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DD Hydraulics 2.00.

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HYDRAULICS

2.01.01
2.01.02

Introduction, Circulating System Hydraulics


Introduction, Study of Hydraulics

2.02.01
2.02.02
2.02.03
2.02.04
2.02.05
2.02.06
2.02.07
2.02.08

Hydraulic General Terms and Definitions


Matter and Types of Matter
Mass, Inertia, Density
Specific Gravity
Common Oilfield Volumes
Area of shapes
Weight
Force & Pressure

2.03.01
2.03.02
2.03.03
2.03.04
2.03.05
2.03.06
2.03.07
2.03.08
2.03.09
2.03.10
2.03.11
2.03.12
2.04.01
2.04.02
2.04.03
2.04.04
2.04.05
2.04.06

Hydrostatic Fluids
Hydrostatic Fluid Illustrations
Single Liquid. Seeks own level
Multiple Liquid. Seeks own level
Hydrostatic Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure in Oilfield
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient
Buoyancy & Archimedes Principle
Buoyed Weight
Buoyancy Factor
Buoyancy Calculation Example.
Hydrostatic Fluid Formulas.
Hydraulic Power Transmission
Pressure & Force
Hydraulic Cylinders
Work
Hydraulic Power, horsepower
Basic Hydraulic Pump

2.05.01
2.05.02
2.05.03
2.05.04
2.05.05
2.05.06
2.05.07
2.05.08
2.05.09
2.05.10

Circulating System & Fluid Flow


Drilling Circulating System
Hydraulic Horsepower
Volumetric-Rate & Pumps
Continuity of Flow
Fluid Velocity
Types of Flow, Turbulent & Laminar
Fluid Flow Pressure Loss
Pressure Drop Factors
Annular Flow & Pressure Drop

2.06.01
2.06.02
2.06.03
2.06.04

Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms


Rheology - general terms and definitions
Rheology - Fluid Flow Calculation Models
Rheology - Fluid Flow Classifications

2.07.01
2.07.02

Bit - Mechanical Energy


Bit - Hydraulic Energy

2.08.01
2.08.02

Rule of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics


Rule of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics

2.09.01
2.09.02
2.09.03
2.09.04

Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary


Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary
Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary
Hydraulic & Related Formula Summary

E X I T

DD Hydraulics 2.01.01

Introduction

The Circulating System

Stand
Pipe

DD Hydraulics 2.01.02

Introduction

Hydraulics is the study or application of liquids and


their properties.

Rotary
hose

PUMP

Hydraulics
Hydraulicsmay
maybe
bedivided
dividedinto
intotwo
twocategories:
categories:
Hydrostatic
applies
to
liquids
Hydrostatic
applies to liquidsatatrest
rest

HOPPER

Hydrodynamic
Hydrodynamic
M
UD

PI
T

E
RV
SE
RE

CASED HOLE

T
PI

Note.
Note.
Some
Somelaws
lawsofofhydraulics
hydraulicsalso
alsoapply
applytotogases
gasesunder
undercertain
certain
conditions,
but
unless
specifically
conditions, but unless specificallystated,only
stated,onlyliquids
liquids
will
be
used
or
considered.
Note
also,
the
term
fluid
will be used or considered. Note also, the term fluid
will
willapply
applytotoliquids
liquidsonly
only- - unless
unlessspecifically
specificallynoted.
noted.

SHALE
SHAKER

Drilling an oil or gas well involves extensive use of hydraulics


in making and maintaining the hole, as well as, in the operation
of some rig and down hole equipment.

OPEN HOLE

The circulating system is a large hydraulic


system with the fluid serving multiple purposes,
including the work of making hole, supporting
hole walls, carrying cuttings from the hole,
lubricating the drill string, etc.

applies
appliestotoliquids
liquidsininmotion
motion

Sometimes only one fluid category is applicable to an operation,


but in many circumstances principles of both types are in play
at the same time. Many compromises must be made during the
course of drilling a well between the ideal hydraulic parameters
used and what is possible. It is necessary to understand each type
of hydraulics, individually and the effect that one has on the other
one.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.01

General Terms and Definitions

Matter

Material Substance that occupies space and has weight

Mass

Property of matter that is a measure of its inertia.

Inertia

To remain at rest or in a straight line motion


unless acted upon by a force.

Density

Weight per unit volume or weight-density is the


common use. ( Lbs/Gal., etc.)

Specific
Gravity

Ratio or density of a substance to density of a


standard substance such as water.

Area

Measure of a surface equal to unit squares.


( sq.inches, sq. feet, etc )

Volume

Measure of amount of space an object occupies.


( Cu.Foot, Cu.Inch, Gallon, Barrel, etc.)

Weight

Measure of the downward force of object as a result


of gravitational force and objects mass.

Force

Push or pull exerted on object to change its position


or direction of movement.

Pressure

Amount of force exerted on substance per area over


which force is applied.

Work

Measure of force through a distance.

Power

the time rate of doing work. ( Horsepower )


( 33000 Ft - Lbs / Min. )

DD Hydraulics 2.02.02 General Terms and Definitions

Matter: Any material substance that occupies space


and has weight. It can be grouped as solids (rigid), or
fluids (flow) with fluids being either a liquid or a gas.

Solids:

having a definite volume and shape


independent of any container.

Liquids:
having a definite volume with no shape
of its own, assuming that of its container.
Volume is affected only slightly by
changes in temperature or pressure.

Gases
having neither volume nor shape of its
own, assuming that of its container.
Gases are highly compressible with
their volume dependant on temperature
and pressure.
Fluids.Liquids and gases are both fluids in that they have no
shape of their own, constantly deforming with any application
of force unless confined. However, fluids in this presentation
will refer to a liquid only unless specifically noted as one of
of the more common terms in the oilfield is drilling fluids
which refers to drilling mud, a liquid.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.03

General Terms and Definitions

Mass is the property of matter that is a measure of its


inertia.
Inertia is the property of matter by which it remains at rest
or in a straight line motion unless acted upon by an outside
force.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.04

General Terms and Definitions

Specific Gravity .. is the relative density of a substance


compared to the density of a standard substance. The most
commonly used substance as a standard is water at the
temperature of its maximum density, 39.20 F.
Specific
SpecificGravity
Gravity
Weight
of
Substance
Weight of Substanceper
perUnit
UnitVolume
Volume
Weight
of
Water
per
Unit
Weight of Water per UnitVolume
Volume

A stationary object will remain


stationary unless acted upon by
an outside force
AirRE Resistance
A
I
R

S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E

Gravity

A thrown ball will travel in a


straight line were it not for the
external forces of air friction
and gravity.

