kh nng tm thy ht
trong cng ln. V vy c th ni bnh phng bin sng
nng tm thy ht trong n v th tch bao quanh M . Do

ti M c trng cho kh

l mt xc sut tm ht v

xc sut tm thy ht trong ton khng gian l 2 dV . Khi tm ht trong ton khng gian,
V

chng ta chc chn tm thy ht. Do xc sut tm ht trong ton khng gian l 1:
2

dV 1

(8-11)

y chnh l iu kin chun ho ca hm sng.


Tm li:
- m t trng thi ca vi ht ngi ta dng hm sng .
2

khng m t mt sng thc trong khng gian. Hm sng mang tnh cht thng k, n

biu din mt xc sut tm thy ht trng thi .

lin quan n xc sut tm ht.


8. 3. 3. iu kin ca hm sng
-

Hm sng phi hu hn. iu ny c suy ra t iu kin chun ho, hm sng phi


hu hn th tch phn mi hu hn.
Hm sng phi n tr, v theo l thuyt xc sut: mi trng thi ch c mt gi tr xc
sut tm ht.
2

Hm sng phi lin tc, v xc sut

o hm bc nht ca hm sng phi lin tc.

khng th thay i nhy vt.

183

Chng 8: C hc lng t

* Lu rng nhng kt lun trn cng c p dng cho cc vi ht khc.


8. 4. PHNG TRNH SCHRODINGER
Hm sng de Broglie m t chuyn ng ca vi ht t do c nng lng v ng lng
xc nh:

trong

i
(r, t ) o exp Et pr (r ) exp Et

(8-12)

i
(r ) o exp pr

(8-13)

l phn ph thuc vo ta ca hm sng. Ta c th biu din (r ) trong h ta cc


nh sau:

(r ) o exp (p x x p y y p z z)

Ly o hm / x , ta c:

(8-14)

p x ( r )
x
Ly o hm bc hai ca theo x:

p2
p 2x (r ) x (r )
x 2 2
2
Ta cng thu c kt qu tng t cho cc bin y v z.
Theo nh ngha ca ton t Laplace trong h to cc :
2

i2

2
2
2

(r )

(r )
x 2 y 2 z 2

(8-15)

(8-16)

ta c:

(r )

p 2x p 2y p 2z

2
Gi E l ng nng ca ht, ta vit c:

( r )

p2
2

(r )

(8-17)

mv 2 p 2

hay
p2 =2mE
2
2m
2
Thay p vo (8-17) v chuyn sang v tri ta thu c:
2m
(8-18)
(r )
E d (r ) 0
2
Phng trnh (8-18) c gi l phng trnh Schrodinger cho vi ht chuyn ng t do. M
rng phng trnh cho vi ht khng t do, ngha l vi ht chuyn ng trong mt trng lc c
th nng U khng ph thuc thi gian. Nng lng ca vi ht E = E + U. Thay E = E - U vo
(8-18) ta c:
E

184

Chng 8: C hc lng t

(r )

2m
2

E U(r)(r) 0

(8-19)

Bit dng c th ca U( r ), gii phng trnh Schrodinger ta tm c (r ) v E, ngha l xc


nh c trng thi v nng lng ca vi ht. Ta gii hn ch xt h l kn hay t trong trng
ngoi khng bin thin theo thi gian. Nng lng ca h khi khng i v trng thi ca h
c gi l trng thi dng. Phng trnh (8-19) c gi l phng trnh Schrodinger cho
trng thi dng.
Cho n nay ta vn xt ht chuyn ng vi vn tc v << c, do phng trnh (8-19)
m t chuyn ng ca vi ht phi tng i tnh, c khi lng ngh khc khng. Phng trnh
Schrodinger m t s vn ng ca vi ht, n c vai tr tng t nh phng trnh ca nh lut
II Newton trong c hc c in. Mt im cn ch l, phng trnh Schrodinger khng c
chng minh hay rt ra t u. N c xy dng trn c s hm sng phng n sc ca nh
sng v gi thuyt sng-ht de Broglie, do c coi nh mt tin . Vic m rng phng
trnh Schrodiger cho ht t do sang trng hp ht chuyn ng trong trng th cng c coi
l mt s tin ha. Di y l nhng ng dng phng trnh Schrodinger trong nhng bi
ton c th nh ht trong ging th, hiu ng ng ngm...
8. 5. NG DNG CA PHNG TRNH SCHRODINGER
8. 5. 1. Vt th vi m (vi ht) chuyn ng trong ging th nng
Trong nhng bi ton thc t, ta thng
gp nhng trng hp vi ht ch chuyn ng
trong mt phm vi gii hn bi mt hng ro th
nng c chiu cao kh ln, v d nh electrn
trong mng tinh th hay nucln trong ht nhn
bn, khi ta ni rng ht trong ging th
nng.

Hnh 8-6. Ging th nng


Ta hy xt trng hp ht nm trong
ging th nng c thnh cao v hn v chuyn ng theo mt phng x bn trong ging th
(hnh 8-6). Th nng U c xc nh theo iu kin:
0 khi 0 x a
U
khi x 0 , x a
Nh vy bn trong ging th ht chuyn ng t do v khng th vt ra ngoi ging.
Phng trnh Schrodinger ca ht trong ging th (U = 0) mt chiu (chiu x) c dng:

d 2
dx
t k 2

2mE
2

2mE
2

(8-20)

, ta c:

185

Chng 8: C hc lng t

d 2
2

k 2 0

(8-21)

dx
Nghim ca phng trnh (8-21) c dng
(x) A sin kx B cos kx

(8-22)

A, B l nhng hng s c xc nh t iu kin ca hm sng. Theo u bi th ht ch


trong ging th, do xc sut tm ht ti vng ngoi ging th bng khng v hm sng trong
cc vng cng bng 0. T iu kin lin tc ca hm sng ta suy ra: (0) 0, (a ) 0
Thay iu kin ny vo (8-22) ta c
(0) A sin(0) B 0 B = 0
(a ) A sin(ka) 0

B = 0 nn A phi khc 0 (v nu A = 0 th lun bng 0 v l mt nghim tm thng). Do


ta c:
sin ka 0 sin n

vi n = 1,2,...

T rt ra:

n
(8-23)
a
Nh vy ta c mt dy nghim hm sng c dng:
n
(8-24)
n ( x ) A sin x
a
tha mn iu kin bin ca min. Hng s A c xc nh t iu kin chun ha (8-11) ca
hm sng. V ht khng th ra khi ging nn xc sut tm thy ht trong ging l chc chn:
k

2
( x ) dx 1

Tnh gi tr tch phn:


a

2
2
A sin

n
A2 a
2n
A 2a
xdx
(
1

cos
x
)
dx

a
2 0
a
2

Ta tm c:

2
a
Nh vy hm sng c xc nh hon ton:
2
n
n (x)
sin x
(8-25)
a
a
Nng lng ca ht trong ging th cng c tm thy khi ta thay biu thc (8-23) vo
2mE
k2
v nhn c
2
A

En

2 2
2

n2

2ma
T cc kt qu trn ta rt ra mt s kt lun sau:
a. Mi trng thi ca ht ng vi mt hm sng n (x )

186

(8-26)

Chng 8: C hc lng t

b. Nng lng ca ht trong ging ph thuc vo s nguyn n, ngha l bin thin gin on. Ta
ni rng nng lng b lng t ha.
Vi n = 1 ta c mc nng lng cc tiu E1

2 2

0 ng vi hm sng 1

sin x ,
a
a

2ma 2
m t trng thi chuyn ng c bn ca ht. Hm sng 1 ( x ) khc khng ti mi im trong
ging, ch c th bng 0 ti cc v tr bin (Hnh 8-7).
Khong cch gia hai mc nng lng k tip nhau ng vi cc s nguyn n v n+1 bng:

E n E n 1 E n

2 2

(2n 1)
(8-27)
2ma 2
E n cng ln khi a v m cng nh. iu c ngha l trong phm vi th gii vi m, s lng
t ha cng th hin r rt. C th, nu xt ht electrn m = 9,1.10-31kg, a ~ 5.10-10m th E ~
1eV, khong cch gia En+1 v En tng i ln, nng lng b lng t ha. Nhng nu xt
mt ht c m ~10-26kg chuyn ng trong min a ~ 10cm th khong cch gia cc mc nng
lng E~ 10-20eV kh nh. Trong trng hp ny c th coi nng lng ca ht bin thin lin
tc.
c. Mt xc sut tm ht trong ging:
n
2 2
n ( x ) sin 2
x
a
a

(8-28)

Hnh 8-7. Ht trong ging th nng mt chiu, cao v hn


n
Mt xc sut cc i khi: sin x 1 . Do xc sut tm thy ht ln nht ti:
a
a
x (2m 1)
<a
m = 0,1....
2n
a
V d: Khi n = 1, xc sut tm thy ht im x l ln nht. Khi n = 2 xc sut tm thy
2
3a
a
ht im x v x
l ln nht...
4
4
n
Mt xc sut cc tiu khi: sin x 0 . Do xc sut tm thy ht nh nht ti
a
187

Chng 8: C hc lng t

ma
<a
n
Kt qu c biu din trn hnh 8-7.
x

8. 5. 2. Hiu ng ng ngm
Ta xt ht mang nng lng E, chuyn
ng theo phng x t tri sang phi p vo
hng ro th nng nh hnh 8-8. Theo quan
im ca c hc c in, nu E < Uo ht khng
th vt qua hng ro. Theo quan im ca c
hc lng t ta s thy ht vn c kh nng
xuyn qua hng ro th nng. Hin tng
xuyn qua hng ro th nng nh vy c gi Hnh 8-8. Hng ro th hnh ch nht
l hiu ng ng ngm.
Chng ta s nghin cu trng hp hng ro th nng dng n gin nh hnh 8-8:
0

U U o
0

x0
0xa

(8-29)

xa

Phng trnh Schrodiger i vi cc min nh sau:


Min I:

d 2 1
dx

Min II:

d 2 2
dx

Min III:

d 3
2

k12 1 0

vi k12

2mE

k 22 2 0

vi k 22

2m

( U 0 E)

(8-30)

k12 3 0

dx
Trong min I c c sng ti v sng phn x. Nghim 1 trong min ny c dng:

1 (x) A1eik1x B1e ik1x

(8-31)

S hng th nht ca v phi biu din sng ti truyn t tri sang phi. S hng th hai ca v
phi biu din sng phn x trn mt hng ro th nng, truyn ngc tr li t phi sang tri.
Nghim tng qut trong min II l:

2 ( x ) A 2 e k 2 x B2 e k 2 x

(8-32)

Nghim tng qut trong min III c dng:


3 (x) A3eik1 ( x a ) B3e ik1 ( x a )

(8-33)

S hng th nht ca phng trnh (8-33) biu din sng xuyn qua hng ro v truyn t tri
sang phi. S hng th hai biu din sng phn x t v cc v, nhng sng ny khng c, nn
ta c th cho B3 = 0.

188

Chng 8: C hc lng t

H s truyn qua hng ro D c nh ngha l t s gia s ht xuyn qua c hng


ro v s ht i ti hng ro. V s ht li t l vi bnh phng ca bin sng. Bin sng
ti hng ro l A1 v bin sng xuyn qua hng ro l A3, do ta c
D

A3
A1

2
2

(8-34)

H s phn x R c nh ngha l t s gia s ht phn x v s ht i ti hng ro,


do ta c:
R

B1
A1

2
2

(8-35)

trong B1 l bin sng phn x trn mt hng ro. Do iu kin bo ton s ht, ta phi c
2

A3 B1 A1 , do :
D+R=1
(8-36)
tnh c h s D v R ta phi tnh c cc bin sng. Mun vy ta da vo iu kin
lin tc ca hm sng v o hm ca n ti cc v tr bin (x = 0 v x = a). T cc iu kin
bin:
1 (0) 2 (0)
1 (0) 2 (0)
(8-37)
2 (a ) 3 (a )
2 (a ) 3 (a )
ta rt ra cc h thc sau

A1 B1 A 2 B2

(8-38)

ik1 (A1 B1) k 2 (A 2 B2 )

(8-39)

A 2 e k 2 a B 2 e k 2 a A 3

(8-40)

k 2 (A 2 e k 2 a B2 e k 2 a ) ik 1A 3
T (8-40) v (8-41) ta c th biu th A2, B2 qua A3:
1 in
A2
A 3e k 2 a
2
1 in
B2
A 3e k 2 a
2
Trong :

(8-41)

(8-42)
(8-43)

k
E
n 1
k2
U0 E
V 1 in = 1 in , nn ta suy ra A 2 B2 . Do , c th t B2=0. T (8-38) v (8-39) ta rt
ra c A1 theo A2, sau s dng (8-42) ta tnh c:
1 in i n
k a
A1

A 3 e 2
2 2n

(8-44)

189

Chng 8: C hc lng t

T y ta thu c h s truyn qua:


D

A3
A1

Nu

16n 2

1 n

2 2

2
2

16n 2
2 2

(1 n )

e 2k 2 a

(8-45)

vo c 1 (U0 vo c 10E) th c th vit:


D e 2k 2 a

2a

(8-46)
D exp
2mU 0 E

T (8-46) ta nhn thy rng, ngay khi nng lng E ca ht nh hn th nng ca ro (E<U0) th
D vn lun lun khc khng, ngha l vn c ht xuyn qua ro. Nu D ln, ht xuyn qua ro
nhiu v ngc li, nhng lun khc 0.

hay

V d ht electrn m = 9,1.10-31kg. Nu U0-E ~ 1,3.10-31J, ta c c s ph thuc ca D


vo b rng ca hng ro th nng theo bng sau:
a[m]
D

10-10
0,1

1,5.10-10
0,03

2.10-10
0,008

5.10-10
5.10-7

H s D c gi tr ng k khi a nh, ngha l hiu ng ng ngm ch xy ra r rt trong kch


thc vi m. Hiu ng ng ngm l mt hin tng th hin r tnh cht sng ca vi ht, iu
ny khng th c i vi ht v m.
Hiu ng ng ngm cho php ta gii thch nhiu hin tng gp trong t nhin. V d
hin tng pht electrn lnh, hiu ng phn r ht ...
Hin tng pht electrn lnh: electrn mun thot ra khi kim loi cn c nng
lng thng cng cn, vt qua hng ro th nng Uo, nh vy ta cn phi nung nng kim loi.
Tuy nhin, v c hiu ng ng ngm, nn ngay nhit thng, d E < Uo, vn c kh nng
electrn thot ra ngoi kim loi. Hin tng ny c gi l hin tng pht electrn lnh.
Hin tng phn r cng c gii
thch tng t. Ht nhn nguyn t gm c cc
ht prtn (p) v ntrn (n). Trong ht nhn
cc ht p v n tng tc vi nhau bng lc ht
nhn, cho nn c th xem nh chng nm trong
ging th nng. Ht gm hai ht p v hai ht
n, mc d nng lng ca ht nh hn cao
ro th nhng do hiu ng ng ngm, ht p
v n ca ht vn c th bay ra khi ht nhn, s
hin tng ny gi l hin tng phn r
(hnh 8-9).

190

Hnh 8-9. Hin tng phn r

Chng 8: C hc lng t

8. 5. 3. Dao ng t iu ha lng t
Mt vi ht thc hin dao ng nh iu ha xung quanh v tr cn bng l mt v d v
dao ng t iu ha lng t. Dao ng ca nguyn t trong phn t, dao ng ca cc in
xung quanh nt mng tinh th... u l nhng v d v dao ng t iu ha. Dao ng t iu
ha l mt hin tng rt quan trng ca vt l ni chung v c hc lng t ni ring.
Ta xt vi ht dao ng (mt chiu) trong trng th nng. Trong phn dao ng ta
bit th nng ca dao ng iu ha mt chiu bng:
1
m2 x 2
(8-47)
U kx 2
2
2
trong m l khi lng ca vi ht, l tn s gc ca dao ng. Phng trnh Schrodinger
cho dao ng t iu ha c dng:

2m
m2 x 2
(8-48)
E
0
2
dx 2 2
C hc lng t gii phng trnh (8-48) v tm c biu thc nng lng ca dao ng t
iu ha
d 2

vi n = 0,1,2...
(8-49)
E n n
2

Ta thy nng lng ca dao ng t ch ly nhng gi tr gin on, c ngha rng nng lng ca
dao ng t b lng t ha. Nng lng thp nht ca dao ng t iu ha ng vi n=0:

Eo
2
Nng lng ny c gi l nng lng khng. Nng lng khng lin quan n dao ng
khng ca dao ng t, ngha l khi T = 0K, dao ng t vn dao ng. iu ny c
thc nghim xc nhn trong th nghim tn x tia X. Tia X b tn x l do cc dao ng nguyn
t trong mng tinh th gy ra. Theo c hc c in, khi nhit cng gim, bin dao ng
ca cc nguyn t gim n khng, do s tn x ca nh sng phi bin mt. Nhng thc
nghim chng t, khi nhit gim, cng tn x tin ti mt gi tr gii hn no . iu
c ngha rng, ngay c khi T 0, s tn x nh sng vn xy ra v cc nguyn t trong mng
tinh th vn dao ng, tng ng vi mt nng lng Eo no . Nh vy thc nghim xc
nhn s ng n ca c hc lng t.

S tn ti ca nng lng khng cng ph hp vi h thc bt nh Heisenberg. Thc


vy, nu mc nng lng thp nht ca dao ng t bng 0, nh th c ngha l ht ng yn
v vn tc v ta ca vi ht c xc nh ng thi (u bng 0), iu ny mu thun vi h
thc bt nh. S tn ti ca mc nng lng khng ca dao ng t iu ha l mt trong
nhng biu hin c trng nht ca lng tnh sng-ht ca vi ht.

191

Chng 8: C hc lng t

HNG DN HC CHNG 8
C HC LNG T

I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm c gi thuyt de Broglie v lng tnh sng - ht ca vi ht. T i n biu thc
ca hm sng v phng trnh Schrodinger.
2. Hiu v vn dng c h thc bt nh Heisenberg.
3. Hiu v vn dng phng trnh Schrodinger gii mt s bi ton c hc lng t n gin
nh ht trong ging th, hiu ng ng ngm, dao ng t iu ha lng t.
II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. Lng tnh sng ht ca vi ht
Trn c s lng tnh sng ht ca nh sng, de Broglie m rng ra cho cc vi ht.
Theo gi thuyt ny, mi vi ht t do c nng lng xc nh, ng lng xc nh tng
ng vi sng phng n sc. Lng tnh sng ht ca cc vi ht c biu din bng cc h
thc:
E = h v p = mv = h /.
Ngoi ra, theo thuyt tng i Einstein, mi ht vt cht c khi lng m u mang nng
lng bng
E = mc2
mo
m
trong
1 v2 / c2
mo l khi lng ngh ca ht (khi v = 0).
2. Hm sng
Hm sng ca vi ht t do c dng ca hm sng phng:

o exp Et pr o exp i t k r

trong = h/2 gi l hng s Planck rt gn v k 2 / c gi l s sng.


Hm sng khng nhng m t nhng tnh cht ca h ti mt thi im no , m n cn
xc nh c ng thi ca h nhng thi im tip theo. Hm sng c ngha thng k.
2

l mt xc sut tm thy ht ti mt im no i vi mt trng thi lng t ang


xt. Nh vy, hm sng khng m t mt sng thc, m m t sng xc sut. Do hm sng
phi tha mn ba iu kin: hm sng phi lin tc, hu hn v n tr. iu kin chun ha ca
hm sng l

dV 1
V

192

Chng 8: C hc lng t

3. Nguyn l bt nh Heisenberg
Nguyn l ny thu c t lng tnh sng ht ca vi ht, c biu din qua h thc
di y khi xt v tr x v ng lng p ca vi ht
h
x.p x h hoc x.p x
2
Nu x cng nh (v tr cng xc nh) th px cng ln (ng lng cng bt nh) v ngc
li. Nh vy i vi vi ht, v tr v ng lng khng c xc nh chnh xc ng thi. Do
, trong th gii vi m khi nim qu o khng c ngha. Nu ta bit c v tr x thi
im t, th n thi im t + dt ta ch c th xc nh v tr ht vi mt xc sut no thi. i
vi cc vi ht khi nim qu o c thay th bng khi nim xc sut tm thy ht ti mt v
tr no trng thi lng t ang xt.
Ngoi h thc gia v tr v ng lng, vi ht cn tun theo h thc bt nh cho nng lng
E.t h
ngha ca h thc bt nh gia nng lng v thi gian: nu nng lng ca h mt trng
thi no cng bt nh th thi gian h tn ti trng thi cng ngn v ngc li, nu
nng lng ca h mt trng thi no cng xc nh th thi gian tn ti ca h trng thi
cng di.
4. Phng trnh Schrodinger v ng dng
T biu thc ca hm sng, Schrodiger a ra phng trnh c bn ca c hc lng
t mang tn ng cho vi ht.
2m
i vi vi ht t do:
(r )
E d (r ) 0
2
2m
i vi vi ht trong trng th
(r )
E U( r ) ( r ) 0
2
Cn ch rng cc phng trnh Schrodinger thu c trn c s ca gi thuyt de Broglie,
thuyt lng t ca Planck v thuyt phtn ca Einstein, do cng c coi l cc tin .
H thc bt nh Heisenberg v phng trnh Schrodinger l nhng nguyn l c bn ca c hc
lng t.

ng dng ca phng trnh Schrodinger:


- Phng trnh Schrodinger c p dng gii mt s bi ton n gin ca c hc lng t
nh tm nng lng v hm sng ca vi ht khi lng m trong ging th nng, c b rng a v
thnh cao v hn. Kt qu ta c nng lng ca vi ht trong ging th b lng t ha:

En

2 2
2

n2

2ma
Mi gi tr ca nng lng En tng ng vi mt trng thi lng t
2
n
sin x
a
a
T y ta tm c xc sut tm thy ht ti cc im khc nhau trong ging ng vi mi trng
thi lng t.
n (x)

193

Chng 8: C hc lng t

- Vn dng phng trnh Schrodinger, ta xt chuyn ng ca vi ht qua hng ro th U o. T


pht hin hiu ng ng ngm. l hiu ng mt vi ht c nng lng E < U o vn c xc
sut vt qua c ro th Uo. y l hiu ng thun ty lng t, v trong c hc c in mt
ht c nng lng E < Uo th khng th vt qua c hng ro th nng.
- Mt ng dng na hay gp ca c hc lng t l dao ng t iu ha. l mt vi ht thc
hin cc dao ng nh bc nht quanh v tr cn bng. Chuyn ng nhit ca mng tinh th
cng c biu din di dng tp hp ca cc dao ng t iu ha tuyn tnh. Thay biu thc
th nng U ca dao ng t iu ha vo phng trnh Schrodinger, ta tm c cc mc nng
lng ca dao ng t:

E n n
2

. Eo c gi l
2
nng lng khng. Kt qu ny c thc nghim xc nhn. N ni ln rng cc nguyn t
ca mng tinh th khng bao gi ng yn. Suy rng ra, s vn ng ca vt cht khng bao
gi b tiu dit. l c s khoa hc ca trit hc duy vt bin chng.

Nu n = 0, ta tm c mc nng lng thp nht ca dao ng t

Eo

III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Pht biu gi thuyt de Broglie v lng tnh sng ht ca vi ht.
2. Vit biu thc hm sng cho vi ht v nu ngha ca cc i lng c trong biu thc .
3. Vit phng trnh Schrodinger cho vi ht t do v vi ht chuyn ng trong trng lc th.
Nu ngha cc i lng c trong phng trnh.
4. Hy nu bn cht v ngha thng k ca hm sng. Cc iu kin ca hm sng.
5. Pht biu v nu ngha ca h thc bt nh Heisenberg cho v tr v ng lng.
6. Pht biu v nu ngha ca h thc bt nh cho nng lng.
7. Phn tch ti sao trong c hc lng t khi nim qu o ca vi ht khng cn c ngha.
Khi nim qu o ca vi ht c thay th bng khi nim g ?
8. Hy tm biu thc ca hm sng v nng lng ca vi ht trong ging th nng mt chiu, c
chiu cao v cng.
9. nh ngha dao ng t iu ha lng t. Vit phng trnh Schrodinger v biu thc nng
lng ca dao ng t iu ha. T rt ra biu thc ca nng lng khng, nu ngha
ca biu thc ny.
IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Electrn chuyn ng tng i tnh vi vn tc 2.108m/s. Tm:
1. Bc sng de Broglie ca electrn.
2. ng lng ca electrn.
Bi gii
1. p dng c hc tng i tnh:
194

Chng 8: C hc lng t

h
;m
mv

m 0e
1-

v2

h 1

v2

c2
2,72.10 12 m
m 0e v

c2

2. ng lng ca electrn: p

h
2,44.10 22 kg.m / s

Th d 2: ng nng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir c gi tr vo c 10eV. Dng h thc


bt nh hy nh gi kch thc nh nht ca nguyn t.
Bi gii:
Khi gii cc bi tp vt l phn c hc lng t chng ta s s dng biu thc (8-7)
h
x.p x
2
Gi s kch thc ca nguyn t bng , vy v tr ca electrn theo phng x xc nh

bi: 0 x , ngha l x
2
2

2
T h thc bt nh: p x h
2
p x
Mt khc p x p m p 2m e E , trong E l ng nng.
Vy gi tr nh nht ca kch thc nguyn t: min

2
2me E

1,24.10 10 m

Th d 3: Dng ht c nng lng E xc nh chuyn ng theo phng x t tri sang phi n


gp mt hng ro th nng xc nh bi:

x0
0
U
U 0 (U 0 E ) x 0
Xc nh h s phn x v h s truyn qua hng ro th i vi electrn .
Bi gii:
Gii phng trnh Schrodinger hai min I v II.
Trong min I hm sng 1 x tho mn:
d 2 1

2m e

E1 0
dx 2
2
2m e
t
E k 2 , nghim ca phng trnh:
2

1 x Aeikx Be ikx

S hng Aeikx m t sng truyn t tri sang phi (sng ti), s hng Be-ikx m t sng truyn t
phi sang tri (sng phn x trong min I).

195

Chng 8: C hc lng t

Trong min II, hm sng 2 x tho mn:


t

2m e
2

E U 0 k12 ,

d 2 2
dx 2

2m e
2

E U 0 2 0

phng trnh c nghim tng qut: 2 Ce ik1x De ik1x . Trong

min II ch c sng truyn t tri sang phi, khng c sng phn x t v cng v nn D = 0.

Vy 2 Ce ik1x .
tm A, B, C ta vit iu kin lin tc ca hm sng v ca o hm cp 1 ca hm sng:
d1 0 d 2 0
1 0 2 0,

dx
dx
AB k
B k k1
Ta c: A B C, k A B k1C

A B k1 A k k1
2

k k1

H s phn x: R

2
k k1
A
B

1 1
k

k1

1
k

2
U

1 1 0

U0

1 1

k k1
4kk1

H s truyn qua: D 1 R 1
k k1 2
k k1

Bi tp t gii
1. Tm khi lng ca cc lng t sau:
a. nh sng ( = 0,7m)
b. Tia Rngen ( = 0,25 )
c. Tia Gamma ( = 0,0124 )
2. Tm nng lng, khi lng v ng lng ca phtn c bc sng = 0,016
3. Electrn phi c vn tc bng bao nhiu ng nng ca n bng nng lng ca phtn c
bc sng = 5200A0.
4. Tm vn tc ca electrn ng lng ca n bng ng lng ca phtn c bc sng
= 5200A0.
5. Tm bc sng de Broglie ca
a. Electron c vn tc 108 cm/s
b. Mt qu cu c khi lng m = 1g v vn tc 1 cm/s
6. So snh t s gia cc bc sng de Broglie ca electron v qu cu khi lng 1g c cng
vn tc.
7. Tm bc sng ca phtn c nng lng bng 1eV
8. Vn tc ca electron v prtn bng 106 m/s. Xc nh bc sng de Broglie ca chng.
(mp=1,67.10-27 kg)
9. Bc x gm cc phtn c nng lng 6,4.10-19J. Tm tn s dao ng v bc sng trong
chn khng ca bc sng .
196

Chng 8: C hc lng t

10. Vn tc lan truyn ca tia tm c tn s = 7,5.1014 Hz trong nc bng v = 2,23.108 m/s.


Tm bin thin tn s v bin thin bc sng ca tia khi chuyn t nc vo chn
khng.
11. Tm s phtn c trong bc x xanh bc sng 520 nm trong chn khng. Cho bit nng
lng ca chm bc x bng 10-3 J.
12. Tm ng lng v bc sng ca electrn chuyn ng vi vn tc v 0,6c .
13. Tm bc sng de Broglie ca:
a. Electrn c tng tc bi hiu in th 1V, 100V, 1000V.
b. Electrn ang chuyn ng tng i tnh vi vn tc 108m/s.
14. Tm s ph thuc gia bc sng de Broglie ca ht tng i tnh v hiu in th tng tc
U. Khi lng v in tch ca ht l m v e.
15. Xc nh bc sng de Broglie ca electrn c ng nng
a. E = 100eV.
b. E= 3MeV
16. Mt ht mang in c gia tc bi hiu in th U = 200V, c bc sng de Broglie =
0,0202.10-8m v in tch v tr s bng in tch ca electrn. Tm khi lng ca ht .
17. Electrn c bc sng de Broglie = 6.10-10m. Tm vn tc chuyn ng ca electrn.
18. Electrn khng vn tc ban u c gia tc bi mt hiu in th U. Tnh U bit rng sau
khi gia tc ht chuyn ng ng vi bc sng de Broglie 10-10m.
19. Ht chuyn ng trong mt t trng u theo mt qu o trn c bn knh r = 0,83 cm.
Cm ng t B = 0,025T. Tm bc sng de Broglie ca ht .
20. Ht electron c vn tc ban u bng khng c gia tc bi mt hiu in th U. Tm bc
sng de Broglie ca ht sau khi c gia tc trong hai trng hp U = 51 V v U = 510 kV.
21. Electrn c ng nng E = 15eV, chuyn ng trong mt git kim loi kch thc d = 106
m. Xc nh bt nh v vn tc (ra %) ca ht .
22. Ht vi m c bt nh v ng lng bng 1% ng lng ca n. Xc nh t s gia
bc sng de Broglie v bt nh v to ca ht.
23. Ht vi m c bt nh v v tr cho bi x / 2 , vi l bc sng de Broglie ca
ht. Tm bt nh v vn tc ca ht .
24. Dng h thc bt nh Heisenberg hy nh gi ng nng nh nht Emin ca electron
chuyn ng trong min c kch thc l c 0,1 nm.
25. V tr ca mt qu cu khi lng 2g c xc nh vi bt nh bng 2m. Trong
trng hp ny, bt nh v vn tc bng bao nhiu ? Ht c th tun theo c hc c in
khng ?
26. c lng bt nh ca ng lng electron b giam trong trng th mt chiu
x0
U ( x)
eEx x 0

trong trng hp nng lng ca ht c gi tr cc tiu kh d. Cho cng in trng E =


3.107V/cm.

