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00

HYDRAULICS

2.01.01

2.01.02

Introduction, Study of Hydraulics

2.02.01

2.02.02

2.02.03

2.02.04

2.02.05

2.02.06

2.02.07

2.02.08

Matter and Types of Matter

Mass, Inertia, Density

Specific Gravity

Common Oilfield Volumes

Area of shapes

Weight

Force & Pressure

2.03.01

2.03.02

2.03.03

2.03.04

2.03.05

2.03.06

2.03.07

2.03.08

2.03.09

2.03.10

2.03.11

2.03.12

2.04.01

2.04.02

2.04.03

2.04.04

2.04.05

2.04.06

Hydrostatic Fluids

Hydrostatic Fluid Illustrations

Single Liquid. Seeks own level

Multiple Liquid. Seeks own level

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure in Oilfield

Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient

Buoyancy & Archimedes Principle

Buoyed Weight

Buoyancy Factor

Buoyancy Calculation Example.

Hydrostatic Fluid Formulas.

Hydraulic Power Transmission

Pressure & Force

Hydraulic Cylinders

Work

Hydraulic Power, horsepower

Basic Hydraulic Pump

2.05.01

2.05.02

2.05.03

2.05.04

2.05.05

2.05.06

2.05.07

2.05.08

2.05.09

2.05.10

Drilling Circulating System

Hydraulic Horsepower

Volumetric-Rate & Pumps

Continuity of Flow

Fluid Velocity

Types of Flow, Turbulent & Laminar

Fluid Flow Pressure Loss

Pressure Drop Factors

Annular Flow & Pressure Drop

2.06.01

2.06.02

2.06.03

2.06.04

Rheology - general terms and definitions

Rheology - Fluid Flow Calculation Models

Rheology - Fluid Flow Classifications

2.07.01

2.07.02

Bit - Hydraulic Energy

2.08.01

2.08.02

Rule of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics

2.09.01

2.09.02

2.09.03

2.09.04

Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary

Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary

Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary

E X I T

DD Hydraulics 2.01.01

Introduction

Stand

Pipe

DD Hydraulics 2.01.02

Introduction

their properties.

Rotary

hose

PUMP

Hydraulics

Hydraulicsmay

maybe

bedivided

dividedinto

intotwo

twocategories:

categories:

Hydrostatic

applies

to

liquids

Hydrostatic

applies to liquidsatatrest

rest

HOPPER

Hydrodynamic

Hydrodynamic

M

UD

PI

T

E

RV

SE

RE

CASED HOLE

T

PI

Note.

Note.

Some

Somelaws

lawsofofhydraulics

hydraulicsalso

alsoapply

applytotogases

gasesunder

undercertain

certain

conditions,

but

unless

specifically

conditions, but unless specificallystated,only

stated,onlyliquids

liquids

will

be

used

or

considered.

Note

also,

the

term

fluid

will be used or considered. Note also, the term fluid

will

willapply

applytotoliquids

liquidsonly

only- - unless

unlessspecifically

specificallynoted.

noted.

SHALE

SHAKER

in making and maintaining the hole, as well as, in the operation

of some rig and down hole equipment.

OPEN HOLE

system with the fluid serving multiple purposes,

including the work of making hole, supporting

hole walls, carrying cuttings from the hole,

lubricating the drill string, etc.

applies

appliestotoliquids

liquidsininmotion

motion

but in many circumstances principles of both types are in play

at the same time. Many compromises must be made during the

course of drilling a well between the ideal hydraulic parameters

used and what is possible. It is necessary to understand each type

of hydraulics, individually and the effect that one has on the other

one.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.01

Matter

Mass

Inertia

unless acted upon by a force.

Density

common use. ( Lbs/Gal., etc.)

Specific

Gravity

standard substance such as water.

Area

( sq.inches, sq. feet, etc )

Volume

( Cu.Foot, Cu.Inch, Gallon, Barrel, etc.)

Weight

of gravitational force and objects mass.

Force

or direction of movement.

Pressure

which force is applied.

Work

Power

( 33000 Ft - Lbs / Min. )

and has weight. It can be grouped as solids (rigid), or

fluids (flow) with fluids being either a liquid or a gas.

Solids:

independent of any container.

Liquids:

having a definite volume with no shape

of its own, assuming that of its container.

Volume is affected only slightly by

changes in temperature or pressure.

Gases

having neither volume nor shape of its

own, assuming that of its container.

Gases are highly compressible with

their volume dependant on temperature

and pressure.

Fluids.Liquids and gases are both fluids in that they have no

shape of their own, constantly deforming with any application

of force unless confined. However, fluids in this presentation

will refer to a liquid only unless specifically noted as one of

of the more common terms in the oilfield is drilling fluids

which refers to drilling mud, a liquid.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.03

inertia.

Inertia is the property of matter by which it remains at rest

or in a straight line motion unless acted upon by an outside

force.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.04

compared to the density of a standard substance. The most

commonly used substance as a standard is water at the

temperature of its maximum density, 39.20 F.

Specific

SpecificGravity

Gravity

Weight

of

Substance

Weight of Substanceper

perUnit

UnitVolume

Volume

Weight

of

Water

per

Unit

Weight of Water per UnitVolume

Volume

stationary unless acted upon by

an outside force

AirRE Resistance

A

I

R

S

I

S

T

A

N

C

E

Gravity

straight line were it not for the

external forces of air friction

and gravity.

COMMON

RELATIVE

DENSITIES

Water (

39.20F

CU.FT.

GALLON

DENSITY

GRAMS

PER CU.

CM

1.000

62.4

8.34

1.000

Water ( 68.00F )

0.998

62.3

8.33

0.998

commonly used as Weight per Unit Volume.

Sea Water

1.026

64.0

8.55

1.026

Steel

per unit volume unless specifically noted.

7.804

487.0

65.10

7.804

Iron

7.853

490.0

65.50

7.853

2.700

168.5

22.50

2.700

Aluminum

Weight-Density

Weight-Density

Density

Density ==Weight

Weight / /Unit

UnitVolume

Volume

volume, it is necessary to be familiar with and to be able

to calculate volume.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.05

DD Hydraulics 2.02.06

and calculated in cubic units such as cubic feet, cubic inches, cubic

centimeters, etc. Volume may also be expressed as gallons, barrels,

or other standards.

square inches, etc. with square inches being among the most

common, particularly when dealing with pressures. Calculations

require that the unit of measurement be consistent in the equation

and in the solution.