COMMON

RELATIVE

DENSITIES

Water (

39.20F

LBS PER LBS PER


CU.FT.
GALLON

DENSITY

GRAMS
PER CU.
CM

1.000

62.4

8.34

1.000

Water ( 68.00F )

0.998

62.3

8.33

0.998

Density is technically Mass per Unit Volume but is


commonly used as Weight per Unit Volume.

Sea Water

1.026

64.0

8.55

1.026

Steel

The term density will refer to weight-density or weight


per unit volume unless specifically noted.

7.804

487.0

65.10

7.804

Iron

7.853

490.0

65.50

7.853

2.700

168.5

22.50

2.700

Aluminum
Weight-Density
Weight-Density
Density
Density ==Weight
Weight / /Unit
UnitVolume
Volume

Because the weight of a liquid is expressed in terms of its


volume, it is necessary to be familiar with and to be able
to calculate volume.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.05

General Terms and Definitions

DD Hydraulics 2.02.06

General Terms and Definitions

Common Oilfield Volumes

Area: is equal to the unit squares of a surface.

Volume is the amount of space an object occupies. It is measured


and calculated in cubic units such as cubic feet, cubic inches, cubic
centimeters, etc. Volume may also be expressed as gallons, barrels,
or other standards.

Units of measurements include square centimeters, square feet,


square inches, etc. with square inches being among the most
common, particularly when dealing with pressures. Calculations
require that the unit of measurement be consistent in the equation
and in the solution.

Columns
12 cubic inches

Barrel
12

42 gal

Square Area ( Rectangle)


Square Units = Length x Width
6 x 6 = 36 square inches

Cubic Foot

Square Area ( Triangle )


Square Units = ( Base x Height ) / 2

1 gal
12 x 12 x 12
Volume
Conversions

Cubic
Inches

Gallons

Barrels

Cubic Feet

1728

7.48052

0.17811

Barrel

9702

42

5.61458

Gallon

231

0.02381

0.13368

Cubic
Feet

Volume ( Cubic Units ) = Square Area x Length

( 6 x 6 ) / 2 = 18 sq. inches

Square Area ( Circle )


Square Units = Diameter 2 x ( / 4 )
6 2 x ( 3.14 / 4 ) = 28.3 sq. inches
Square Area ( Ring )
Sq. Units = ( DIA. 2 - dia. 2 ) x ( / 4 )

Volumes must have consistent units of measurement in both


calculations and solutions.

( 8 2 - 6 2 ) x .7854 = 22.0 sq. inches

DD Hydraulics 2.02.07

General Terms and Definitions

Weight... is the measure of the downward force of an object as a


result of gravitational force and the objects mass.
The weight of an object may vary due to variations in the earths
gravitational field or by its distance from the main body of the
earth. Objects weigh more at sea level than far above it. This
variation in weight is normally very small and will be ignored
unless otherwise noted.
While weight is used to measure individual objects, it is also
used in hydraulics, with weight referring to a liquid as its
density or weight per unit volume.

The weight of an object can be measured and


identified as belonging to that single object.
This is true mainly in relation to solid objects.
The unit measured is that unique object.
Unit
Wt.

Wt /
Gal

As liquid volumes may vary, a liquids weight


or density refers to it as weight per a specified
unit volume. This is also true of a gas and may
be true of a solid if it noted as weight-density.

It is necessary to maintain consistency when referring to


weight-densities of liquids as well as in calculations. Use
the weight per the same unit volume in all.

DD Hydraulics 2.02.08

General Terms and Definitions

Force is a push or pull that is exerted on an object in order to


change its position or the direction of its movement. This includes
starting, stopping, changein speed, and direction of movement.
Force is expressed in same terms as weight, such as grams, tons,
dynes, etc. with pounds being the most common in the oilfield.
Weight is a force which is directed downward, but force is not
limited to any direction.
Pressure is the amount of force exerted on an object or substance
per area over which force is applied.
Pressure may be expressed in various ways, such as newtons
per square meter, dynes per square centimeter, etc. Most common
measurement in the oilfield is Pounds per Square Inch ( PSI )

A 500 lb. force exerted on a


25 square inch surface equals
a pressure of 20 PSI. Pressure
of 20 PSI exerted on 25 square
inches equals a 500 lb. force
applied to the surface.

F
O
R
C
E

F
O
R
C
E

Pressure
Pressure==Force
Force/ /Area
Area
Pressure
Pressure( (PSI
PSI) )==Force
Force( (Lbs.
Lbs.) )/ /Area
Area( (sq.in.
sq.in.) )

Force
Force==Pressure
PressurexxArea
Area
Force
Force( (Lbs.)
Lbs.)==Pressure
Pressure( (PSI
PSI) )xxArea
Area( (sq.in.
sq.in.) )

DD Hydraulics 2.03.01 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Hydrostatic Fluid : is a fluid at rest which having no shape of


its own assumes the shape of its container.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.02

Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Liquids
Flow

A liquid assumes the shape of


its container at lowest portion
of the container equal to the
liquids volume.

Gravity
Liquids at rest, exert perpendicular forces on surfaces they
touch as they cannot support tangential forces without flowing.
Liquids are attracted by gravitational pull with each layer of
liquid exerting its weight on the layers beneath it. Liquids are
relatively incompressable making their density a constant.
Liquids are only slightly affected by temperature changes.

Gravitys constant pull downward on liquids creates pressure


within the liquid called hydrostatic pressure.

Pressure in a fluid at rest:


Exists at every point within the liquid.
Is proportional to the depth below the suface
Is the same at all points at the same level within a
single liquid.
Is of the same magnitude at any point regardless
of the surface orientation that it touches.