197

Chng 8: C hc lng t

27. Mt vi ht c khi lng m chuyn ng trong trng th c dng U k x . Da vo h


thc bt nh Heisenberg c lng kch thc di ca min trong vi ht tn ti vi nng
lng cc tiu kh d.
28. Da vo h thc bt nh cho nng lng c lng rng ca mc nng lng electron
trong nguyn t hyr trng thi
a. C bn (n = 1)
b. Kch thch vi thi gian sng t ~ 10-8s
29. Vit phng trnh Schroedinger cho ht chuyn ng di tc dng ca lc
F=-kx.
30. Vit phng trnh Schroedinger cho electron chuyn ng trong trng Coulomb gy bi
ht nhn ng yn mang in tch Ze.
31. Vit phng trnh Schrodinger i vi ht vi mn chuyn ng mt chiu trong trng th
kx 2
U
2

32. Tm hm sng v mc nng lng ca


cc trng thi dng ca ht khi lng m
nm trong ging th mt chiu c dng
vung gc vi cc thnh cao v hn, b
rng 2a (hnh v)

33. Ht electron nm trong ging th su v cng, c b rng l a. Tm hiu nh nht gia hai
mc nng lng k st nhau ra n v eV trong hai trng hp a=10cm, a=10. C nhn xt g
v kt qu thu c ?
34. Ht nm trng thi c bn (n = 1) trong ging th mt chiu b rng a, c cc thnh tuyt
i khng thm (0 < x < a). Tm xc sut tn ti ca ht trong cc min: 0 < x < a/3 (min I) v
a/3 < x < 2a/3 (min II).
35. Mt vi ht chuyn ng trong ging th nng mt chiu c b rng a v thnh cao v cng:
0
0 xa
U ( x)

x 0, x a

Ht trng thi lng t n = 2. Tm nhng v tr x ng vi cc i v cc tiu ca xc


sut tm thy ht.
Ht trng thi lng t n = 2. Tm xc sut ht nm trong khong a/3<x<2a/3
Tm v tr x ti xc sut tm thy ht cc trng thi n = 1 v n = 2 bng nhau.
36. Mt chm electron mang nng lng E = 25 eV gp trn ng i mt hng ro th c
cao Uo= 9eV. Xc nh h s phn x R v h s truyn qua D ca sng de Broglie qua hng ro
ny.

198

Chng 8: C hc lng t

37. Mt chm electron mang nng lng E = 25 eV gp trn ng i mt hng ro th c


cao U= 26eV. Xc nh xc sut t i tm thy ht electron trong cc min II ti khong cch
x = 1 tnh t gii hn ca cc min I, II (ngha l t s gia mt xc sut tn ti electron ti
im x = 1 v mt xc sut tn ti electron gii hn min vi x=0).

199

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

CHNG 9
VT L NGUYN T
Nm 1911 da trn kt qu th nghim v s tn x ca cc ht qua l kim loi mng,
Rutherford a ra mu hnh tinh nguyn t. Theo mu ny, nguyn t gm mt ht nhn
mang gn nh ton b khi lng nguyn t nm tm, xoay quanh c cc electrn chuyn
ng. Nhng theo thuyt in t c in, khi electrn chuyn ng c gia tc xung quanh ht
nhn tt yu s phi bc x nng lng v cui cng s ri vo ht nhn. Nh vy nguyn t s
khng tn ti. l mt kh khn m mu nguyn t ca Rutherford gp phi. Thm vo ,
khi nghin cu quang ph pht sng ca nguyn t Hir, ngi ta thu c quang ph vch.
Cc s kin vt l c in khng th gii thch c.
Da trn nhng thnh cng ca l thuyt lng t ca Planck v Einstein, nm 1913
Bohr ra mt l thuyt mi v cu trc nguyn t, khc phc nhng mu thun ca mu
hnh tinh nguyn t ca Rutherford. Tuy nhin, bn cnh nhng thnh cng r rt, thuyt Bohr
cng bc l nhng thiu st v hn ch khng sao khc phc ni. Thuyt Bohr c vn dng
thnh cng gii thch qui lut ca quang ph nguyn t Hir, nhng nhiu c trng quan
trng khc ca ph v i vi nhng nguyn t c nhiu electrn th l thuyt ca Bohr khng
th gii quyt c. chnh l tin cho s ra i ca c hc lng t, nn tng ca mt l
thuyt hon ton mi c kh nng gii quyt ng n v chnh xc mi hin tng v quy lut
ca th gii vi m v Bohr tr thnh mt trong nhng ngi t nn mng cho mn c
hc mi khi ng bt nhp cu gia hai th gii vt l: th gii v m v th gii vi m. Trong
chng ny chng ta s vn dng nhng kt qu ca c hc lng t nghin cu ph v c
tnh ca cc nguyn t.

9. 1. NGUYN T HIR
9. 1. 1. Chuyn ng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir
Nguyn t Hir gm c ht nhn mang in tch +e v mt electrn mang in tch -e. Ht
nhn c coi l ng yn, cn electrn quay xung quanh. Ta ly ht nhn lm gc O ca h to
v r l khong cch t electrn n ht nhn (hnh 9-1). Tng tc gia ht nhn v electrn
l tng tc Coulomb, Th nng tng tc l:

200

e2
4 o r

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Do phng trnh Schrodinger c dng:

2m e
e 2
E
0
(9-1)
4 o r
2
V bi ton c tnh i xng cu, thun tin
ta gii n trong h to cu vi ba bin l r,
, . Hm sng trong h ta cu s l
r, , . Bin i t h to cc

sang h to cu (hnh 9-1) ta c:

Hnh 9-1

x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos . Ton t Laplace trong h to cu:

1 2
1


1
2
r

sin

r 2 sin 2 2
r 2 r r r 2 sin

(9-2)

Thay (9-2) vo (9-1) ta c phng trnh Schrodinger trong to cu:


1 2
1


1
2 2m e

sin

r r 2 sin
r 2 sin 2 2
r 2 r
2

E e
0

4 o r

(9-3)

Phng trnh ny c gii bng phng php phn li bin s. Ta t :


(r, , ) R (r)Y(, )
trong hm xuyn tm R(r) ch ph thuc ln ca r, cn hm Y(,) ph thuc vo cc gc
,. Gii phng trnh Schrodinger ngi ta nhn c biu thc ca nng lng v hm sng
m t trng thi chuyn ng ca electron trong nguyn t (gi l orbital nguyn t).
Biu thc nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t Hir:
En

1
2

mee 4
2 2

n 2(4 o )

Rh

(9-4)

n2

R l hng s Rydberg (Rittbe), R = 3,27.1015 s-1, c thc nghim kim chng, n c gi tr


nguyn dng, c gi l s lng t chnh.
Hm xuyn tm R(r) = Rn ph thuc hai s lng t n, . S nguyn c gi l s
lng t orbital. Hm Y(,) ph thuc vo hai s lng t v m. S nguyn m c gi l
s lng t t. Nh vy hm sng ca electrn c dng :
n, , m (r,,) = Rn (r)Y m(,)
(9-5)
trong

s lng t chnh n ly cc gi tr n = 1, 2, 3...

s lng t orbital ly cc gi tr = 0, 1, 2,..., n-1


s lng t t m ly cc gi tr m = 0, 1, 2,..., .
Dng ca Rn v Y m rt phc tp. Di y, ta nu mt s dng c th ca cc hm :

Y0,0

Y1,1

1
4

3
sin e i
8

Y1,0

3
cos
4

Y1,1

3
sin e i
8

201

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

R1,0 2a 3 / 2e r / a
trong

4 o 2
mee

1
r
R 2,0 a 3 / 2 (2 )e r / 2a ....
8
a

0,53.10 10 m , a bng bn knh Bohr.

T cc kt qu trn ta thu c mt s kt lun sau y.

9. 1. 2. Cc kt lun
1. Nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir ch ph thuc vo s nguyn n (cng thc
9-4). ng vi mi s nguyn n c mt mc nng lng, nh vy nng lng bin thin gin
on, ta ni nng lng b lng t ho. En lun m, khi n E 0 . Nng lng tng theo
n.
Mc nng lng thp nht E1 ng vi n = 1 c gi l mc nng lng c bn. Cc
mc nng lng ln lt tng theo th t E2 < E3 < E4 ... S cc mc nng lng trong
nguyn t hir c biu din trong hnh 9-2. Cng ln cao, cc mc nng lng cng xch li
v khi n nng lng bin thin lin tc. Trong vt l nguyn t ngi ta k hiu E 1: mc K,
E2 : mc L, E3 : mc M...
2. Nng lng ion ho ca nguyn t Hir
l nng lng cn thit electrn bt ra khi nguyn t, c ngha l electrn s
chuyn t mc nng lng c bn E1 sang mc nng lng E:
E E E1 0 (Rh) 13,5eV
Gi tr ny cng ph hp vi thc nghim.
3. Gii thch cu to vch ca quang ph Hir
Khi khng c kch thch bn ngoi electrn bao gi cng trng thi c bn (ng vi
mc E1). Di tc dng ca kch thch, electrn nhn nng lng chuyn ln trng thi kch
thch ng vi mc nng lng En cao hn. Electrn ch trng thi ny trong thi gian rt ngn
(~10-8s), sau tr v mc nng lng En thp hn. Trong qu trnh chuyn mc t En En
electrn bc x nng lng di dng sng in t, ngha l pht ra phtn nng lng h .
Theo nh lut bo ton nng lng:
Rh Rh
h nn ' E n E n '

n 2 n '2

(9-6)

hay

1
1
nn ' R

2
n2
n'
y chnh l tn s ca vch quang ph c pht ra.
Khi n=1 ta c:
1
1

n1 R
2
n2
1

202

(9-7)

n = 2,3,4...

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Cc vch quang ph tun theo cng thc


ny hp thnh mt dy c bc sng trong
vng t ngoi, gi l dy Lyman.
Khi n= 2, n = 3,4,5... ta c cc vch nm
trong dy Balmer, c bc sng trong vng
nhn thy:

E
E6
E5
E4
E1

E3
E1

1
1
n 2 R

2
n2
2
Khi n= 3, n = 4,5,6... ta c cc vch nm
trong dy Paschen, c bc sng trong
vng hng ngoi:

E1

E2
E1

1
1

n 3 R
2
E1
n2
3
a
Tip n l dy Bracket, Pfund trong vng
hng ngoi. S cc dy c cho trn Hnh 9-2. S ph hir: a. Dy Lyman,
b. Dy Balmer, c. Dy Paschen
hnh 9-2.
4. Trng thi lng t ca electrn
Trng thi ca electrn c m t bi hm sng:
nm (r, , ) R n (r)Ym (, )
trong

(9-8)

n: s lng t chnh, n = 1, 2...


: s lng t orbital, = 0, 1, 2...(n-1).
m: s lng t t, m = 0, 1,2,..., .

Hm sng ph thuc vo cc s lng t n, , m. Do , nu t nht mt trong ba ch s n, , m


khc nhau ta c mt trng thi lng t khc. Ta thy ng vi mi gi tr ca n, c n gi tr
khc nhau v ng vi mi gi tr ca ta c 2 +1 gi tr khc nhau ca m, do vi mi gi
tr ca n ta c s trng thi lng t bng:
n 1

(2 1)

1 (2n 1) n n 2

(9-9)

Nh vy ng vi mt s lng t n, tc l vi mi mc nng lng En,, ta c n2 trng thi


lng t nm khc nhau.
V d:
n
1

m
0

S trng thi
100
1

-1

211

210

211

200

203

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Nng lng E1 (mc nng lng thp nht) c mt trng thi lng t. Trng thi lng t
mc E1 c gi l trng thi c bn. En c n2 trng thi lng t, ta ni En suy bin bc n2. Cc
trng thi lng t cc mc nng lng ln hn E1 c gi l trng thi kch thch.
Trng thi lng t c k hiu theo cc s lng t, c th bng nx, n l s lng t
chnh, cn x ty thuc vo s lng t orbital nh sau:
0
1
2
3

x
s
p
d
f
V d: trng thi 2s l trng thi c n = 2 v = 0.
e. Xc sut tm electrn trong th tch dV mt trng thi no
V nm
cu l:

l mt xc sut, nn xc sut tn ti ca electrn trong th tch dV ta


2

nm dV R n Ym r 2 dr sin d d

(9-10)

trong phn R 2n r 2 dr ch ph thuc khong cch r, biu din xc sut tm electrn ti mt


2

im cch ht nhn mt khong r, cn Ym sin dd biu din xc sut tm electrn theo


cc gc (,).
Ta xt trng thi c bn (n = 1). Khi n = 1, = 0, hm xuyn tm trng thi c bn l
R1,0. Xc sut cn tm w1,0 bng

w1,0 R12,0 r 2 4a 3e 2r / a r 2
Hnh 9-3 biu din s ph thuc ca w1,0 theo r. tm bn knh r ng vi xc sut cc i ta
ly o hm ca w1,0 theo r, ri cho o hm bng 0. Kt qu ta tm c w1,0 c cc tr ti r=0
v r = a. Gi tr r = 0 b loi, v ht electrn khng th ri vo ht nhn. Vy xc sut cc i
ng vi bn knh r = a = 0,53.10-10 m. Khong cch ny ng bng bn knh ca nguyn t
hir theo quan nim c in. T kt qu trn ta i n kt lun: electrn trong nguyn t khng
chuyn ng theo mt qu o nht nh m bao quanh ht nhn nh m my, m my ny
dy c nht khong cch ng vi xc sut cc i. Kt qu ny ph hp vi lng tnh sng
ht ca vi ht.
Electrn cng phn b theo gc. trng thi s ( =0, m = 0) xc sut tm thy electrn:
2
1
w m w 00 Y0,0
4
khng ph thuc gc, nh vy phn b c tnh i xng cu. Hnh 9-4 biu din phn b xc
sut ph thuc gc ng vi cc trng thi s, p.

204

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Hnh 9-3. S ph thuc r ca xc sut tm


ht trng thi c bn

Hnh 9-4. Phn b electrn theo gc i vi


trng thi s ( =0) v p ( =1)

9. 2. NGUYN T KIM LOI KIM


9. 2. 1. Nng lng ca electrn ha tr trong nguyn t kim loi kim
Cc nguyn t kim loi kim (Li, Na, K,...) ha tr mt. Trong mu v nguyn t, lp
ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t ny ch c mt electrn ha tr, lin kt yu vi ht nhn. Nu
kim loi kim c Z electrn th (Z-1) electrn cc lp trong v ht nhn to thnh li nguyn
t c in tch +e, cn electrn ha tr in tch -e chuyn ng trong trng Coulomb gy bi
li nguyn t, ging nh chuyn ng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir. Do cc tnh cht
ha hc ca kim loi kim v c bn ging tnh cht ca nguyn t hir.

Hnh 9-5. Mu v nguyn t ca cc kim loi kim


Cc nguyn t kim loi kim l nhng nguyn t ng dng hir, tuy nhin khng
ging hon ton. Trong nguyn t kim loi kim, ngoi nng lng tng tc gia ht nhn v
electrn ha tr, cn c nng lng ph gy ra bi tng tc gia electrn ha tr vi cc
electrn khc. Do nng lng ca electrn ha tr trong nguyn t kim loi kim c khc
cht t so vi nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir. Khi tnh thm tng tc ny, c
hc lng t a ra biu thc nng lng ca electrn ha tr i vi kim loi kim:
E n

mee4

(n ) 2 2(4 o ) 2 2

(9-11)

205

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

trong l s hiu chnh ph thuc vo s lng t orbital . S hiu chnh ny c gi tr


khc nhau ng vi cc trng thi khc nhau. Bng 1 s cho cc gi tr ca s hiu chnh cho mt
s nguyn t kim loi kim cc trng thi khc nhau.
Bng 1
Nguyn t
kim loi kim
Li
Na
K
Rb
Cs

Z
3
11
19
37
55

-0,412
-1,373
-2,230
-3,195
-4,131

-0,041
-0,883
-1,776
-2,711
-3,649

-0,002
-0.010
-0,146
-1,233
-2,448

-0,000
-0,001
-0,007
-0,012
-0,022

Nh vy, nng lng ca electrn ha tr ca kim loi kim ph thuc vo s lng t chnh n
v s lng t orbital . S ph thuc ca mc nng lng vo l s khc bit gia nguyn
t kim loi kim v nguyn t hir. Trong Vt l nguyn t mc nng lng c k hiu bng
nX, n l s lng t chnh, cn X ty thuc vo s lng t nh sau:
=

X=

Bng 2

Trng thi

Mc nng lng

Lp

1s

1S

2s

2S

2p

2P

3s

3S

3p

3P

3d

3D

V d: mc 2D l mc nng lng ng vi n = 2, = 2. Bng 2 a ra cc mc nng lng cho


cc lp K, L, M.
9. 2. 2. Quang ph ca nguyn t kim loi kim
Tng t nh nguyn t hir, khi c kch thch bn ngoi, electrn ha tr chuyn t
trng thi ng vi mc nng lng thp ln trng thi ng vi mc nng lng cao hn. Nhng
electrn trng thi kch thch ny khng lu (10-8s), n li chuyn v trng thi ng vi mc
nng lng thp hn v pht ra phtn c nng lng h. Vic chuyn mc nng lng phi
tun theo qui tc la chn:
1

206

(9-12)

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

V d, nguyn t Li gm 3 electrn: 2
electrn gn ht nhn chim mc
nng lng 1S, cn electrn ha tr
khi cha b kch thch chim mc
nng lng 2S (n = 2, = 0). l
mc thp nht ca n.
Theo qui tc la chn, electrn
ho tr mc cao chuyn v mc:
- 2S ( = 0), th mc cao hn ch c
th l mc nP ( = 1, n = 2,3,4...)
- 2P ( = 1), th mc cao hn ch c
th l mc nS ( = 0, n = 3,4...) hay
mc nD ( =2, n = 3,4...)
Tn s ca bc x in t pht ra tun
theo cng thc:
h = 2S nP
cc vch ny to thnh dy chnh
h = 2P nS
cc vch ny to thnh dy ph II
h = 2P nD
cc vch ny to thnh dy ph I
h = 3D nF
cc vch ny to thnh dy c bn

4F
4D
4P
3D
4S
3P
3S

2P
P
PP
P
2S

a
Hnh 9-6. S quang ph ca Li
a. Dy chnh
c. Dy ph I

b. Dy ph II
d. Dy c bn

c kt qu ny c tm thy t trc bng thc nghim. T l thuyt ngi ta cn tm thy


dy h = 3D nP v sau c thc nghim xc nhn. S cc vch quang ph ca Li c
biu din trn hnh 9-6.
9. 3. MMEN NG LNG V MMEN T CA ELECTRN
9. 3. 1. Mmen ng lng orbital (mmen ng lng qu o)
Tng t nh trong c hc c in, electrn chuyn ng quanh ht nhn nn c mmen
ng lng L . Nhng v electrn quay quanh ht nhn khng theo qu o xc nh, do
mi trng thi vect L khng c hng xc nh. Tuy nhin, vect mmen ng lng li c
gi tr xc nh. C hc lng t chng minh rng gi tr ca n bng

L ( 1)

(9-13)

trong c gi l s lng t orbital (cn gi l s lng t phng v) ( = 0,1,2,...,n-1).


Nh vy s lng t orbital lin quan n gi tr mmen ng lng orbital.

207

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

C hc lng t cn chng minh rng hnh chiu ca mmen ng lng orbital L ln


mt phng z bt k lun c xc nh theo h thc:
(9-14)
L z m
trong m l s nguyn gi l s lng t t, c cc tr s m 0,1,2,3,..., , ngha l vi
mi tr s cho trc ca c 2 + 1 tr s ca m.

3 kh nng nh hng ca L

5 kh nng nh hng ca L

Hnh 9-7. S lng t ho khng gian ca L .


V d: Khi = 1, m = 0, 1 th L 2 v L c 3 s nh hng sao cho hnh chiu ca n
0
1
1
trn z (k hiu Lm
z ) c cc gi tr: L z 0 , L z , L z (hnh 9-7). Khi = 2, m = 0, 1,

2 th L =

6 v L c 5 s nh hng sao cho hnh chiu ca n trn z c cc gi tr:

2
2
L0z 0 , L1z , L1
z , L z 2 , L z 2 (hnh 9-7).

9. 3. 2. Mmen t
Electrn quay quanh ht nhn to thnh mt
dng in i, c chiu ngc vi chiu chuyn ng ca
electrn. Dng in ny c mmen t iS , trong

S l vect din tch. Theo c hc c in, electrn


chuyn ng trn ng trn bn knh r vi tn s f, ta
c cng dng in i ef v ln ca mmen t
s bng
iS efr 2
Mmen ng lng:

Hnh 9-8. M hnh nguyn t


c in

L = mevr = mer2 = me2fr2.


Do ta thy mmen t t l vi mmen ng lng. Electrn mang in tch m, s dng qui
tc bn tay phi ta thy vect mmen ng lng v vect mmen t cng phng vung gc
vi mt phng qu o nhng ngc chiu nhau, do :

208

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

e
L
2m e

(9-15)

Tnh ton theo c hc lng t ta cng nhn c biu thc (9-15). V L khng c hng xc
nh, do cng khng c hng xc nh. Hnh chiu ca mmen t ln phng z bt k
bng:
z

e
Lz
2m e

(9-16)

Thay (9-14) vo (9-16) ta c:


z m

e
m B
2m e

(9-17)

vi B
10 23 Am 2 gi l manhtn Bohr.
2m
e

Nh vy: Hnh chiu mmen t ca electrn quay quanh ht nhn ln mt phng z bt k bao
gi cng bng s nguyn ln manhtn Bohr, ngha l b lng t ha. Thng ngi ta chn
phng z bt k l phng ca t trng ngoi B , do s nguyn m c gi l s lng t
t.
C hc lng t cng chng minh c rng khi electrn chuyn trng thi th s bin
i ca m phi tun theo qui tc la chn:
(9-18)
m 0, 1
Hin tng lng t ha mmen t c xc nhn trong th nghim v hin tng Zeeman m
chng ta s xt di y.
9. 3. 3. Hin tng Zeeman
Th nghim: t ngun kh hir pht sng vo
gia hai cc ca nam chm in (hnh 9-9). Nu quan
st cc bc x pht ra theo phng vung gc vi vect
t trng B th thy mi vch quang ph ca nguyn
t hir b tch thnh ba vch st nhau. Hin tng tch
vch quang ph khi nguyn t pht sng t trong t
trng c gi l hin tng Zeeman.
Hin tng Zeeman c gii thch nh sau: V
electrn c mmen t nn khi nguyn t hir c
t trong t trng B , mmen t c khuynh hng sp
xp theo phng song song vi B do electrn c Hnh 9-9. Hiu ng Zeeman
thm nng lng ph:

209

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

E B

(9-19)

Chn phng z l phng ca t trng B , ta c

E z B m B B
Nh vy khi nguyn t hir t trong t trng, nng lng E ca electrn cn ph thuc vo
s lng t t m:
(9-20)
E' E m B B
trong E l nng lng ca electrn khi nguyn t hir khng t trong t trng. Nu
electrn dch chuyn t trng thi ng vi nng lng E '2 sang trng thi ng vi nng lng

E1' thp hn th n s pht ra bc x in t. Tn s vch quang ph bng:

'

E '2 E1' E 2 E1 (m 2 m1 ) B B

h
h
h

(9-21)

E 2 E1
l tn s ca vch quang ph hir khi nguyn t hir khng
h
t trong t trng, do :
(m m1 ) B B
(9-22)
' 2
h
Theo qui tc la chn i vi s lng t m: m 0, 1, ta thy tn s ' c th c ba gi tr:

S hng th nht

BB

'

BB

h

(9-23)

Ngha l mt vch quang ph (khi khng c t trng) c tch thnh ba vch quang ph (khi
c t trng), trong vch gia trng vi vch c.
9. 4. SPIN CA ELECTRN
9. 4. 1. S tn ti spin ca electrn
L thuyt c hc lng t gii quyt kh trn vn bi ton cu trc nguyn t hir
nh trnh by trn. Trng thi lng t ca electrn c m t bi ba s lng t n, , m.
Tuy nhin c nhiu s kin thc nghim khc chng t vic m t trng thi lng t nh trn
l cha . y chng ta xt hai hin tng: s tch vch quang ph ca kim loi kim v th
nghim Einstein de Haas.
1. S tch vch quang ph kim loi kim:
Nh c nhng my quang ph c nng sut phn gii cao, ngi ta pht hin thy cc
vch quang ph khng phi l vch n m l vch gm rt nhiu vch nh nt hp thnh. V
d vch vng ca nguyn t Na c cu to bi hai vch st nhau c bc sng 5890 v
5896 . Vch nh vy c gi l vch kp i. Theo hiu ng Zeeman, s tch mt vch
210

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

thnh ba vch ch xy ra khi c t trng ngoi, cn vch kp i trong quang ph kim loi
kim quan st thy ngay c khi khng c t trng ngoi. S tch vch nh vy chng t rng
mc nng lng ca nguyn t kim loi kim khng ch ph thuc vo hai s lng t n v ,
m cn ph thuc vo mt i lng no na lm thay i cht t nng lng ca mc.
i lng ny c ln rt nh. C th on nhn rng electrn phi c thm mt bc t do
na nh hng n qu trnh bc x. Nu k hiu s lng t tng ng vi bc t do ny l s,
gi l spin, th mc nng lng s phi ph thuc vo ba s lng t n, , s.
2. Th nghim Einstein v de Haas
Einstein v de Haas lm th nghim sau. Treo mt thanh st t vo mt si dy thch anh.
Thanh st s c t ha nh dng in chy qua cun dy bao quanh thanh (hnh 8-10). Khi
cha c dng in chy trong cun dy, cc vect mmen t ca cc nguyn t st t c
nh hng mt cch ngu nhin, do tc dng t ca chng b trit tiu tt c mi im bn
ngoi thanh st. Khi c dng in chy qua cun dy, cc vect mmen t nguyn t s sp xp
thng hng theo hng ca t trng ngoi lm cho cc mmen ng lng nguyn t cng xp
thng hng nhng theo hng ngc li. V thanh st c c lp vi bn ngoi (h kn) nn
mmen ng lng c bo ton v c thanh st phi quay i. Nu dng
in thay i, mmen t cng thay i, do mmen
ng lng L cng thay i. Dy treo s b xon li. o
gc xon ny ta c th xc nh c L v kim nghim
t s / L. i vi electrn t s ny phi m v in tch
ca electrn l e. Thc nghim xc nhn, s t ha ca
st t gy bi chuyn ng ca electrn. Nhng th
nghim li cho kt qu ca t s / L khng bng e/2me
nh cng thc (9-15) m bng e/ me. Nu tha nhn s
t ha cht st t khng phi do chuyn ng qu o
ca electrn m do spin electron th ngi ta nhn c
t s / L phi bng e/me, ph hp vi kt qu thc
nghim.