Columns

12 cubic inches

Barrel

12

42 gal

Square Units = Length x Width

6 x 6 = 36 square inches

Cubic Foot

Square Units = ( Base x Height ) / 2

1 gal

12 x 12 x 12

Volume

Conversions

Cubic

Inches

Gallons

Barrels

Cubic Feet

1728

7.48052

0.17811

Barrel

9702

42

5.61458

Gallon

231

0.02381

0.13368

Cubic

Feet

( 6 x 6 ) / 2 = 18 sq. inches

Square Units = Diameter 2 x ( / 4 )

6 2 x ( 3.14 / 4 ) = 28.3 sq. inches

Square Area ( Ring )

Sq. Units = ( DIA. 2 - dia. 2 ) x ( / 4 )

calculations and solutions.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.07

result of gravitational force and the objects mass.

The weight of an object may vary due to variations in the earths

gravitational field or by its distance from the main body of the

earth. Objects weigh more at sea level than far above it. This

variation in weight is normally very small and will be ignored

unless otherwise noted.

While weight is used to measure individual objects, it is also

used in hydraulics, with weight referring to a liquid as its

density or weight per unit volume.

identified as belonging to that single object.

This is true mainly in relation to solid objects.

The unit measured is that unique object.

Unit

Wt.

Wt /

Gal

or density refers to it as weight per a specified

unit volume. This is also true of a gas and may

be true of a solid if it noted as weight-density.

weight-densities of liquids as well as in calculations. Use

the weight per the same unit volume in all.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.08

change its position or the direction of its movement. This includes

starting, stopping, changein speed, and direction of movement.

Force is expressed in same terms as weight, such as grams, tons,

dynes, etc. with pounds being the most common in the oilfield.

Weight is a force which is directed downward, but force is not

limited to any direction.

Pressure is the amount of force exerted on an object or substance

per area over which force is applied.

Pressure may be expressed in various ways, such as newtons

per square meter, dynes per square centimeter, etc. Most common

measurement in the oilfield is Pounds per Square Inch ( PSI )

25 square inch surface equals

a pressure of 20 PSI. Pressure

of 20 PSI exerted on 25 square

inches equals a 500 lb. force

applied to the surface.

F

O

R

C

E

F

O

R

C

E

Pressure

Pressure==Force

Force/ /Area

Area

Pressure

Pressure( (PSI

PSI) )==Force

Force( (Lbs.

Lbs.) )/ /Area

Area( (sq.in.

sq.in.) )

Force

Force==Pressure

PressurexxArea

Area

Force

Force( (Lbs.)

Lbs.)==Pressure

Pressure( (PSI

PSI) )xxArea

Area( (sq.in.

sq.in.) )

its own assumes the shape of its container.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.02

Liquids

Flow

its container at lowest portion

of the container equal to the

liquids volume.

Gravity

Liquids at rest, exert perpendicular forces on surfaces they

touch as they cannot support tangential forces without flowing.

Liquids are attracted by gravitational pull with each layer of

liquid exerting its weight on the layers beneath it. Liquids are

relatively incompressable making their density a constant.

Liquids are only slightly affected by temperature changes.

within the liquid called hydrostatic pressure.

Exists at every point within the liquid.

Is proportional to the depth below the suface

Is the same at all points at the same level within a

single liquid.

Is of the same magnitude at any point regardless

of the surface orientation that it touches.

Each layer of

liquid exerts

its weight on

those below

Pressure is

proportional

to the depth

in a liquid

At any level

pressure is

the same in

single liquid

to the surface that it touches.

Pressure

exists at all

points in a

liquid

At any point

pressure is

equal in all

directions

Direction of

force reacts

perpendicular

to surfaces

drilling fluids

are subject to

these same

properties of

a liquid.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.04

the liquids surface is on a flat horizontal plane parallel to the

earths surface. The pressure at any point in the liquid is the

same as all other points at the same depth and will always

equalize despite the number of compartments in a container or

its size, shape or orientation.

equalize pressures from the point of separation and downward.

Two distinct column heights result from the heavier liquid forcing

the lighter upward until the pressure has been equalized at and

below the point of separation.

Vertical

depth

In a single liquid,

equal pressures at

the same depth

provide equal

support for the

liquid producing

equal vertical

heights of the

liquid.

LIGHT

MUD

not mix together will each seek their own level

with the heavier of the liquids settling to the

bottom of the container while the lighter liquid

rises to the top.

Heavy

Mud

requires that each be calculated separately. The

pressure to any point in the lower liquid will the

sum of its calculation plus the total pressure of

the liquids above.

HEAVY

MUD

each separately and add.

U- Tube

Unequal

Hydrostatic

Pressures

Point of Separation

Equal

Hydrostatic

Pressures

L

I

G

H

T

E

R

M

U

D

the u-tube effect happens when cuttings

weight-up the mud in the annulus. This

denser mud having a greater hydrostatic

pressure than the mud in the I.D. of the

drill string seeks to balance the pressures

by forcing the mud back up through the

inside diameter of the drill string. This is

seen during the make-up of connections

when no float exists in the drill string or

it does not work properly.

due to its own height and weight.

Hydrostatic pressure in a fluid means the downward force per unit

area equal to the weight of the column as defined by the area of the

column and the fluids weight per unit volume.

In the oilfield, hydrostatic pressure is measured in pounds per square

inch ( PSI ). It equals the weight ( Lbs/Gal or PPG ) multiplied by the

volume ( gallons ) of a column defined as 1 square inch in area and

1 foot ( 12 inches ) in depth which is then multiplied by the number

of feet of the fluid column.

A numerical constant of 0.05195, is frequently used in

calculating pressures, which defines the number of

gallons found in a column that is one foot tall with a

cross-sectional area of 1 square inch. The 12 cubic

inches in the column are divided by 231 cubic inches

in a gallon to find the number of gallons in the one foot

column in the format most commonly used. Pounds

per Square Inch.

HYDROSTATIC

HYDROSTATICPRESSURE

PRESSURE

H.P.