Each layer of
liquid exerts
its weight on
those below

Pressure is
proportional
to the depth
in a liquid

At any level
pressure is
the same in
single liquid

Exerts a force which is everywhere perpendicular


to the surface that it touches.

Pressure
exists at all
points in a
liquid

At any point
pressure is
equal in all
directions

Direction of
force reacts
perpendicular
to surfaces

The well bore


drilling fluids
are subject to
these same
properties of
a liquid.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.03 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

DD Hydraulics 2.03.04

Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Liquids seek their own level. Single Liquid

Liquids seek their own level. Two Liquids

As a liquid is pulled downward by gravity, filling its container,


the liquids surface is on a flat horizontal plane parallel to the
earths surface. The pressure at any point in the liquid is the
same as all other points at the same depth and will always
equalize despite the number of compartments in a container or
its size, shape or orientation.

Liquids of two different densities in a container such as a u-tube


equalize pressures from the point of separation and downward.
Two distinct column heights result from the heavier liquid forcing
the lighter upward until the pressure has been equalized at and
below the point of separation.

Vertical
depth

In a single liquid,
equal pressures at
the same depth
provide equal
support for the
liquid producing
equal vertical
heights of the
liquid.

LIGHT
MUD

Liquids having different densities and that do


not mix together will each seek their own level
with the heavier of the liquids settling to the
bottom of the container while the lighter liquid
rises to the top.

Heavy
Mud

Hydrostatic pressure with more than one liquid


requires that each be calculated separately. The
pressure to any point in the lower liquid will the
sum of its calculation plus the total pressure of
the liquids above.

HEAVY
MUD

Hydrostatic Pressures are additive. Calculate


each separately and add.

U- Tube
Unequal
Hydrostatic
Pressures
Point of Separation

Equal
Hydrostatic
Pressures

L
I
G
H
T
E
R
M
U
D

In the oilfield, a common occurrence of


the u-tube effect happens when cuttings
weight-up the mud in the annulus. This
denser mud having a greater hydrostatic
pressure than the mud in the I.D. of the
drill string seeks to balance the pressures
by forcing the mud back up through the
inside diameter of the drill string. This is
seen during the make-up of connections
when no float exists in the drill string or
it does not work properly.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.05 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Hydrostatic Pressure is the pressure exerted by a column of fluid


due to its own height and weight.
Hydrostatic pressure in a fluid means the downward force per unit
area equal to the weight of the column as defined by the area of the
column and the fluids weight per unit volume.
In the oilfield, hydrostatic pressure is measured in pounds per square
inch ( PSI ). It equals the weight ( Lbs/Gal or PPG ) multiplied by the
volume ( gallons ) of a column defined as 1 square inch in area and
1 foot ( 12 inches ) in depth which is then multiplied by the number
of feet of the fluid column.
A numerical constant of 0.05195, is frequently used in
calculating pressures, which defines the number of
gallons found in a column that is one foot tall with a
cross-sectional area of 1 square inch. The 12 cubic
inches in the column are divided by 231 cubic inches
in a gallon to find the number of gallons in the one foot
column in the format most commonly used. Pounds
per Square Inch.

HYDROSTATIC
HYDROSTATICPRESSURE
PRESSURE
H.P.
H.P.( (PSI
PSI) )==0.05195
0.05195xxMud
MudWeight
Weight xxDepth
Depth
==0.05195
0.05195xxLbs/Gal
Lbs/GalxxVertical
VerticalFtFt

DD Hydraulics 2.03.06 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Hydrostatic Pressure in Oilfield


Hydrostatic pressure controls and
promotes stability in the well bore,
preventing cave-in and collapse. It
is the primary means of well control
used to prevent formation fluid flow
into the well bore ( kicks ).
It must be at least equal to the highest
pressurized permeable zone of the well
bore and yet not be excessive, as high
pressures could lead to the break
down of formations.
Although the pressure is generated
downward by the fluids weight, the
pressure reacts perpendicular to the
sides of the hole, providing support
to them.

VERTICAL
DEPTH

Note: Hydrostatic Pressures are based


upon vertical heights of the fluid column
only, irregardless of angle or shape of the
column. In regards to wells, true vertical
depth to point of interest, not measured
depth, determines hydrostatic pressures.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.07 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Pressure Gradient is pressure change per foot of vertical depth in


pounds per square inch (psi) due to hydraulic pressure.

Pressure
PressureGradient
Gradient
PG
=
0.05195
PG = 0.05195xxMud
MudWt.
Wt.(Lbs/
(Lbs/Gal
Gal) )
Pressure Gradient is simply a convenient number for calculations
relating to hydrostatic pressures. It combines two of the three
factors used to calculate hydrostatic pressure:
0.05195 is a constant representing the number gallons equal to
a column one foot tall and having an area of one square inch.
It is 12 cubic inches divided by 231 cubic inches in a gallon.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.08

An object in a fluid is acted upon by hydrostatic pressures of the


fluid on all its surfaces. Side pressures are balanced by pressures of
opposing side. As the pressures are proportional to depth, upper
and lower surfaces experience pressure differential with the bottom
being greater than the top, generating a net upward force.
Archimedes Principle states that a body, either wholly or partly
submerged in a fluid experiences an upward force which is equal to
the weight of the fluid being displaced.
A solid which has less density than a fluid will float,
sinking down to the point that:

weight-density of a gallon of mud.

Volume of fluid displaced equals the total weight


of the object.

By establishing the pressure gradient, pressure at any point is


found simply by multiplication of it by the current footage of
interest.
Examples:
Find Pressure Gradient: water at 8.33 lbs per gallon
Then: PG = 8.33 x 0.05195 = 0.433 psi / foot
Find Hydrostatic Pressure: 9 lb/gal mud at 6000 feet.
Then: PG = 0.05195 x 9 = .46755 psi / foot
And: HP = 0.46755 x 6000 = 2805 psi
Find Mud Weight: 3000 psi needed at 5000 feet.
Then: PG = 3000 psi / 5000 feet = .600 psi/ft
and: MW = .600 PG / 0.5195 = 11.55 lbs/gal

Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Buoyancy is the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a


body placed in it.