Hnh 9-10. Th nghim Einsteinde Haas

T cc kt qu thc nghim trn, ngi ta i n kt lun l ngoi chuyn ng quanh


ht nhn, electrn cn tham gia chuyn ng ring lin quan ti s vn ng ni ti ca
electrn, chuyn ng ny c c trng bi mmen c ring, gi l spin, k hiu S . C hc
lng t chng minh rng, tng t nh mmen ng lng orbital L , mmen spin S cng
ly nhng gi tr gin on:

S s(s 1)
trong s =

(9-24)

1
3
.
, gi l s lng t spin, do S =
2
2

211

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Ta thy cng thc (9-24) c dng ging cng


thc (9-13). Ch khc l spin c mt gi tr duy
nht, trong khi mmen ng lng qu o c
th nhn nhiu gi tr khc nhau. V s lng t
spin bng 1/2 nn thng gi tt spin ca
electrn bng 1/2 hoc electrn c spin bn
nguyn. Hnh chiu ca mmen spin S theo
phng z bt k bng :
Hnh 9-11. S lng t ha

(9-25)
Sz m s
khng gian ca spin
2
trong ms gi l s lng t t ring (hay s lng t hnh chiu spin), n ch c hai gi tr
1/2. Hnh 9-11 trnh by hai s nh hng ca mmen spin. Ch rng spin l mt khi nim
thun ty lng t, trong trng hp c in n hon ton khng c.
ng vi mmen ng lng orbital L , electrn c mmen t orbital . Tng t, ng vi
mmen c ring spin S , electrn c mmen t ring s . Theo th nghim Einstein-de Haas:
e
s
S
me
v hnh chiu ca mmen t ring trn trc z :
e
e
sz
Sz
B
me
2m e

(9-26)

9. 4. 2. Trng thi v nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t


Do c mmen spin nn mmen ng lng ton phn J ca electrn bng:

J LS

(9-27)

C hc lng t chng minh c gi tr ca J bng:

j( j 1)

(9-28)

trong j l s lng t ton phn c xc nh bi:

1
2

(9-29)

Do c xt n spin nn trng thi lng t ca electrn ph thuc vo bn s lng t:


n, , m, ms hay n, , m, j. Hai trng thi lng t c coi l khc nhau, nu t nht mt trong
bn s lng t n, , m, ms khc nhau. Trn y ta tnh c: ng vi mi s lng t chnh
c n2 trng thi lng t khc nhau. Nu k n spin th do ms c 2 gi tr : 1/2 nn ng vi s
lng t chnh n , c 2n2 trng thi lng t khc nhau:
n 1

2 (2 1) 2n 2
0

(9-30)

S c mt mmen t spin ca electrn cho php gii thch vch kp i trong quang ph
ca kim loi kim. Cc electrn chuyn ng quanh ht nhn to ra mt t trng c trng bi
mmen t orbital ca cc electrn. Mmen t spin ca electrn tng tc vi t trng ,
212

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

tng tc ny c gi l tng tc spin- orbital. Do tng tc ny, s c mt nng lng ph


b sung vo biu thc nng lng ca electrn. Nng lng ph ny ph thuc vo s nh
hng ca mmen t spin v nh vy nng lng cn ph thuc vo s lng t ton phn j.
Ni cch khc, nng lng ton phn ca electrn ph thuc vo ba s lng t n, , v j: En j.
T (9-29) ta nhn thy mi mc nng lng xc nh tch thnh hai mc j = -1/2 v j = +1/2,
tr mc S, ch c mt mc, v khi bng 0. Khong cch gia hai mc nng lng ny rt
nh. Cu trc nh vy gi l cu trc t vi ca cc mc nng lng.
Trong vt l nguyn t, trng thi ca electrn c k hiu bng nx j, mc nng lng
ca electrn k hiu bng n 2 X j , trong n l s lng t chnh, X = S, P, D, F... ty thuc =
0, 1, 2, 3,... Ch s 2 pha trn bn tri ch X ch cu to bi kp ca mc nng lng. Bng 3
nu cc trng thi lng t v mc nng lng kh d ca electrn ha tr trong nguyn t hir
v kim loi kim.
Bng 3
n
1
2

0
0
1

0
1
2

j
1/2
1/2
1/2
3/2
1/2
1/2
3/2
3/2
5/2

Trng thi ca electrn ha tr


1s1/2
2s1/2
2p1/2
2p3/2
3s1/2
3p1/2
3p3/2
3d3/2
3d5/2

Mc nng lng
1 2S1/2
2 2S1/2
2 2P1/2
2 2P3/2
3 2S1/2
3 2P1/2
3 2P3/2
3 2D3/2
3 2D5/2

9. 4. 3. Cu to bi ca vch quang ph
Trn c s cu trc t vi ca
mc nng lng ta c th gii thch
c cu to bi ca vch quang
ph. Do nng lng ca electrn
trong nguyn t ph thuc vo ba s
lng t n, , j, nn khi electrn
Hnh 9-12.
chuyn t mc nng lng cao sang
a. Vch quang ph khi cha xt n spin
mc nng lng thp hn, ngoi qui
b. Vch kp khi c xt n spin.
tc la chn i vi , electrn cn
phi tun theo qui tc la chn i vi j:
(9-31)
j 0, 1
C th, ta xt s tch vch ca quang ph kim loi kim. Khi cha xt n spin, vch n c tn
s ng vi chuyn mc:
h = 2S 3P
Khi xt n spin, ta c vch kp:
213

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

h1 = 2 2S1/2 3 2P1/2
h2 = 2 2S1/2 3 2P3/2

( = 1, j = 0)
( = 1, j = 1)

9. 5. H THNG TUN HON MENDELEEV


Nm 1869, Mendeleev xy dng nn h thng tun hon ca cc nguyn t ha hc
v thit lp nn bng tun hon trc khi c hc lng t ra i. H thng tun hon ny cho
php rt ra cc tnh cht vt l v ha hc c bn ca cc nguyn t, ng thi cng gip
Mendeleev tin on ra nhiu nguyn t m v sau thc nghim mi pht hin c.
Da trn c s ca c hc lng t, chng ta c th gii thch qui lut phn b cc
electrn trong bng h thng tun hon. S phn b cc electrn trong bng tun hon da trn
hai nguyn l: nguyn l cc tiu nng lng v nguyn l loi tr Pauli.
Nguyn l cc tiu nng lng: Mi h vt l u c xu hng chim trng thi c nng lng
cc tiu. Trng thi l trng thi bn.
Nguyn l loi tr Pauli: Mi trng thi lng t xc nh bi 4 s lng t n, , m, ms ch c
ti a mt electrn.
Cu hnh electrn l s phn b cc electrn trong nguyn t theo cc trng thi vi cc s
lng t n, khc nhau.
Khi cha n spin ca electrn th vi mi tr s ca n c n2 trng thi lng t.
Khi n spin th vi mi tr s ca n ta c th c 2n2 trng thi lng t. Theo nguyn l
loi tr Pauli th s c ti a 2n2 electrn. Tp hp cc electrn c cng s lng t chnh n to
thnh lp ca nguyn t. Cc lp ca nguyn t c k hiu bng nhng ch K, L, M... theo
bng sau:
S lng t n 1
2
3
4
5
K hiu lp

S e- ti a

18

32

50

Theo nguyn l cc tiu nng lng, cc electrn bao gi cng c khuynh hng chim mc
nng lng thp nht (n nh nht).
V d: Nguyn t H c 1 electrn lp K
Nguyn t He c 2 electrn lp K ( s electrn)
Nguyn t Li c 2 electrn lp K v 1 electrn lp L,...
Mi lp li chia thnh lp con ng vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca . Mi lp con c 2(2 +1)
electrn.
V d: Lp L (n = 2) c 2 lp con:
- Lp con S ( = 0) c ti a 2 (2 + 1) = 2 electrn,
- Lp con P ( =1) c ti a 6 electrn.
Lp M (n = 3) c 3 lp con:
- Lp con S c ti a 2 electrn,

214

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

- Lp con P c ti a 6 electrn,
- Lp con D c ti a 10 electrn.
Bng 4 l bng phn b electrn i vi mt vi nguyn t.
Bng 4

Lp
Lp con
Nguyn t
H
He
Li
Be
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
Na
Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar

K
1S

L
2S
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

M
3S

2P

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

3P

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3D

1
2
3
4
5
6

Da theo bng tun hon Mendeleev, ta vit c cu hnh electrn cho cc nguyn t. V d:
C : 1s22s22p2
F : 1s22s22p5
N : 1s22s22p3
Ne : 1s22s22p6
O : 1s22s22p4

Al : 1s22s22p63s23p1

V d i vi Neon (Ne) c 2 electrn trng thi 1s, 2 electrn trng thi 2s, 6 electrn
trng thi 2p. Nh vy, cc electrn lp y cc lp con. i vi Cacbon (C) cc electrn cha
lp kn ht cc lp con v lp con P c th cha ti a 6 electrn, trong khi lp con P C mi ch
c 2 electrn.

9. 6. H HT NG NHT V THNG K LNG T


9. 6. 1. H ht ng nht
nh ngha: H ht ng nht l h gm nhng vi ht c nhng c trng ging nhau (khi
lng, in tch, spin...) v nhng ng thi ging nhau
V d h ht electron, h ht phtn...
Tnh cht ca h ht ng nht:

Khi ta hon v v tr cc vi ht, trng thi ca h khng thay i

215

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Ta xt h gm hai ht ng nht: Trng thi ca mi ht c xc nh bi bn knh

r ( x, y, z ) , 3 s lng t n, l, m (vit tt l n) v s lng t hnh chiu spin s. Hm sng


ca h 2 ht m t trng thi ca h c dng: (n1 , s1 , r1; n2 , s2 , r2 ) . Ch s 1, 2 ng vi
ht 1, 2 tng ng. Do hon v v tr hai ht h khng thay i nn hm sng m t
trng thi ca h lc sau ch c th khc hm sng m t h lc trc mt tha s . Ta
vit c:

(n1 , s1 , r2 ; n2 , s2 , r1 ) (n1 , s1 , r1; n2 , s2 , r2 )


Do h khng thay i nn xc sut tm ht cng khng thay i, ngha l:
2

(n1 , s1 , r2 ; n2 , s2 , r1 ) 2 (n1 , s1 , r1; n2 , s2 , r2 )


T suy ra = 1.
C hai trng hp:

(n1 , s1 , r2 ; n2 , s2 , r1 ) (n1 , s1 , r1; n2 , s2 , r2 )

(1)

(n1 , s1 , r2 ; n2 , s2 , r1 ) (n1, s1, r1; n2 , s2 , r2 )

(2)

Hm sng tha mn iu kin (1) gi l hm sng i xng, cn hm sng tha mn (2)


gi l hm sng phn i xng.
i vi h nhiu ht ta cng thu c biu thc tng t. Trong t nhin ch tn ti hai
loi h ng nht: mt loi h c m t bi hm sng i xng v mt loi h c
m t bi hm sng phn i xng.
S chuyn gia cc trng thi ca hai h khng bao gi c th xy ra.
H c m t bi hm sng phn i xng l h gm c nhng ht c spin bn nguyn
(s = 1/2, 3/2...) nh h ht electron, prtn, ntrn... H ng vi hm sng i xng l
nhng h c nhng ht c spin nguyn (s = 0, 1, 2...) nh h ht phtn, mdn ....

9. 6. 2. Thng k lng t
H ht ng nht l tp hp ca nhiu vi ht v vy n tun theo quy lut thng k lng
t. i vi cc h ht l tng, ngha l h gm cc ht khng tng tc vi nhau, ngi ta thy
chng tun theo mt trong hai quy lut thng k lng t: thng k Bose Einstein hoc thng
k Fermi Dirac.
9. 6. 2. 1. Thng k Bose - Einstein
Theo quy lut thng k ny s ht trung bnh mt trng thi th i cho trc vi nng
lng Ei ca h cn bng nhit T c xc nh bi biu thc
1
(9-32)
f ( E, T )
e ( Ei ) / kT 1
trong
Ei: nng lng trng thi i

216

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

k: hng s Boltzmann
T: nhit tuyt i
: th ha hc.
Cc ht tun theo quy lut thng k ny
gi l cc ht Bose, chng c spin
nguyn. V d ht phtn, mzn....
T th ta thy khi Ei th f
H ht ny khng tun theo nguyn l
Pauli.
9. 6. 2. 2. Thng k Fermi Dirac
Theo l thuyt thng k lng t, cc vi ht c spin bn nguyn c phn b trn cc
trng thi nng lng xc nh bi hm Fermi - Dirac:

f ( E, T )

1
E EF
exp
k BT

(9-33)

trong k B l hng s Boltzman, T l nhit tuyt i, E l nng lng ca vi ht, EF l mc


nng lng Fermi. f(E,T) biu din xc sut mc nng lng E b vi ht lp y ti nhit T
v n c cc gi tr nh sau:
nhit T = 0: f(E) =1 khi
E E F v f(E) = 0 khi E EF .
iu ny c ngha l nhit
khng tuyt i, cc trng thi
nng lng E E F u b cc
vi ht lp y, cn cc trng thi
c nng lng E EF b b trng
hon ton.

nhit T 0, ta c:
f ( E ) 1 khi E EF , f ( E ) 1 / 2 khi E EF , f ( E ) 0 khi E EF

Khi

E EF

hm f(E) c

th xem gn ng vi phn b Boltzman

f ( E ) e ( E E F ) / kT . Hm f(E,T) thay i rt nhanh t 0 n 1 trong khong k BT ln cn


mc Fermi.
Cc ht tun theo quy lut thng k ny gi l cc ht fecmin, chng tun theo nguyn l loi
tr Pauli.

217

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

HNG DN HC CHNG 9

VT L NGUYN T
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Vn dng c hc lng t nghin cu nhng tnh cht ca nguyn t hir v cc nguyn t
kim loi kim. T rt ra nhng kt lun c bn.
2. Gii thch c hiu ng Zeeman.
3. Hiu c khi nim spin ca electrn v vai tr ca n trong vic tch vch quang ph.
4. Gii thch c qui lut phn b cc electrn trong bng tun hon Mendeleev.

II. TM TT NI DUNG
1. Nguyn t hir
Chng ta nghin cu chuyn ng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir trn c s phng trnh
Schrodinger, phng trnh c bn ca c hc lng t

2m e

( E U ) 0
2
trong U l th nng tng tc gia ht nhn v electrn. Bi ton t ra l tm nng lng ca
electrn v hm sng ca n. Gii phng trnh Schrodinger trong h ta cu, ta thu c mt s
kt lun sau:
a. Nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t hir ph thuc vo s nguyn n, gi l s lng t
Rh
chnh:
En
n2
trong R l hng s Rydberg. Ta ni rng nng lng b lng t ha.
b. Nng lng ion ha l nng lng cn thit bt electrn ra khi nguyn t

E E E1 Rh 13,5eV
c. Khi khng c kch thch bn ngoi, electrn trng thi nng lng thp nht, gi l trng thi c
bn. l trng thi bn. Khi c kch thch bn ngoi, electrn thu thm nng lng v nhy ln
mc nng lng cao hn gi l mc kch thch. Nhng electrn ch trng thi ny trong mt thi
gian ngn (10-8s), sau tr v trng thi nng lng En thp hn v pht ra bc x in t mang
nng lng h, ngha l pht ra vch quang ph c tn s :
1
1

nn ' R

2
n2
n'
Vi n =1, n = 2,3,4... ta c dy Lyman nm trong vng t ngoi.
Vi n =2, n = 3,4...... ta c dy Balmer trong vng nh sng nhn thy.
Vi n = 3, n = 4,5..... ta c dy Paschen nm trong vng hng ngoi....

218

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

d. ng vi mt s lng t n, tc l vi mi mc nng lng En, ta c n2 trng thi lng t


khc nhau khi cha xt n spin, ta ni En suy bin bc n2.
e. Hm sng ca electrn trong nguyn t H
n m(r,,) = Rn (r)Y m(,)
trong n l s lng t chnh, l s lng t qu o v m l s lng t t.

T biu thc ca hm sng ta tm c xc sut tm thy electrn theo khong cch v theo gc
, ng vi cc trng thi lng t khc nhau.
Tnh ton cho thy xc sut tm electrn trong nguyn t H ti khong cch tnh t tm r = a =
0,53 c gi tr ln nht. Gi tr ny trng vi bn knh c in ca nguyn t H. T y ngi
ta hnh dung electrn chuyn ng quanh ht nhn nguyn t H nh mt m my. m my
ny dy c nht khong cch ng vi xc sut tn ti electrn cc i. Khi nim qu o
c thay th bng khi nim xc sut tm ht. Nguyn nhn l do lng tnh sng ht ca
electrn.
2. Nguyn t kim loi kim
Nguyn t kim loi kim ha tr mt v kh d dng b in ha. Chng c mt electrn
vng ngoi cng, electrn ny chuyn ng trong trng th hiu dng to bi li nguyn t
(gm ht nhn v (Z-1) electrn cc vng trong). Tnh cht ha hc ca kim loi kim v c
bn ging ca nguyn t H, nhng nng lng ca electrn ha tr ph thuc thm c vo s
lng t :
Rh
E n
(n ) 2
Trong vt l nguyn t trang thi lng t c k hiu bng nx, cn mc nng lng l nX, n l
s lng t chnh, cn x v X ty thuc s lng t orbital:
0
1
2
=
x=
s
p
X=
S
P
S chuyn mc nng lng tun theo qui tc: = 1
V d i vi Na, tn s bc x tun theo cc cng thc:
h = 3S nP
n = 4,5, 6...
h = 3P nS
n = 4,5, 6...

d
D

v = 1
v = -1

3. Mmen ng lng v mmen t


Electrn quay quanh ht nhn khng theo qu o xc nh, do mi trng thi vect L
khng c hng xc nh, nhng c ln xc nh: L ( 1) v hnh chiu ca mmen
ng lng orbital L ln mt phng z bt k lun c xc nh theo h thc: L z m , trong
m l s nguyn gi l s lng t t, c cc tr s m 0,1,2,3,..., , ngha l vi mi tr s cho
trc ca c 2 + 1 tr s ca m. Electrn quay quanh ht nhn to thnh dng in, gia mmen
t orbital v mmen ng lng orbital c mi lin h

e
L
2m e
219

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t
v hnh chiu ln phng z bt k:

e
L z m B
2m e

B e / 2m e l manhtn Bohr. Khi electrn chuyn trng thi th m phi tun theo qui tc la
chn: m = 0,1.
4. Hiu ng Zeeman:
Hin tng tch vch quang ph khi nguyn t pht sng t trong t trng c gi l
hin tng Zeeman.
Gii thch: Khi nguyn t H t trong t trng ngoi, electrn c thm nng lng ph

E z B m B B
Nng lng E ca electrn lc ny cn ph thuc vo s lng t t m:

E' E m B B
Khi electrn chuyn trng thi, tn s vch quang ph pht ra bng:

E '2 E1' E 2 E1 (m 2 m1 ) B B

h
h
h
m2 m1 = m = 0, 1, do s c th c ba gi tr tng ng vi s to thnh ba vch
quang ph.
'

5. Spin:

Ngoi chuyn ng quay quanh ht nhn electrn cn tham gia thm chuyn ng do
vn ng ni ti, c c trng bi spin, k hiu S . ln ca S v hnh chiu ca n ln
phng z c xc nh theo cc h thc:

S s(s 1)

Sz m s

trong s l s lng t spin (s=1/2), cn ms l s lng t hnh chiu spin. Khc vi s lng
t t ms ch ly hai gi tr 1/2.
Spin l i lng thun ty lng t, n khng c s tng ng c in. Da vo
khi nim spin, ngi ta gii thch c vch kp i ca quang ph Na v cu to bi ca cc
vch quang ph.
6. Trng thi v nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t
Do c spin nn mmen ng lng ton phn J ca electrn bng: J L S
vi gi tr ca J bng: J

j( j 1)

trong j l s lng t ton phn c xc nh bi:

1
2

Do c xt n spin nn trng thi lng t ca electrn ph thuc vo bn s lng t:


n, , m, ms hay n, , m, j. Hai trng thi lng t c coi l khc nhau nu t nht mt trong
bn s lng t n, , m, ms khc nhau. Trn y ta tnh c: ng vi mi s lng t chnh

220

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

c n2 trng thi lng t khc nhau. Nu k n spin th do ms c 2 gi tr : 1/2 nn ng vi s


lng t chnh n , c 2n2 trng thi lng t khc nhau:
n 1

2 (2 1) 2n 2
0

S c mt mmen t spin ca electrn cho php gii thch vch kp i trong quang ph
ca kim loi kim. Cc electrn chuyn ng quanh ht nhn to ra mt t trng c trng bi
mmen t orbital ca cc electrn. Mmen t spin ca electrn tng tc vi t trng ,
tng tc ny c gi l tng tc spin-orbitat (tng tc spin qu o). Do tng tc ny, s
c mt nng lng ph b sung vo biu thc nng lng ca electrn. Nng lng ph ny
ph thuc vo s nh hng ca mmen spin v nh vy nng lng cn ph thuc vo s
lng t ton phn j. Ni cch khc, nng lng ton phn ca electrn ph thuc vo ba s
lng t n, v j: En j. Mi mc nng lng xc nh tch thnh hai mc j = -1/2 v j =
+1/2, tr mc S ch c mt mc, v khi l = 0. Khong cch gia hai mc nng lng ny
rt nh. Cu trc nh vy gi l cu trc t vi ca cc mc nng lng.
Khi chuyn t mc nng lng cao sang mc nng lng thp, cc s lng t , j phi
tun theo qui tc la chn: = 1 v j = 0, 1. Da vo cc qui tc la chn trn, ta gii
thch c cc vch kp i v bi ba khi c xt n spin.
7. Gii thch bng tun hon Mendeleev
Da trn c s ca c hc lng t, chng ta c th gii thch qui lut phn b cc
electrn trong bng h thng tun hon. S phn b cc electrn trong bng tun hon da trn
hai nguyn l: nguyn l cc tiu nng lng v nguyn l loi tr Pauli. Cu hnh electrn l s
phn b theo cc trng thi vi cc s lng lng t n, khc nhau.
Tp hp cc electrn c cng s lng t chnh n to thnh lp ca nguyn t. V d :
Lp K ng vi n = 1, lp L ng vi n = 2... S electrn ti a c trong mt lp bng 2n 2 (theo
nguyn l Pauli). Nng lng lp K nh hn lp L. Cc electrn s lp y lp K trc ri mi
n lp L.
Mi lp li chia nh thnh nhng lp con vi khc nhau. Tp hp cc electrn c
cng gi tr to thnh mt lp con. Trong mi lp con c ti a 2(2 +1) electrn. V d:
Lp con S ( = 0) c ti a 2(0 + 1) = 2eLp con P ( = 1) c ti a 2(2 + 1) = 6e-...
Da vo bng Mendeleev, ta vit c cu hnh electrn trong nguyn t. V d cu
hnh electrn ca nguyn t C: 1s22s22p2 (c 2e- lp 1S, 2e- lp 2S v 2e- lp 2P, cc echa xp kn lp con P, v lp con ny c th cha ti a 6e).
8. H ht ng nht l h gm nhng vi ht c nhng c trng ging nhau (khi lng, in
tch, spin...) v nhng ng thi ging nhau.
V d h cc ht electrn, prtn, ntrn...
Do cc vi ht ng nht trong c hc lng t khng th phn bit c.
Cc ht ng nht c spin bn nguyn (e, p, n) tun theo thng k Fermi Dirac v c gi l
cc fecmin.
221

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

Cc ht c spin nguyn, v d ht phtn, mzn... tun theo quy lut thng k Bose Einstein
v c gi l cc ht Bose.

III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Hy nu cc kt lun ca c hc lng t trong vic nghin cu nguyn t Hir v:
a. Nng lng ca electrn trong nguyn t Hir.
b. Cu to vch ca quang ph Hir.
c. suy bin ca mc En.
2. Nu s khc nhau gia nguyn t Hir v nguyn t kim loi kim v mt cu to. Vit biu
thc nng lng ca electrn ha tr trong nguyn t Hir v nguyn t kim loi kim. Nu s
khc nhau gia hai cng thc .
3. Vit qui tc la chn i vi s lng t orbital . Vn dng qui tc ny vit cc dy vch
chnh v dy vch ph ca nguyn t Li.
4. Vit biu thc mmen ng lng orbital L ca electrn quanh ht nhn v hnh chiu Lz
ca n ln phng z. Nu ngha ca cc i lng trong cc cng thc . Vit qui tc la
chn cho m. Biu din bng s cc i lng L v Lz trong cc trng hp =1 v =2.
5. Vit biu thc mmen t orbital ca electrn quay quanh ht nhn v hnh chiu ca n
theo phng z.
6. Trnh by v gii thch hin tng Zeeman.
7. Trnh by nhng s kin thc nghim ni ln s tn ti ca spin electrn.
8. Vit biu thc xc nh mmen spin electrn S v hnh chiu ca n trn phng z. T
da vo th nghim Einstein v de Haas, vit biu thc ca mmen t s v biu din hnh
chiu ca s qua manhtn Bohr.
9. Hy chng t rng, nu xt n spin th ng vi mc nng lng En ca electrn trong
nguyn t H, c th c 2n2 trng thi lng t khc nhau t nht mt trong bn s lng t n,
, m, sz.
10. nh ngha cu hnh electrn.
11. S phn b cc electrn trong bng tun hon Mendeleev tun theo nhng nguyn l no?
12. Vit cu hnh electrn cho cc nguyn t O, Al... Gii thch cch vit v nu ngha.
13. nh ngha h ht ng nht. Trnh by thng k lng t Bose-Einstein v Fermi-Dirac.

IV. BI TP
Th d 1: Xc nh bc sng ca vch quang ph th hai, th ba trong dy Paschen trong
quang ph hir.
Bi gii: Dy Paschen n = 3. Bc sng ca vch th hai trong dy Paschen:

222

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

1,3.10 6 m

1
1

2
52
3
Bc sng ca vch th ba trong dy Paschen:
c
c

1,1.10 6 m

1
1

32 6 2
Th d 2: Tm s b chnh Rydberg i vi s hng 3P ca nguyn t Na, bit rng th kch
thch i vi trng thi th nht bng 2,1V v nng lng lin kt ca electrn ho tr trng
thi 3S bng 5,14eV.
Bi gii:
Electron ha tr trong nguyn t Na thuc lp M (n = 3). Trng thi c bn l 3s ng vi mc
nng lng 3S, trng thi kch thch th nht l 3p, ng vi mc nng lng 3P. Theo u bi:
Rh

3 s 2

5,14 eV,

Rh

3 s 2

Rh

3 p

2,1 eV

Rh

3 p 2

3,04 eV

Thay R v h ta tm c: p 0,88
Th d 3: Trong nguyn t, xc nh s trng thi electron thuc n = 4 c cng nhng s lng
t sau:
a. Cng ms, b. Cng m = +1,
c. Cng m = -1 v ms = -1/2
Bi gii:
a. Cng ms
Cc trng thi electron ch khc nhau 3 s lng t n, l, m. Vi n v ms xc nh th s trng
thi electron bng n2. Nu n = 4 th 42 = 16
b. Cng m = +1
Khi n v m xc nh th l m , m 1...n 1. Vy khi n v m xc nh th c n - |m| trng thi
ca electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr ca l v s cc trng thi electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr
ca l v ms l 2(n - |m|)
Vy n = 4, m=1 th 2(n - |m|) = 2(4-1) = 6
c. Cng m = -1 v ms = -1/2
Khi n, m v ms xc nh th c n - |m| trng thi ca electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr ca l.
Vy n = 4, m= - 1, ms = -1/2 th n - |m| = 4-1= 3
Bi tp t gii
1. Cho bc sng ca bn vch trong dy Balmer ca quang ph hir l:
Vch (H):
0,656 m;
Vch lam (H): 0,486 m
Vch chm (H): 0,434 m;
Vch tm (H): 0,410 m
Tm bc sng nh sng ca 3 vch trong dy Paschen ca quang ph hng ngoi.
2. Xc nh bc sng ln nht v nh nht trong dy Paschen trong quang ph hir.

223

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

3. Xc nh bc sng ca vch quang ph th hai, th ba trong dy Balmer trong quang ph


hir.
4. Xc nh bc sng ca vch quang ph th hai v th ba trong dy Lyman trong quang ph
hir.
5. Electrn trong nguyn t hir chuyn t mc nng lng th ba v mc nng lng th
nht. Xc nh bc sng ca bc x in t do n pht ra.
6. Xc nh bc sng ln nht v nh nht trong dy Lyman trong quang ph hir.
7. Xc nh gi tr ln nht v gi tr nh nht ca nng lng phtn pht ra trong quang ph t
ngoi ca nguyn t hir (dy Lyman).
8. Nguyn t hir trng thi c bn (n=1) c kch thch bi mt nh sng n sc c bc
sng xc nh. Kt qu nguyn t hir ch pht ra ba vch sng quang ph. Xc nh bc
sng ca ba vch sng v ni r chng thuc dy vch quang ph no ?
9. Tm nng lng nh nht (tnh ra eV) ca cc electron khi kch thch cc nguyn t hir,
quang ph ca nguyn t hir c ba vch. Tm bc sng ca ba vch .
10. Nguyn t hir ang trng thi kch thch ng vi mc nng lng th n (n>1). Tnh s
vch quang ph n c th pht ra.
11. Phtn c nng lng 16,5eV lm bt electrn ra khi nguyn t ang trng thi c bn.
Tnh vn tc ca electrn khi bt ra khi nguyn t.
12. Tm nng lng ti thiu (ra eV) m cc electron phi c c th lm xut hin tt c cc
vch quang ph hir khi cho electron ny va chm vi cc nguyn t hir.
13. Xc nh in th kch thch u tin i vi nguyn t hir
14. Xc nh cc gi tr kh d ca mmen ng lng orbital ca electrn trong nguyn t
hir b kch thch, cho bit nng lng kch thch bng E = 12eV.
15. Gi l gc gia phng t trng ngoi v mmen orbital L ca electron trong nguyn
t. Tnh gc nh nht, cho bit electron trong nguyn t trng thi d.
16. Tnh ln ca m men ng lng orbital v gi tr hnh chiu ca mmen ng lng
orbital ca electrn trong nguyn t trng thi f.
17. Nguyn t hir trng thi c bn hp th phtn mang nng lng 10,2eV v nhy ln
trng thi kch thch n. Tm bin thin mmen ng lng orbital ca electrn, bit trng thi
kch thch ca electrn trng thi p.
18. Nng lng lin kt ca electrn ho tr trong nguyn t Liti trng thi 2S bng 5,59eV,
trng thi 2P bng 3,54eV. Tnh cc s b chnh Rydberg i vi cc s hng quang ph s v p
ca liti.
19. Tm bc sng ca cc bc x pht ra khi nguyn t Li chuyn trng thi 3S 2S cho bit
cc s b chnh Rydberg i vi nguyn t Li: s 0,41, p 0,04

224

Chng 9: Vt l nguyn t

20. Nguyn t Na chuyn t trng thi nng lng 4S 3S. Tm bc sng ca cc bc x


pht ra. Cho s b chnh Rydberg i vi Na bng s 1,37, p 0,9
21. Cc chuyn di no di y b cm bi cc qui tc la chn
a. 2 S1 / 2 2 P3 / 2

b. 2 S1 / 2 2 D3 / 2

c. 2 P1 / 2 2 S1 / 2

e. 2 F7 / 2 2 D3 / 2

f. 2 D3 / 2 2 F5 / 2

g. 2 F5 / 2 2 P5 / 2

d. 2 D5 / 2 2 P1 / 2

22. Tnh gi tr hnh chiu mmen ng lng orbital ca electron trng thi d
23. Trong nguyn t Na, electron ha tr trng thi ng vi n = 3. Tm nhng trng thi nng
lng c th chuyn v trng thi ny (c xt n spin).
24. Bc sng ca vch cng hng ca nguyn t kali ng vi s chuyn di 4P 4S bng
7665A0. Bc sng gii hn ca dy chnh bng 2858A0. Tm s b chnh Rydberg s v p i
vi kali.
25. Kho st s tch vch quang ph: mD nP trong t trng yu.
26. C bao nhiu electron s, electron p v electron d trong lp K ? L ? M?
27. Lp ng vi n = 3 cha y electron, tm s electron c cng
a. ms= 1/2
b. m = 1
c. m = -2
d. ms= 1/2 , m = 0
e. ms = 1/2 , l = 2.
28. Trong nguyn t, cc lp K, L, M u y. Xc nh:
a. Tng s electron trong nguyn t.
b. S electron s, s electron p v s electron d.
c. S electron p c m = 0
29. Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t sau y trng thi c bn theo s l tng
He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, Na, K

225

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

CHNG 10

VT L CHT RN V BN DN
Cht rn l trng thi vt cht ng c. Trong 1cm3 cht rn c khong trn 1022
nguyn t. Trong cht rn khong cch gia cc nguyn t, ion, electron nh lc tng
tc gia chng tr nn rt ng k. Bi ton c bn ca vt l cht rn thc cht l bi ton h
nhiu ht c tng tc. Trong chng trc chng ta thy l thuyt lng t rt thnh
cng khi nghin cu cc nguyn t ring bit. Trong chng ny chng ta s s dng n
nghin cu vt rn l tp hp ca rt nhiu nguyn t. Vt rn tn ti di hai dng l vt rn
tinh th v vt rn v nh hnh. Trong chng ny chng ta ch nghin cu vt rn tinh th.
Vo cui nhng nm 40 v u nhng nm 60 ca th k 20 Vt l hc c hai ng
gp to ln cho cng ngh, l transistor v laser. Transistor kch thch s pht trin ca vi
in t, mt lnh vc lin quan n s tng tc ( mc lng t) gia electron v khi cht.
Cn laser m ra mt lnh vc mi gi l photon hc (photonics), lin quan n s tng tc
(cng mc lng t) gia cc photon v khi cht. Trong chng ny chng ta s nghin
cu v cht bn dn, vt liu ch to diode, transistor, v laser bn dn.
10. 1. VT L CHT RN
10. 1. 1. Cu trc mng tinh th ca vt rn
10. 1. 1. 1. Mng tinh th
Mt trong nhng c trng quan trng
ca vt rn tinh th l cu trc mng tinh
th. Trong vt rn tinh th nhng nguyn t
(hoc phn t hoc ion) to thnh vt rn c
sp xp theo mt cu trc hnh hc xc nh
gi l mng tinh th. V tr cn bng ca cc
nguyn t (hoc phn t hoc ion) trong mng
tinh th gi l nt mng

Hnh 10-1. Mng tinh th hai chiu

Tnh cht c bn ca mng tinh th l tng l tnh tun hon tnh tin trong khng gian.
l: nu ta cho mng tinh th dch chuyn song song vi chnh n mt khong xc nh no
theo mt phng bt k th mng tinh th li trng vi chnh n. di nh nht ca khong
dch chuyn ny gi l chu k ca mng tinh th (hay cn gi l hng s mng ). Chu k ca
mng tinh th c th xc nh chnh xc bng phng php nhiu x tia X hoc nhiu x
electron, t on nhn c cu trc tinh th ca vt rn (hnh 10-1).
Tnh tun hon tnh tin ca mng tinh th ko theo tnh tun hon vi chu k ca mng
tinh th, ca mt lot cc i lng vt l khc c lin quan n s sp xp ca cc nguyn t
trong tinh th v d nh th tnh in (trng tinh th), mt electron...
226

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Mng tinh th l tng c tnh tun hon v v hn. Tinh th thc l hu hn v thng
c nhng sai lch khi tnh tun hon, gi l cc sai hng.
10. 1. 1. 2. Cc loi lin kt trong mng tinh th
Tu theo cu trc ca mng tinh th v cc nguyn t to nn vt rn m trong vt rn s
tn ti cc lin kt khc nhau gia cc nguyn t. C 4 loi lin kt. Tnh cht vt l ca vt rn
ph thuc vo c tnh lin kt trong mng tinh th.
1. Lin kt nguyn t:

Lin kt nguyn t l loi lin kt bn vng nht. V d: Kim cng, Silic... Cc nguyn
t cng loi nm cc nt mng, lin kt vi nhau bng lc trao i nh cc cp electron c
spin i song (ngc chiu). Cc electron ny l cc electron ho tr nn lin kt ny cn c
gi l lin kt ng ho tr.
2. Lin kt kim loi:

Cc ion dng ca nguyn t kim loi cc nt mng. Cc electron ho tr lin kt yu


vi nguyn t, tch ra khi nguyn t v c th chuyn ng t do trong ton mng tinh th.
Cc electron ny b tp th ho v ng vai tr lin kt gia cc ion dng. Cc ion dng to
nn hng ro th nng ngn khng cho electron thot ra khi kim loi.
3. Lin kt ion:

V d NaCl. Cc ion tri du Na+, Cl- cc nt mng lin kt vi nhau bi lc ht


Culng.
4. Lin kt phn t:

cc nt mng l phn t, cc phn t lin kt vi nhau bi lc tng tc phn t yu


gi l lc Van de Waal. Lc ny xut hin do cu trc bt i xng v in ca cc phn t.
y l loi lin kt yu nht trong cc loi lin kt ca vt rn tinh th.