H.P.( (PSI

PSI) )==0.05195

0.05195xxMud

MudWeight

Weight xxDepth

Depth

==0.05195

0.05195xxLbs/Gal

Lbs/GalxxVertical

VerticalFtFt

Hydrostatic pressure controls and

promotes stability in the well bore,

preventing cave-in and collapse. It

is the primary means of well control

used to prevent formation fluid flow

into the well bore ( kicks ).

It must be at least equal to the highest

pressurized permeable zone of the well

bore and yet not be excessive, as high

pressures could lead to the break

down of formations.

Although the pressure is generated

downward by the fluids weight, the

pressure reacts perpendicular to the

sides of the hole, providing support

to them.

VERTICAL

DEPTH

upon vertical heights of the fluid column

only, irregardless of angle or shape of the

column. In regards to wells, true vertical

depth to point of interest, not measured

depth, determines hydrostatic pressures.

pounds per square inch (psi) due to hydraulic pressure.

Pressure

PressureGradient

Gradient

PG

=

0.05195

PG = 0.05195xxMud

MudWt.

Wt.(Lbs/

(Lbs/Gal

Gal) )

Pressure Gradient is simply a convenient number for calculations

relating to hydrostatic pressures. It combines two of the three

factors used to calculate hydrostatic pressure:

0.05195 is a constant representing the number gallons equal to

a column one foot tall and having an area of one square inch.

It is 12 cubic inches divided by 231 cubic inches in a gallon.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.08

fluid on all its surfaces. Side pressures are balanced by pressures of

opposing side. As the pressures are proportional to depth, upper

and lower surfaces experience pressure differential with the bottom

being greater than the top, generating a net upward force.

Archimedes Principle states that a body, either wholly or partly

submerged in a fluid experiences an upward force which is equal to

the weight of the fluid being displaced.

A solid which has less density than a fluid will float,

sinking down to the point that:

of the object.

found simply by multiplication of it by the current footage of

interest.

Examples:

Find Pressure Gradient: water at 8.33 lbs per gallon

Then: PG = 8.33 x 0.05195 = 0.433 psi / foot

Find Hydrostatic Pressure: 9 lb/gal mud at 6000 feet.

Then: PG = 0.05195 x 9 = .46755 psi / foot

And: HP = 0.46755 x 6000 = 2805 psi

Find Mud Weight: 3000 psi needed at 5000 feet.

Then: PG = 3000 psi / 5000 feet = .600 psi/ft

and: MW = .600 PG / 0.5195 = 11.55 lbs/gal

body placed in it.

Net

Pressure

object continually increase as the object sinks until

it is sufficient to balance the total weight of the

object.

acceptable. They are the same principle stated differently and

produce equal results. Use one best suited to data available.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.10

A solid having more density than a fluid

will sink into the fluid with its submerged

weight then being less than its air weight

by an amount equal to the:

weight of fluid displaced.

total pressure differential between

that exerted on the bottom and

AIR

WT

top surfaces of the object.

density. The factor when multiplied by the weight per unit

volume of an object solves for the buoyed weight of the

object in a fluid of a certain density ( weight per unit volume ).

BUOY

WT

Net

Pressure

Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density )

( HP x Lower Area ) - ( HP x Upper Area )

Obj. Wt. - ( Sum of Hyd.Press.Diff.s )

Convert to common units as needed.

Buoyancy Factor

( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density

Buoyed Weight : Buoyancy Factor

Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor

In drilling, the buoyancy factor is frequently

used to predetermine the size and number of

bottom hole assembly components to use in

order to have the buoyed weight needed to

do the job.

Because the geometry and dimensions of

some tools can be complex, it can be difficult

to calculate the buoyancy effect of pressure

differences. The use of the displacement or

buoyancy factors may easier as the tool weight

is often known or can easily be determined by

calculation or rig equipment. Often the major

variable is drilling fluid density.

Buoyancy Example

Object:

Densities:

10 x 10 x 5 steel bar.

Steel at 65.5 Lbs/Gal.

Fluid at 9.0 Lbs./Gal.

End Area (s) = 10 x 10 = 100 in2

Volume = 100 in2 x ( 5 x 12 ) = 6000 in3

Volume = 6000 / 231 = 25.97 gal

Air Wt. = 25.97 gal x 65.5 lbs = 1701 lbs

DD Hydraulics 2.03.12

Density ( Weight-Density) = Weight / Unit Volume

Specific Gravity =

Wt of Water per Unit Vol.

Circle Area = Diameter 2 x .7854

Using Displacement

Buoyed Wt. = 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs

Buoyed Weight = 0.863 x 1701 lbs = 1468 lbs

Using Pressure Differential ( 1000 ft depth )

H.Press @ 1000 = 0.052 x 9 x 1000 = 467.55 psi

H.Press @ 1005 = 0.052 x 9 x 1005 = 469.89 psi

Force ( down ) = 100 sq.in. x 467.55 = 46755 lbs

Force ( up )

= 100 sq.in. x 46989 = 46989 lbs.

Total Diff.

= 46989 - 46755 = 234 lbs

Buoyed Wt.

= 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs.

Hydrostatic Pressure

0.05195 x Fluid (Lbs/Gal ) x Depth (Ft)

Pressure Gradient = 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal )

Buoyed Weight : Displacement Method

Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density )

Buoyancy Factor

( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density

DD Hydraulics 2.04.01

DD Hydraulics 2.04.02

the pressure will be increased at every point in the fluid by the

amount of external pressure. This is the basic principle upon which

hydraulic power transmission systems are based.

Pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions.

Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished

throughout the fluid.

Force applied to a

solid block is

transmitted in a

straight line

through block.

Force to confined

liquid is transmitted:

- in all directions

- equally distributed

- undiminished

which is equal to the amount of force applied divided by the

area over which this force was applied.

Pressure

Pressure( (PSI

PSI) )==Force

Force( (Lbs.

Lbs.) )/ /Area

Area( (sq.in.

sq.in.) )

A pressure increase in a confined fluid is distributed equally

throughout the fluid and against all sides of container. Force

applied on any surface such as a piston is equal to the pressure

applied multiplied by the area of the piston.

Force

Force( (Lbs.)

Lbs.)==Pressure

Pressure( (PSI

PSI) )xxArea

Area( (sq.in.

sq.in.) )

F

O

R

C

E

S

O

L

I

D

F

O

R

C

E

L

I

Q

U

I

D

areas over which they act. This can be seen in hydraulic cylinders

which are a common application of hydraulic power transmission

systems.