Net
Pressure

Hydrostatic pressure on the bottom surfaces of an


object continually increase as the object sinks until
it is sufficient to balance the total weight of the
object.

Either of the two methods used to calculate buoyant forces are


acceptable. They are the same principle stated differently and
produce equal results. Use one best suited to data available.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.09 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

DD Hydraulics 2.03.10

Buoyed Weight is less than Air Weight


A solid having more density than a fluid
will sink into the fluid with its submerged
weight then being less than its air weight
by an amount equal to the:
weight of fluid displaced.
total pressure differential between
that exerted on the bottom and
AIR
WT
top surfaces of the object.

Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Buoyancy Factor is a ratio of an objects density to a fluids


density. The factor when multiplied by the weight per unit
volume of an object solves for the buoyed weight of the
object in a fluid of a certain density ( weight per unit volume ).

BUOY
WT

Net
Pressure

Buoyed Weight : Displacement Method


Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density )

Hydrostatic Pressure Differential


( HP x Lower Area ) - ( HP x Upper Area )

Buoyed Weight : Hydrostatic Press. Diff.


Obj. Wt. - ( Sum of Hyd.Press.Diff.s )

Note: units of measurements must be consistent within formulas.


Convert to common units as needed.

Buoyancy Factor
( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density
Buoyed Weight : Buoyancy Factor
Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor
In drilling, the buoyancy factor is frequently
used to predetermine the size and number of
bottom hole assembly components to use in
order to have the buoyed weight needed to
do the job.
Because the geometry and dimensions of
some tools can be complex, it can be difficult
to calculate the buoyancy effect of pressure
differences. The use of the displacement or
buoyancy factors may easier as the tool weight
is often known or can easily be determined by
calculation or rig equipment. Often the major
variable is drilling fluid density.

DD Hydraulics 2.03.11 Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Buoyancy Example
Object:
Densities:

10 x 10 x 5 steel bar.
Steel at 65.5 Lbs/Gal.
Fluid at 9.0 Lbs./Gal.
End Area (s) = 10 x 10 = 100 in2
Volume = 100 in2 x ( 5 x 12 ) = 6000 in3
Volume = 6000 / 231 = 25.97 gal
Air Wt. = 25.97 gal x 65.5 lbs = 1701 lbs

DD Hydraulics 2.03.12

Hydrostatic Fluid Properties

Summary of formulas: Hydrostatic Fluids


Density ( Weight-Density) = Weight / Unit Volume
Specific Gravity =

Wt of Substance per Unit Vol.


Wt of Water per Unit Vol.

Volume ( Cubic Units ) = Area x Length


Circle Area = Diameter 2 x .7854

Using Displacement

Ring Area = ( Dia2 - dia 2 ) x .7854

Eq.Fluid Wt. ( Vol) = 25.97gal x 9 lbs/gal = 234 lbs


Buoyed Wt. = 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs

Pressure ( PSI ) = Force ( Lbs) / Area ( Sq.In.)

Using Buoyancy Factor:

Force ( Lbs.) = Pressure ( PSI ) x Area ( sq.in. )

Buoyancy Factor = ( 65.5 - 9 ) / 65.5 = 0.863


Buoyed Weight = 0.863 x 1701 lbs = 1468 lbs
Using Pressure Differential ( 1000 ft depth )
H.Press @ 1000 = 0.052 x 9 x 1000 = 467.55 psi
H.Press @ 1005 = 0.052 x 9 x 1005 = 469.89 psi
Force ( down ) = 100 sq.in. x 467.55 = 46755 lbs
Force ( up )
= 100 sq.in. x 46989 = 46989 lbs.
Total Diff.
= 46989 - 46755 = 234 lbs
Buoyed Wt.
= 1701 lbs - 234 lbs = 1467 lbs.

Hydrostatic Pressure
0.05195 x Fluid (Lbs/Gal ) x Depth (Ft)
Pressure Gradient = 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal )
Buoyed Weight : Displacement Method
Object. Wt. - ( Object Volume x Fluid Density )
Buoyancy Factor
( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density

DD Hydraulics 2.04.01

Hydraulic Power Transmission

DD Hydraulics 2.04.02

Pascals Law: If an external pressure is applied to a confined fluid,


the pressure will be increased at every point in the fluid by the
amount of external pressure. This is the basic principle upon which
hydraulic power transmission systems are based.
Pressure at any point in a fluid at rest is the same in all directions.
Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished
throughout the fluid.

Force applied to a
solid block is
transmitted in a
straight line
through block.
Force to confined
liquid is transmitted:
- in all directions
- equally distributed
- undiminished

Hydraulic Power Transmission

Force exerted on a confined fluid results in a pressure increase


which is equal to the amount of force applied divided by the
area over which this force was applied.

Pressure
Pressure( (PSI
PSI) )==Force
Force( (Lbs.
Lbs.) )/ /Area
Area( (sq.in.
sq.in.) )
A pressure increase in a confined fluid is distributed equally
throughout the fluid and against all sides of container. Force
applied on any surface such as a piston is equal to the pressure
applied multiplied by the area of the piston.

Force
Force( (Lbs.)
Lbs.)==Pressure
Pressure( (PSI
PSI) )xxArea
Area( (sq.in.
sq.in.) )
F
O
R
C
E

S
O
L
I
D

F
O
R
C
E

L
I
Q
U
I
D

Force is directly related to pressure and pressure to force by the


areas over which they act. This can be seen in hydraulic cylinders
which are a common application of hydraulic power transmission
systems.
Single Cylinder
FORCE

A 10 pound force exerted on a 10 square inch piston area of a


confined fluid transmits a 1 PSI pressure to all surfaces of the
confining container.
The pressure transmitted is in addition to any existing pressures such
as hydrostatic. Since these pressures were in a state of equilibrium,
they can be ignored when considering these pressure transmissions.

FORCE
FLUID

10 LBS

10 LBS

Input force equals output force if piston areas are the same. The
force divided by the input piston area creates a pressure which
multiplied by the identical area of the output piston creates a force
which equals the input force.