10. 1. 2. L thuyt vng nng lng


Bi ton quan trng bc nht ca vt l cht rn l tm ph nng lng ca electron
trong vt rn tinh th, y chnh l ni dung ca l thuyt vng nng lng. Mt vt rn c
coi nh cu to bi mt tp hp nhiu nguyn t. Mi nguyn t c lp c mt s ln cc mc
nng lng gin on cho php, trong c mt s mc nng lng b chim bi electron. Do
c s tng tc gia cc nguyn t cu to nn vt rn, nn trong vt rn ph nng lng ca
electron khng phi l nhng mc nng lng ring bit m s l nhng vng nng lng cho
php. hiu c l do dn n s hnh thnh vng nng lng c th c hai cch tip cn:

Coi cc electron lin kt cht ch vi cc nguyn t m ca chng v nghin cu s thay i


cc trng thi ca cc electron ny khi c mt s lng ln cc nguyn t kt hp li vi
nhau to nn vt rn tinh th. Cch tip cn ny c gi l php gn ng in t lin
kt cht.

Coi cc electron lin kt yu vi cc nguyn t m ca chng v xt chuyn ng ca chng

227

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn


trong trng th nng tun hon do cc ion ca mng tinh th sinh ra. Cch tip cn ny
c gi l php gn ng in t gn t do.
Sau y ta s nghin cu s hnh thnh vng nng lng theo hai cch lp lun trn.

10. 1. 2. 1. S hnh thnh vng nng lng do tng tc gia cc nguyn t (php gn
ng in t lin kt cht)
i vi mt nguyn t ring bit, l thuyt lng t ch ra rng:
o Nng lng ca electron trong nguyn t l gin on,
o Mi trng thi lng t ca electron c c trng bi 4 s lng t: n (s lng t
chnh), l (s lng t qu o), m (s lng t t) v s (s lng t spin).
o Nguyn l loi tr Pauli: mi trng thi lng t c c trng bi 4 s lng t n, l,
m, s v mi trang thi lng t ch c ti a mt electron.
o Thng thng trng thi c bn electron ch chim nhng mc nng lng thp nht.
Xt h gm hai nguyn t ging nhau. Nu hai nguyn t xa nhau n mc c th coi
chng l c lp, khng tng tc vi nhau th gi tr mi mc nng lng vn ging nh
trng hp nguyn t c lp, nhng s mc gp i (mc nng lng trng chp hay ni cch
khc l suy bin bc hai). Khi hai nguyn t tin li gn nhau c (10-10 m) th chng bt u
tng tc mnh vi nhau, mi mc nng lng trc y s phi tch thnh hai mc (Hnh 102). Trong mt mu cht rn tinh th c N nguyn t th mi mc nng lng trong nguyn t c
lp s tch thnh N mc. Trong 1cm3 cht rn c khong 5.1022 nguyn t th mi mc nng
lng s tch thnh 5.1022 mc. Cc mc ny tt nhin rt xt nhau to nn mt vng nng
lng. Nh vy trong trng hp ny mi mc tch ra thnh mt vng v mi vng gm N mc
nm gn nhau n mc c th coi chng phn b gn nh lin tc theo nng lng (Hnh 102e).

Hnh 10-2. Minh ho s hnh thnh vng nng lng.

228

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Hnh 10-3. Phn loi vt rn theo s lp y ca vng ho tr

V mi mc nng lng trong nguyn t c lp tch thnh mt vng nng lng cho
php c b dy nht nh nn trong ph nng lng ca electron s c nhiu vng nng lng
cho php xen k nhng vng khng c php gi l vng cm. Ni chung khng c cc mc
nng lng ca electron nm trong vng cm ny. B rng ca vng cho php s ph thuc vo
s tng tc gia cc electron ca cc nguyn t khc nhau vi nhau. Cc electron nm cc
lp cng su bn trong bao nhiu th cng tng tc yu vi nhau by nhiu do b che chn bi
cc electron pha ngoi, do vy vng nng lng cho php i vi cc lp cng su bn trong
cng hp li. Cc electron c trong vt rn s in y cc vng nng lng cho php t thp
n cao.
S hnh thnh cu trc vng nng lng ca electron trong vt rn tinh th cho php
gii thch c s phn loi cc vt rn tinh th thnh ba loi: cht dn in (kim loi), cht bn
dn v cht cch in (in mi). S dn in trong cht rn v bn cht l s chuyn ng ca
cc electron trong tinh th. Nu xt theo bc tranh vng nng lng th l hin tng
electron nhy t mc nng lng thp hn ln mc cao hn. V cc vng bn di u b lp
y nn trong cc vng ny cc electron khng th nhy ln cc mc cao hn c. Do khi
xt n tnh cht dn in trong vt rn ch c vng lp y trn cng, c gi l vng ha tr,
l quan trng nht.
Cht dn in (kim loi): l cht c cu trc vng nng lng trong c vng cha
y hoc vng y nm chng mt phn ln vng trng. Do khong cch gia cc mc
nng lng trong cng mt vng cho php rt nh (c 10-2 eV, tng ng vi nng
lng chuyn ng nhit) nn nhit bnh thng cc electron c th thu thm nng
lng nhit thay i trng thi v chuyn ln nhng mc nng lng cao hn cn
b trng v tr thnh electron t do. Khi c in trng ngoi tc dng, cc electron t
do chuyn ng ngc hng vi in trng to nn dng in.

229

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Cht bn dn: l cht c cu trc vng nng lng trong vng y trn cng (c
gi l vng ho tr) b ngn cch vi vng trng ngay trn n (c gi l vng dn) bi
vng cm c rng khng qu 3 eV. Khi in trng ngoi yu, cc electron nh
vng ho tr cha th thu nng lng vt qua vng cm, chuyn ln vng dn, do
cht bn dn cha dn in. Nhng khi in trng ngoi mnh a electron t
vng ho tr ln vng dn, tr thnh electron t do, chuyn ng ngc chiu vi in
trng to nn dng in. Nh vy tnh dn in ca cht bn dn ph thuc rt mnh
vo cc yu t bn ngoi lm thay i trng thi nng lng ca electron trong vt
rn tinh th.
Cht cch in (in mi): l cht c cu trc vng nng lng trong vng ho tr
y hon ton b ngn cch vi vng trng hon ton bi vng cm kh ln ( 3eV).
Trong trng hp ny electron vng ho tr kh c th chuyn ln vng trng tr
thnh electron t do v tham gia dn in.
Hnh 10-3 trnh by m hnh vng nng lng ca cht dn in, bn dn v cht cch in.
10. 1. 2. 2. Chuyn ng ca electron trong mng tinh th (php gn ng in t gn t
do)
Theo c hc lng t, trng thi ca electron chuyn ng trong trng lc th U (r ) c
m t bi hm sng:

(r , t )

i
E.t

e
. (r )

(10.1)

trong l hng s Planck rt gn, E l nng lng ca electron, (r ) l phn hm sng ph


thuc to khng gian c xc nh bi phng trnh Schrodinger:
(r )

2m
2

E U (r) (r) 0

(10.2)

m l khi lng electron, l ton t Laplace c gi tr bng tng o hm ring phn bc hai
theo cc to khng gian x, y, z. Bit dng c th ca U( r ) ta c th gii phng trnh
Schrodinger tm biu thc ca (r ) v E tc l xc nh c trng thi v nng lng ca
electron chuyn ng trong trng lc th.
* Xt trng hp electron chuyn ng t do (trng lc th bng 0), phng trnh Schrodiger
s l:
2m
E (r ) 0
2
Nghim ca phng trnh (10.3) c dng sng phng De Broglie:
(r )

(10.3)

(r ) Ae i k r

(10.4)

trong A l bin sng v l hng s, k l vect sng.


Nng lng ca electron chuyn ng t do l:

2k 2
E
2m
230

(10.5)

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

* Xt trng hp electron chuyn ng trong mng tinh th.


Cc ion dng ca cc nguyn t nm ti cc nt mng gy ra trng lc th tun hon

U (r ) U (r a) , vi a l chu k ca mng tinh th. iu ny c ngha l th nng ti hai im


c ta khc nhau mt hng s mng phi bng nhau. Nghim ca phng trnh Schrodinger
(10.2) c dng hm Block:

( r ) u k ( r ) ei k r

(10.6)

trong u k (r ) l hm tun hon ging nh trng lc th, vi cng chu k a ca mng tinh
th: u k (r ) u k (r a) . Hm sng Block l hm sng phng c bin bin thin tun hon vi
chu k ca mng tinh th. Xc sut tm thy electron mt im cho ca tinh th l hm tun
hon ca ta x. Kt qu gii phng trnh Schrodinger trong trng hp ny cho thy nng
lng ca electron cng tch thnh vng cho php v vng cm. y chng ta khng i su
vo gii bi ton ca c hc lng t m ch xem xt nh hng ca mng tinh th ln chuyn
ng ca electron theo hng nh tnh nh sau.
Khi electron chuyn trong mng tinh th chng s b nhiu x. Nhiu x ca electron
trn tinh th cng ging nh trng hp nhiu x ca tia X, do trc ht chng ta s nhc li
hin tng nhiu x ca tia X. Khi tia X p ln nt mng tinh th, mi nt mng s tr thnh
trung tm nhiu x. Chm tia X s nhiu x theo nhiu phng, tuy nhin ch theo phng phn
x gng mi quan st c hin tng nhiu x v theo phng cng ca tia nhiu x
ln. Hiu quang l ca hai tia 1 v 2 theo phng phn x gng L 2a sin , chng s giao
thoa vi nhau. Cc i giao thoa l
2a sin n

y chnh l iu kin phn x Bragg.


n gin ta xt bi ton chuyn ng ca cc electron trong mng tinh th mt chiu
gm cc nguyn t cng loi c sp xp trn mt ng thng v nm cch u nhau nhng
khong bng chu k a ca mng tinh th. p dng iu kin phn x Bragg cho bi ton trn,
sau khi thay / 2 v k 2 / ta tm c:
n.
(10.7)
n 1,2....
a
ng vi nhng gi tr k tho mn (10.7) nghim ca phng trnh Schrodinger (10.2) s khng
phi l sng chy nh trng hp electron t do m l sng dng to bi s giao thoa ca sng
ti v sng phn x (hai sng ny ging nhau, lan truyn theo hai chiu ngc nhau). iu
cng c ngha l trong nhng trng hp ny electron ng im, khng di chuyn c. Khi
electron ng im (v = 0) th n khng c ng nng m ch c th nng. i vi trng hp
electron trong tinh th th c hai v tr m n c th nm c nh : v tr ca cc nt mng,
ti y electron c th nng U1 m nht v v tr gia cc nt mng, ti y electron c th
nng U2 bt m hn. Vic trong tinh th khng phi c mt m hai v tr, ti electron c th
ng im dn n mt h qu quan trng, l s xut hin ca khe nng lng c rng
E U 2 U1 v cc electron khng c nng lng nm trong vng ny.
k

231

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Nh vy, do nh hng ca trng th nng tun hon, ph nng lng ca electron b


gin on, ngha l trong ph nng lng xut hin nhng khong gi tr nng lng khng th
c ca electron, vng nng lng ny c gi l vng cm.
Tm li theo mu in t chuyn ng trong tinh th gn nh t do, nng lng ca
electron l:

2k 2
U
(10.8)
2m
Nu k khng p ng iu kin phn x Bragg th electron chuyn ng hon ton t do v
E K0 U

2k 2
E K0
. Nu k p ng iu kin phn x Bragg th electron b c nh E U 1 hoc
2m
E U 2 . Nh vy th E = f(k) l mt ng gn nh l parabol, parabol ny b bin dng gn
cc im m ti k p ng iu kin phn x Bragg v gin on ti cc im ny (Hnh
10.4)

Hnh 10-4: S ph thuc nng lng ca electron trong tinh th vo s sng k

Tnh cht tun hon tnh tin ca mng tinh th lm cho nng lng ca electron chuyn
ng trong c cu trc theo vng, cc vng c php xen k cc vng cm. L do xut hin
cc vng nng lng b cm l phn x Bragg. E(k) l mt hm tun hon chn trong khng
gian k . c bit l ngi ta c th xc nh trong khng gian k (khng gian ng lng v

p k ) mt vng c dng khi a din m trong cha tt c nhng gi tr ca k c trng


cho tt c cc trng thi cho php ca electron. Vng c gi l vng Brillouin th nht (-

ai

ki

ai

). Ti bin ca vng Brillouin th nht p ng iu kin phn x Bragg lm

sinh ra vng cm th nht. Nu xt k tip tc tng ln na th n bin ca vng Brillouin th


hai li p ng phn x Bragg lm sinh ra vng cm th hai v c th tip tc...

232

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

10. 2. VT L BN DN
10. 2. 1. S vng nng lng ca cht bn dn
Bn dn l vt liu chnh ch to cc linh kin in t, linh kin quang in t. V vy
trong chng Vt l cht rn ch yu chng ta s xem xt mt s vn v vt l bn dn. S
vng nng lng chnh l s ph thuc nng lng E vo vect sng k , s ph thuc cn gi
l ph nng lng, hay quy lut tn sc. N l ni dung quan trng nht ca vt l cht rn.

Hnh 10-5: S vng nng lng ca bn dn vng cm thng (a) v


bn dn vng cm xin (b)

Bng 1: rng vng cm ti nhit phng ca mt s bn dn tiu biu


Cht bn dn

E g (eV ) ti 3000K

Loi vng cm

Ge

0.66

xin

Si

1.12

xin

SiC

2.99

xin

GaAs

1.42

thng

GaP

2.26

xin

Inas

0.36

thng

InP

1.35

thng

CdS

2.42

thng

CdTe

1.56

thng

Da vo cu trc vng nng lng ngi ta chia cht bn dn ra hai loi: bn dn vng
cm thng v bn dn vng cm xin (hnh 10-5), v iu ny nh hng n cc tnh cht
quang ca cht bn dn.
Bn dn vng cm thng: c cu trc vng nng lng vi cc i ca vng ho tr v cc
tiu ca vng dn nm ti cng mt im trong khng gian k.

233

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Bn dn vng cm xin: c cu trc vng nng lng vi cc i ca vng ho tr v cc tiu


vng dn nm ti hai im khc nhau trong khng gian k.
Cc thng tin v rng vng cm v loi vng cm ca mt s bn dn in hnh c a ra
trong bng 1.
10. 2. 2. Khi nim in t dn v l trng

Nh chng ta bit cht bn dn l cht nhit thp c vng ho tr c in y


hon ton bi electron v vng dn trng hon ton (khng c electron), hai vng ny ngn cch
vi nhau bi mt vng cm tng i hp (khng qu 3 eV). Nu t vo mu bn dn mt in
p, khi nhit thp cc electron vng ha tr khng th ly thm nng lng vt
qua vng cm chuyn ln vng dn v tham gia dn in. Nhng khi nhit tng, do kch
thch nhit cc electron c th ly nng lng nhy t vng ho tr ln vng dn tr thnh
electron gn nh t do, ng thi li vng ho tr nhng trng thi trng v cht bn dn c
th dn in c. Nhng electron gn t do trn vng dn c gi l electron dn. Cn nhng
trng thi trng di vng ha tr c gi l l trng.
10. 2. 2. 1. S ph thuc nng lng vo vect sng k ti y vng dn v nh vng ho
tr
Trong cht bn dn th hnh vi ca electron y vng dn v nh vng ha tr l quan
trng hn c, v ch c nhng electron ny mi c kh nng thay i trng thi ca mnh bng
cch chuyn mc nng lng trong vng dn hoc trong vng ha tr tham gia dn in.
Ta xt E (k ) ti ln cn y vng dn (nng lng trong khng gian k). Gi s nng lng trong
vng dn c cc tiu ti gi tr vect sng k 0 . Chng ta khai trin E (k ) bng chui Taylor ti
im k 0 , ta c:

E (k ) E (k 0 )

1
2E
(ki k 0i )(k j k 0 j ) ...

2 ij ki k j

(10-9)

Chng ta gii hn chui ny n s hng bc hai v gn ng nh vy c gi l gn ng


parabol.
Nu nng lng ch ph thuc vo gi tr tuyt i ca k m khng ph thuc vo hng ca n,
ta c th vit:

E (k ) E (k0 )

1 2E
(k k0 ) 2
2 k 2

(10-10)

Nu k0=0 v ly gc tnh nng lng l E(k0) th

E (k )

234

1 2 E 2 2k 2
k
2 k 2
2m*

(10-11)

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

trong m *

2
2E
k 2

c th nguyn khi lng, l i lng v hng v c gi l khi

lng hiu dng. Ln cn vng cc tiu nng lng ta c m* > 0, ngc li ln cn vng cc i
nng lng ta c m* < 0. Mt ng nng (qu tch ca nhng mt c cng nng lng trong khng
gian vect sng k ) trong trng hp ny l mt cu.

Trong trng hp tng qut E ph thuc vo vect sng k , vi gn ng parabol mt


ng nng trong khng gian k l mt mt elip, khi lng hiu dng l tenx bc hai.
T phng trnh (10-11) ta thy xung quanh im nng lng cc tr chuyn ng ca
electron vn c th coi l hon ton t do, ch khc l khi lng ca n by gi l m* ch
khng phi l m na. Nh vy, thng qua khi nim khi lng hiu dng ngi ta biu din
c tc ng ca trng tinh th ln electron. Nh khi nim ny tc ng ca trng tinh th
c gp vo thnh tnh cht gn lin vi electron v khi nim electron dn trong tinh th
tr nn mt chun ht (quasi-particle). c bit vi khi nim khi lng hiu dng chng ta
c th gii bi ton v chuyn ng ca electron c nng lng gn nng lng cc tr di tc
ng ca in trng ngoi n gin hn nhiu v phng php ny c gi l phng php
khi lng hiu dng.
10. 2. 2. 2. Chuyn ng ca electron trong tinh th di tc dng ca trng ngoi. Khi
nim l trng
Trc ht chng ta xt hnh vi ca electron ln cn im cc tiu nng lng di tc dng
ca in trng E . Theo nh lut hai Newton ta c:

F m* a e E
gia tc ca electron ngc chiu in trng:

(10-12)

eE

(10-13)

m*

Kt lun: ln cn cc tiu nng lng trong khng gian k (y vng dn), electron x s nh
mt ht c khi lng dng m* v c in tch m -e. Electron ny c gi l electron dn.
By gi chng ta xt hnh vi ca electron gn cc i nng lng di tc dng ca in
trng E . Theo nh lut hai Newton ta c:

F m* a e E
*
Nhng ti ln cn cc i nng lng ta c: m

2
0
2E
k 2

ta c th vit biu thc ca a

eE eE
*
m*
m

(10-14)

235

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

a cng chiu vi E .
Kt lun: ln cn cc i nng lng trong khng gian k (nh vng ho tr), electron x s
nh mt ht c khi lng dng bng -m* v c in tch dng. Vy chuyn ng ca electron
lin kt ti ln cn im cc i nng lng c th thay th bng chuyn ng ca mt ht mang
in tch dng, +e v c khi lng m * , ht c gi l l trng.
Ta bit rng vng ha tr ca cht bn dn ni chung c cc electron lp y gn ht
ch c mt s t cc mc nng lng st nh vng ha tr l b b trng. vng ha tr s tt hn
nu khng xt chuyn ng ca cc electron m xt chuyn ng ca l trng (cc mc nng lng
b b trng, khng c electron chim gi), v s lng l trng t hn s lng electron rt nhiu v
do bi ton s tr nn n gin hn.
Cc i lng c trng cho l trng thng c thm ch s p vo di, cn cc i lng
c trng cho electron thng c thm ch s e hoc khng c ch s. Mt s i lng c trng
ca l trng:
qp=+e

k p k

pp p

m*p me*

E p ( k ) Ee ( k )

Ta thy ch tr vn tc cn tt c cc tnh cht khc ca l trng u o ngc so vi


electron dn. Vn tc y chnh l vn tc trung bnh lng t hay vn tc nhm. Cng thc

E p (k ) Ee (k ) ni ln rng ng ph thuc ca nng lng vo k ca l trng i chiu so


vi ca electron. Cn phi nhn mnh rng, khi nim l trng l c trng cho cht bn dn, ch c
bn dn mi c, cn khi nim electron dn c c trong kim loi v l khi nim ch cht ca kim
loi.

10. 2. 3. Hm phn b Fermi Dirac


Theo l thuyt thng k lng t, electron c spin bn nguyn nn chng c phn b
trn cc trng thi nng lng xc nh bi hm Fermi - Dirac:

f ( E, T )

1
E EF
exp
k BT

(10-15)

trong k B l hng s Boltzman, T l nhit tuyt i, E l nng lng ca electron, EF l


mc nng lng Fermi. f(E,T) biu din xc sut mc nng lng E b electron lp y ti nhit
T v n c cc gi tr nh sau:

nhit T = 0: f(E) =1 khi E E F v f(E) = 0 khi E EF . iu ny c ngha l nhit


khng tuyt i, cc trng thi nng lng E E F u b cc electron lp y, cn
cc trng thi c nng lng E EF b b trng hon ton.

236

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

nhit T 0, ta c:

f ( E ) 1 khi

E EF
f ( E ) 1 / 2 khi

E EF
f ( E ) 0 khi E EF

Hnh 10-6. Hm phn b Fermi-Dirac

Khi E EF hm f(E) c th xem gn ng vi phn b Boltzman f ( E ) e ( E E F ) / kT .


Hm f(E,T) thay i rt nhanh t 0 n 1 trong khong k BT ln cn mc Fermi. Hm phn b
Fermi - Dirac ch c p dng cho cc electron dn v cc electron st nh vng ho tr (v ch
c cc electron ny mi c kh nng thay i nng lng ca mnh).
i vi l trng, tc l xt xc sut mc nng lng E b lp y bi l trng (hay b b
trng bi electron) ti nhit T th ta phi dng hm:
fp(E,T) = 1 - f(E,T)

(10-16)

10. 2. 4. Bn dn thun
Bn dn thun l bn dn ch c mt loi nguyn t trong mng tinh th v tnh dn in ca
n c to ra do s chuyn di ca electron t vng ho tr ln vng dn. Nh vy chuyn mc ca
electron trong bn dn ny l chuyn mc vng - vng v electron v l trng sinh ra theo tng
cp mt. Nguyn nhn chuyn mc ca electron thng l do thng ging nhit.
Silic (Si) v Germani (Ge) l hai bn dn thun in hnh hin ang c s dng nhiu
trong cng nghip in t.
Si l nguyn t nhm 4 trong bng tun hon Mendeleev. Mi nguyn t Si c 4 electron
ho tr. Trong mng tinh th Si, mi nguyn t Si lin kt vi bn nguyn t ln cn nh bn cp
electron ho tr (lin kt ng ho tr) v c biu din bng bn cp ng thng trong mt phng
(Hnh 10-7). Trong mng tinh th Si, cc electron ho tr u lin kt vi nguyn t xc nh ca
chng.
Do tc dng bn ngoi (nung nng, chiu sng...), cc electron ho tr c th thu nng
lng thot khi lin kt vi nguyn t ca chng v tr thnh electron t do. ng thi s xut
hin nhng lin kt ho tr b b trng do cc electron va di i. Nhng lin kt b b trng ny
c gi l l trng. Cc electron ho tr ca cc nguyn t ln cn li c th chuyn n lp cc l
trng. Di tc dng ca in trng trong mng tinh th Si s c dng electron t do mang in
tch m chuyn ng ngc chiu in trng, ng thi c dng l trng mang in tch dng
chuyn ng cng chiu in trng.

237

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Hnh 10-7. Bn dn thun Silic

Hnh 10-8. Chuyn mc vng-vng


trong bn dn thun

Theo l thuyt vng nng lng, qu trnh cc electron ph v lin kt ho tr vi nguyn t


ca chng c m t bng qu trnh chuyn trng thi nng lng ca electron t nh vng ho
tr, vt qua vng cm ln vng dn tr thnh electron dn. ng thi nh vng ho tr s xut
hin nhng trng thi nng lng b b trng do electron va ri i. Nhng trng thi nng lng b
b trng ny tng ng vi cc l trng. Cc electron lin kt vng ho tr c th d dng chuyn
trng thi nng lng ln chim cc l trng. Nh vy bn dn thun dn in bi c electron v l
trng, s electron t do v l trng trong bn dn thun l nh nhau v chng c sinh ra theo tng
cp mt (hnh 10-8).
Ngi ta chng minh c rng trong bn dn thun mt electron n e v mt l trng
np bng nhau v bng

E g

ne n p ni N C NV exp

2
k
T
B

(10-17)

trong ch s i c dng ch ra rng l bn dn thun (intrinsic). NC v NV c


gi l mt trng thi hiu dng ca vng dn v vng ha tr. Eg l rng vng cm.
Mc Fermi Ei ca bn dn thun:
*

m p EC EV 1
E EV 3
N
Ei C
k BT ln

k BT ln V
*
2
4
2
2
NC
me

(10-18)

Nhn vo cng thc trn ta thy ti nhit T = 00K mc Fermi nm chnh gia vng cm.
Khi nhit tng ln th tu thuc vo t l m*p / me* m ta c mc Fermi dch chuyn v pha y
vng dn EC hay nh vng ha tr EV.
Mt dng in tng cng do in trng gy nn (cn c gi l mt dng cun) s
l

j E j Ee j Ep E

l dn in ca bn dn v bng
e p ni (e e p p )

(10-19)

(10-20)

Cng thc (10-19) l nh lut m dng vi phn i vi tnh dn in ring ca bn dn


thun. e v p l linh ng ca electron v l trng.