Single Cylinder

FORCE

confined fluid transmits a 1 PSI pressure to all surfaces of the

confining container.

The pressure transmitted is in addition to any existing pressures such

as hydrostatic. Since these pressures were in a state of equilibrium,

they can be ignored when considering these pressure transmissions.

FORCE

FLUID

10 LBS

10 LBS

Input force equals output force if piston areas are the same. The

force divided by the input piston area creates a pressure which

multiplied by the identical area of the output piston creates a force

which equals the input force.

DD Hydraulics 2.04.03

DD Hydraulics 2/04.04

its piston to the area of the Input piston.

Force(out)

Force(out)==Force(in)

Force(in)xx( (Area(out)

Area(out)/ /Area(in)

Area(in)) )

of cylinder 1 transmits a pressure of

1 psi through-out the fluid, on all

container sides. The 20 sq.in. piston

area of Cylinder 2 then has a total

upward force of 20 lbs.

equal to the product of the force multiplied by the distance through

which the force was applied. Common units are Pounds and Feet.

Mechanical

Work

Work = Ft-Lbs

Pounds x Feet

Force

x Distance

Work

Work = Force x Distance

Given that the piston of cylinder 1 travels downward, forcing fluid

into cylinder 2 and raising its piston, the travel of piston 2 would be

one-half that of piston 1 since the area of piston 1 is one-half piston 2.

Travel of an output hydraulic cylinder is proportional to area of the

input piston to area of its output piston.

Hydraulic Work

Force ( psi )

a

r

e Distance

a

p

i

s

t

o

n

Work

Length(out) = Length(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )

Stroke Speed of an output cylinder is proportional to area of input

piston to area of its output piston.

Work (Inch-Lbs) = Force (Lbs) x Travel (inch)

Work

Work( (Foot-Lbs

Foot-Lbs) )==Force

Force( (Lbs

Lbs) )/ /Travel

Travel( (Feet

Feet) )

Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )

Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )

DD Hydraulics 2.04.05

from friction, the work which is input equals the work which is

output. It is only adapted to meet the needs of a job to be done.

Hydraulic Cylinders : Input and Output

Work In

Pressure = Pressure

Work Out =

Force

Distance

work ( foot-pounds ) done in a given time.

Power =

Work ( Ft./Lbs. )

Work ( Ft./Lbs. )

Time ( minutes or seconds )

Time ( minutes or seconds )

Horsepower =

33000

33000Ft-Lbs

Ft-Lbs=

11minute

minute

of Energy states that Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can

only be transformed. Not all energy is used to perform work, some

is expended, when doing work, to overcome the effects of friction.

This energy is not lost, but changed to heat energy.

Hydraulic pumps are used to convert electrical or other types of

energy to hydraulic energy. Types of energy used in a basic

hydraulic system include:

Distance

Force

DD Hydraulics 2.04.06

550

550Ft-Lbs

Ft-Lbs

11second

second

seen using hydraulic cylinders as both in input and output, but

not all power is input in this manner and not all work is done in

this manner.

Electrical

Hydraulic

Kinetic

Potential

Heat

produced by the pump

produced when hydraulic fluid moves a piston.

produced when the piston has raised an object.

produced by friction in pump,pipe, & fluid

used to create pressure

increases used to do

work. Basuc hydraulic

systems are a closed

piping circuit in which

a fluid under controlled

pressure is used to do

work. Hydraulic pumps

impart energy or power

to the fluid which is

transmitted to the work

site where the work is

done. The fluid is then

returned to the pump

to be energized again.

FLUID RESERVOIR

PUMP

RETURN

LINE

FILTER

PRESS REG

AIR

FLUID

PRESSURE

REGULATOR

ACCUMULATOR

CHECK

VALVES

GAGE

7

HAND

RELIEF

VALVE

PUMP

CONTROL

VALVE

WORK

SIDE

PRESSURE

SIDE

called hydrodynamic fluids. While hydrostatic fluids can be

described by relatively simple concepts of density and pressure,

hydrodynamic fluids require new and more complex properties

be considered.

Hydrodynamics... is the study or application of properties of

liquids in motion. A liquid having no shape of its own, assumes

that of its container as it cannot support a tangential force without

loosing its shape or deforming.

The continuous deformation of a liquid is known as Flow . The

flow of a liquid always takes place in a conductor. A conductor is

can be any shape or size, even a flat surface with the atmosphere

serving as the sides and top. Flow conductors are often cylindrical

shaped ( pipes ).

Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow;

the product of flow rate and pressure drop. In drilling, two major

conductors of flow are the drill string and annulus. Wells are often

two to 4 miles deep, the pressures required to maintain the high

flow rates required are substantial and together with the pressure

used at the bit could be a limiting factor on flow rates.

Additionally, the fluids or mud used are tailored to do different

tasks associated with drilling the hole. These fluid characteristics

impact fluid flow properties. It is essential that hydrostatic and

hydrodynamic properties of fluid be understood as well as the

impact that the mud properties may have.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.02

The Drilling

Circulating System

Stand

Pipe

Rotary

hose

PUMP

HOPPER

M

UD

RE

SE

RV

PI

T

PI

T

SHALE

SHAKER

to a fluid, transports it to the work site, does the

work, and returns it to be energized again.

Basic elements include geometry of the piping,

fluid properties and flow rate with each of these

influencing the total pressures realized.

Major purposes of the fluid and its flow are:

transmit hydraulic horsepower to the bit

to clean it and the bottom of hole.

cool and lubricate bit & drill string

transport cuttings produced out of hole.

support hole walls & prevent formation

fluids from entering well bore.

CASED HOLE

system. It, like the basic hydraulic power system, circulates a

fluid under controlled pressure to do work.

OPEN HOLE

DD Hydraulics 2.05.01

DD Hydraulics 2.05.03

simple hydraulic system. This, along with the multiple duties the

circulation system must perform, requires the complete hydraulic

system and all of its elements be preplanned. Often, compromises

between conflicting requirements must be done.

Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow;

the product of flow rate and pressure drop.

The product of low flow rate and high pressure may equal the

product of high flow rate and low pressure.

barrels per minute, gallons per minute, etc.