DD Hydraulics 2.04.03

Hydraulic Power Transmission

DD Hydraulics 2/04.04

Force of an Output hydraulic cylinder is proportional to area of


its piston to the area of the Input piston.
Force(out)
Force(out)==Force(in)
Force(in)xx( (Area(out)
Area(out)/ /Area(in)
Area(in)) )

A 10 lb. force exerted on the 10 sq.in.


of cylinder 1 transmits a pressure of
1 psi through-out the fluid, on all
container sides. The 20 sq.in. piston
area of Cylinder 2 then has a total
upward force of 20 lbs.

Hydraulic Power Transmission

Work is the occurrence of a force moved through a distance. It is


equal to the product of the force multiplied by the distance through
which the force was applied. Common units are Pounds and Feet.

Mechanical
Work
Work = Ft-Lbs
Pounds x Feet

Force

x Distance

Work

Work = Force x Distance


Work = Force x Distance
Given that the piston of cylinder 1 travels downward, forcing fluid
into cylinder 2 and raising its piston, the travel of piston 2 would be
one-half that of piston 1 since the area of piston 1 is one-half piston 2.
Travel of an output hydraulic cylinder is proportional to area of the
input piston to area of its output piston.

Hydraulic Work

Force ( psi )

a
r
e Distance
a

p
i
s
t
o
n

Work

Length(out) = Length(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )


Length(out) = Length(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )
Stroke Speed of an output cylinder is proportional to area of input
piston to area of its output piston.

Work (Inch-Lbs) = Force (Lbs) x Travel (inch)


Work (Inch-Lbs) = Force (Lbs) x Travel (inch)

Work
Work( (Foot-Lbs
Foot-Lbs) )==Force
Force( (Lbs
Lbs) )/ /Travel
Travel( (Feet
Feet) )
Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )
Speed(out) = Speed(in) x ( Area(in) / Area(out) )

Note: Work ( Foot-Lbs ) = Work ( Inch-Lbs ) / 12

DD Hydraulics 2.04.05

Hydraulic Power Transmission

Hydraulic power systems are used to do work. Discounting losses


from friction, the work which is input equals the work which is
output. It is only adapted to meet the needs of a job to be done.
Hydraulic Cylinders : Input and Output
Work In

Pressure = Pressure
Work Out =

Force

Distance

Power : is the rate of doing work. It is defined as an amount of


work ( foot-pounds ) done in a given time.
Power =

Work ( Ft./Lbs. )
Work ( Ft./Lbs. )
Time ( minutes or seconds )
Time ( minutes or seconds )

Common power unit of measurement is Horse Power


Horsepower =

33000
33000Ft-Lbs
Ft-Lbs=
11minute
minute

Hydraulic Power Transmission

Energy: is used to do work or use power. The law of Conservation


of Energy states that Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can
only be transformed. Not all energy is used to perform work, some
is expended, when doing work, to overcome the effects of friction.
This energy is not lost, but changed to heat energy.
Hydraulic pumps are used to convert electrical or other types of
energy to hydraulic energy. Types of energy used in a basic
hydraulic system include:

Distance

Force

DD Hydraulics 2.04.06

550
550Ft-Lbs
Ft-Lbs
11second
second

The basic principles involved in transmitting power are readily


seen using hydraulic cylinders as both in input and output, but
not all power is input in this manner and not all work is done in
this manner.

Electrical
Hydraulic
Kinetic
Potential
Heat

to operate pump motor


produced by the pump
produced when hydraulic fluid moves a piston.
produced when the piston has raised an object.
produced by friction in pump,pipe, & fluid

Hydraulic pumps are


used to create pressure
increases used to do
work. Basuc hydraulic
systems are a closed
piping circuit in which
a fluid under controlled
pressure is used to do
work. Hydraulic pumps
impart energy or power
to the fluid which is
transmitted to the work
site where the work is
done. The fluid is then
returned to the pump
to be energized again.

HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM


FLUID RESERVOIR

PUMP

RETURN
LINE

FILTER
PRESS REG

AIR
FLUID

PRESSURE
REGULATOR
ACCUMULATOR

CHECK
VALVES

GAGE

7
HAND

RELIEF
VALVE

PUMP

CONTROL
VALVE
WORK
SIDE

PRESSURE
SIDE

Circulating hydraulic systems have fluids which flow which are


called hydrodynamic fluids. While hydrostatic fluids can be
described by relatively simple concepts of density and pressure,
hydrodynamic fluids require new and more complex properties
be considered.
Hydrodynamics... is the study or application of properties of
liquids in motion. A liquid having no shape of its own, assumes
that of its container as it cannot support a tangential force without
loosing its shape or deforming.
The continuous deformation of a liquid is known as Flow . The
flow of a liquid always takes place in a conductor. A conductor is
can be any shape or size, even a flat surface with the atmosphere
serving as the sides and top. Flow conductors are often cylindrical
shaped ( pipes ).
Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow;
the product of flow rate and pressure drop. In drilling, two major
conductors of flow are the drill string and annulus. Wells are often
two to 4 miles deep, the pressures required to maintain the high
flow rates required are substantial and together with the pressure
used at the bit could be a limiting factor on flow rates.
Additionally, the fluids or mud used are tailored to do different
tasks associated with drilling the hole. These fluid characteristics
impact fluid flow properties. It is essential that hydrostatic and
hydrodynamic properties of fluid be understood as well as the
impact that the mud properties may have.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.02

Circulating System and Fluid Flow

The Drilling
Circulating System

Stand
Pipe

Rotary
hose

PUMP
HOPPER

M
UD

RE
SE
RV

PI
T

PI
T

SHALE
SHAKER

A circulating system imparts energy or power


to a fluid, transports it to the work site, does the
work, and returns it to be energized again.
Basic elements include geometry of the piping,
fluid properties and flow rate with each of these
influencing the total pressures realized.
Major purposes of the fluid and its flow are:
transmit hydraulic horsepower to the bit
to clean it and the bottom of hole.
cool and lubricate bit & drill string
transport cuttings produced out of hole.
support hole walls & prevent formation
fluids from entering well bore.

CASED HOLE

Circulating System and Fluid Flow

The hydraulic system used to drill a well is called a circulation


system. It, like the basic hydraulic power system, circulates a
fluid under controlled pressure to do work.