238

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

10. 2. 5. Bn dn pha tp cht


Trong thc t, ngi ta thng pha thm cc nguyn t tp cht vo cc bn dn thun
lm tng ng k dn in ca chng. Lng tp cht pha thm vo rt nh so vi cc nguyn t
chnh, thng thng ch c mt phn triu (10-6, hay cn k hiu ting Anh l ppm), ngha l trong
mt mol cht bn dn thun c khong 1016 - 1017 nguyn t tp cht. Tu thuc vo ho tr ca cc
nguyn t tp cht pha vo bn dn thun, ta s nhn c hai loi bn dn tp cht c tnh dn khc
nhau: bn dn n dn in ch yu bng electron t do v bn dn p dn in ch yu bng l trng.
10. 2. 5. 1. Bn dn n

Hnh 10-9. Silic pha tp phosphor

Hnh 10-10. S nng lng ca bn dn n

Gi s trong mng tinh th bn dn Si c pha thm cc nguyn t tp cht thuc nhm nm


trong bng tun hon Mendeleev, v d phosphor (P). Mi nguyn t P c nm electron ho tr. Bn
trong s nm electron ho tr s tham gia lin kt vi bn nguyn t Si ln cn n bng bn cp
electron. Electron th nm lin kt rt yu vi ht nhn P nn n ch cn hp th mt nng lng
kh nh (0,02 - 0,05 eV) c th bt khi nguyn t P tr thnh electron t do v li ion dng
P+ nm ti nt mng tinh th Si. Khi c in trng, cc electron t do ny s chuyn ng ngc
chiu vi in trng ngoi v to thnh dng in trong cht bn dn tp cht (Hnh 10-9).
Bn dn Si pha tp P dn in ch yu bng cc electron t do mang in tch m nn c
gi l bn dn n (negativ). Nguyn t P nhng electron cho mng tinh th tr thnh ion dng,
v vy n c gi l cht cho hay cht no (donor). Nng lng ion ho nguyn t ca cht cho
kh nh nn theo l thuyt vng nng lng s xut hin cc trng thi nh x c nng lng Ed
nm trong vng cm gn y vng dn. Mc nng lng cho php ny gi l mc no hay mc
cho (Hnh 10-10). V s lng cc nguyn t tp P t nn khong cch gia cc nguyn t P rt ln,
ging nh cc nguyn t c lp chng khng tng tc vi nhau nn trng thi vi mc Ed ch nh
x trong mt vng rt hp ca tinh th. Cc mc tp no ny thng rt nng, c 0,05 eV, nn ti
nhit phng chng b ion ho ht (khng cn electron no trn mc tp no). Chuyn mc
y l chuyn mc tm tp - vng, tc l electron t mc tp nhy ln vng dn v chuyn mc
ny ch sinh ra mt loi ht ti l electron, (cn trng thi electron b b trng mc tp do electron
nhy ln vng dn l nhng v tr trng bt ng).
Nhng trong bn dn bt k (n hay p) th bao gi cng c thm chuyn mc vng - vng
do thng ging nhit. Do trong bn dn loi n ngoi electron dn bao gi cng c thm c l
trng, nhng vi nng thp hn rt nhiu, v Ed << Eg . Trong bn dn loi n electron c gi

239

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn


l ht ti c bn (hay ht ti chnh), cn l trng c gi l ht ti khng c bn (hay ht ti ph) :

n p ne
nhit khng cao, nu b qua dn in ring th dn in ca bn dn n c xc
nh gn ng bi cng thc

ene e

(10-21)

vi e, ne, e l in tch, mt v linh ng ca electron dn. Ngi ta chng minh c


ne ~

E d
N d exp
k BT

(10-22)

trong Nd l mt nguyn t ca cht cho, kB l hng s Boltzmann v Ed l nng lng


kch hot ca bn dn n. Nh vy mt electron dn v do dn in ca bn dn n tng
nhanh theo nhit T vi qui lut hm m.

10. 2. 5. 2. Bn dn p
Gi s trong mng tinh th bn dn Si c pha thm cc nguyn t tp cht thuc nhm ba
trong bng tun hon Mendeleev, v d Bo (B). Mi nguyn t B c ba electron ho tr. Khi nguyn
t B thc hin lin kt ng ho tr vi bn nguyn t Si ln cn th n ch c ba lin kt vi
ba cp electron ho tr v mt lin kt thiu mt electron. b sung electron cho lin kt thiu,
nguyn t B phi chim thm mt electron ca cc nguyn t Si ln cn v tr thnh ion m B - nm
nt mng ca tinh th Si. Ch lin kt thiu ca nguyn t Si do electron va di i tng ng
vi mt l trng mang in tch dng. L trng ny li c th c lp y bi electron ca cc
nguyn t Si ln cn. Khi c in trng tc dng, cc l trng s chuyn ng cng chiu in
trng v to ra dng in trong cht bn dn tp cht (Hnh 10-11).

Hnh 10-11. Silic pha tp bo

Hnh 10-12. S nng lng ca bn dn p

Bn dn Si pha tp B dn in ch yu bng cc l trng mang in tch dng nn c gi


l bn dn p (positiv). Nguyn t B nhn electron ca cc nguyn t Si ln cn tr thnh ion m,
v vy n c gi l cht nhn hay cht axepto (acceptor). Nng lng ion ho nguyn t ca cht
nhn kh nh nn theo l thuyt vng nng lng s xut hin cc trng thi nh x c nng lng
Ea nm trong vng cm gn nh vng ho tr. Mc nng lng cho php ny gi l mc axepto hay
mc nhn (hnh 10-12). V s lng cc nguyn t tp B t nn khong cch gia cc nguyn t B
rt ln, ging nh cc nguyn t c lp nn trng thi vi mc Ea ch nh x trong mt vng rt
240

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn


hp ca tinh th. Cc mc tp axepto ny thng rt nng, c 0,05 eV, nn ti nhit phng chng
b ion ha ht (khng cn l trng no trn mc tp axepto). Chuyn mc y l chuyn mc
vng - tm tp, tc l electron t nh vng ho tr nhy ln cc mc tp cn trng li nhng l
trng trn vng ho tr. Chuyn mc ny ch sinh ra mt loi ht ti l l trng, cn electron mc
tp l cc electron nh x, khng tham gia dn in.
Nhng trong bn dn bt k (n hay p) th bao gi cng c thm chuyn mc vng - vng do
thng ging nhit. Do trong bn dn loi p ngoi l trng bao gi cng c thm c electron dn,
nhng vi nng thp hn rt nhiu (v Ea << Eg). Trong bn dn loi p l trng c gi l ht
ti c bn (hay ht ti chnh), cn electron c gi l ht ti khng c bn (hay ht ti ph).
nhit khng cao, nu b qua dn in ring th dn in ca bn dn p c xc
nh gn ng bi cng thc

pn p p

(10-23)

vi p, np, p l in tch, mt v linh ng ca l trng. Ngi ta chng minh c


np ~

E a
N a exp
k BT

(10-24)

trong Na l mt nguyn t ca cht nhn, kB l hng s Boltzmann v Ea l nng lng


kch hot ca bn dn p. Nh vy mt l trng v do dn in ca bn dn p cng tng
nhanh theo nhit T vi qui lut hm m.
Trn thc t, trong cc linh kin thng s dng bn dn c c hai loi tp p v n v chng s
c tc dng b tr nhau mt phn hoc hon ton v loi bn dn ny c gi l bn dn b tr
tp.

10. 2. 6. Chuyn tip p n. Diode


10. 2. 6. 1. S hnh thnh chuyn tip p- n
T trc n nay chng ta ch mi xt cc bn dn ng nht, ngha l cc bn dn c thnh
phn, nng tp cht cc loi ng u trong ton mu. By gi chng ta xt bn dn khng ng
nht, mt trng hp c bit ca loi bn dn ny l chuyn tip p-n.
Ta s nhn c chuyn tip p-n nu ly hai ming bn dn loi p v loi n ca cng mt
cht bn dn cho tip xc vi nhau. Ta bit rng trong min n electron l ht ti c bn v l trng l
ht ti khng c bn, nng electron ln hn rt nhiu so vi nng l trng ne >> np. Trong
min p th ngc li, l trng l ht ti c bn v electron l ht ti khng c bn v np >> ne. Khi
cho hai bn dn p v n tip xc vi nhau, do c s chnh lch ln v nng ht ti nn hai bn
mt tip xc p - n s xy ra hin tng khuch tn cc ht ti c bn: electron s t min n sang
min p v l trng s t min p sang n. Qu trnh khuch tn ny to ra dng khuch tn jD ca cc
ht ti c bn hng t p sang n, ng thi li cc ion dng no min n v cc ion m axepto
min p. Kt qu dn n vic hnh thnh mt lp in tch kp mt tip xc p-n, v pha min n
tch in dng, cn v pha min p tch in m. Lp st bin ca mt tip xc p-n ny hu nh
khng c ht ti (electron v l trng) v vy n c tn l vng ngho ht ti in, mt khc vng
ny ch cn li ion dng no bn pha n v ion m axepto bn pha p nn cn c tn l vng in
tch khng gian.
241

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Hnh 10-13. Chuyn tip p-n iu kin cn bng


Lp in tch kp to ra in trng tip xc E tx hng t n sang p. Mt mt, E tx ngn cn
chuyn ng khuch tn ca cc ht ti c bn, lm gim dng khuch tn Ikt. Mt khc, E tx li gy
ra chuyn ng cun ca cc ht ti khng c bn (electron t p sang n, v l trng t n sang p) to
ra dng in cun Itr hng t n sang p, ngc chiu vi dng khuch tn Ikt . Theo thi gian tip
xc, in trng tip xc ngy mt tng ln lm cho dng khuch tn gim dn v dng cun tng
dn. Trng thi cn bng ng c thit lp khi dng khuch tn bng dng cun v cng
dng in chy qua lp tip xc p-n tr nn bng khng, in trng tip xc E tx t gi tr xc
nh.
Lp chuyn tip p-n c ng dng rng ri ch to cc diode v transistor. l nhng
linh kin in t c bn v quan trng hoc c dng ring r trong cc mch in t hoc kt hp
vi nhau trong mch t hp IC (Integrated Circuit).

10. 2. 6. 2. Diode v c tnh chnh lu


Diode l mt linh kin in t c cu to bi mt lp chuyn tip p-n gia bn dn loi p
v loi n: u bn dn p gi l ant A v u bn dn n gi l catt K. Ngi ta ni hai u ca
diode vi ngun in khng i c hiu in th U (hnh 10-14). in trng tng hp trong lp
chuyn tip p-n bng:

E Eo Etx
trong

Etx l in trng tip xc, Eo l in trng ngoi gy bi ngun in. Chuyn

tip p-n nm trong trng thi khng cn bng. C s chnh lch v mc Fermi gia min p v min
n.

Hinh 10-14. a) it c mc thun b) mc ngc

242

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Ta xt hai trng hp:


a. Trng hp mc thun (Hnh 10-14a): Ant ni vi cc + v catt ni vi cc - ca ngun
in. V

Eo Etx nn in trng tng hp E hng t bn dn p sang n. in trng ngoi c

tc dng lm gim hng ro th nng xung mt lng bng eU, do dng khuch tn cc ht ti
c bn qua lp chuyn tip p-n tng v to thnh dng in thun chy qua it theo chiu t p sang
n. Khi lp chuyn tip p-n b co hp li v in tr ca lp ny gim. Mt dng cc ht ti c
bn ln nn cng dng in thun ln v tng nhanh theo hiu in th U gia hai cc ant v
catt.
b. Trng hp mc ngc (Hnh 10-14b): Ant ni vi cc - v catt ni vi cc + ca ngun
in. in trng tng hp E hng t bn dn n sang p v n c tc dng ngn cn dng cc ht
ti c bn qua lp chuyn tip p-n nhng li tng cng dng cc ht ti khng c bn qua lp
chuyn tip v to thnh dng in ngc chy qua diode theo chiu t n sang p. Khi lp chuyn
tip p-n m rng ra, hng ro th nng c nng cao v in tr ca lp chuyn tip tng ln. V
mt cc ht ti khng c bn nh nn cng dng in ngc cng rt nh v di y ta thy
rng n hu nh khng ph thuc vo hiu in th ngoi.
Kt qu diode ch cho dng in qua n theo chiu thun t p sang n v hu nh khng cho
dng in chy theo chiu ngc t n sang p. Tc dng ny gi l c tnh chnh lu dng in ca
diode.
L thuyt v thc nghim chng t cng dng in I chy qua diode ph thuc hiu
in th U gia hai cc A, K theo qui lut hm m:

eU

I I o exp
1
k BT

(10-25)

trong e l in tch nguyn t, kB l hng s Boltzmann, T l nhit tuyt i, Io cng


dng in bo ha. Io nh, ph thuc cu to ca it v nhit . Khi hiu in th c gi tr m
v tr tng i ln th dng ngc tng vt do lp chuyn tip b nh thng v diode mt tc
dng chnh lu.

Hnh 10-15. c trng Vn Ampe ca it

243

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

10. 2. 7. Laser bn dn
Laser l ch vit tt ca Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation,
khuch i nh sng bng pht bc x cm ng. Gi s nguyn t c hai mc nng lng E1 v
E2, E2 > E1, E1 l mc c bn, cn E2 l mc kch thch. trng thi cn bng nhit mt ht
mc E1 ln hn mt ht mc E2, N1 > N2. H nguyn t ny tng tc vi bc x in t.
Theo Einstein, c th xy ra ba qu trnh quang hc: Hp th, pht x t pht, pht x cm ng.
Mt h nguyn t mc nng lng c bn E1 c th hp th mt bc x in t n
sc chiu ti v nhy ln mc nng lng kch thch E2 cao hn. Nguyn t ch tn ti mc
kch thch trong thi gian ngn, sau n chuyn v mc c bn mt cch t pht. Trong qu
trnh chuyn di n pht ra photon c tn s tun theo h thc
h E2 E1
Pht x ny c gi l pht x t pht, bi v n khng i hi mt kch thch no ca bn
ngoi. S chuyn di t pht c gy bi cc nhn t ni ti ca h nguyn t.
Mt nguyn t ang nm mc di c th hp th mt photon c nng lng
h E2 E1 ca bc x ti chuyn ln mc trn. Qu trnh ny c gi l hp th.
Di tc dng kch thch ca mt bc x in t, mt nguyn t ang trng thi kch
thch E2 c th chuyn xung mc nng lng thp hn E1 v pht ra bc x c nng lng
h E2 E1
Photon do nguyn t pht ra ging ht photon ca bc x kch thch nguyn t: cng nng lng
(tn s), cng hng, cng pha, cng phn cc. Qu trnh cng hng ny c gi l pht
x cm ng .
trng thi cn bng nhit ng hc xc sut pht x cm ng lun nh hn xc sut
hp th v pht x t pht. c th khuch i c nh sng th pht x cm ng phi p o
hai qa trnh kia. Mun vy ta phi ph v th cn bng nhit, lm cho mt ht trng thi
E2 ln hn E1 (N2 > N1, y l trng thi o mt ht) v tng cng mt ph kch thch.
Mi trng m trong mt ht trng thi ng vi nng lng cao hn li ln hn mt
ht trng thi ng vi nng lng thp hn c gi l mi trng nghch o mt .
My pht laser gm ba b phn chnh: mi trng cht c trng thi o mt ht, bm v
bung cng hng Fabry Perot. Trng thi o mt ht l trng thi khng cn bng, do
khng bn v cc nguyn t lun c xu hng tr v trng thi cn bng. Mun duy tr trng thi
o mt ht ta phi thng xuyn cung cp nng lng kch thch h ht, qu trnh gi l
qu trnh bm. Khi t c phn b o mt ht, xc sut xy ra pht x t pht cng tng ln
mnh. Nhng pht x t pht khng ph thuc vo mt ph bc x, n tr thnh nhiu khng kt
hp. Trong khi pht x cm ng t l vi mt ph bc x kch thch. Do chng ta phi tng
mt ph ca bc x kch thch bng phng php ghp phn hi dng, ng thi tp trung nng
lng vo mt vi mode sng vi di tn hp. thc hin ng thi hai iu ny ngi ta dng
bung cng hng Fabry - Perot.

244

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Hnh 10.16 S nguyn l bung cng hng Fabry Perot


Bung cng hng quang hc Fabry-Perot l h hai gng phng t song song nh hnh
10.16 (cng c th l gng lm vi bn knh rt ln). Mt gng phn x nh sng hon ton cn
mt gng phn x mt phn v truyn qua mt phn. Cc gng ny to iu kin nh sng
qua li nhiu ln trong mi trng kch hot. Do cng chm sng tng rt nhanh (t l theo
hm m vi qung ng) trc khi phng ra khi gng phn x mt phn. Nh vy nh php
ghp phn hi dng mt ph kch thch tng nhanh lm cho xc sut pht x cm ng vt tri
hn so vi pht x t nhin. Mt khc do cc photon chuyn ng song song dc theo trc ca mi
trng hot cht, nhng photon do pht x t nhin sinh ra pht theo cc hng khc s bay ra khi
mi trng v khng gi vai tr g trong hot ng ca my pht laser. Do chm laser pht ra rt
nh hng. Trong bung cng hng mt photon do pht x cm ng sinh ra s kch thch nhiu
photon khc v gy ra hin tng pht x cm ng trong ni ti mi trng, to ra hiu ng thc l.
Hin tng xy ra nh th hin tng cng hng.
Theo quan im sng, cng chm sng t l thun vi bnh phng bin sng nh
sng. S tng mnh cng chm sng trong bung cng hng c ngha bin sng nh sng
tng mnh. Nh vy, khi tr li mt im no trong mi trng kch hot sau nhiu ln phn x
trn cc gng, sng ti im phi c pha trng vi sng s cp ban u. Nu ta gi chiu di
bung cng hng l L, th sau hai ln phn x trn hai gng sng phn x i c qung ng l
2L. sng phn x cng pha vi sng s cp th hiu quang l phi bng s nguyn ln bc sng

2nL m
hay

Lm

(m 1,2....)

2n

(10-26)

n: chit sut ca mi trng kch hot. B cng hng Fabry-Perot phi c di L tho mn
iu kin (10-26).

245

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

Hnh 10.17 Laser bn dn vi bung cng hng Fabry-Perot


Mt laser bn dn ri rc l mt chuyn tip p-n c dng hnh hp ch nht chiu di c
300 m , chiu rng c 50 m , hai mt bn phng c to bng cch ch tinh th to nn hai
gng phn x ca mt bung cng hng Fabry-Perot. Mi trng kch hot trong laser bn dn
thng l mt chuyn tip p-n pha tp mnh. Trong bn dn loi n+ (loi n pha tp mnh) mc
Fermi nm trong vng dn, cn trong bn dn loi p+ (loi p pha tp mnh) mc Fermi nm trong
vng ho tr, ngha l cc bn dn c pha tp suy bin nng. Khi t vo chuyn tip p - n mt
thin p thun, electron v l trng c phun vo vng ngho to ra ti mt nng electron d
ln trn vng dn v mt nng l trng d ln di vng ho tr, tc l to ra trng thi o mt
ht. Bc x cm ng thng th so vi bc x t pht c th thc hin c nh bung cng
hng Fabry Perot. Khi c hai iu kin: trng thi o mt v mt photon cao tha mn th
qu trnh bc x cm ng c tng cng, chim u th v mu hot ng trong ch pht x
cm ng.

cho sng quang hc c kh nng cao nht tn ti trong vng o mt ngi ta s


dng cu trc d th kp (hnh 10.18), v n c tc dng giam gi ht ti trong vng ti hp pht
x lm tng hiu sut pht quang v cc lp c vng cm rng bao quanh c tc dng nh ca
s quang hc, chng khng hp th nh sng pht ra.

Hnh 10.18. S chuyn tip d th GaAs AlxGa1-xAs


Laser vi bung cng hng Fabry-Perot thng rt kh ch to ng b trong mch tch
hp quang (OIC), v trong khng th ch to hai mt phn x hai u laser bng cch b phin

246

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn


silic, kh khn trong vic ch to ng dn in v thot nhit ca mch. khc phc nhc
im ngi ta ch to cc laser phn hi phn tn nh cch t Bragg (DFB). Cch t Bragg
c to nn bng cch lm nhn lp bin phn cch gia hai lp bn dn cu thnh laser. Lp nhn
to cch t nm ngoi chuyn tip p-n trnh sai hng trong lp o mt , v nhng sai hng c
th gy cc ti hp khng pht x.

Hnh 10.19. Cu trc it laser phn hi phn tn.


Chng ta bit iu kin nhiu x Bragg l quang l ca cc tia phn x t cc mt
k tip nhau phi khc nhau mt s nguyn ln bc sng 2d sin m , m=1,2,3...trong gc
l gc gia tia ti v mt phn x, bc sng trong mi trng vt liu ( 0 / n , n chit sut
hiu dng ca vt liu). Sng quang lan truyn song song vi cch t, nn y l s giao thoa gia
hai sng lan truyn theo hai phng ngc nhau, ta thay =900 v d l chu k ca cch t. Khi
iu kin i vi 0 s l

2dn
m

m 1,2,3...

Khi m=1 th bc sng 0 2dn c gi l bc sng Bragg bc 1. nh sng phn x c


th tha mn iu kin Bragg th hai (m=2), khi chu k cch t tng ln, d ch to hn. Lp
cch t c th ch to nh cng ngh quang khc hoc cng ngh n mn ha hc.
Tia laser c cng rt ln, tnh nh hng cao, kt hp trit v cc k n sc do
c nhiu ng dng trong k thut v i sng. Chm tia laser gi vai tr quan trng trong k thut
o lng chnh xc, in, chp, to nh. Laser l ngun pht sng cc k quan trng trong h thng
thng tin quang hc. Do c tnh kt hp cao v mt nng lng cao c iu ch vi tn s cao
nn n mang tn hiu truyn i trong si cp quang vi tin cy cao. Mt si thy tinh quang dn
mnh nh si tc c th truyn i ng thi hng trm cuc thng tin in thoi. Do c cng
cc mnh v nh hng rt cao nn tia laser c th dng nh li dao nng cc sc gia cng
vt liu, dng lm dao m trong y hc

247

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

HNG DN HC CHNG 10
VT L CHT RN V BN DN
I. MC CH - YU CU
1. Nm v vn dng c l thuyt vng nng lng phn loi vt rn tinh th: kim loi,
bn dn, in mi.
2. Hiu c c ch dn in ca cc cht bn dn: bn dn tinh khit, bn dn n, bn dn p.
ng dng ch to it.
3. Hiu c c ch hot ng ca my pht laser, chc nng ca cc b phn chnh ca my
pht laser. Cu to ca laser bn dn.

II. TM TT L THUYT
Vt rn tinh th c cu trc mng tinh th, c c trng bi chu k d ca mng. Ti cc
nt mng c nhng nguyn t, phn t cu to nn vt rn. C bn loi lin kt: lin kt nguyn t,
lin kt ion, lin kt kim loi v lin kt phn t.
Trong vt rn tinh th nng lng ca electrn c cu trc vng nng lng, c vng c
php v vng cm. hiu c l do dn n s hnh thnh vng nng lng ta c th i theo hai
cch: Cch th nht l coi cc electron lin kt cht ch vi cc nguyn t m ca chng v nghin
cu s thay i cc trng thi ca cc electron ny khi c mt s lng ln cc nguyn t kt hp
li vi nhau to nn vt rn tinh th. Cch tip cn ny c gi l php gn ng in t lin kt
cht. Cch th hai l coi cc electron lin kt yu vi cc nguyn t m ca chng v xt chuyn
ng ca chng trong trng th nng tun hon do cc ion ca mng tinh th sinh ra. Cch tip cn
ny c gi l php gn ng in t gn t do.
Vi cch th hai ngi ta gii phng trnh Schrodinger ca electron chuyn ng trong
trng lc th tun hon ca mng tinh th. Kt qu nhn c l nng lng ca electron trong
mng tinh th c tch thnh nhng vng: vng cho php v vng cm. Vng cm l vng trong
khng th c nhng gi tr nng lng cho php ca e. Nhng gi tr c php ny nm trong
vng cho php. Vng cho php c th l vng y hoc vng trng. Ty theo khong cch ca vng
cm v tnh cht ca vng cho php ngi ta phn chia ra cht dn in, cht bn dn v cht in
mi.
Tnh dn in ca cht bn dn tinh khit, bn dn c pha tp cht (bn dn n hay bn dn p)
cng c gii thch trn c s ca l thuyt vng nng lng.
Chuyn tip p n c cu to t s ghp ni gia hai ming bn dn loi p v loi n ca
cng mt cht bn dn cho tip xc vi nhau. Chuyn tip p n c s dng ch to cc it
bn dn chnh lu v it laser.

248

Chng 10: Vt l cht rn v bn dn

My pht laser hot ng trn nguyn tc khuch i nh sng bng pht bc x cm


ng. Di tc dng kch thch ca mt bc x in t, mt nguyn t ang trng thi kch
thch E2 c th chuyn xung mc nng lng thp hn E1 v pht ra bc x c nng lng
h E2 E1
Photon do nguyn t pht ra ging ht photon ca bc x kch thch nguyn t: cng nng
lng (tn s), cng hng, cng pha, cng phn cc. Qu trnh ny l qu trnh pht bc x cm
ng. pht x cm ng thng pht x t pht th ta phi c mi trng trng thi o mt ht
v bung cng hng Fabry Perot tng mt ph ca bc x kch thch.
My pht laser gm ba b phn chnh: mi trng cht c trng thi o mt ht, bm v
bung cng hng Fabry Perot.
Laser bn dn s dng mt chuyn tip p n. Khi t vo chuyn tip p - n mt thin p
thun, electron v l trng c phun vo vng ngho to ra ti mt nng electron d ln trn
vng dn v mt nng l trng d ln di vng ho tr, tc l to ra trng thi o mt ht.
Bc x cm ng thng th so vi bc x t pht c th thc hin c nh bung cng hng Fabry
Perot bng cch ch tinh th to nn hai gng phn x ca mt bung cng hng hoc s dng
cch t Bragg.
Tia laser c cng rt ln, tnh nh hng cao, kt hp trit v cc k n sc do
c nhiu ng dng trong k thut v i sng.

III. CU HI L THUYT
1. Phn bit cc loi lin kt trong mng tinh th ca vt rn.
2. Trnh by l thuyt vng nng lng v s to thnh cc vng: vng cho php, vng cm,
vng ha tr trong vt rn tinh th. Gii thch s phn loi vt rn thnh cht dn in (kim loi), bn
dn v cht cch in (in mi).
3. Trnh by v khi nim electron dn v l trng.
4. Trnh by v bn dn tinh khit, bn dn n, bn dn p (cu to, vng nng lng, ht ti
in).
5. Trnh by cu to ca it bn dn v c tnh chnh lu.
6. Phn bit pht x t pht v pht x cm ng.
7. nh ngha trng thi o mt ht nguyn t. trng thi cn bng nhit c trng thi
o mt ht khng ? to trng thi o mt ht nguyn t ta phi lm th no ?
8. Phn tch c ch khuch i ca b cng hng, t i n hiu ng laser.
9. Nu nhng b phn chnh v chc nng ca chng trong my pht laser.
10. Trnh by nhng nt c bn ca laser bn dn GaAs.

249

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

HNG DN GII BI TP V P S
CHNG 1
DAO NG V SNG

1.

CU 02
1
2
2
0,2 A
E CU 0 10 J ; I 0
L
2

2. a. T 2 LC 3,16.10 3 s , f

1 Q 02
b. E
12,5.10 6 J ,
2 C
3.

1
316 Hz
T

c.. I 0

Q 02
LC

5.10 3 A

a. Q = 2,5.10-6cos2.103t (C); I = 4.10-3 sin2.103t (A)


b. W =1,25. 10-4J.
c. Tn s dao ng ca mch :0 = 103 (Hz)

4.

a. T = 4.10-4 (s);

Et
(Q 0 e t ) 2
(Q e t t ) 2
100 , t 6,8.10 3 s
, E t t 0
,
2C
2C
E t t

5.

Et

6.

a. C

7.

b. Ut / Ut+T =1,04 ln

02 L

10 6
F,
1,6

1 Q 02
2.10 4 J ;
2 C

b. i

dq
2.10 2 sin 400t (A)
dt

a. T

2
1
1
5.10 3 s , f 200Hz ; b. L
1H
0
T
C02

c E e(max)

CU 02
LI 2
1,97.10 4 J , E m(max) 0 1,97.10 4 J
2
2

d. U 0 25,2 V
8.

a. T

2
1
1
10 3 H
2.10 4 s , f 5.103 Hz ; b. L
2
0
T
C0

du
c. i C
1,4 sin 10 4 t A ;
dt

250

CU 02
0,11.10 2 J
d. E
2

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

9.

a.T = 4.10-4s, f

10. T

1
2500Hz ;
T

4.104 ( s) ;

1
R
2
LC 4 L

11.

Ut
1,04
U t T

U 0e t
3 e t 3
t t
U 0e

R
T 4.102 ;
2L

2 L ln 3
102 s
R

U
T ln 0
4
U1 2.10 ln 3 0,22
a. T 2 LC 2.10 4 (s) ,
t
10 3

b.

2L
11,1
T

0,52.10 8 F

12.

13. C

1
0, 625.107 F ;
L 2

4 2 c 2 L

Q02
W
2.104 J
2C
14.

b.

i q 68, 2cos 4000 t mA


2

ch = c.T = 15.104m

= 3,4.10-3s;

1
R
2
LC 4 L

R
T 0,57 ;
2L


2
o

1 R

1818rad / s ;
LC 2 L

15. = 1000(rad/s) ;

16.

C =

1
= 0,33m F ;
w2L

q 40e167t cos1818 (C)

t s =1

1 cT1 2 c LC1
21 cT2 2 c LC2 6 c LC1 31

Di tn m my thu c th bt c ng vi cc bc sng t 3m n 9m
17. T = 5. 10-3 s ;

C = 6,3 . 10-7 F;

'
'
Ut
U o e - bt
18.
=
= e bt e bt = 2
- b ( t +t ')
U t +t ' U o e
;
;

19.

Wmax = We = 1,97 . 10-4 J

Umax = 25,2 V;

t' =

ln 2

b ;

b=

R
= 10p
2L
;

t '=

ln 2
10p

= (2/).y=4 (rad)
251

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

20.

x=0

im M cch im O mt khong l y s dao ng chm hn mt khong thi gian =


y/u. Phng trnh dao ng l x = sin 2,5(t y/u) (cm).
21.

4,66.104 Hz

22.

610 Hz

23.

4 ln.

24.

=6
CHNG 2
GIAO THOA NH SNG

1.

a) = 0,5m.;

c)y = 1,5 cm

b) ys3 = 4,5 mm ; yt4 = 5,25 mm;

d) H thng vn st li gn nhau mt on 0,37mm v i = 1,13 mm.


