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Lecture

When can you say that a rigid body is in


equilibrium?

!
F = 0

!
! !
M 0 = r F = 0

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

M x = 0

M y = 0 M z = 0

Fz = 0


1. Decide on which
body to use as free
body. Detach the
body from the
ground and all
other bodies.


2. Indicate all external
forces ac@ng on the
body.


3. Draw the support
reac@ons - motion
resisting forces that
develop at the
supports of an
object.

Note: Reac@ons equivalent to a force with known line of ac@on

Reac@ons equivalent
to a force with
unknown direc@on
and magnitude

Reac@ons
equivalent to a
force and a couple

Rocker Bearing used to Support the


Roadway of a Bridge

3 available equa@ons
3 unknown quan@@es (max.)

!
Fx = 0
!
Fy = 0
!
MO = 0
9

!
F!x = 0
M! A =0
MB = 0

!
M! A =0
M! B = 0
MC = 0

3 eqns & 3 unknowns


10

More unknowns than


equations

Fewer unknowns but


partially constrained

Completely constrained
-Rigid body could not possibly move

Par;ally constrained
-Constraints are not sucient to keep the body from
moving

Sta;cally determinate
-When the unknowns could be solved by equa@ons of
equilibrium

Sta;cally indeterminate
-When there are more unknowns than equilibrium
equa@ons

Determine the
reac@ons at A
and B for =30o

A
Y

A
X

If a two-force body is in equilibrium, the


two forces must have the same
magnitude, the same line of ac;on, and
opposite sense.

The lines of ac@on of the three forces must be


concurrent or parallel.

A man raises a 10 kg
joist, of length 4 m,
by pulling on a rope.
Find the tension in
the rope and the
reac@on at A.

Create a free-body diagram of the joist.


Determine the direction of the reaction
force R.

AF = AB cos 45 = (4 m ) cos 45 = 2.828 m


CD = AE = 12 AF = 1.414 m
BD = CD cot(45 + 20) = (1.414 m ) tan 20 = 0.515 m
CE = BF BD = (2.828 0.515) m = 2.313 m
CE 2.313
tan =
=
= 1.636
AE 1.414

= 58.6!

Determine the magnitude of the reaction


force R.

R
98.1 N
=
=
sin 31.4! sin 110! sin 38.6!
T = 81.9 N
R = 147.8 N

When can you say that a rigid body is in


equilibrium?

!
F = 0

!
! !
M 0 = r F = 0

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

M x = 0

M y = 0 M z = 0

Fz = 0

Universal Joints

A sign of uniform
density weighs 270
lb and is supported
by a ball-and-socket
joint at A and by
two cables.
Determine the
tension in each
cable and the
reac@on at A.

!
!
rD rB
!
!
rD rB
!
!
!
8i + 4 j 8k
= TBD
12
! 1! 2!
2
= TBD 3 i + 3 j 3 k
! !
!
rC rE
TEC = TEC ! !
rC rE
!
!
!
6i + 3 j + 2 k
= TEC
7
! 3! 2!
6
= TEC 7 i + 7 j + 7 k

!
TBD = TBD

Create a free-body diagram for the


sign.
Since there are only 5 unknowns,
the sign is partially constrained. It
is free to rotate about the x axis. It
is, however, in equilibrium for the
given loading.

Apply the conditions for


static equilibrium to
develop equations for the
unknown reactions.

!
F =
!
i:
!
j:
!
k:
!
MA
!
j:
!
k:

! !
!
!
A + TBD + TEC (270 lb) j = 0
Ax 23 TBD 76 TEC = 0
Ay + 13 TBD + 73 TEC 270 lb = 0
Az 23 TBD + 72 TEC = 0
!
!
!
! !
!
= rB TBD + rE TEC + (4 ft )i ( 270 lb) j = 0
5.333TBD 1.714 TEC = 0
2.667 TBD + 2.571TEC 1080 lb = 0

Solve the 5 equa@ons for the 5 unknowns,

TBD = 101.3 lb TEC = 315 lb


!
!
!
"
A = (338 lb)i + (101.2 lb) j (22.5 lb)k

A 20-kg ladder used to reach high


shelves in a storeroom is
supported by two anged wheels
A and B mounted on a rail and by
an unanged wheel C res@ng
against a rail xed to the wall. An
80-kg man stands on the ladder
and leans to the right. The line of
ac@on of the combined weight W
of the man and ladder intersects
the oor at point D. Determine
the reac@ons at A, B, and C.

!
!
!
W = mgj = (80 + 20)(9.81) j = 981 j

F = 0"

"
!
"
Ay j + Az k + B y j + Bz k 981 j + Ck = 0
Ay + B y 981 = 0
Az + Bz + C = 0

=0

!
!
!
W = mgj = (80 + 20)(9.81) j = 981 j
Ay + B y 981 = 0
Az + Bz + C = 0

=0

"
!
!
!
1.2i B y j + Bz k + 0.9i 0.6k ( 981 j )
!
!
! !
+ 0.6i + 3 j 1.2k Ck = 0

) (

)( )

5 unknowns and 5 equa@ons, so the problem can


be solved

Answers:
A = 245 N j 98.1 N k
B = 736 N j 98.1 N k
C =196.2 N k

The assembly shown is


welded to collar A that ts
on the ver@cal pin shown.
The pin can exert couples
about the x and z axes but
does not prevent mo@on
along the y-axis. For the
loading shown, determine
the tension in each cable
and the reac@on at A.