OPEN HOLE

DD Hydraulics 2.05.01

DD Hydraulics 2.05.03

Circulating System and Fluid Flow

The circulating system has no pressure control valve as exists in a


simple hydraulic system. This, along with the multiple duties the
circulation system must perform, requires the complete hydraulic
system and all of its elements be preplanned. Often, compromises
between conflicting requirements must be done.
Hydraulic Power is the power required to cause a fluid to flow;
the product of flow rate and pressure drop.
The product of low flow rate and high pressure may equal the
product of high flow rate and low pressure.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.04 Circulating System and Fluid Flow

Volumetric-Rate. Volume of liquid in units per a unit time as


barrels per minute, gallons per minute, etc.
The volumetric-rate output of a pump is found by the volume per
stroke multiplied by the number of strokes per unit time at which
pump is operated.
Triplex: single acting
with three cylinders
NO
RODOD

Hydraulic Horse Power is a measure of the energy delivered to


the fluid being pumped.
Hydraulic Horse Power
Hydraulic Horse Power
Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm )
Pressure Drop ( psi ) x Flow Rate ( gpm )
1714
1714
Hydraulic Horse Power = Mechanical Horse Power.
For Pressure in Lbs per Sq.In. and flow is in GPM. Then 231 cubic
inches of a gallon divided by 12 equals 19.25 feet and 33,000 ft-lbs
divided by the 19.25 feet equals the numerical constant 1714.
Engine Horsepower required equals the Hydraulic Horsepower
divided by pump efficiency. Note - newer pumps are usually 95
to 97% efficient.

FLUID

P
I
S
T
O
N

F
ID

L
U
I
D

Pumping action occurs on


one side only.

Duplex: double acting


with two cylinders
FLUID
ROD

OD

FLUID

P
I
S
T
O
N

F
ID

L
U
I
D

Pumping action occurs on


both sides of piston.

Volume
VolumeTriplex
Triplex( (Bbl
Bbl/ /stroke
stroke) )
2
33( (ID
ID2/ /12353
12353) )xxStroke
StrokeLength
Length(inch)
(inch)
Volume
( (Bbl
VolumeDuplex
Duplex
Bbl/stroke
/stroke) )
2
2
( (44( (ID
ID2/ /12353
12353) )- -22( (OD
OD2/ /12353
12353) )) )xxStroke
StrokeLength
Length(inch)
(inch)
Constant: 12353 = 1cu.in. / ( / ( 4 x 9702 cu.in.) )
Actual output per stroke of pump is found by multiplying above
result by pump efficiency.
Hydraulic Pumps are limited to a maximum volume and pressure.
The maximums not only vary by manufacturer and type of pump
but on the size of pump liners or cylinders used and stroke length.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.05

Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Continuity of Flow. As liquids do not readily compress, volumetricrate input into a conductor equals volumetric-rate which is output. It
is not affected by changes in inside area of the conductor.
Volume-Rate in

= Volume-Rate out

Flow can be imagined as a cylinder having an area equal to crosssectional area of pipe and a distance of such length that would
result in a volume equal to that which which is referenced.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.06

Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Fluid Flow Velocity through a conductor is distance traveled by a


fluid within a defined time. It is usually stated as feet per minute
or feet per second.
The speed of a flowing fluid is dependant on volume (GPM ) and
area in square inches at a cross-section of the conductor.
Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute )
Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Minute
)
( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 2
( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter

Cross-section

SPEED

Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Second )


Fluid Flow Velocity ( Feet per Second )
( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter2 )2 / 60
( ( 24.51 x GPM ) / Diameter ) / 60

Volume

Cross-section
SPEED

Volume

Given that equal volumes per unit time flows through the pipes, it
can be seen that the cross-sectional area influences the following:
Volume per a given length in proportion to Area.
Fluid Velocity per a given unit of time in inverse
proportion to Area.
Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area
Volumetric-Rate of Flow = Velocity ( ft/min ) x Area
Velocity
Velocity( (ftft/min
/min) )==Volumetric-Rate
Volumetric-Rate/ /Area
Area

Numerical constant 24.51 is derived from 231 cubic inches in a


gallon equal to a cylinder of 1 square inch in area by 19.25
( 231 / 12) feet long. Then the velocity ( ft / min ) would equal :
19.25 ft x GPM / .7854 x Diameter2 or 24.51 x GPM/Diameter 2
In hydraulic formulas related to drilling in
the oilfield, it is common practice to express
velocities of fluids related to the annulus in
feet per minute. Fluid velocities related to
the inside diameter of the drill string and to
the bit are expressed in feet per second.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.07 Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Fluid Flow: When external forces (pump) acting on a fluid are great
enough to overcome viscous forces, fluid flows. The velocity of fluid
particles at conduit wall is zero, increasing with distance from wall.
PLUG
FLOW

Plug Flow: occurs only at very slow rate where


a thin layer of fluid slips at conduit wall with
rest flowing as a unit. This flow regime to be
given no further consideration. Not Considered.

Laminar Flow: can be viewed as relatively smooth, straight streamlines of flow having concentric layers of fluid beginning with a zero
velocity at the conduit wall, with layers progressively faster, reaching
maximum speed at the center. This flow pattern requires less energy.
LOW
VISCOSITY

CHAOTIC
FLOW

HIGH
VISCOSITY

The Velocity Differential between


layers are greatest at wall and least
in center. Low viscosity fluids have
greater differentials than do the
higher viscosity fluids.

Turbulent Flow is the fast, chaotic flow of fluid


particles, moving in random loops except at wall
of conduit where velocity is zero. Streamlines are
irregular patterns with a flat profile. Maintaining
the fast flow rate requires more energy versus the
straighter streamlines of laminar flow.

While flow in the drill string is generally considered


to be turbulent, annular flow may be turbulent or
laminar. It is necessary to verify the flow pattern
and to then use the formula applicable to the type.
Each flow type has a different formulas to calculate
the applicable pressure drop. Laminar flow uses
less energy than does Turbulent flow.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.08

Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Circulating pressure loss in a hydraulic system is energy or


pressure required to force a liquid through a system to overcome
the effects of friction of the fluid itself and friction of the fluid
and the structure of the container.
In a circulation system, not only is pressure required to do the work
intended, but pressure is also required in getting the hydraulic fluid
to the work site and returned to the starting point. The pressure that
is required to move the fluid through the system is referred to as
pressure drop or pressure loss as it is not available to do work.
Circulating Pressure Loss:

Effects of Friction
5
4
3
2
1
0

P
S
I

Flow Direction
Pipe with inserted glass tubes shows pressure losses as fluid flows.
Pressure which is no longer available for additional flow or to do work.