2

a.

i
0,6.10 6 m ,
D

a. y s 4

10 3 m ,

b. n

y. eD
1,25
eD

i
0,6.10 6 m ,
D

b n

i 4

i 3

4.

a. i

5.

a.

6.

a. N

4D
(2k 1)D
1,2.10 3 m , y t 5
1,35.10 3 m

y.
8.10 6 m
(n 1).D

b. e

7.

(2k 1)D
3mm, y s 4 4i 4,8mm
2

e(n 1).D
0,02m

c. y
3.

b. y t 3

i1 1
1, 25
i2 2

b. N

i1 1
1, 25
i2 2

2nd
k 0,5

- T iu kin 0,4m 0,7m - Suy ra 1,58< k< 2,5


8.

n = 1,000865.

9. d (2k 1)

252

4n '

dmin = 0,11 m

: = 0,48 m

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

10.
11

d = 0,12 m

4nd
2k 1

- iu kin ( 0,45 m 0,75 m) suy ra 1,25 k 2,57


k = 2;
- Suy ra bc sng = 0,492 m
12. 5.104 rad , 0,64 m .
13. d k
14.

k
; k 0,1, 2....
2
;

sin

d k 10 d k
3.104 rad
i

- Thay s: l = 0,58 m

15. a.

5
b. k 2 k1
6

0,5.10 3 rad ;

2i

k1

12

18

k2

10

15

x1=x2 (mm)

3,0

6,0

9,0

16.

2ni 0,529m

17.

d s1

18.

d t4

4
1,2m
2

19.

r42
0,589m
4R

0,15m

20. k =33- Kt lun v s vn sng quan st


21.

r25 r4 2

R 25 4

22.

= 2.10-4 rad.

23.

24.

= 8 m

25.

n = 1,00025

0,6.10 6 m

D22 D12
0.5m
4 R(k 2 k1 )

26. : rk Rk
27.

- Thay k = 3 vo n =1.33

r5 = 1,33 mm
253

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

m.
1,5.10 5 cm
2

28.

29.

30.

1,00038

2.
0,644m
m

CHNG 3
NHIU X NH SNG

1.

r1 = 0,5mm;

r2 = 0,71mm;

r3 = 0,86mm;

r4 =1mm;

2.

r1 = 0,71 mm, r2 = 1 mm; r3 = 1,23 mm; r4 = 1,42 mm;

kRb
10 3 m
Rb

3.

4.

C tm ti.

5.

r3

6.

=0,6 m

7.

Mun tm nhiu x l ti nht : r = 1mm

3Rb
b 2m
Rb

Tm nhiu x l sng nht : r =0,71 mm


8.

Tm nhiu x l ti
Rb
; R b x 2R 1,67m
Rb

9.

r1

10.

sin

k
, sin 1 1 17 08, 2 36 05, 3 62 0
b

11. = 300
12.

l = 5 cm

13.

l = 0,6 m

14.

3 = 4004930

15. sin 2
16. a.. d

254

32 sin 1
2 55 0 40
21
1
m
2,8.10 4 cm ; n 3571 khe / cm
d
sin

r5 = 1,59 mm

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

b. Gia hai cc tiu chnh bc nht c 7 cc i chnh.


17.

f 0,625m

18.

2 1 7

19.

i vi nh sng : m1
i vi nh sng tm: m2

1
d

m1max 2

m2max 4

20.

a. N =25000;

b. = 0,4099 m

21.

a. Nmax = 7;

b. = 0,67m

22..

a. m = 2 ;
b. sin j = m

d =m

= 6 m

sin j

l
d

tg j =

L
2f

sin j = tg j

l
L
=
d 2f

L=2

lf
= 0,1m
d

23. d = 9,9.10-6m, k<19,8, vy c 39 cc i chnh quan st c trn mn.


24.
sin = 0,1; c 9 cc i chnh gi hai cc tiu chnh bc nht.
25.
a. y1 = Dtg D sin 5,9mm ; y2 = Dtg D sin 11,8mm
b. rng ca vn trung tm: x = 12mm

26.

27.

m11
0, 447 m
m2

n=

1
= 200 vch / mm
d
CHNG 5
PHN CC NH SNG

1.

n
1
sin i gh kk
n 2 1,414
n
2
tgi B

2.

3.

n
n kk

1,414 i B 54 0 43 .

n. sin 330

1 n. sin 330

n 1,56

i B 57 030, i B 49 0 43

255

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

4.

n/ = 1,63, i = 66056/

5.

n
tgi tgi B 1 ;
n2

i iB

n
tg 1 n 2
2
2 n2

6.

n= 1,73

7.

n1 = 1,33

8.

= 450

9.

a. gim 2,1 ln;

10.

0 =3,55.10-7m; e = 3,95.10-7m.

11.

12.

13.

L n 0 n e d 2k 1 , k 0,1, 2, 3,...
4

14.

a. dmax = 0,49mm. b..dmax = 0,47mm

15.

1,33

b. gim 8,86 ln.

2k 1 0,8m;
4n0 ne

k=0

4d n0 ne
; Vi k = 6; 7; 8; 9; 10;
2k 1

2 = 0,60 m;

3 = 0,473 m;

4 = 0,430 m

d =0,25 m.

d2 2

d 2 3,4mm
d 1 1

17.

18.
19.

97 0
tg
2

2
.L 30 (rad )

1 = 0,692 m;
16

n1

l = 0,589 m
d = 0,589 m

nh sng phn cc thng qua bn mt phn t bc sng tr thnh nh sng phn cc


trn th phng dao ng ca vc t cng in trng hp vi quang trc mt gc
45o
CHNG 6
THUYT TNG I HP EINSTEIN
1.

l l0 1

256

v 2 l0
v 2,59.108 m / s
c2 2

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

2.

m0
1

v2

2m 0 v 2,59.108 m / s

c2

4.

v 2,985.108 m / s
m0
m
1
1
m

2,3
2
2
2
m
0
v
v
(0,9c)
1
1
1
2
2
c
c
c2

5.

t= 3,2s.

3.

6.

mc m 0 c eU

m 0c 2
1

7.

m 0 c eU

m0c 2
1

8.

E m 0 c 2

E m 0 c

9.

10.

11.

E + m 0 c 2 mc 2 ,

, 0 1

v2
c2

v2 1
1
U 9.108 V
2
0
2
c

c2

m0c 2
1

c2

c2

m0c 2
1

v2

v2

v
95% U 1,1.10 6 V
c

v2

2m 0 c 2

v 86,6

v 2,6.108 m / s
c 100

c2
m
2 E = 8,2.10-14J
m0

1
1
v2 2
E m 0 c 2
1 m 0 c 2 1
v 2,22.108 m / s
2
2
2
3

c
v
1

c2

E
m
4,65.10 17 kg
2
c
CHNG 7
QUANG HC LNG T

1.

P T 4S 1417,5 ( W)

257

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

P
8,28.4,18
4
1004 K
S
5,67.10 8.6.10 4

2.

T 4

3.

4.

T
Tmin
Tmax Tmin 80 K, max
2300 K Tmax 2340 K, Tmin 2260 K
2

12.103.4,18
836 ( W) T
60
4

Pmax Tmax

Pmin Tmin

d
.4
2

828 (K )

1,15

5.

T
R
1. 2 2 81 ln ,
R 1 T1

T
2. m1 2 3 ln
m2

T1

1
bT1
b
b
1
, m2
b
T2
290 (K)
T1
T2
T1 b
T2 T1

6.

m1

7.

R(T ).a.S.t .T 4 .a.S.t 5,67.10 8.(27 273) 4 .0,8.1000.24.60.60 3,17.1010 J


m = 9,65m

8. a

T 4 St

0,7

9. . T = b/m

6m 2

10.

T 4 .S.t 1,33.105 J

11.

'

P UI

S dl

'

a
' aT 4

0,33

UI
dl

T 4

UI
2620 K
a dl
4

b 2
r 4.10 26
P 4
12. a.
P T S , S 4r , T=b/m
m
b. Mt nng lng nhn c trn tri t c coi l nng lng do mt tri pht ra
sau mi giy gi qua mt n v din tch mt cu c bn knh bng d
4

13.

P
4d

max=b/T

1,4.103

a. 10-4 cm

/ m2

b. 4,83.10-4 m

c. 2,9.10-10 m

14.
T= 320K. nhit khng i th qu cu bc x bao nhiu nng lng th phi hp
th by nhiu nng lng.

P T 4 S 5,67.10 8.320 4.4.3,14.0,02 2 2,987W

258

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

hc
5,18.10 7 m ,
A1

15.

01

16.

1 0
2.

17.

02

03

hc
6,21.10 7 m
A3

hc
hc 6,625.10 34.3.108
A

39,75.10 20 J
6
A
0
0,5.10

hc
1
2 hc

6
A m e v 02 max v 0 max
A 0,93.10 m / s

2
me

hc
hc
A eU h A
eU h 36,32.10 20 J

1.

m e v 02 max
2.
eU h v 0 max
2

1. 0

18.

hc
5,4.10 7 m ,
A2

2eU h

me

2.1,6.10 19.0,76
9,1.10

31

0,52.10 6 m / s

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

0,5.10 6 m

19
A
2,48.1,6.10

2.

hc
1
A m e v 02 max v 0 max

3.

hc
A eU h U h 0,97 V

2 hc

6
A 0,584.10 m / s
me

1. A h 0 39,75.10 20 J ,

19.
2.

hc
hc
1
A eU h U h ( A) 2,83V

3.

1
m e v 02 max eU h v 0 max
2

2eU h
10 6 m / s
me

20. 1. A = h0 = 39,75.10-20J,
A eU h
13,25.1014 z ,
2. h A eU h
h
3.

v 0 max

21. 1. 0
2.
3.

2
h - A 10 6 m / s
me

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

0,578.10 6 m

19
A
2,15.1,6.10

hc
1
A m e v 02 max v 0 max

2 hc

6
A 0,37.10 m / s
me

hc
hc
1
A eU h U h ( A) 0,39 V

259

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

23.

e(U 2 U1 )
=6,43.10-34Js
1
1
c

2 1

22.

h h 6,625.10 34.5.1014
p

1,1.10 27 kg.m/s
8

c
3.10
m

h
c

24.

6,625.1034.5.1014
16

3,7.10 36 kg

9.10

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

3,3.10 19 J
6

0,6.10

h 6,625.10 34
p
1,1.10 27 kg.m/s

0,6.10

25.

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

19,88.10 14 J

12

10

h 6,625.10 34
p
6,62.10 22 kg.m/s

12

10
hc
26.
a. E1 h 1
8eV

b. E2 h 2

hc

1,24MeV

Trng hp a tnh theo cng thc c in

v1

2( E1 A)
10 6 m / s
mo

Trng hp b tnh theo c hc tng i. Cng thoat ca bc A=0,75.10-18J tng ng 4,7eV


rt nh so vi nng lng ca phtn nn c th b qua. T c

1
E 2 mo c 2
1

2 2
1 v / c

( 2 Eo E 2 ) E 2
v

0,95
c
Eo E 2
v= 0,95c = 2,85.108 m/s
27.

hc

moe c 2

'
1

260

moe c 2
hc

'
1 v2 / c2

moe c
1

h 1 2

0,0434 A

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

' 0.0134

28.

29.

30.

33.

2c

63o23

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

2,3.10 14 J
12

8,64.10

hc

0,8.1,6.10 13 1,553.10 12 m ,
2 c sin 2 50 011

2
hc
2.
8,19.10 14 J 0,2MeV

1. 2 c sin 2 5.10 12 2.2,426.10 12.0,25 6,213.10 12 m


2

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

3,2.10 14 J ;
12

6,213.10
2

5.10

12

2.2,426.10

hc 6,625.10 34.3.108

2,68.10 14 J ;

12

7,426.10

hc hc
1
1

hc
,

Ed max

32.

hc
5.10 12 m , 2c sin 2 8,64.10 12 m ;

2. 2c sin

31.

1.

sin

hc

2hcc

2c
2

h 6,625.10 34

10 22 kgm / s
6,213.10 12

12

2
. 7,426. 10 12 m
2

h 6,625.10 34

0,89.10 22 kgm / s

12
7,426.10

2 c sin 2

,
2

sin 2

1.
2

0,057 A0

hc hc hc

'
'

2c sin 2

2c sin 2

a. 60 o

E=1,19.10-14J 120 keV

b. 90 o

E= 2,96. 10-14J 186 keV

c. 180 o E= 4,09. 10-14J 256 keV



p p pe pe p p

pe2 p 2 p 2 p e

h2
2

h2

1,6.10 22 kg.m / s

34. = 49 .
35. = c/2 = 2,426.10-12/2 = 0,012

261

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

CHNG 8
C HC LNG T

1.

E = mc2 ; E h

a.

m = 3,2.10-36 kg
hc
E
1,2.10 12 J

2.

hc

h
c

c2
b. 8,8.10-30 kg
c. 1,8.10-30 kg
h
h
; m
1,38.10 30 kg ; p 4,1.10 22 kgm / s
c

3.

m e v 2 hc

v
2

4.

p me v

5.

C hai trng hp a v b v << c do p dng c hc c in.


h
h
a.
b.
7,3
6,6.10 29 m
me v
mv

6.

m
h
do e c 10 27
c me
mv

7.

hc
12,3.10 7 m
E

8.

p dng c hc c in

2hc
9,2.10 5 m / s
me

h
h
v
1400m / s

.m e

h
; e = 7,28.10-14 m ; p = 0,396.10-12 m
mv
c
3100

E
9,7.1014 s 1 ;
h

10.
Tn s ca sng in t khng thay i khi chuyn qua cc mi trng khc nhau. Do
c
v
= 0. Bc sng ca sng th thay i ck ; nc . Do bin thin ca bc

9.

sng bng : ck nc

1,03.10 7 m

E
26.1014
hc /

11.

S phtn bng: N

12.

v ln c c nn p dng c hc tng i tnh:

p mv

m0 v
2

2.10 22 kg.m / s ;

v
c2
13. 1. p dng CHC v E << moc2 = 0,51MeV
1

262

= 3,3.10-12 m

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

m v
h

; eU e
me v
2
2

h
2m e eU 2

6,625.10 34

2.9,1.10 31.1,6.10 19

2m e eU1

1,225.10 10 m , 3

2m e eU 3

12,25.10 10 m

0,338.10 10 m

2. v c c nn p dng c hc tng i

14.

m 0e
h
;m

2
mv
v
1c2

Ed = eU;

h 1-

c2
0,69.10 11 m
m 0e v

(mc2)2 = (moc2)2 + p2c2;

15.

eU (eU 2mo c 2 )
c

hc
eU (eU 2mo c 2 )

1. Nng lng ngh ca electrn E0 = 0,51MeV

me v2
E

Khi E = 100eV :

2. Khi E = 3MeV:

m0v
1

p
16.

(mc2 moc2)( mc2 + moc2) = p2c2

Ed ( Ed 2mo c 2 )

Ed (Ed + 2moc2) = p2c2;

v2

v2

6,625.10 34
2.1,6.10 17.9,1.10 31

1,23.10 10 m

, E m 0 c 2
1
1 2

1 2

m0 v

c2

E ( E 2mo c 2 )
c

h
0,62.10 10 m
p

v E nh so vi nng lng ngh

mv 2
h2
h
eU m
1,67.10 27 kg

, E
2
2
2mE
2eU
17.

CHC:

18. CHC:

19.

vB ;

h
h
v
0,12.10 7 m / s
me v
me

m v2
h
h2
; eU e
U
150V
me v
2
2m e e2

FL qvB

mv 2
;
r

v = rqB/m (q = 2e).

h
h
h

10 11 m
mv rqB 2erB

263

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

20.

Cng ca lc in trng bng A = eU = Ed.

h
2mo eU

v2
c2

mo c 2
eU mo c 2

mo v
2

1- v / c
21.

p 2mo eU

1,72

1
E d mo c 2
1 eU ;
1 v 2 / c 2

* U = 510 kV, eU = 0,51 MeV.:

mo v 2
p2

2
2mo

eU

* U = 51 V, eU = 51 (<<0,51 MeV). ;

c eU (eU 2mo c 2 )
eU mo c 2

eU (eU 2mo c 2 )
c

hc
2

eU (eU 2mo c )

0,014

- Nu s dng h thc: xp
v

2
v
2

m.x m.d
v
m.v.d

0,01%

2m.E d

- Nu s dng h thc xp h
v
22.

h
2h
v
2h
2h

0, 06%
m.x m.d
v m.v.d
2m.E d

- Nu s dng h thc: xp
- Nu s dng h thc xp h

23.

p
100
h
x 100
1%, x

p
p
p
p

p
h 100h
h
x
1%, x

,
100
p
p
p
p

- Nu s dng h thc xp v
- Nu s dng h thc xp h v

h
p

v
mx m m

h
2 h 2 p

2 v
mx m
m

2 2
24.- Nu s dng: xp pmin p

x
l
l

- Nu s dng xp h pmin p

25.

h 2 h 2h

x
l
l

Ed

Ed

2
p min

2m

2 2
ml 2

15eV

2
pmin
2h 2
2 600eV
2m ml

-Nu s dng h thc xp v

1.055.10 34

0,25.10 22 m / s
mx 2.10 6.2.10 6

- Nu s dng h thc xp h v

h
6, 625.1034

1,31.1022 m / s
mx 2.106.2.106

264

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

bt nh v vn tc rt nh, nn c th tun theo c hc c in


26.

27.

28.

p2
eEx
2m
T h thc bt nh Heisenberg x~ / p
Ee

Nng lng ca electron

Ee

p 2 eE
;

2m
p

Ee

p2
3
k x , T h thc bt nh Heisenberg x ~ 2|x| ~ / p
2m

Ee

p2
3
;
k
2m
8 p3

Cc tiu ca Ee khi dE/dp =0.; p 3 meE 3,58.10 25 kgm / s

Cc tiu ca Ee khi dE/dp =0 x 2 x 5

8 2
3mk

a. Trng thi c bn l trng thi bn t = ,


t h thc bt nh E ~ / t = 0. Vy nng lng ca h l xc nh.
b. Trng thi kch thch: E

29.

Th nng ca ht

1,055.10 34

1,055.10 26 J 10 7 eV

8
t
10

U ( x) Fdx
0

Phng trnh Schroedinger

30.

31.

32.

Th tnh in

kx2
2

2m
kx2

E
0
2
dx 2 2

d 2

Ze 2
4 o r

2m
Ze 2
Phng trnh Schroedinger
E
0
4 o r
2
d 2 2m
kx 2

E
0
2
dx 2 2

nx
2a
a
1
nx
sin
2a
a

cos

(n 1,3,5...)
(n 2,4,6...)

Trong c hai trng hp E n

2 2 n 2
8ma 2

. Th nng y ging bng khng. Gc ta t ti

tm ging
33. U = khi x < 0 v x > a, vy (0) = 0 v (a) = 0. Ti cc im x=0 v x=a c hai nt sng
ng de Broglie, m khong cch gia hai nt bng na bc sng, nn trong ging ch c th
c sng de Broglie vi bc sng tha mn iu kin a = n/2 (n = 1, 2 ....) Ni cch khc, b

265

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

rng ging a phi xp c s nguyn ln na bc sng. Nng lng ton phn ca electron
trong ging:

E Ed

Thay vo ta c

En

mv 2 p 2 2 2 2

2
2m
m2

2 2
2ma

n2

(n = 1, 2, ...)

(Gii phng trnh Schroedinger cho ht trong ging th ta cng tm c phng trnh trn).
Hiu nh nht gia hai mc nng lng:

E E2 E1

4 2 2
2ma 2

2 2
2ma 2

3 2 2
2ma 2

a. Khi b rng ging a = 10 cm, E = 1,8.10-35J = 1,1.10-16 eV.


b. Khi b rng ging a = 10 , E = 1,8.10-19J = 1,1 eV.
Ta nhn thy, nu kch thc ca ging cng nh th khong cch gia cc mc nng lng
cng ln, tnh gin on ca cc mc nng lng cng ln (tng t xy ra khi khi lng ht
cng nh). Trong th gii vi m tnh gin on ca cc mc nng lng cng th hin r.
Ngc li nu a v m ln, cc mc nng lng xt li nhau tin ti s bin thin lin tc ca
nng lng, ngha l s lng t ha th hin t.
34. Xc sut P1 tm thy ht trong min I:
a/3

P1 ( x) dx

n ( x)

vi

n = 1 ta c

P 1

2
nx
sin
a
a

2 a / 3 2 x
sin a dx
a 0

a/3
1 a / 3
2x 1 a a
2 1
3
P1 dx cos
dx
sin

0,195

a 0
a
3 3 4
0
a 3 2

P2

2a / 3
1 2a / 3
2x 1 a a
2 1
3
dx

cos
dx sin

0,604

a a / 3
a
a
3

3
3
2

a/3

35. n ( x)
a.

2
nx
sin
;
a
a

n = 2 ( x)

2 2 2x
sin

a
a

2x
2x
Cc i khi sin 2
1 x=a/4, 3a/4
=1 hay sin
a
a

2x
2x
Cc tiu khi sin 2
=0 hay sin
0 x = a/2
a
a

266

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

b. P

2
a

2a / 3

2
sin

a/3

2x
2
dx
a
a

1
4x
1 cos
dx 0,195
2
a
a/3

2a / 3

x
2x
c. Tm v tr P1 = P2; sin 2 sin 2

a
a
suy ra x = a/3 v x = 2a/3, ti cc v tr ny P1=P2=3/2a
36. Theo c hc c in nu nng lng E ca ht ln hn hng ro th nng th ht vt qua
hng ro v khng b phn x li. Nhng theo c hc lng t th tnh hnh li khc ht va
phn x va vt qua hng ro.
Trong min I, ng nng Ed ca ht bng nng lng ton phn E ca ht v U = 0, cn
trong min II ng nng ca ht bng E Uo. Ta vit c

2
2
2
; 2

p2
p1
2mE

2
2m( E U o )

Ta a vo cc s sng k1 v k2 tng ng vi cc bc sng trong cc min I v II,


c biu din qua cc ng lng p1 v p2, p1=k1, p2=k2, trong k1 = 2/1, k2 = 2/2, ta
vit c

k1

2mE
,

k2

2 m( E U o )

Nh bi tp th d 3, h s phn x R khi chm electron gp hng ro th nng gia min I v


min II c dng

k k E E Uo
R 1 2
k1 k 2 E E U o
2

Do c s bo ton ht nn R + D = 1.

5 4 2 1

5 4
81

H s truyn qua : D 1 R 1

1 80

81 81

37.
Trong trng hp bi ton ny, U > E. Theo c hc c in ht mun vt qua ro
th nng lng ton phn E ca ht phi ln hn ro th. Nhng tnh hnh s khc theo quan
im ca c hc lng t. Trong trng hp ny ht vn c xc sut vt qua hng ro, d nng
lng E nh hn ro th U. Phng trnh Schroedinger c dng

d 2
dx

2m
2

(U E ) ( x) 0

2m(U E )
v nghim tha mn iu kin chun c dng: ( x) Ce kx C exp

trong C l hng s. Vy xc sut tm thy electron ti im x bng


2 2m(U E )
2
( x) C 2 exp
x

267

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

Xc sut t i cn tm bng:

2 2m(U E )
exp
2

(0)

( x)

x 0,3

CHNG 9

NGUYN T
Vch H tng ng chuyn mc M L, tn s pht ra l 32, tng t vch H ng vi
tn s 42, vch H ng vi tn s 52 v vch H ng vi tn s 62. Ba vch trong dy Paschen
ng vi cc tn s 43, 53, 63

1.

43

43 42 23

43

42

23

2342
(0,656)(0,486)

1,875m
23 42
0,486 0,656

Tng t 53 1,282m v 63 1,093m .


2.

3.

c
1
1

32 n 2

max

1,88.10 6 m

1
1

32 4 2
c
min
0,83.10 6 m
1
1

32 2

Bc sng ca vch th hai trong dy Balmer:

42

c
1
1

22 42

0,49.10 6 m

Bc sng ca vch th ba trong dy Balmer:

52

4.

c
1
1

2 2 52

0,437.10 6 m

Bc sng ca th hai trong dy Lyman:


c
31
0,103.10 6 m
1
1
R
12 32
Bc sng ca vch quang ph th ba trong dy Lyman:

268

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

41

5.

0,98.10 7 m

1
1

R
2
42
1
hc
Rh
Rh
c
E 3 E1
; E3
; E1

1,03.10 7 m
2
1

3
R 1
9

6.

7.

c
1
1

R
12 n 2

max

1,22.10 7 m

1
1

R
12 2 2
c
min
0,92.10 7 m
1
1

R
2
2
1

1
1
1
10,2 (eV), h max Rh. 13,5 (eV)
h min Rh

2
2
2
12
1

8.
Nguyn t pht ra ba vch, nh vy phi trng thi kch thch n = 3. Tn s ca ba
vch sng ln lt l:

31 R

12

1
,
32

21 R

12

1
1
1
, 32 R

22
2 2 32

Tng ng vi cc bc sng 1216, 1026 (dy Lyman) v 6563 (dy Balmer)


9.

Nguyn t pht ra ba vch, nh vy phi trng thi kch thch n = 3.

1
1
Emin Rh 12,035eV
12 32
1=1216 ( khi n=1,n =2), 2=1026 ( khi n=1,n =3), 3=6563 ( khi n=2,n =3)
10.
T mc nng lng th n n mc nng lng th nht c tt c n mc nng lng. Mi
vch quang ph, tng ng vi mt s chuyn trng thi gia hai mc nng lng bt k trong
s n mc nng lng chuyn t mc cao xung mc thp hn). Vy s vch quang ph c
th pht ra = s cp mc nng lng trong n mc nng lng, do bng n(n-1)/2
11.

ng nng ca electrn khi bt ra khi nguyn t:

me v 2
h E1 16,5 13,5 3 (eV ) v 10 6 m / s
2
12.
Tt c cc vch quang ph hir xut hin khi nguyn t hir b in ha. iu ny xy
ra khi nng lng ca cc electron bng 13,6 eV.

269

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

13.

1
1
. Ly n=1, n=2, R=3,29.1015s-1, ta tm c U=10,2 V
A eU h hR

2
2
n
n'

14.

Mmen ng lng qu o ca electrn: L 1 , trong 0,1, 2,..., n 1 , do

cn tm n. Nng lng electrn trng thi n : E n

Rh

, nng lng kch thch E = 12eV


n2
chnh l nng lng m electrn hp th nhy t trng thi c bn ln trng thi En En
E1 = 12eV

Rh

12 n = 3. Vy 0,1, 2 , do : L = 0,
n2 1

Rh

Hnh chiu Lz ca L ln phng z bng Lz m

15.

2,

m 0,1,2,....,l

v ln ca mmen qu o c xc nh bng L l (l 1)

L
m
m
cos z

L
l (l 1)
l (l 1)

Do

V trng thi d tng ng vi l = 2, nn s lng t m ly cc gi tr m = 0, 1,2. Gc nh


nht tng ng vi gi tr m ln nht, m = 2. T ta tm c
cos 2 / 2.3 0,82 , suy ra = 35o10.

16.
Trng thi f ng vi 3 . Cc gi tr ca m = 0, 1, 2, 3. Ga tr hnh chiu mmen
ng lng qu o LZ = 0, , 2, 3 . ln mmen ng lng qu o:

L 1 2 3
17. Trng thi c bn s c 0 , trng thi kch thch p c 1 . T cng thc

L 1 L 2
18.

Rh

2 s 2

5,39 eV,

Rh

2 p 2

3,54 eV s 0,41, p 0,04

19.
Khng c s chuyn mc trc tip t 3S n 2S v vi phm qui tc la chn. S chuyn
trng thi c thc hin nh sau:
3S 2P, pht ra ra bc x 0,82m v 2P 2S, pht ra bc x 0,68m
20.

4S 3P, = 5890A0, 2. 3P 3S, = 11400A0

21.

Chuyn di th hai, th t, th nm v th by.

22.
trng thi d, l=2 vy m = 0, 1, 2. Gi tr hnh chiu Lz c tnh bng Lz = m=0,
, 2.
23.
Nu cha xt n spin, nhng trng thi ng vi n = 3 s c l = 0,1,2 tng ng vi s, p,
d. Trng thi nng lng s l 3S, 3P, 3D.

270

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

Nu xt n spin th cc trng thi s l 32 S1 / 2 , 32 P1 / 2 , 32 P3 / 2 , 32 D3 / 2 , 32 D5 / 2 .


Nhng trng thi c th chuyn v 32 S1 / 2 l: n 2P1 / 2 v n 2P3 / 2 (n =3,4,5...)
Nhng trng thi c th chuyn v 32 P1 / 2 l: n 2S1 / 2 (n =4,5,6...) v m 2D3 / 2 (m=3,4,5...)
Nhng trng thi c th chuyn v 32 P3 / 2 l: n 2S1 / 2 (n =4,5,6...) v m 2D3 / 2 , m 2D5 / 2
(m=3,4,5...)
Nhng trng thi c th chuyn v 32 D3 / 2 l: n 2P1 / 2 , n 2P3 / 2 (n =4,5,6...) v m 2F5 / 2 ,
(m=4,5...)
Nhng trng thi c th chuyn v 32 D5 / 2 l: n 2P3 / 2 (n =4,5,6...) v m 2F5 / 2 , m 2F7 / 2
(m=4,5...)
24.