The volumetric-rate output of a pump is found by the volume per

stroke multiplied by the number of strokes per unit time at which

pump is operated.

Triplex: single acting

with three cylinders

NO

RODOD

the fluid being pumped.

Hydraulic Horse Power

Hydraulic Horse Power

Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm )

Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm )

1714

1714

Hydraulic Horse Power = Mechanical Horse Power.

For Pressure in Lbs per Sq.In. and flow is in GPM. Then 231 cubic

inches of a gallon divided by 12 equals 19.25 feet and 33,000 ft-lbs

divided by the 19.25 feet equals the numerical constant 1714.

Engine Horsepower required equals the Hydraulic Horsepower

divided by pump efficiency. Note - newer pumps are usually 95

to 97% efficient.

FLUID

P

I

S

T

O

N

F

ID

L

U

I

D

one side only.

with two cylinders

FLUID

ROD

OD

FLUID

P

I

S

T

O

N

F

ID

L

U

I

D

both sides of piston.

Volume

VolumeTriplex

Triplex( (Bbl

Bbl/ /stroke

stroke) )

2

33( (ID

ID2/ /12353

12353) )xxStroke

StrokeLength

Length(inch)

(inch)

Volume

( (Bbl

VolumeDuplex

Duplex

Bbl/stroke

/stroke) )

2

2

( (44( (ID

ID2/ /12353

12353) )- -22( (OD

OD2/ /12353

12353) )) )xxStroke

StrokeLength

Length(inch)

(inch)

Constant: 12353 = 1cu.in. / ( / ( 4 x 9702 cu.in.) )

Actual output per stroke of pump is found by multiplying above

result by pump efficiency.

Hydraulic Pumps are limited to a maximum volume and pressure.

The maximums not only vary by manufacturer and type of pump

but on the size of pump liners or cylinders used and stroke length.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.05

Continuity of Flow. As liquids do not readily compress, volumetricrate input into a conductor equals volumetric-rate which is output. It

is not affected by changes in inside area of the conductor.

Volume-Rate in

= Volume-Rate out

Flow can be imagined as a cylinder having an area equal to crosssectional area of pipe and a distance of such length that would

result in a volume equal to that which which is referenced.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.06

fluid within a defined time. It is usually stated as feet per minute

or feet per second.

The speed of a flowing fluid is dependant on volume (GPM ) and

area in square inches at a cross-section of the conductor.

Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute )

Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute

)

( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 2

( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter

Cross-section

SPEED

Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Second )

( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 )2 / 60

( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter ) / 60

Volume

Cross-section

SPEED

Volume

Given that equal volumes per unit time flows through the pipes, it

can be seen that the cross-sectional area influences the following:

Volume per a given length in proportion to Area.

Fluid Velocity per a given unit of time in inverse

proportion to Area.

Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area

Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area

Velocity

Velocity( (ftft/min

/min) )==Volumetric-Rate

Volumetric-Rate/ /Area

Area

gallon equal to a cylinder of 1 square inch in area by 19.25

( 231 / 12) feet long. Then the velocity ( ft / min ) would equal :

19.25 ft x GPM / .7854 x Diameter2 or 24.51 x GPM/Diameter 2

In hydraulic formulas related to drilling in

the oilfield, it is common practice to express

velocities of fluids related to the annulus in

feet per minute. Fluid velocities related to

the inside diameter of the drill string and to

the bit are expressed in feet per second.

Fluid Flow: When external forces (pump) acting on a fluid are great

enough to overcome viscous forces, fluid flows. The velocity of fluid

particles at conduit wall is zero, increasing with distance from wall.

PLUG

FLOW

a thin layer of fluid slips at conduit wall with

rest flowing as a unit. This flow regime to be

given no further consideration. Not Considered.

Laminar Flow: can be viewed as relatively smooth, straight streamlines of flow having concentric layers of fluid beginning with a zero

velocity at the conduit wall, with layers progressively faster, reaching

maximum speed at the center. This flow pattern requires less energy.

LOW

VISCOSITY

CHAOTIC

FLOW

HIGH

VISCOSITY

layers are greatest at wall and least

in center. Low viscosity fluids have

greater differentials than do the

higher viscosity fluids.

particles, moving in random loops except at wall

of conduit where velocity is zero. Streamlines are

irregular patterns with a flat profile. Maintaining

the fast flow rate requires more energy versus the

straighter streamlines of laminar flow.

to be turbulent, annular flow may be turbulent or

laminar. It is necessary to verify the flow pattern

and to then use the formula applicable to the type.

Each flow type has a different formulas to calculate

the applicable pressure drop. Laminar flow uses

less energy than does Turbulent flow.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.08

pressure required to force a liquid through a system to overcome

the effects of friction of the fluid itself and friction of the fluid

and the structure of the container.

In a circulation system, not only is pressure required to do the work

intended, but pressure is also required in getting the hydraulic fluid

to the work site and returned to the starting point. The pressure that

is required to move the fluid through the system is referred to as

pressure drop or pressure loss as it is not available to do work.

Circulating Pressure Loss:

Effects of Friction

5

4

3

2

1

0

P

S

I

Flow Direction

Pipe with inserted glass tubes shows pressure losses as fluid flows.

Pressure which is no longer available for additional flow or to do work.

string and annulus. These have a large impact on flow

rates and resulting pressures which may limit the flow

rate. Wells are frequently 2 to 4 miles deep, and may

reach 6 or more miles. Pressures required to generate

fluid flow to the bit and back to surface are substantial

and of prime importance. A well designed hydraulics

program is one in which less than 50% of available

hydraulic horse power is used for flow with 50% or

more used by the bit in making hole.

Fluid: Density and Viscosity

Volume: Volumetric-Rate

Dimensions: Length and ID

DD Hydraulics 2.05.10

ID

I.D. Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)

x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L

0.0000765 PV 0.18

0.0000765 PV 0.18 x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L

4.82

ID

ID 4.82

complex relationship between components. The analysis below

illustrates the degree that changes to a factor could result in.

ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - PROPORTIONAL FACTORS

Plastic

Mud

Length

Gallons

Viscosity

Weight

Feet

per Min.