In drilling, two major conductors of flow are the drill


string and annulus. These have a large impact on flow
rates and resulting pressures which may limit the flow
rate. Wells are frequently 2 to 4 miles deep, and may
reach 6 or more miles. Pressures required to generate
fluid flow to the bit and back to surface are substantial
and of prime importance. A well designed hydraulics
program is one in which less than 50% of available
hydraulic horse power is used for flow with 50% or
more used by the bit in making hole.

DD Hydraulics 2.05.09 Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Factors of Pressure Drop


Fluid: Density and Viscosity
Volume: Volumetric-Rate
Dimensions: Length and ID

DD Hydraulics 2.05.10

ID

I.D. Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)


I.D. Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)
x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L
0.0000765 PV 0.18
0.0000765 PV 0.18 x MW 0.82 x GPM 1.82 x L
4.82
ID
ID 4.82

Analysis of the formula for turbulent flow in a conduit shows a


complex relationship between components. The analysis below
illustrates the degree that changes to a factor could result in.
ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - PROPORTIONAL FACTORS
Plastic
Mud
Length
Gallons
Viscosity
Weight
Feet
per Min.
0.18
0.82
1
= 1.00
1
= 1.00
1
= 1.00
1 1.82 = 1.00
1
2 0.82 = 1.77
2 1 = 2.00
2 1.82 = 3.53
2 0.18 = 1.13
3 0.82 = 2.46
3 1 = 3.00
3 1.82 = 7.39
3 0.18 = 1.22
ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE DROP - INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL FACTORS
DECREASE
IN I.D.

DECREASE
IN I.D.

DECREASE
IN I.D.

1.1 4.82 = - 1.58


1.2 4.82 = - 2.41
1.3 4 82 = - 3.54

1.4 4.82 = - 5.06


1.5 4.82 = - 7.06
1.6 4.82 = - 9.64

1.7 4.82 = -12.91


1.8 4.82 = -17.00
1.9 4.82 = -22.06

Chart shows varying degrees of net change to pressure drop by changes in a


component. Doubling Mud Weight increases PSI by 1.77 times. Doubling
GPM increases PSI by 3.53 times. Increasing ID by 20% decreases PSI by
2.41 times.

Circulating System & Fluid Flow

Annular pressure drop does not typically affect the total system
pressure to the same degree as do the drill string internal diameters,
especially in the large, upper sections of the hole. However, as the
hole becomes deeper and the annular space becomes smaller, its
impact is larger. The pressure drop in the annulus is added to the
hydrostatic pressure of the hole and as such plays a significant role
in the open hole where it is exposed to the formation. Too little or
to much pressure against the formation(s) can result in problems.
Annular flow may be either turbulent or laminar depending on the
velocity of the fluid flow. To calculate the annular pressure drop,
the critical velocity must first be calculated. If critical velocity is
below 2,000 the flow is laminar. If it is 2,000 or above the flow is
turbulent.
Annular
AnnularCritical
CriticalVelocity
Velocity
PV 2 9.3{ D - D } 2 YP M ) 0.5
1.08PV
1.08PV++1.08(
1.08( PV 2 9.3{ DHH - DP P } 2 YP M ) 0.5
MM( (DDH - -DD
P)
)
H

Annular
AnnularPressure
PressureLoss
Loss( (Laminar
LaminarFlow
Flow) )
}

225
{
D
( {( {LL YP
H - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82
YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L VAS PV } ID 4.82
( (1500
H - DP } )
1500{{DD
- D })
H

Annular Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)


Annular Pressure Loss ( turbulent flow)
PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L )
( .0000765
( .0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L )
({ DH - -DD
} 3 { D + DP }}1.82
1.82)
)
({ DH P P } 3 { DHH + D
P

DD Hydraulics 2.06.01

Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms

Flow type of a liquid is affected by the cohesive internal attraction


of the fluid to itself and the adhesive external attraction of the fluid
to the conduit wall.
Flow may be viewed as a series of parallel fluid layers. The first
layer is held in place by fluids adhesive attraction to the conduit
wall. The second layer rides on this fluid layer, gaining some
velocity as it is retarded only by the fluids internal attraction.
Each subsequent layer gains additional velocity as it rides on the
previous layer which already has a
Faster Velocity
velocity of its own. This builds,
Zero Velocity Fluid
reaching its peak in the center.
Conduit Wall

A bead of water on a window pane illustrates the cohesive internal


attraction of a fluid within and to the fluid itself.
The thin track of water on the glass
as the bead of water slides down
illustrates that a very thin layer of
fluid at zero velocity exists at the
fluids point of contact with a
conductor surface due to the
adhesive attraction of the fluid to
a conduit surface.

Window Pane

Bead of water

DD Hydraulics 2.06.02

Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms

Rheology is the study of the flow of fluids.


Viscosity is descriptive of drilling mud in motion. The appearance
(apparent viscosity) of high viscose mud is referred to as thick
and low viscose mud called thin. Viscosity relates shear stress to
shear rate or a resistance to flow.
Plastic Viscosity is a measure of internal resistance to fluid flow.
It is related to the type, amount, and size of solids present in the
mud. It is an expression relating shear stress to shear rate or a
resistance to flow.
Shear Stress is the result from forces that tend to cause particles
of fluid to slide relative to other particles in a direction parallel to
the plane of plane of contact. It is the resistance or frictional drag
to the sliding movement of two parallel fluid layer.
Shear Rate is the force per unit of time or the velocity of fluid
particles relative to their distance or separation. It is the difference
in the velocities between two layers divided by the distance
between them .
Yield Point is a measure of the resistance to initial flow or stress
required to start fluid movement which is caused by electrical
forces on or near surfaces of the solid particles.
Gel Strength is a measure of the same electrical forces on solid
particles in mud considered by yield point, except it is measured
at rest. A static mud solidifies or gels by arranging solid particles
in a manner to best satisfy theses forces of attraction and repulsion.
Gel strength indicates the strength of these forces