4 s 2
m

4 p 2

4 s 2

c
7665.10 10

c
2858.10 10

s 2,23, p 1,915

25.
Di tc dng ca t trng (hin tng Zeeman thng) s tch cc mc nng lng
ch ph thuc vo s lng t l. Mc P, l =1, m = 0, 1. Nh vy mc P tch thnh 2l+1=3
mc con. Mc D l=2, m = 0, 1, 2 . Nh vy mc D tch thnh 2l+1=5 mc con. S chuyn
di gia cc mc nng lng tun theo qui tc la chn: m = 0, 1. T hnh v ta nhn thy
do cc mc nng lng tch ra cch u nhau nn vch quang ph mD nP thc s ch tch
thnh 3 vch quang ph khc nhau.
m=2
Mc D
(l = 2)

Mc P
(l = 1)

m=1
m=0

m=1
m=0

271

Hng dn gii bi tp v p s

26.

electron s

electron p

Lp K

Lp L

Lp M

electron d

10

27.
a) Cc trng thi electron ch khc nhau 3 s lng t n, l, m. Vi n v ms xc nh th
s trng thi electron bng n2. Nu n = 3 th 32 = 9
b) l = 0;

; .. n-1

m = 0; 1 0 -1; 2 1 0 -1 -2;.
Vy khi n v m xc nh th c n - |m| trng thi ca electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr ca l v
s cc trng thi electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr ca l v ms l 2(n - |m|)
Vy n = 3, m=1 th 2(n - |m|) = 2(3-1) = 4
c) 2(n - |m|) = 2(3-2) = 2
d) n - |m|= 3 0 = 3
e)Vi mt gi tr ca l m = 0, 1, 2,..., l tc l c 2l + 1 gi tr ca m, vy khi l v ms
xc nh th c 2l + 1 trng thi ca electron khc nhau bi cc gi tr ca m.
l = 2, ms = 1/2 th 2l + 1= 2.2 +1 = 5
28.

a) 2(12+22+32) = 28
b) 6 electron s gm (1s)2, (2s)2, (3s)2; 12 electron p gm (2p)6, (3p)6; 10 electron d gm
(3d)10.
c) 4 electron p c m = 0 gm (2p)2 v (3p)2.

29.

He: 1s2
Li:

1s22s

Be: 1s22s2

272

B: 1s22s22p

O: 1s22s22p4

C: 1s22s22p2

Na: 1s22s22p63s

N: 1s22s22p3

K: 1s22s22p63s23p64s

Th nghim Vt l 2

CC BI TH NGHIM VT L 2
Cc bi th nghim Vt l 2 cho thy c bn cht lng tnh sng- ht ca nh sng v
nhng ng dng c bn trong thc t ni chung v chuyn ngnh ni ring trong cc qu trnh
ca sng, cc qu trnh in- quang, quang - in
Bi 1
KHO ST HIN TNG GIAO THOA NH SNG
I. MC CH:
- Kho st s giao thoa nh sng cho bi giao thoa k Michelson v giao thoa cho bi h
vn trn Newton.
- Xc nh bc sng nh sng n sc ca ngun sng.
II. C S L THUYT:
nh ngha: Hin tng giao thoa nh sng l hin tng gp nhau ca hai hay nhiu sng nh
sng, kt qu trong trng giao thoa s xut hin nhng vn sng v nhng vn ti xen k nhau.
iu kin xy ra hin tng giao thoa: cc sng nh sng phi l sng kt hp.
Nguyn tc to ra hai sng nh sng kt hp: t mt sng duy nht tch ra thnh hai sng ring
bit (v d: khe Young, gng Fresnel, lng lng knh Fresnel, bn thu knh Billet, gng
Lloyd ...).
iu kin cc i, cc tiu giao thoa:
iu kin cc i giao thoa l hai dao ng sng cng pha vi nhau:
1 2 2k

hay hiu quang l:

L L1 L2 k

vi k 0,1,2...

(1)

iu kin cc tiu giao thoa hai dao ng sng ngc pha vi nhau:
1 2 (2k 1)

L L1 L2 (2k 1)

vi k 0,1,2...
(2)
2
Nhng my o da vo hin tng giao thoa nh sng gi l Giao thoa k. Sau y ta s
kho st giao thoa k Michelson v Giao thoa cho bi h vn trn Newton, dng hai giao thoa
ny o bc sng nh sng.
hay hiu quang l:

1. Giao thoa k Michelson


Trn hnh 1 trnh by s nguyn l ca giao thoa k Michelson. nh sng t ngun
S chiu ti bn bn m P (c h s phn x l 0,5) di gc 45o. Ti y nh sng b tch thnh
hai tia: tia phn x truyn n gng G1 v tia khc x truyn n gng G2. Sau khi phn x
trn hai gng G1 v G2 cc tia sng truyn ngc tr li, i qua bn P v ti giao thoa vi nhau
mn quan st. V tia th nht ch i qua bn P mt ln cn tia th hai i qua P ba ln nn hiu
quang l ca hai tia ln, vn giao thoa quan st c l nhng vn bc cao, nn nhn khng r
273

Th nghim Vt l 2

nt. khc phc iu ny ta t bn Pging ht P nhng khng trng bc trn ng i ca


tia th nht.

H vn giao thoa

Hnh 1

th hiu quang l gia hai tia s thay i


2
mt lng . Mu vn s b dch i mt vn. Nu hiu quang l gim th s c mt vn bin
mt, ngc li, nu nh hiu quang l tng (khi M1 dch chuyn ra xa hn vi gng bn m)
th s c mt vn mi c sinh ra tm ca h vn. Da vo tnh cht ny ca giao thoa k m
ta c th ng dng giao thoa k o chiu di vi chnh xc rt cao (ti 10-8m). Bng cch
dch chuyn gng G2 song song vi chnh n dc theo tia sng mt on bng na bc sng,
hiu quang l ca hai tia s thay i mt bc sng, kt qu h vn giao thoa s thay i mt
khong vn.
Khi gng M1 di chuyn mt khong ng

Vy mun o chiu di ca mt vt ta dch chuyn gng G2 t u ny n u kia ca


vt v m s vn dch chuyn. Nu h thng vn dch chuyn m khong vn th chiu di ca
m

vt cn o l:

(3 )

Nu di chuyn gng M1 mt khong cch bit dm v m s vn bin mt hoc s


vn c sinh ra N ta c th tnh c bc sng ca nh sng ca ngun sng nh sau:

dm

2d m
N
2
N

(4)

2. Giao thoa cho h vn trn Newton


Trong thin nhin, nh sng c th giao thoa m khng cn b tr cc ngun sng im
hay khe hp. V d trng hp giao thoa trn cc bn mng c chiu sng bi nh sng mt
tri hoc n kch thc ln (cc ngun sng rng), l s giao thoa c to nn bi cc tia
phn x trn hai mt ca bn mng. Trong trng hp ny cn lu kt lun ca th nghim
Lloyd: Khi phn x trn mi trng chit quang hn mi trng nh sng ti, pha dao ng
ca nh sng thay i mt lng , iu cng tng ng vi vic coi quang l ca tia

phn x di thm mt on .
2

274

Th nghim Vt l 2

Mt trong nhng hin tung in hnh l s giao thoa cho h vn trn Newton. H cho
vn trn Newton gm mt thu knh phng - li t tip xc vi mt bn thy tinh phng (hnh
2). Lp khng kh gia thu knh v bn thy tinh l bn mng c b dy thay i. Chiu mt
chm tia sng n sc song song vung gc vi bn thy tinh. Cc tia sng phn x mt trn
v mt di ca bn mng ny s giao thoa vi nhau, to thnh cc vn giao thoa c cng
dy, nh x mt cong ca thu knh phng- li. H cc vn sng v vn ti c hnh trn ng
tm nm xen k nhau - gi l h vn trn Newton.
Trong trng hp ny, hiu quang l ca cc tia sng phn x trn hai mt ca bn nm
khng kh ti v tr ng vi dy dk ca bn bng:
L L2 L1 2d k

(5)

i lng / 2 xut hin l do nh sng truyn qua lp


nm khng kh ti mt trn ca bn thy tinh phng P
v b phn x trn mt ca bn ny, nh vy phn x
trn mi trng chit quang hn mi trng nh sng
ti l khng kh.
Khi L (2k 1)

vi k = 0,1, 2, ... ta c cc tiu

giao thoa ng vi dy : dk = k

(6)

Gi R l bn knh mt li ca thu knh L. V dk<< R ,


nn tnh c bn knh rk ca vn ti th k :
rk2 = ( 2R - dk ) . dk 2R . dk

(7)

Thay (6) vo (7), ta suy ra :

r k2
k. R

H vn giao thoa
(8)

Thc t khng th t c s tip xc im gia mt


thu knh phng-li L v mt bn phng thu tinh P, nn
vn ti chnh gia ca h vn trn Newton khng phi
l mt im m l mt hnh trn. V th, xc nh
chnh xc bc sng ca nh sng n sc, ta phi p
dng cng thc (8) i vi hai vn ti th k v th i :
rk2 = k. .R

ri2 = i . .R

T suy ra : rk2 - ri2 = ( k - i ) . R


hay

B.b
( k i).R

(9)

Hnh 2

275

Th nghim Vt l 2

trong i lng B = rk + ri v b = rk - ri c th d dng o c bng thc trc vi th knh


ca knh hin vi.
III. THIT B V TRNH T TH NGHIM
III.1. THIT B TH NGHIM
A. Thit b o bc sng nh sng cho bi h giao thoa k Michelson
Giao thoa k Michelson c b tr nh trn
hnh 3, gm c:
- Ngun sng laser
- Hai gng phng
- Mn quan st
- Thu knh
Hnh 3

- Gng bn m
- Thc panme c chia nh nht l 1m

Ch cch c thc panme: trn thc panme c hai thc l thc chnh v thc ph
(thc trn), trn thc ph c 25 chia, mi chia nh nht trn thc ph l 1 m, khi
thc ph quay c mt vng th thc chnh dch chuyn mt vch, vy mi chia nh nht
trn thc chnh l 25 m.
B. Thit b h o bc sng nh sng cho bi vn trn Newton

T
T

N
D

G
3
V
L
(a)

(b)

V
H

Hnh 4
Hnh 5
S quang hc quan st h vn trn Newton b tr nh trn hnh 4: mt h thng
chiu sng phn x-truyn qua gm mt bng n pht ra nh sng truyn qua mt thu knh
t quang Q (mu , xanh hoc tm), ri chiu vo mt tm knh G t nghing mt gc 450. Sau
khi va phn x va truyn qua tm knh G, cc tia sng di theo phng thng ng vo mt nm

276

Th nghim Vt l 2

khng kh gii hn gia thu knh phng-li L p st vi mt bn thu tinh P. Khi cc tia
sng phn x trn hai mt ca bn nm khng kh giao thoa vi nhau to thnh mt h vn giao
thoa gm cc vng trn sng v ti nm xen k nhau mt trn ca nm khng kh. H vn giao
thoa ny c gi l h vn trn Newton.
C th nhn thy r h vn trn Newton khi t mt quan st chng qua h thng th knh
T v vt knh V trong ng ngm ca knh hin vi (hnh 5)
III.2. TRNH T TH NGHIM
A. o bc sng nh sng bng giao thoa k Michelson
1. Chnh thit b quan st c h vn giao thoa
+ Lp laser He-Ne vo gi quang hc v gn vo gng G1, G2 vo v tr ghi trn giao
thoa k.
+ Bt ngun laser, iu chnh laser sao cho tia laser chiu thng n gng G1, v phn
x tr li ng vo gia khe m ca ngun sng laser.
+ t bn bn m P vo v tr nh hnh v v iu chnh gc lch ca n sao cho chm
tia phn x t bn P chiu n tm gng G2 ( Tng ng vi gc lch 45o ca bn P i vi
chm tia laser ti). Trn mn nh s quan st thy hai vt sng phn x t gng G1 v G2.
+ iu chnh bn P n khi hai vt sng ny trng nhau nht th c nh bn P.
+ iu chnh nghing ca gng G2 ( bng vt vi chnh pha sau G2) cho n khi hai
vt sng trn mn trng nhau hon ton, lc ny mt c th quan st c h vn giao thoa.
+ Lp thu knh vo gi v t vo khong gia laser v bn P (v tr c ch dn
trn giao thoa k) m rng chm tia laser.
+ iu chnh thu knh thu c mt h vn giao thoa gm cc vng trn ng tm
sng v ti xen k nhau trn mn nh.
2 .o bc sng nh sng
+ Khi quay thc panme th gng G1 dch chuyn v nh vy h thng vn giao thoa
trn mn quan st dch chuyn, m s vn dch chuyn.
+c v ghi v tr u v v tr cui ca thc tng ng vi s vn giao thoa dch
chuyn vo bng s liu, t suy ra bc sng nh sng cn o.
B. o bc sng nh sng bng h vn trn Newton
1. Chnh thit b quan st c h vn trn Newton qua knh hin vi
a. Lp th knh T c thc trc vi vo u trn ca ng ngm N (H. 3). t hp H cha thu
knh phng-li L v bn phng thu tinh P ln mm cp vt 1. Cm phch ly in ca bin p ~
220V/8V vo ngun in ~ 220V v bt cng-tc n chiu sng (mu , xanh hoc tm)
truyn n ng v tr ca chm en nh trn mt bn nm khng kh trong hp H. Chm en

277

Th nghim Vt l 2

nh ny chnh l vn ti nh nht ca h vn trn Newton (tm ca n trng vi im tip xc


gia thu knh phng-li L v bn phng thu tinh P).
b. Nhn t pha ngoi knh hin vi v vn vt chnh nhanh 2 h thp dn vt knh V xung gn
st mt hp H. Ch : khng vt knh V chm vo mt hp H .
t mt st th knh T quan st th trng trong ng ngm N ca knh hin vi. Vn t t vt chnh
nhanh 2 nng dn ng ngm N ln cho ti khi nhn thy h vn trn Newton. Vn tip vt chnh
chm 3 (ln hoc xung) cho ti khi nhn thy r h vn trn Newton.
2. o cc i lng B v b
a. Dng tay xoay th knh 1 sao cho hai vch cho ch thp c mt vch nm ngang v mt vch
thng ng. Dch chuyn hp H sao cho tm ca h thng vn trn trng vi giao im ca hai
vch cho ch thp.
b. Chn vn th i l vn ti c ng knh nh nht ng vi i = 1 v vn th k l vn ti th 4
hoc th 5. Quay thc panme ( ngoi trc vi th knh) sao cho giao im ca hnh ch thp
trng vi mp tri ca vn ti th k (im K trn hnh 4). c s nguyn trn thc milimet cn
s l c trn trng ca panme. l ta tng i ca im K. Sau a giao im ca
ch thp v im I, trng vi mp phi ca vn th i, ri v v tr K, trng vi mp phi ca
vn th K. c ta tng i ca im I v im K.
T hnh 4, ta nhn thy :
B = rk + ri = KO + OI = KI = |ni - nk|
b = rk - ri = OK/ - OI = IK/ =|nk - ni|
trong ni , nk , nk l ta ca cc im I ,
K v K/. c v ghi gi tr ca ni , nk , n/k
vo bng 1.
0

c. Thc hin li cc ng tc trn 5 ln tm


gi tr trung bnh ca B v b .

K/

d. Ghi s liu sau y vo bng 1 :

Bn knh R = 855mm ca mt li thu knh L.

Hnh 4

IV. CU HI KIM TRA


1. nh ngha v nu r iu kin c giao thoa nh sng .
2. S nguyn l v gii thch hin tng giao thoa cho bi giao thoa k Michelson
3. Chng minh cng thc tnh bc sng trong th nghim.
4. Gii thch hin tng giao thoa cho bi bn nm khng kh, to thnh h vn trn Newton. Ti
sao trong th nghim ny, nh giao thoa li l mt h vn trn ng tm ?
278

Th nghim Vt l 2

5. Nu phng php xc nh bc sng nh sng bng h cho vn trn Newton.


6. Ti sao phi xc nh bc sng ca nh sng theo cng thc (5), m khng xc nh trc
tip theo cng thc (4) ?
7. Hy chng minh cng thc tnh sai s tng i ca php o bc sng nh sng bng
phng php giao thoa cho vn trn Newton c dng :

B b R

B
b
R

trong Bdc = (ni + nk ) v bdc = (nk + ni) , vi ni = nk = nk = 0,01


T suy ra cch chn cc vn th k v th i nn nh th no php o bc sng theo
phng php ny t chnh xc cao ?
8. Nu mt s ng dng ca giao thoa hai chm tia.

279

Th nghim Vt l 2

BO CO KT QU TH NGHIM
A. XC NH BC SNG NH SNG BNG GIAO THOA K MICHELSON
(theo mu gi )

Trng:..

Xc nhn ca gio vin

Lp: T..
H v tn:

MC CH TH NGHIM

KT QU TH NGHIM
1. Bng 1
Ln o

V tr
u
(x0)

V tr
cui

Khong
dch chuyn

(xn)

d m x n x0

S vn dch
chuyn: N

Bc sng

1
2
3
Trung bnh
2. Vit kt qu ca php o :

= ........................... ......................... ( m )

3.Nhn xt kt qu o

280

2d m
N

Sai s

Th nghim Vt l 2

B. XC NH BC SNG NH SNG BNG GIAO THOA VN TRN NEWTON


(theo mu gi )
Bng 2
R = ..855...................... (mm)
Ln o

nk

ni

B ......

B =.......

b ......

b =......

nk/

1
2
3
Trung bnh

2. Tnh gi tr trung bnh v sai s tuyt i ca B v b :


- Gi tr trung bnh ca B :
- Sai s tuyt i ca B:
- Gi tr trung bnh ca b :
- Sai s tuyt i ca b :

B ............................. = ..................... ..(10-3m)

B = B +(ni + nk ) = ................................. (10-3m)


b .................................................................... (10-3m)

b = b + (nk + ni) = .................................... (10-3m)

3. Tnh sai s v gi tr trung bnh ca bc sng :


- Sai s tng i trung bnh ca :
- Gi tr trung bnh ca :

B
B

b
b

R
...........................
R

B.b
= .............................................. (m)
( k i).R

- Sai s tuyt i ca :

= . = ...................................... ....................... (m)

4 . Vit kt qu ca php o :

= = ....................... .......... ...................... ... (m)

5. Nhn xt kt qu o

281

Th nghim Vt l 2

Bi 2
KHO ST HIN TNG NHIU X NH SNG
I. MC CH
- Kho st s nhiu x nh sng qua mt khe hp, v th phn b cng sng theo ta
x.
- Kho st s nhiu x nh sng qua cch t nhiu x, t xc nh s cc i chnh nm trong
hai cc tiu chnh bc nht v xc nh bc sng ca nh sng laser.
II. C S L THUYT
nh ngha: Hin tng nhiu x nh sng l hin tng tia sng b lch khi phng truyn
thng khi i gn cc chng ngi vt c kch thc nh (vt nh, l trn nh, khe hp hoc mp
bin ....)
Hiu ng ny l mt c tnh chung ca cc hin tng sng, c xut hin khi mt phn
mt sng b che khut. Nu gp mt vt cn trong sut hoc c, mt vng ca mt sng b bin
i v bin hoc pha, th khi nhiu x s xy ra. Nhng phn khc nhau ca mt sng
truyn vt khi vt cn s giao thoa vi nhau gy nn s phn b v mt nng lng c
th c gi l bc tranh nhiu x.
II.1. Nhiu x nh sng qua mt khe hp
Chiu mt chm tia sng song song, n sc, kt hp c bc sng vung gc vi
mt phng ca khe hp AB c rng b (hnh1). Sau khi truyn qua khe, cc tia sng b nhiu x
theo cc phng khc nhau. Nhng tia sng nhiu x c cng gc lch s truyn song song v
giao thoa vi nhau ti v cc. quan st nh giao thoa ca cc tia nhiu x song song, t mt
thu knh hi t L pha sau khe hp AB hi t cc tia nhiu x ny ti im M trn mt tiu
ca L.

M
F

Hnh 2:. Hnh nhiu x ca sng phng qua mt khe hp

282

Th nghim Vt l 2

im M c th sng hoc ti tu thuc gi tr ca gc . Ta c iu kin cc i, cc tiu


nhiu x qua mt khe hp nh sau:
- Cc i gia (k=0) :

sin 0

- Cc tiu nhiu x (bc k) : sin k


- Cc i nhiu x :

(1)

vi k 1, 2, 3...

sin k
2 b

vi k 1, 2, 3...

(2)
(3)

th phn b cng sng trn mn quan st ph thuc gi tr ca sin cho bi hnh 2.


Nhn xt thy cc cc i nhiu x bc k = 1,2,3...nm xen gia cc cc tiu nhiu x v
phn b i xng hai bn cc i gia. Cc i gia c b rng gp i cc cc i khc. S
d nh vy l do cc cc i I1 v I2 ch dao ng ca mt di gy ra, cn cng sng cc
i gia I0 l do cc sng cng pha ca ton b mt phng khe gy ra. Mt cch gn ng c
th coi ton b nh sng tp trung cc i gia. Cc i gia c rng ln gp i v c
cng sng ln hn nhiu so vi cc cc i nhiu x khc. T l gia cng sng I1 ,I2 , ...
ca cc cc i nhiu x th k = 1, 2,... so vi cng sng I0 ca cc i gia tun theo h
thc sau :
2

2 2 2
I 0 : I1 : I 2 : I 3 : ... 1 : : :
: ... 1 : 0,045 : 0,016 : 0,008 : ...
3 5 7
T cng thc iu kin cc i, cc tiu nhiu x cho thy v tr im sng v ti khng
ph thuc vo v tr ca khe. Nu dch chuyn khe song song vi chnh n (gi c nh thu
knh L v mn quan st) th hnh nhiu x khng thay i. Da vo c s ny gip gii thch
nhiu x ca sng phng qua h nhiu khe hp song song (cch t phng)
II.2. Nhiu x nh sng qua cch t phng
nh ngha: Cch t phng l tp hp mt s ln khe hp ging nhau (c rng b) nm song
song v cch u nhau trn mt mt phng (hnh 3)
Khong cch d gia hai khe k tip c gi l chu k ca cch t.
S khe hp trn mt n v chiu di: N

1
c gi l hng s cch t.
d

Chiu chm sng n sc song song bc sng vung gc vi mt cch t ( hnh 3). T
cng thc iu kin cc i cc tiu nhiu x ca sng phng do mt khe ta thy s phn b
cng sng trn mn quan st ch ph thuc vo phng ca cc chm tia nhiu x. iu
c ngha l nu dch chuyn khe song song vi chnh n v bn phi hay bn tri trong mt
phng cha khe u khng lm thay i nh nhiu x. V vy nu ta t thm khe th hai, th
ba v.v... .c rng b v so snh vi khe th nht, th nh nhiu x ca tng khe ring r s
hon ton trng nhau. Tuy nhin y v cc khe c th coi l ngun kt hp, do ngoi s
nhiu x ca tng khe cn c s giao thoa ca cc chm tia sng nhiu x t cc khe khc nhau,

283

Th nghim Vt l 2

cho nn s c s phn b li cng sng trn mn quan st lm cho nh nhiu x tr nn


phc tp hn. Ta s kho st hin tng ny. - Ta c tt c cc khe hp u cho cc tiu nhiu
x ti nhng im trn mn nh tha mn iu kin:
sin k

vi k = 1,2,3...

(4)

Nhng cc tiu ny c gi l cc tiu chnh


M
F

Hnh 3. Cch t phng


Xt s giao thoa ca cc chm tia nhiu x t cc khe hp truyn ti nhng v tr nm
trong khong gia cc cc tiu chnh. Hiu quang l ca hai tia nhiu x tng ng t hai khe
k tip n im M l:
L1 L 2 d sin
T suy ra nhng tia nhiu x c gc lch tho mn iu kin :
d . sin m.

Hay

sin m. / d vi m 0,1,2,3....

(5)

s gy ra ti im M cc dao ng sng cng pha


v chng tng cng ln nhau. Khi , M s l
im sng v gi l cc i chnh bc k. D dng
nhn thy cc i chnh trung tm ng vi m = 0
v sin = 0 nm ti tiu im F ca thu knh L.
Gia hai cc tiu chnh s c (2m +1) cc i
chnh (hnh 4). Ti chnh gia hai cc i chnh
k tip, nhng tia nhiu x c gc lch tho mn
iu kin: d sin (2m 1)

hay sin (2m 1)

2d

Hnh 4: S phn b cng


sng gia hai cc tiu chnh
bc nht

vi m = 0,1,2 (6)

hai tia ny s kh ln nhau, tuy nhin im chnh gia cha chc ti. Nu cch t c N
khe hp th gia hai cc i chnh s c N-1 cc tiu ph v N-2 cc i ph.

284

Th nghim Vt l 2

III. THIT B V TRNH T TH NGHIM


III.1. THIT B TH NGHIM

Thit b th nghim c trnh by trn hnh 5, gm c:


1. Ngun pht tia laser bn dn.;
2. Khe hp, cch t nhiu x phng 2 khe, 3 khe, 4 khe, 5 khe.
3. Cm bin photodiode silicon .
4. B khuch i v ch th cng vch nhiu x.
5. Thc trc vi (Panme) c chia nh nht 0,01mm ;
6. H thng gi th nghim.

III.2 TRNH T TH NGHIM


A. B THIT B KHO ST NHIU X CA TIA LASER.
Thit b gm mt diode laser DL, pht ra chm tia laser mu chiu vung gc vo mt
phng ca cch t. Chm tia laser b nhiu x. xc nh v tr cc cc i nhiu x v kho
st s phn b cng sng ca chng, ta dng mt cm bin quang in silicon Q t trong
mt hp kn, pha trc c mn chn sng c khe h rng khong 0,2 - 0,3 mm. Hp cm bin
Q c gn trn u trc ca Panme P, nn c th di chuyn c theo phng ngang. Cng
tia laser ri vo cm bin quang in Q, chuyn i thnh cng dng in, chy qua
mt in tr. Hiu in th ri trn in tr ny c o v ch th bi Milivon k in t MV,
c li vo l mt cm 5 chn C.
B. Kim tra v iu chnh chun trc cho h thng.
kt qu o c chnh xc, trc ht ta cn kim tra v iu chnh chun trc cho h
thng, tc l iu chnh sao cho chm tia laser ti p thng gc vo bng mn nh, ng v tr
trung tm ca cm bin Q. Mun vy ta hy thc hin theo cc bc sau :
1. Vn Panme P a cm bin Q v v tr trung tm (12,5 mm trn thn thc kp ca
Panme).

285

Th nghim Vt l 2

2. Nhc bn trt c gn cch t ra khi gi quang hc v t xung mt bn. Cm


phch in ca ngun laser DL vo in ~220V v bt cng tc K1 ca n, ta nhn c chm
tia laser mu . Quan st cm bin Q xem chm tia Laser c chiu ng vo tm l trn trn
mt cm bin hay khng. Nu lch, ni nh cc con c trn khp a nng xoay ngun laser
DL sao cho tia sng ri ng vo tm l v vung gc vi b mt l . Vi hai php xoay quanh
2 trc v 2 php tnh tin dc theo 2 trc ca khp vn nng, ta hon ton c th iu chnh
chun trc chnh xc cho h thng.
3. t bn trt c gn cch t tr li gi quang hc. iu chnh v tr cch t nh khp
ni a nng ca n, sao cho tia laser di ng vo tm ( hnh vung) cch t. Tip tc iu
chnh xoay cch t sao cho tia phn x t mt cch t quay ngc tr li ng vo l ra ca tia
Laser. Dch chuyn bn trt dc theo gi quang hc n v tr sao cho thu knh TK cch mt
cm bin Q ng 500mm th cht li v gi c nh khong cch ny trong sut qu trnh o.
C. Quy 0 v iu chnh nhy ca Milivon k in t MV.
1. Cm phch ly in ca Milivon k in t MV vo in ~220V. t nm chn thang
o ca MV v tr 10mV v vn nm bin tr Rf ca n v v tr tn cng bn tri. Bm kho K
trn mt MV, ch khong 3 pht b khuch i n nh. Tin hnh iu chnh s 0 cho
Milivon k in t MV bng cch : che sng hon ton khe h ca cm bin quang in Q, vn t
t nm bin tr "qui 0" ( lp ngay di ng h ch th ) kim ng h MV ch ng s 0 .
2. iu chnh nhy thch hp cho Milivon k in t MV, ta vn t t cn ca
panme P sao cho cc i sng gia (c cng sng ln nht) ca nh nhiu x lt vo ng
gia khe h ca cm bin quang in Q. Khi kim ca Milivon k in t MV lch mnh
nht. Vn nm xoay ca bin tr Rf sao cho kim ca Milivon k in t MV lch ti vch cui
thang o ( 80 hoc 90 ). (Nu khng t c lch ny, th phi vn chuyn mch thang o
ca MV sang v tr 1 mV ng vi nhy ln nht cu n, v tin hnh iu chnh theo cch
trn ).
D. Kho st s phn b cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser qua mt khe hp
V cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser t l vi cng I ca dng quang in, tc
t l vi hiu in th U ri trn in tr sun R, nn ta c th kho st s phn b cng
sng trong nh nhiu x laser qua khe hp bng cch kho st s bin thin ca hiu in th U
theo v tr x ca cc cc i v cc tiu.
Mun vy, ta vn t t cn panme P dch chuyn khe h ca cm bin quang in
Q, mi ln ch dch chuyn mt khong nh bng 0,05mm. c v ghi gi tr hiu in th U
ng vi mi v tr x trn panme P vo bng 1. Cn c cc s liu ny, v th:
U = f ( x ).
Cch c s o trn panme P: Khi quay cn thc trn mt vng th trc vt gn vi n
tnh tin mt on bng 0,50mm dc theo ng chun ngang ca mt thc kp thng khc trn
thn vt. Trn thc trn c 50 chia, mi chia tng ng vi dch chuyn trc vt l 0,01
mm - gi l chnh xc ca panme. Thc kp gm hai dy vch so le, cch nhau 0,50mm nm
hai bn ng chun ngang . Dy trn ng vi cc gi tr nguyn ca mm ( N = 0,1, 2... mm ),
dy di ng vi cc gi tr bn nguyn ca mm ( N = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, ... mm ) .