0.18

0.82

1

= 1.00

1

= 1.00

1

= 1.00

1 1.82 = 1.00

1

2 0.82 = 1.77

2 1 = 2.00

2 1.82 = 3.53

2 0.18 = 1.13

3 0.82 = 2.46

3 1 = 3.00

3 1.82 = 7.39

3 0.18 = 1.22

ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL FACTORS

DECREASE

IN I.D.

DECREASE

IN I.D.

DECREASE

IN I.D.

1.2 4.82 = - 2.41

1.3 4 82 = - 3.54

1.5 4.82 = - 7.06

1.6 4.82 = - 9.64

1.8 4.82 = -17.00

1.9 4.82 = -22.06

component. Doubling Mud Weight increases PSI by 1.77 times. Doubling

GPM increases PSI by 3.53 times. Increasing ID by 20% decreases PSI by

2.41 times.

Annular pressure drop does not typically affect the total system

pressure to the same degree as do the drill string internal diameters,

especially in the large, upper sections of the hole. However, as the

hole becomes deeper and the annular space becomes smaller, its

impact is larger. The pressure drop in the annulus is added to the

hydrostatic pressure of the hole and as such plays a significant role

in the open hole where it is exposed to the formation. Too little or

to much pressure against the formation(s) can result in problems.

Annular flow may be either turbulent or laminar depending on the

velocity of the fluid flow. To calculate the annular pressure drop,

the critical velocity must first be calculated. If critical velocity is

below 2,000 the flow is laminar. If it is 2,000 or above the flow is

turbulent.

Annular

AnnularCritical

CriticalVelocity

Velocity

PV 2 9.3{ D - D } 2 YP M ) 0.5

1.08PV

1.08PV++1.08(

1.08( PV 2 9.3{ DHH - DP P } 2 YP M ) 0.5

MM( (DDH - -DD

P)

)

H

Annular

AnnularPressure

PressureLoss

Loss( (Laminar

LaminarFlow

Flow) )

}

225

{

D

( {( {LL YP

H - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82

YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82

( (1500

H - DP } )

1500{{DD

- D })

H

Annular Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)

PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L )

( .0000765

( .0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L )

({ DH - -DD

} 3 { D + DP }}1.82

1.82)

)

({ DH P P } 3 { DHH + D

P

DD Hydraulics 2.06.01

of the fluid to itself and the adhesive external attraction of the fluid

to the conduit wall.

Flow may be viewed as a series of parallel fluid layers. The first

layer is held in place by fluids adhesive attraction to the conduit

wall. The second layer rides on this fluid layer, gaining some

velocity as it is retarded only by the fluids internal attraction.

Each subsequent layer gains additional velocity as it rides on the

previous layer which already has a

Faster Velocity

velocity of its own. This builds,

Zero Velocity Fluid

reaching its peak in the center.

Conduit Wall

attraction of a fluid within and to the fluid itself.

The thin track of water on the glass

as the bead of water slides down

illustrates that a very thin layer of

fluid at zero velocity exists at the

fluids point of contact with a

conductor surface due to the

adhesive attraction of the fluid to

a conduit surface.

Window Pane

Bead of water

DD Hydraulics 2.06.02

Viscosity is descriptive of drilling mud in motion. The appearance

(apparent viscosity) of high viscose mud is referred to as thick

and low viscose mud called thin. Viscosity relates shear stress to

shear rate or a resistance to flow.

Plastic Viscosity is a measure of internal resistance to fluid flow.

It is related to the type, amount, and size of solids present in the

mud. It is an expression relating shear stress to shear rate or a

resistance to flow.

Shear Stress is the result from forces that tend to cause particles

of fluid to slide relative to other particles in a direction parallel to

the plane of plane of contact. It is the resistance or frictional drag

to the sliding movement of two parallel fluid layer.

Shear Rate is the force per unit of time or the velocity of fluid

particles relative to their distance or separation. It is the difference

in the velocities between two layers divided by the distance

between them .

Yield Point is a measure of the resistance to initial flow or stress

required to start fluid movement which is caused by electrical

forces on or near surfaces of the solid particles.

Gel Strength is a measure of the same electrical forces on solid

particles in mud considered by yield point, except it is measured

at rest. A static mud solidifies or gels by arranging solid particles

in a manner to best satisfy theses forces of attraction and repulsion.

Gel strength indicates the strength of these forces

flow. At greater stresses, the flow will be newtonian. Pressure losses

are calculated using plastic viscosity (PV) and Yield Point (YP).

This is a good model for clay muds having a high solids content.

Power Law Model - Flow is initiated immediately as stress is

applied. This is a good model for polymer muds having a low

solids content. Pressure losses are calculated using a viscosity

(k) and a flow-behavior index ( N).

m Pla

shear stress

yield point

a

Bingh

DD Hydraulics 2.06.04

to shear rate. ( water, oil, )

Non-Newtonian Fluids - Shear Stresses are not directly

proportional to shear rates.

Pseudo Plastic Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase

respective to shear rate decreases with the increasing shear rate. In other

words, viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate ( drilling fluids ).

Dilatent Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase with shear

rate increases with increased shear rate. In other words, viscosity increases

with increasing shear rate. ( ink, blood)

stic

Plastic Viscosity

Ideal

Power

Law

Fluid Classifications

Dilatent

of fluids as they flow.

shear stress

DD Hydraulics 2.06.03

ew

a

ni

to

Pseudo-Plastic

ian

ton

New

Viscosity

shear rate

shear rate

DD Hydraulics 2.07.01

Bits use both Mechanical and Hydraulic

Energy in drilling the well bore. Bits are

tailored to the formation characteristics.

In general, the softer the rock to be

drilled the larger the teeth. Bits are built

to be rotated while weight is applied to

supply the mechanical energy required.

TOOTH

DD Hydraulics 2.07.02

cleaning the bit and the hole bottom. As fluid is forced through the

bit nozzles, its kinetic energy is greatly increased through high jet

velocities having a high impact force.

Hydraulic Horsepower at bit is measure of energy expended at bit.

Impact Force is a measure of the force which the drilling fluid

impinges upon the bore hole below the bit.

Adequate jet velocity cleans the bit. A

balled up bit acts as a cushion preventing

effective drilling. There must be room

between the bits teeth for new formation.

Adequate fluid jet velocity and fluid

volume cleans drilled chips from hole

bottom. Re-drilling of chips is not

efficient and generates added,

unnecessary solids in the mud

creating chip by fracture and

shearing of rock.