MAz
MAx
Az
TDE
TCF

Ax

A 1 0 0 - k g u n i f o r m
r e c t a n g u l a r p l a t e i s
supported in the posi@on
shown by hinges A and B
and by cable DCE that
passes over a fric@onless
hook at C. Determine (a)
the tension in the cable,
(b) the reac@ons at A and
B. Assume that the hinge
at B does not exert any
axial thrust.

A xed crane has a mass of


1000 kg and is used to lid a
2400 kg crate. It is held in
place by a pin at A and a
rocker at B. The center of
gravity of the crane is located
at G.
Determine the components
of the reac@ons at A and B.

Determine B by solving the equation for the


sum of the moments of all forces about A.
M A = 0 : + B(1.5m ) 9.81 kN(2m )

23.5 kN(6m ) = 0

B = +107.1 kN

Create the free-body diagram.

Determine the reactions at A by solving the


equations for the sum of all horizontal forces
and all vertical forces.

Fx = 0 : Ax + B = 0
Ax = 107.1 kN
Fy = 0 : Ay 9.81 kN 23.5 kN = 0
Ay = +33.3 kN
Check the values obtained.

A loading car is at rest on an


inclined track. The gross
weight of the car and its load
is 5500 lb, and it is applied at
at G. The cart is held in
posi@on by the cable.
Determine the tension in the
cable and the reac@on at each
pair of wheels.

Determine the reactions at the wheels.

M A = 0 : (2320 lb) 25in. (4980 lb) 6in.


+ R2 (50in.) = 0

R2 = 1758 lb
M B = 0 : + (2320 lb) 25in. (4980 lb) 6in.
R1 (50in.) = 0

R1 = 562 lb
Create a free-body diagram

Wx = +(5500 lb) cos 25!


= +4980 lb
W y = (5500 lb)sin 25!
= 2320 lb

Determine the cable tension.

Fx = 0 : + 4980 lb T = 0

T = +4980 lb

The bracket BCD is hinged at C and aeached to a


control cable at B. For the loading shown, determine
(a) the tension in the cable, (b) the reac@on at C.
240 N

B
0.18 m

240 N

0.24 m

0.4 m

0.4 m

The weight W = 2 kN, Determine the tension in


the cable and the reac@ons at A. (Bedford 5th
Ed.)

The tension in cable BC is 100 lb. Determine the


reac@ons at the support. (Bedford 5th Ed.)

A uniform pipe cover of


radius r = 240 mm and mass
30 kg is held in a horizontal
posi@on by the cable CD.
Assuming that the bearing
at B does not exert any axial
thrust, determine the
tension in the cable and the
reac@ons at A and B.

"
"
"
W = mgj = (30)(9.81) j = 294 j
!
!
DC = 480i + 240 j 160k
DC = 560mm
!
DC
6! 3
2!
T =T
= i + j k
DC
7
7
7

F = 0

"
!
"
!
!
Ax i + Ay j + Az k + Bx i + B y j + T 294 j = 0

6 "
3

!
Ax + Bx T i + Ay + B y + T 294 j
7
7

2 !

Az T k = 0
6 unknowns and 6
7

equations
MB = 0
"
!
!
! ! 6 ! 3
2 "
2rk Ax i + Ay j + Az k + 2ri + rk Ti + Tj Tk
7
7
7
!
! !
+ ri + rk 294k = 0

) (

)(

Another solu@on is to sum moments


about the z a-axis. Why? Which
reac@on(s) can be solved?
You can solve problems without
using vectors. Just sum moments
about an axis.

A 450-lb load hangs from the comer C of a rigid piece of pipe


ABCD which has been bent as shown. The pipe is supported by
the ball-and-socket joints A and D, which are fastened,
respec@vely, to the oor and to a ver@cal wall, and by a cable
aeached at the midpoint E of the por@on BC of the pipe and at
a point C on the wall. Determine (a) where G should be located
if the tension in the cable is to be minimum, (b) the
corresponding minimum value of the tension.

=0
"
" "
"
AE T + AC W = 0
"
"
!
"
AC W = (12i + 12 j ) ( 450 j ) = 5400k
!
"
! AD 12i + 12 j 6k
=
=
AD
18

AD

!
"
"
"
" 12i + 12 j 6k
5400k = 1800
AE T =

18

"
" " "
AE T = T AE
!
!
"
"

"
12i + 12 j 6k 12i + 12 j 6k

(6i + 12 j ) = 1800
T

18
18

6T = 1800
!
"
Tmin = 200i + 100 j 200k
Must be the same
!
"
direc@on
EG = (x 6 )i + ( y 12) j + (0 6 )k

(
(

)
)

x=0, y=15 ft

You can also solve the problem by


summing moments about an axis.