286

Th nghim Vt l 2

- Nu mp thc trn nm st bn phi vch chia N ca thc milimt pha trn ( dy


nguyn), cn ng chun ngang trng vi vch th n ca thc trn, th:
x = N + 0,01.n

(mm)

- Nu mp thc trn nm st bn phi vch chia N ca thc milimt pha di ( dy


bn nguyn), cn ng chun ngang trng vi vch th n ca thc trn, th:
x = N + 0,01.n = N + 0,5 + 0,01n (mm)
trong N l vch dy nguyn nm k bn tri vch N.
E. Kho st s phn b cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser qua cch t nhiu x. Xc
nh bc sng ca chm tia laser
1. Thay mt khe hp bng cch t nhiu x v ta c th kho st s phn b cng
sng trong nh nhiu x laser bng cch kho st s bin thin ca hiu in th U ri trn hai
u in tr sun R theo v tr x ca cc cc i chnh nm gia hai cc tiu chnh ng vi
sin / b .
Mun vy, ta vn t t cn panme P dch chuyn khe h ca cm bin quang in
Q trong khong gia hai cc tiu chnh bc 1 trn nh nhiu x. Mi ln ch dch chuyn mt
khong nh bng 0,05mm. c v ghi gi tr hiu in th U ng vi mi v tr x trn panme P vo
bng 2. Cn c cc s liu ny, v th xc nh chnh xc v tr nh ca cc cc i nhiu
x, ta dch chuyn panme P theo mt chiu tng 0,01mm ti nhng im ln cn hai pha ca cc
nh ny tm thy gi tr cc i ca hiu th U.
2. Sau khi xc nh c cc i sng gia ng vi k = 0, vn t t panme P o
khong cch a gia hai cc i nhiu x bc nht ng vi k = 1 nm i xng hai bn cc i
sng gia. Thc hin php o ny 3 ln. c v ghi gi tr ca a trn thc panme vo bng 3 .
2. p dng cng thc (5) i vi cc i chnh bc 1 trong nh nhiu x, ta suy ra cng thc xc
nh bc sng ca chm tia laser:

= d . sin

(7)

i vi cc i chnh bc 1 (hnh 6) , gc kh nh nn c th coi gn ng :


sin tg a / 2f

(8)

Thay (7) vo (8) , ta tm c h thc : a .d / 2 f


Theo cng thc (9) , ta c th xc
nh c bc sng ca chm tia laser
nu cho bit trc chu k d ca cch t
phng.

(9)
L
0

k=+
1
F a
k= -1

Hnh 6

287

Th nghim Vt l 2

Trng hp th nghim c s dng phn mm Cassy Lab - My tnh: Kho st s phn b


cng sng v xc nh bc sng ca chm tia laser nhiu x qua cch t phng:
Khi ng phn mm Cassy Lab
- Ly tn hiu t Milivon k in t MV cho vo UA1 ca Cassy
-Trong thanh Start chn Program v chn Cassy Lab, nhn p chut vo UA1
- Trong ca s input setting chn A veraged Valuse. left.
- Trong ca s Measing parametes ch Manual
- Ci t cc mc ta , y honh biu th ta ca cc vch nhiu x, tung biu th
cng sng.
- Mun cacif t trc ta th trong ca s setting chn parameter Formula FFT
* Khai bo cng sng:
- Chn new quantity
- Trong hp select quantity in vo tn i lng mi cng sng
- Chn formula in cng thc ch mi lin h i lng mi vi cc i lng c:
UA1/0.45*150
- Trong symbol I:

Unit: Cd

From: 0

To: 150

* Khai bo ta vch
- Chn new quantity
- Trong hp select quantity in vo tn i lng mi ta vch
- Chn formula in cng thc ch mi lin h i lng mi vi cc i lng c: (n-1)*0.1
- Trong symbol x: Unit: mm

From: 0

To: 30

* Chn hin th th I-x


- Trong setting chn display
- Chn new display
- Trong hp select display ghi tn th I x
- Trong X Axis chn x v Y Axis chn I
- Sau bm F9 bt u o, vi mi ln dch chuyn cm bin trn mn quan st 0.1 mm
(tng ng vi quay thc Panme 10 vch chia) th bm mt ln F9.
- Cch xc nh ta : a chut vo v tr xc inh v kch chut phi, chn set Market,
vertical line hoc horizontal line, Sau chn set marker, text hin th cc gi tr trn
mn hnh.
- c v ghi s liu sau y vo bng:
+ Khong cch L t mn quan st E n cch t.
288

Th nghim Vt l 2

+ Khong cch a t cc i trung tm n cc i chnh bc nht


- Gi l gc nhiu x ng vi cc i chnh bc nht, ta c: sin tg

a
a.d

L d
L

IV. CU HI KIM TRA


1. nh ngha hin tng nhiu x nh sng. Phn tch nh nhiu x ca chm tia sng song
song chiu qua mt khe hp .
2. So snh nh nhiu x ca chm tia sng song song chiu qua mt cch t phng vi nh
nhiu x ca chm tia sng song song chiu qua mt khe hp. Nu r cc cng thc xc nh v
tr cc cc tiu chnh v ca cc cc i chnh trong nh nhiu x .
3. Khi xc nh bc sng ca tia laser nhiu x qua cch t, ti sao khng o trc tip khong
cch gia cc i chnh bc 1 v cc i gia (ng vi m = 0), m li o khong cch a gia
hai cc i chnh bc 1 (ng vi m = 1 ) ?
5. Khi kho st s phn b cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser, ti sao ta ch xt trong
khong gia hai cc tiu chnh bc 1 (ng vi m = 1 ) v phi kim tra li v tr nh ca cc
cc i chnh bng cch ch dch chuyn panme P tng 0,01mm (m khng dch chuyn tng
0,05mm nh lc u) theo mt chiu ?
6. Ti sao phi xc nh bc sng ca nh sng theo cng thc (9)?
7. Hy chng minh cng thc tnh sai s tng i ca php o bc sng nh sng bng
phng php nhiu x ca nh sng phng quan cch t phng:

d f a

d
f
a

T suy ra cch b tr khong cch dng c nh th no php o bc sng theo


phng php ny t chnh xc cao ?
8. Nu mt s ng dng ca cch t nhiu x.

289

Th nghim Vt l 2

BO CO KT QU TH NGHIM
KHO ST HIN TNG NHIU X NH SNG
(theo mu gi )
Xc nhn ca gio vin
Trng
Lp ...................T .....................
H tn .........................................
MC CH TH NGHIM
.......................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

KT QU TH NGHIM
A. Kho st s phn b cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser qua mt khe hp

Bng 1
- chnh xc ca thc panme : ................................ ( mm )
- chnh xc ca Milivon k in t MV ...................... (mV)

x (mm)

i ( A )

V th I = f ( x )
290

x (mm)

i ( A )

x (mm)

i ( A )

x (mm)

i ( A )

Th nghim Vt l 2

B. Kho st s phn b cng sng trong nh nhiu x laser qua cch t nhiu x. Xc
nh bc sng ca chm tia laser
Bng 2
- chnh xc ca thc panme : ................................ ( mm )
- chnh xc ca Milivon k in t MV ...................... (mV)

x (mm)

i ( A )

x (mm)

i ( A )

x (mm)

i ( A )

x (mm)

i ( A )

V th I = f ( x )

291

Th nghim Vt l 2

Bng 3
- Chu k ca cch t phng : d = ........... .(mm-1 )
- chnh xc ca panme : .................... (mm)
Ln o

a (mm)

a (mm)

( m )

1
2
3
TB

1. Tnh sai s tng i ca php o :

d f a

..................................................
d
f
a

2. Tnh gi tr trung bnh ca php o :

a
........................................................... ( m)
2 f

3. Tnh sai s tuyt i ca php o :

. ............................................................... ( m)
4. Vit kt qu o ca php o :

............................ .......................... (m)

292

( m )

Th nghim Vt l 2

Bi 3
KHO ST HIN TNG PHN CC NH SNG
I. MC CH:
- Kho st nh sng phn cc pht ra t Laser bn dn.
- Kho st s ph thuc cng nh sng laser sau khi qua bn phn cc theo gc hp bi
vect sng ca laser vi quang trc ca bn phn cc, t nghim li nh lut Malus.
II. C S L THUYT
Theo thuyt in t ca Maxwell, nh
sng l sng in t tc l loi sng ngang,
trong vect in trng E hay cn gi l
vect sng sng lun dao ng theo phng
vung gc vi phng truyn sng (tia sng)
(hnh 1).
nh sng t nhin l tp hp v s cc
on sng do nhng nguyn t ring bit
trong ngun sng pht ra, nn vect sng
sng E ca mi on sng c phng dao
ng rt khc nhau v mang tnh ngu nhin.

Hnh 1

V vy nh ngha nh sng t nhin l nh sng trong vect sng sng E dao ng


u n theo mi phng vung gc vi tia sng .
nh sng t nhin khi i qua mi
trng bt ng hng v mt quang hc (v
d bn tinh th Tuamalin, tm phn cc),
trong nhng iu kin nht nh no do tc
dng ca mi trng nn vect E ch dao
ng theo mt phng xc nh, nh sng ny
c gi l nh sng phn cc ton phn.
Hin tng nh sng t nhin bin
thnh nh sng phn cc gi l hin tng
phn cc nh sng. (hnh 2)

nh sng
t nhin

E1

nh sng
phn cc thng
Hnh 2 : S phn cc ca sng nh sng

nh sng c vect sng sng E ch dao ng theo mt phng xc nh vung gc vi


tia sng gi l nh sng phn cc ton phn (cn gi l nh sang phn cc thng).
Trong mt s trng hp do tc dng ca mi trng ln nh sng truyn qua n, vect
cng in trng vn dao ng theo tt c cc phng vung gc vi tia sng nhng c
phng dao ng yu, c phng dao ng mnh. nh sng ny c gi l nh sng phn cc

293

Th nghim Vt l 2

mt phn. Nu nh sng phn cc trong u mt vect sng E chuyn ng trn mt ng


elip (hay ng trn) th c gi l nh sng phn cc elip (trn)

C th to ra nh sng phn cc phng bng cch cho nh sng t nhin truyn qua cc
bn phn cc (tinh th Tuamalin, plarit hoc hrapatit). Nguyn nhn ca hin tng ny l
do tnh hp th d hng trong tinh th. Trong bn phn cc c mt phng c bit gi l
quang trc ca tinh th (k hiu l ) . Theo phng quang trc, nh sng khng b hp th v
truyn t do qua bn tinh th, cn theo phng vung gc vi quang trc, nh sng b hp th
hon ton. (hnh 3-b).

Hnh 3-a

Hnh 3-b

Nu nh sng truyn ti bn phn cc l nh sng phn cc thng c vect sng sng


,

E1 nghing mt gc so vi quang trc 2 ca bn ny, th ch c thnh phn E 2 song song


,,

vi quang trc 2 mi truyn c qua bn, cn thnh phn E 2 vung gc vi quang trc 2
s b cn li. Nh vy sau bn c quang trc 2 ta cng nhn c nh sng phn cc ton phn
,

c vect sng E 2 E 2 v cng sng I2 l :

I 2 E 22 E12 cos 2
I 2 I 1 cos 2
y l cng thc ca nh lut Malus v phn cc nh sng.
R rng, khi =0 th cos =1 cng sng sau bn knh phn cc t cc i I2max=
I1, cn khi = 900 th cos = 0: cng sng sau bn knh phn cc s cc tiu I2min= 0.
Bn tinh th T1 c gi l knh phn cc, bn tinh th T2 c gi l knh phn tch (hnh3-a).
Do tnh i xng ca nh sng t nhin xung quanh phng truyn nn nu ta quay bn
phn cc (tuamalin) xung quanh tia sng th v tr no cng c nh sng truyn qua. Cn khi
tia sng chiu n bn phn cc l nh sng phn cc th khi quay bn phn cc cng sng
sau bn s thay i. Nh vy bn phn cc c th gip ta phn bit c chm sng t nhin v
chm sng phn cc.

294

Th nghim Vt l 2

III. THIT B V TRNH T TH NGHIM


III.1. THIT B TH NGHIM

1. Ngun pht tia laser bn dn.

4. Cm bin photodiode silicon + ng che sng

2. Bn knh phn cc ;

5. B khuch i v ch th cng sng

3. Thc o gc 0 - 3600 , chnh xc 10

6. Gi quang hc .

III.2. TRNH T TH NGHIM


1. Quan st b thit b th nghim gm mt diode laser DL (3,8V - 5 mW) pht ra chm
tia laser mu chiu vung gc vo tm ca mt bn phn cc P. Mt thc trn T (c chia
t 0 3600) gn cht vi bn phn cc P dng o gc gia phng ca vect sng sng E
truyn ti bn phn cc P v quang trc Q ca bn ny. kho st s thay i cng ca
nh sng phn cc sau khi truyn qua bn phn cc P, ta dng mt cm bin quang in silicon
Q t bn trong mt ng che sng. Tn hiu laser truyn qua bn knh phn cc ti ri vo cm
bin quang in silicon Q c a vo b khuch i v ch th cng sng K nh mt
cht cm C. Ton b thit b th nghim t trn cng mt gi quang hc G.
2. Cm phch ly in ca khuch i v ch th cng sng K vo ngun in ~
220V. Vn nm bin tr R v v tr tn cng bn phi. Bm kha ng in K trn mt ca b
khuch i K : n tn hiu LED pht sng. Ni lng vt hm V v quay ng chn sng ca
cm bin quang in Q trc ca n i qua tm ca bn phn cc P. Ch khong 5 pht
b khuch i K n nh, thc hin vic iu chnh v tr s 0 ca milivonk in-t. Nu kim
ca in k khng ch ng s 0 th phi vn t t nm "qui 0" cho kim ch th ca n quay
tr v ng s 0. Ch : Sau khi iu chnh xong, phi gi nguyn v tr ny ca nm "qui 0"
trong sut thi gian lm th nghim.
3. Cm phch ly in ca b ngun nui diode laser DL vo ngun in xoay chiu
~220V. Bt cng tc K1 ca diode laser DL, ta s nhn c chm tia sng laser mu . iu
chnh chm tia sng laser pht ra t ca s ca diode laser DL i qua tm ca bn phn cc P
v chiu vo tm ca vt V. Khi gi nguyn cao ca cm bin quang in Q v quay n
cho chm tia laser ri thng vo cm bin quang in Q.
4. Quay thc trn chia T cho ti khi kim ca in k t lch ln nht. Vn nm
bin tr R ca b khuch i ngc chiu kim ng h sao cho kim ca milivnke ch 100,
chnh l gi tr gc = 0. c v ghi gi tr gc quay ban u (trn thc trn chia T) ca
bn phn cc P vo bng 1 .
295

Th nghim Vt l 2

5. Tip tc quay thc trn chia T tng gc (mi ln tng 50) t gi tr ban u n
gi tr = + 900 . c v ghi cc gi tr tng ng ca gc v ca cng sng I1 (t l vi
gi tr trn microvnk ) trong mi ln o vo bng 1
6. c v ghi cc s liu sau y vo bng 1 :
- chia nh nht ca thc trn chia T .
- chia nh nht trn thang o 100 ca micrvnk in t .
Da vo nhng gi tr o c ca cng sng I1 v ca gc quay tng ng
trong bng 1, v th biu din hm s :
I1 = f ( X ) vi X = cos2

(3)

Ch : Cn kim tra chnh xc cc v tr ti cng sng t cc i hoc cc tiu bng


cch ln cn hai pha ca mi v tr ny (trong gii hn 50) ch thay i mi ln 10 i vi gc
quay v c gi tr cng sng I1 tng ng. T c th xc nh chnh xc v tr mt
phng phn cc ca chm tia laser.
Trng hp th nghim c s dng phn mm Cassy Lab - My tnh :Kho st s ph
thuc cng nh sng laser sau khi qua bn phn cc theo gc hp bi vect sng ca laser
vi quang trc ca bn phn cc
Khi ng phn mm Cassy Lab
- Ly tn hiu t Milivon k in t MV cho vo UA1 ca Cassy
- Trong thanh Start chn Program v chn Cassy Lab, nhp p chut vo UA1, chn 0 10V
- Ca s input setting chn Averagd Valuse, left.
- Ca s Measing parametes chn Manual.
- Nhp p chut vo UB1, chn 0 -10V
- Ca s input setting chn Averagd Valuse, left.
- Ca s Measing parametes chn Manual.
- Ci t cc trc ta , y honh biu th cos , tung biu th cng sng I .
- Mun ci t trc ta th trong ca s setting chn parameter Formula FFT
* Khai bo cng sng I:
- Chn new quantity
- Trong hp select quantity in vo tn i lng mi I
- Chn formula in cng thc ch mi lin h i lng mi vi cc i lng c:
UA1/0.45*150
- in trong symbol : I Unit: Cd

296

From: 0

To:

150

Th nghim Vt l 2

*Khai bo cosx
Chn new quantity
Trong hp select quantity in vo tn i lng mi cosx
Chn formula in cng thc ch mi lin h i lng mi vi cc i lng c:
cos((n-1)*5)
- in trong symbol: cosx

Unit:

From: 0 To:

1.5

*Chn hin th th I cosx


- Trong setting chn display
- Chn new display
- Trong hp select display ghi tn th I cosx
- Trong X Axis chn cosx v Y Axis chn I
- Sau bm F9 bt u o, vi mi ln dch chuyn thc o 5 , bm F9.

IV. CU HI KIM TRA


1. Nu r thuyt in t ca Maxwell v bn cht ca nh sng . nh sng l sng ngang hay
sng dc ?
2. nh ngha nh sng t nhin v nh sng phn cc 1 phn, ton phn.
3.Cch phn bit nh sng t nhin vi nh sng phn cc bng thc nghim.
4. Nu ng dng v s phn cc nh sng v nh sng phn cc
5. Gii thch ti sao khi chm tia laser truyn qua bn phn cc P , th cng sng I pha sau
bn phn cc P li thay i ph thuc vo gc gia vect sng sng E truyn ti bn phn cc
P v quang trc Q ca bn .
6. Pht biu v vit biu thc ca nh lut Malus v phn cc nh sng .

297

Th nghim Vt l 2

BO CO KT QU TH NGHIM
(theo mu gi )
KHO ST S PHN CC NH SNG

Xc nhn ca gio vin


Trng ........................................
Lp ...................T .....................
H tn .........................................

MC CH TH NGHIM
..........................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................
....

KT QU TH NGHIM
BNG 1

- GI TR CHIA NH NHT CA THC O GC T : ...................


- Gi tr chia nh nht trn micrvnk V : ................

I1

cos

cos2

50

55

10

60

15

65

20

70

25

75

30

80

35

85

40

90

45

298

I1

cos

cos2

Th nghim Vt l 2

V th I1 = f ( X ) vi X = cos2 . Nhn xt kt qu th nghim (so vi nh lut Malus)

299

Th nghim Vt l 2

Bi 4
KHO ST HIN TNG QUANG IN
I. MC CH
-

Kho st hin tng quang in v bn cht ht ca nh sng

V c tuyn von-ampe ca t bo quang in.

Nghim li cc nh lut quang in.

Xc nh hng s Planck.
II. C S L THUYT

Hin tng quang in l hiu ng bn ra cc electron t mt tm kim loi khi di vo


tm kim loi mt chm sng c bc sng thch hp. Cc electron bn ra c gi l cc
electron quang.
Electron trong kim loi mun thot ra ngoi kim loi phi c nng lng t nht bng
cng thot Ath ca electron i vi kim loi . Bnh thng ng nng chuyn ng nhit ca
cc electron u nh hn Ath. Khi bc x in t thch hp di ti, cc electron t do trong kim
loi s hp th photon. Mi mt photon c nng lng h . Nng lng ny mt phn
chuyn thnh cng thot Ath v phn cn li chuyn thnh ng nng ban u ca electron
quang. ng nng ban u ny cng ln khi electron cng gn b mt kim loi v kt qu l
ng nng ban u s cc i vi cc quang electron st b mt kim loi. Theo nh lut bo
ton nng lng ta c:
2

mv
h Ath 0 max Ath Wd max
2
Khi chiu vo catt nh sng c bc sng
thch hp th trong mch xut hin dng
quang in. Mun cho dng quang in trit
tiu hon ton th phi t vo gia ant v
catt mt hiu in th cn. S tn ti ca
hiu in th cn chng t rng khi bt ra
khi mt kim loi, cc electron quang c mt
vn tc ban u v0. in trng cn mnh
n mt mc no th ngay c nhng
electron c vn tc ban u ln nht v0max
cng khng bay c n ant. Lc dng

(1)

Hnh 1

quang in trit tiu hon ton v cng ca in trng cn c gi tr ng bng ng nng ban
u cc i ca electron quang:
Wmax = eUh
300

(2)

Th nghim Vt l 2

Uh l hiu in th lm cho dng quang in trit tiu hon ton, c gi l hiu in th hm.
Kt hp phng trnh (1) v (2) ta c:
h Ath eU h

A
h
U h th
e
e
th biu din s ph thuc ca hiu in th hm vo tn s ca nh sng kch thch c dng
nh hnh 1.
III. THIT B V TRNH T TH NGHIM
III.1. DNG C:
Thit b nghin cu hiu ng quang in v xc nh hng s Planck , vi cc thng s :

T bo quang in chn khng loi Cs-Sb , dng in ti khng ln hn 3nA.

B gm 4 knh lc sc :

Sai s xc nh in p gia tc electron 2%.

Ngun sng : n Halogen 12V/35W

Ngun cung cp cho thit b : AC 220V, 50 Hz

635nm, 570nm, 540nm, 460nm.

III.2. THIT B O:

(1). ng h ch th dng in v hiu in th.


(2). Chuyn mch thay i gia hai kiu lm vic ca ng h:

o dng in (Current),

o hiu in th (Voltage).

(3). Chuyn mch chn thang o dng in :

301

Th nghim Vt l 2

V tr x1 o cng dng quang in c gi tr 10-6A.

V tr x 0.1 o cng dng quang in c gi tr 10-7A.

V tr x 0.01 o cng dng quang in c gi tr 10-8A.

V tr x0.001 o cng dng quang in c gi tr 10-9A.


(4). Chuyn mch chn cng sng ca n chiu, c 3 v tr :

V tr n sng mnh (STRONG)

V tr ngt in n chiu sng (OFF)

V tr n sng yu (WEAK)

(5). Nm iu chnh hiu in th mt chiu cung cp cho mch in ca t bo quang in,


thay i t 0 n 15V
Chuyn mch thay i chiu in p t vo mch in ca t bo quang in.
(6). Cng-tc ngun, c 2 v tr : bt in (ON) v tt in (OFF).
(7). n bo hiu.
(8). Hp kn, bn trong c t bo quang in.
(9).

n chiu sng, c hai ch lm vic (sng mnh, sng yu) v c th trt dc theo ray
thay i khong cch n t bo quang in

III.3. TRNH T TH NGHIM:


3. 1. Chun b th nghim:
Chuyn mch (4) bt v v tr WEAK (n sng yu). Ni lng c gi n chiu sao cho
c th dch chuyn n chiu nh nhng gia ng ray thay i khong cch gia n
chiu v t bo quang in. t n chiu v tr 40cm. Cm phch ly in vo in 220V.
Bt cng-tc ngun (7) sang v tr ON : n chiu (10) pht sng, bo hiu my sn sng hot
ng. Quan st bng n chiu c thp sng (yu). Tho np che t bo quang in v thay
n bng knh lc sc mu . Bt cng-tc cng sng (4) v cc v tr OFF, WEAK,
STRONG kim tra cc ch hot ng ca n chiu.
3. 2. V c tuyn vn-ampe ca t bo quang in:

Lp knh lc sc mu vo ca s ca t bo quang in.

Chuyn mch cng sng (4) t v tr WEAK (sng yu). Dch chuyn n chiu n
v tr 18cm.

Gt chuyn mch chiu in p (6) v v tr + .

t chuyn mch thang o dng in (3) v tr x1 hoc x0,1.

Xoay nh nm iu chnh in p (5) v tn cng tri (ng vi hiu in th ban u 0V).

302

Th nghim Vt l 2

Mun o hiu in th, ta gt chuyn mch (2) v v tr VOLTAGE. Mun o dng quang
in, ta gt chuyn mch (2) v tr CURRENT.

Xoay nh nm iu chnh in p (5) tng dn hiu in th tng 0,5V mt, t 0V n


10V. c v ghi gi tr dng quang in tng ng vo bng 1.

T kt qu thu c, v th biu din s ph thuc ca cng dng quang in vo hiu


in th t gia ant v catt ca t bo quang in. Xc nh hiu th bt u dng quang
in bo ho.
3. 3. Nghin cu nh lut dng quang in bo ho :

Gi nguyn knh lc sc lp trn ca s ca t bo quang in.

n chiu vn v tr r = 18 cm.

iu chnh hiu in th gia hai cc ca t bo quang in bng 10V. c v ghi gi tr


dng quang in tng ng vo bng 2 ti v tr r=18cm

Tng dn khong cch gia n chiu v t bo quang in tng 10mm mt, t v tr r =


18cm n v tr r = 40cm. c v ghi vo bng 2 cc gi tr dng quang in bo ho I
tng ng vi mi v tr r ca n chiu.

T kt qu thu c, v th biu din s ph thuc ca cng dng quang in bo


ho vo nghch o ca bnh phng khong cch t n chiu n t bo quang in :
I ~ 1/r2

Ghi ch : Cho bit di sng vo t quang in do n chiu gi n t l nghch vi bnh


phng khong cch t n chiu n t bo quang in.
3. 4. Xc nh hng s Planck :

t n chiu v tr r = 40cm.

Chuyn mch thang o dng in (3) t v tr x0,001.

Lp knh lc sc mu (bc sng = 635nm) vo ca s ca t bo quang in.

Xoay nh nm iu chnh in p (5) v v tr tn cng tri (hiu in th t vo hai cc


ca t bo quang in bng 0V)

Bt n chiu sang v tr STRONG (sng mnh).

Gt chuyn mch (2) v v tr CURRENT o dng quang in ban u.

Gt chuyn mch chiu dng in (6) v v tr c du - (o chiu in p t gia hai cc


ca t bo quang in to ra hiu in th cn).

Xoay nh nm iu chnh in p (5) tng dn hiu th cn cho n khi cng dng


quang in gim ti gi tr bng 0 .

Gt chuyn mch (2) v v tr VOLTAGE c gi tr ca hiu in th hm Uh v ghi vo


bng 3 cng vi gi tr bc sng tng ng .
303

Th nghim Vt l 2

Ln lt thay knh lc sc bng knh lc sc vng ( = 570nm) v knh lc sc lc ( =


540nm) , ri lp li cc bc th nghim trn vi mi knh lc sc cho. c v ghi cc kt
qu th nghim vo bng 3.

Nhn cng-tc ca n chiu v cng-tc ngun v v tr OFF ngt in cho thit b. Tho
cc knh lc sc, xp cn thn vo hp xp v y np che ca s ca t bo quang in.
IV. CU HI KIM TRA

1. nh ngha hin tng quang in. Th no l hiu in th hm, ng nng ban u cc i


ca cc quang electron ?
2. Pht biu ba nh lut quang in v dng thuyt phtn ca Anhxtanh gii thch cc nh
lut quang in.
3. Nu phng php nghin cu nh lut dng quang in bo ha. Mi lin h gia cng
dng quang in v khong cch t ngun sng n t bo quang in nh th no ?
4. Nu phng php xc nh hng s Planck trong bi th nghim ny.
5. Hy nu nhng nguyn nhn gy nn sai s trong cc php o ny.

304

Th nghim Vt l 2

BO CO KT QU TH NGHIM
KHO ST HIN TNG QUANG IN
(theo mu gi )

Trng ........................................

Xc nhn ca gio vin

Lp ...................T .....................
H tn .........................................

I. MC CH TH NGHIM
..........................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................................
II. KT QU TH NGHIM
1. Bng 1. V c tuyn vn-ampe ca t bo quang in :
TT

Hiu in th

Cng dng in

TT

Hiu in th

4,0

0.5

10

4,5

1,0

11

5,0

1.5

12

6,0

2,0

13

7,0

2.5

14

8,0

3,0

15

9,0

3.5

16

10,0

Cng dng in

2. Bng 2. Nghin cu nh lut dng quang in bo ho :


TT

V tr r

Cng dng in

(cm)

( nA)

TT

V tr r

Cng dng in

(cm)

( nA)

40

28

38

26

305

Th nghim Vt l 2

36

24

34

10

22

32

11

20

30

12

18

3. Bng 3. o hiu in th hm v xc inh hng s Planck:


TT

Knh lc sc

vng

lc

Bc sng

Tn s

(nm)

(Hz)

Hiu in th hm
Uh (V)

1. V cc th tng ng vi cc bng 1, 2 , 3. Rt ra cc kt lun v cc nh lut quang


in c nghim qua cc th nghim ni trn.

2.T th m t quan h gia tn s ca nh sng n sc chiu vo t bo quang in v


hiu in th hm tng ng. Tnh hng s Planck v cng thot ca lectrn theo phng
trnh Einstein : h = A + eUh , trong = c/ v A l cng thot ca lectrn.

306

Ph lc

PH LC
MT S HNG S VT L C BN
Hng s

K hiu

Ga tr

Vn tc nh sng trong chn khng

3.108m/s

in tch nguyn t

1,6.10-19C

Khi lng electrn

me

9,11.10-31kg = 5,49.10-4u

Khi lng prtn

mp

1,67.10-27kg = 1,0073u

Khi lng ntrn

mn

1,68.10-27kg = 1,0087u

Hng s Placnk

6,625.10-34J.s

Bc sng Compton ca electrn

2,426.10-12m

Hng s Avogadro

NA

6,023.1023mol-1

Hng s Boltzman

1,38.10-23J/K

Hng s Stephan Boltzman

5,67.10-8 W/m2K4

Hng s Wien

2,868.10-3 m.K

Hng s Rydberg

3,29.1015s-1

Bn knh Bohr

rB

0,529.10-10m

Manhtn Bohr

9,27.10-24J/T

307

Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO

1.Vt l i cng, tp I, II, III - Lng Duyn Bnh, Ng Ph An, L Bng Sng v Nguyn
Hu Tng. Nh xut bn Gio dc - 2003.

2. C s Vt l, Tp VI - Halliday, Resnick, Walker. Nh xut bn Gio dc 1998.


3. Vt l i cng, tp I, II, III - ng Quang Khang v Nguyn Xun Chi. Nh xut bn i
hc Bch khoa H Ni - 2001.
4. Bi tp Vt l i cng tp I, II, III - Lng Duyn Bnh. Nh xut bn Gio dc - 1999.
5. Quang hc, Hunh Hu. Nh xut bn Gio dc - 1992.
6. Quang hc Nguyn Th Bnh Nh xut bn i hc Quc gia H ni - 2007
7. Vt L i cng tp II, Nguyn Vit Knh, Bch Thnh Cng, Nh xut bn i hc
Quc gia H ni - 2007
8. Vt l i cng tp 3: Cc nguyn l v ng dng, Trn Ngc Hi v Phm vn Thiu,
Nh xut bn Gio dc.
9. Vt l hin i - Ronald Gautreau William Savin; Ng Ph An - L Bng Sng dich.
Nh xut bn Gio dc- 2009

308