CHIP

Higher

Hydrostatic

Pressure

Chip

Weight on Bit controls

Chip Size & Quantity

Lower

Formation

Pressure

Force releases differentially stuck

chips. Chips can be held down when

solids filtered from the mud seal

cracks around them and where the

hydrostatic pressure is greater than

the formation pressure.

Rate.

Jet Velocity and its Impact Force may drill some soft formations

by its own hydraulic energy.

DD Hydraulics 2.08.01

Geology of well - Formations, pressures, Hole problems, etc.

Pumps - Volume & Pressure capabilities, limitations, etc.

Drill String Geometry. ID, OD, Length, Strength, etc.

Bit - Size, Type, Nozzles, Hydraulic Horsepower.

Mud - Type, Weight, Properties. Supply & availability.

Annulus: Pressure Loss, Flow Rate for cutting removal

Tool Needs - MWD, etc. Flow and Pressure requirements.

Drilling Rates - Expected and/or desired ROP.

Pressures with expected flow rates, hole sizes, and depths.

Bit Pressure drop, Drill String Pressure Drop, Annular Pressure

Drop, Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure, etc.

Rule of Thumb Guidelines for Optimal Hydraulics:

Flow Rate: 30 to 60 GPM per inch of bit diameter.

Maximize in soft formations, fast drilling, high angle holes for hole

cleaning. Restrict only to the degree that hole wash out is a problem.

Limit in slow drilling to rate needed. Limit in small and / or deep

holes to reduce, annular friction, ECD, and potential for lost

circulation, differential sticking, and hole instability.

Flow Rate too low

- Inadequate hole cleaning. Hole could load with cuttings.

- Bit may ball.

Flow Rate too high:

- Increases Annular Friction, Bottom Hole Pressure, & ECD

- Erodes soft, unconsolidated formations.

Fast drilling & light mud weights need more flow.

( 50+ gpm/bit diameter ).

Slow drilling needs less flow. Do not slow below minimum.

High angle holes need higher flow to clean.

Maintain 2.5 to 5 bit hydraulic horsepower per square inch

of bit diameter. ( HHP/ Inch2 )

Bit hydraulic horsepower is based on ROP & Hole Size.

Large Bits require more HHP / Inch2

Fast ROP requires maximum HHP / Inch2, even over normal

maximum of 5.

Some rigs do not have pumps or horsepower to provide

the needed hydraulic horsepower.

Do not use excessive pressure, costing unnecessary fuel and

pump wear.

Maintain Bit Jet Velocity between 350 to 450 feet per second.

( ft./sec.) Do not attempt to operate below 250 ft/sec.

Jet velocity influences penetration rates, hole cleaning, & chip holddown. Impact force, the force exerted on the formation to assist in

hole clearing is the product of mud weight and jet velocity and is

directly proportional to jet velocity.

to improve penetration rates in a small hole of 9-1/2 or less

consider running 2 larger jets rather than 3 of the same total

flow area. Larger jets are less likely to plug.

asymmetrical jets of differing sizes may improve penetration

rates versus 2 jets.

for long bit run which would force a lowering of the jet velocity,

consider 3 jets with a diverting ball dropped in lower section to

maintain the jet velocity.

Bit Pressure Drop to be 50 % to 65 % of the total system

pressure drop.

Calculate total system losses and adjust if pressure drops through

drill string and annulus exceed 50%. Do not adjust volume below

30 GPM/Inch of bit diameter. Consider drill string changes, nozzle

adjustments, etc.

DD Hydraulics 2.09.01

NOMENCLATURE

CD

CW

DH

DP

G

JV

L

M

NZ

NA

PXX

= Chip Weight, ppg

= Diameter of Hole, inch

= Diameter of Pipe, inch

= Gallons Per Minute ( gpm )

= Jet Velocity ( fps )

= Length in feet

= Mud Weight (ppg )

= Nozzle Size ( 32nds of inch )

= Nozzle Area ( square inch )

= Pressure Loss ( psi )

PV

VAS

VAM

YP

f

n

p

Re

U

= Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fps )

= Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fpm )

= Yield Point (lbs / 100 ft.)

= fanning friction factor

= Consistency index

= Numerical Constant, 3.14159

= Reynolds Number, dimensionless

= Viscosity, apparent, effective, cps

PAN

PSI

GPM

FPS

FPM

PPG

= Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch

= Gallons per Minute

= Feet per Second

= Feet per Minute

= Pounds per Gallon

Nozzle Pressure Loss ( psi )

Nozzle Volume ( gpm )

Nozzle Total Flow Area ( sq.in. )

Nozzle Area ( per size ) (sq.in. )

Nozzle Size ( 32nds inch )

Jet Velocity of Nozzles ( fps )

Impact Force of Nozzles ( psi )

( psi )

Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, Total

Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, per Sq.In.

PNZ = ( M G 2 ) ( 10858 NA 2 )

= ( { P NZ 10858 NA 2 } M ) 0.5

GNZ

NA

= ( { M G 2 } { 10858 PNZ } ) 0.5

NA

= ( N Z 32) 2 ( 4)

= 32 (N A { .7854 Qty } ) 0.5

NZ

JV (F/S) = ( 0.32 G ) N A

IF

= JV 0.0173 G ( P NZ M ) 0.5

IF

= 0.000516 JV G M

BHHP (TOTAL) = PNZ G 1713.6

BHHP / sq. in = BHHP ( BIT OD 0.7854 )

Turbulent flow ( sii )

Turbulent flow ( security )

Turbulent flow ( fanning )

PID = ( 0.000061 M G 1.86 L) ID 4.86

PID = ( f M V ID (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 DP

DD Hydraulics 2.09.02

Annulus Flow

Annular Flow Velocity ( fpm )

Annular Flow Velocity ( fps)

Annular Critical Velocity ( fps )

Optimum Annular Velocity (fpm )

Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm)

Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm)

VAM = ( 24.51 G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 )

VAS = ( { 24.51 60 } G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 )

VCA = 1.08PV + 1.08( PV 2 9.3{ DH - DP } 2 YP M ) 0.5 M ( DH - DP )

VOA = 11800 ( M DH )

Opt Flow ( Annulus ) = 482 ( DH 2 - DP 2 ) ( DH M )

Opt Flow ( Open hole) = ( 265 DH + 10 DH 2 ) M

Turbulent Flow ( sii )

Turbulent Flow ( security )

Turbulent Flow ( fanning )

Newtonian Laminar Flow ( hagan )

Plastic Laminar Flow ( beck, etc )

PAN

PAN

PAN

PAN

PAN

= 0.00000014327 M L VA 2 ( DH - DP )

= ( f M VAn (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 ( DH - DP )

Note: V = Apparent Viscosity (cps)

= V L Va ( 1500 {DH - DP } )

= ( { L YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L Va PV } ( 1500 { DH - DP } )

Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure ( psi )

B. H. Circulating Pressure ( psi )

Equivalent Circulating Density ( ppg )

( ppg )

BHP = ( 0.5195 M L )

BHCP = BHP + PAN

ECD = BHCP ( 0.52 L )

ECD = (PAN { 0.052 L } ) + Mud Weight

Hole Cleaning

Rock Chip Slip Velocity

Lam. - Flat Chips ( Pigott )

Turb. - Spherical Chips ( Rittinger )

Turb. - Flat Chips ( Pigott )

Slip Velocity ( ft / Min )

V C = ( 8310 CD 2 { CW - M }) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) VA )

V C = ( 3226 CD 2 { CW - M } ) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) V A )

V C = 159 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 )

V C = 60.6 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 )

VS = V C - V A

DD Hydraulics 2.09.03

WEIGHT DENSITY

= Weight / Unit Volume

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

= Weight of Substance per Unit Volume / Weight of Water per Unit Volume

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. ( PSI )

= 0.05195 x Mud Weight x Depth

PRESSURE GRADIENT

= 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal )

BUOYANCY FACTOR OF A FLUID

= ( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density

Buoyed Weight

= Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor

POWER TRANSMISSION FORMULAS

PRESSURE ( PSI )

= FORCE ( LBS ) / AREA ( SQUARE INCH )

FORCE ( LBS )

= PRESSURE ( PSI ) x AREA ( SQUARE INCH )

FORCE ( OUTPUT )

= FORCE ( IN ) x ( AREA (OUT ) / AREA ( IN )

LENGTH ( OUTPUT)

= LENGTH ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) )

SPEED ( OUTPUT )

= SPEED ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) )

WORK

= FORCE x DISTANCE

WORK (INCH-LBS)

= FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( INCH )

WORK (FOOT-LBS)

= FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( FEET )

POWER

= WORK(FTLBS) / TIME(MINUTES OR SECONDS)

HORSEPOWER

= 3300 FTLBS / 1 MINUTE OR 550 FTLBS / 1 SECOND

HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER

= PRESSURE DROP (PSI) x FLOW RATE (GPM)

CIRCULATION RELATED FORMULAS

TRIPLEX PUMP (BBLS/STK)

= 3 ( ID2 / 12353 ) x STROKE LENGTH (IN.)

DUPLEX PUMP(BBLS/STK)

= 4 ( ID2 / 12353 ) - 2 ( OD2 / 12353 ) ) x S.L.)

VOLUMETRIC-RATE OF FLOW

= VELOCITY ( FPM ) x AREA

VELOCITY (FT/MIN)

= VOLUMETRIC-RATE / AREA

FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN)

= ( 24.51 x GPM ) / DIAMETER2

FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN)

= ( 24.51 x GPM ) / ( DIAMETER2 x 60 )

Volume

Conversions

Cubic

Inches

Gallons

Cubic Feet

1728

7.48052

Barrel

9702

42

5.61458

Gallon

231

0.02381

0.13368

Barrels

0.17811

Cubic

Feet

COMMON

DENSITIES

Water ( 39.20F )

Water ( 68.00F )

Sea Water

Steel

Iron

Aluminum

RELATIVE

DENSITY

1.000

0.998

1.026

7.804

7.853

2.700

LBS PER

CU.FT.

LBS PER

GALLON

GRAMS /

CU. CM

62.4

62.3

64.0

487.0

490.0

168.5

8.34

8.33

8.55

65.10

65.50

22.50

1.000

0.998

1.026

7.804

7.853

2.700

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

Effective Viscosity

A. Viscosity Definition

B. Bingham Plastic

C. Shear Stress, Power Law Fluids

D. Effective Viscosity , Power Law

E. Annular Shear Rate

F. Consistency Index

G. Power Law Index

New Press. (Change: GPM or MW )

Hook Load

OverPull Maximum

Neutral Point (STRAIGHT HOLE)

Buoyancy Factor ( GALLONS )

BUOYED WEIGHT

Natural Frequency

Excitation Frequency

Excitation Frequency

Frequency w/ Shock

Mechanical Horsepower Created

U = SS / Sr

U = ( PV + ( 399 YP x ( DH - DP)) / VA )

SS = k x Sr n

U e= k x Sr n-1

S r = 2.4 VA / ( DH - DP )

k = 511( YP + PV ) / 511n

n = 3.32 log 10 ( YP + 2PV ) / ( YP + PV )

P2 = P1 x ( M2 / M1 ) x ( G2 / G1 ) 2 x P1

HL = ( ( Pipe Wt/Ft x Feet ) + ( Collar Wt/Ft x Feet ) ) x Buoyancy Factor

OP = ( Yield Strength of Pipe - Hook Load )

NP = Bit Weight / ( Weight/Foot * Buoyancy Factor )

BF = ( 65.5 - M ) / 65.5 ( 65.5 lbs = steel in gallons )

BW = AIR WEIGHT x BOUNCY FACTOR

FN = 4212 / Drill Collar Length (ft)

FE = RPM / 20

Ncrit = FN x 20

FNS = P x ( shock spring rate (k) / Total Wt. DCs (w) ) 0.5

HrsPwr(Mech) = Torque x RPM/ 5252

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

C

= 0.0000828 per foot, per degree Fo

L = Length in feet

T = Change in temperature, Fo

ET = C x L x T

Y = Minimum Yield Strength of Pipe ( PSI )

A = Cross-sectional area of Pipe Body

P = Collapse Pressure on the Pipe ( PSI )

C = Collapse Rating w/ no load ( tables )

L= Y x A x (( 1-.75 x (P/C)2 ) 0.5 - ( .5 x (P/C) )

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