Bingham Plastic Model - a finite stress must be applied to initiate


flow. At greater stresses, the flow will be newtonian. Pressure losses
are calculated using plastic viscosity (PV) and Yield Point (YP).
This is a good model for clay muds having a high solids content.
Power Law Model - Flow is initiated immediately as stress is
applied. This is a good model for polymer muds having a low
solids content. Pressure losses are calculated using a viscosity
(k) and a flow-behavior index ( N).

m Pla

shear stress
yield point

a
Bingh

DD Hydraulics 2.06.04

Newtonian Fluids - Shear Stress is directly proportional


to shear rate. ( water, oil, )
Non-Newtonian Fluids - Shear Stresses are not directly
proportional to shear rates.
Pseudo Plastic Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase
respective to shear rate decreases with the increasing shear rate. In other
words, viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate ( drilling fluids ).
Dilatent Fluids - the rate at which the viscous forces increase with shear
rate increases with increased shear rate. In other words, viscosity increases
with increasing shear rate. ( ink, blood)

stic
Plastic Viscosity
Ideal
Power
Law

Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms

Fluid Classifications

Dilatent

Rheology - Study of Fluid Flow Terms

Fluid Flow Models are attempts to mathematically define behavior


of fluids as they flow.

shear stress

DD Hydraulics 2.06.03

ew

a
ni
to

Pseudo-Plastic

ian

ton
New

Viscosity
shear rate

shear rate

DD Hydraulics 2.07.01

Bit - Mechanical Energy

Bit - Hydraulic Energy

Bit Hydraulic Energy

Bit Mechanical Energy


Bits use both Mechanical and Hydraulic
Energy in drilling the well bore. Bits are
tailored to the formation characteristics.
In general, the softer the rock to be
drilled the larger the teeth. Bits are built
to be rotated while weight is applied to
supply the mechanical energy required.

TOOTH

DD Hydraulics 2.07.02

Hydraulic Energy is required to allow the bit to effectively drill by


cleaning the bit and the hole bottom. As fluid is forced through the
bit nozzles, its kinetic energy is greatly increased through high jet
velocities having a high impact force.
Hydraulic Horsepower at bit is measure of energy expended at bit.
Impact Force is a measure of the force which the drilling fluid
impinges upon the bore hole below the bit.
Adequate jet velocity cleans the bit. A
balled up bit acts as a cushion preventing
effective drilling. There must be room
between the bits teeth for new formation.
Adequate fluid jet velocity and fluid
volume cleans drilled chips from hole
bottom. Re-drilling of chips is not
efficient and generates added,
unnecessary solids in the mud

Tooth penetrates formation,


creating chip by fracture and
shearing of rock.

CHIP
Higher
Hydrostatic
Pressure

Chip
Weight on Bit controls
Chip Size & Quantity

Lower
Formation
Pressure

Adequate Jet Velocity and Impact


Force releases differentially stuck
chips. Chips can be held down when
solids filtered from the mud seal
cracks around them and where the
hydrostatic pressure is greater than
the formation pressure.

RPM controls Fracture


Rate.
Jet Velocity and its Impact Force may drill some soft formations
by its own hydraulic energy.

DD Hydraulics 2.08.01

Rules of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics

Factors to consider when planning hydraulics are:


Geology of well - Formations, pressures, Hole problems, etc.
Pumps - Volume & Pressure capabilities, limitations, etc.
Drill String Geometry. ID, OD, Length, Strength, etc.
Bit - Size, Type, Nozzles, Hydraulic Horsepower.
Mud - Type, Weight, Properties. Supply & availability.
Annulus: Pressure Loss, Flow Rate for cutting removal
Tool Needs - MWD, etc. Flow and Pressure requirements.
Drilling Rates - Expected and/or desired ROP.
Pressures with expected flow rates, hole sizes, and depths.
Bit Pressure drop, Drill String Pressure Drop, Annular Pressure
Drop, Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure, etc.
Rule of Thumb Guidelines for Optimal Hydraulics:
Flow Rate: 30 to 60 GPM per inch of bit diameter.
Maximize in soft formations, fast drilling, high angle holes for hole
cleaning. Restrict only to the degree that hole wash out is a problem.
Limit in slow drilling to rate needed. Limit in small and / or deep
holes to reduce, annular friction, ECD, and potential for lost
circulation, differential sticking, and hole instability.
Flow Rate too low
- Inadequate hole cleaning. Hole could load with cuttings.
- Bit may ball.
Flow Rate too high:
- Increases Annular Friction, Bottom Hole Pressure, & ECD
- Erodes soft, unconsolidated formations.
Fast drilling & light mud weights need more flow.
( 50+ gpm/bit diameter ).
Slow drilling needs less flow. Do not slow below minimum.
High angle holes need higher flow to clean.

DD Hydraulics 2.08.02 Rules of Thumb to Optimize Hydraulics

Rule of Thumb Guidelines for Optimal Hydraulics:


Maintain 2.5 to 5 bit hydraulic horsepower per square inch
of bit diameter. ( HHP/ Inch2 )
Bit hydraulic horsepower is based on ROP & Hole Size.
Large Bits require more HHP / Inch2
Fast ROP requires maximum HHP / Inch2, even over normal
maximum of 5.
Some rigs do not have pumps or horsepower to provide
the needed hydraulic horsepower.
Do not use excessive pressure, costing unnecessary fuel and
pump wear.
Maintain Bit Jet Velocity between 350 to 450 feet per second.
( ft./sec.) Do not attempt to operate below 250 ft/sec.
Jet velocity influences penetration rates, hole cleaning, & chip holddown. Impact force, the force exerted on the formation to assist in
hole clearing is the product of mud weight and jet velocity and is
directly proportional to jet velocity.
to improve penetration rates in a small hole of 9-1/2 or less
consider running 2 larger jets rather than 3 of the same total
flow area. Larger jets are less likely to plug.
asymmetrical jets of differing sizes may improve penetration
rates versus 2 jets.
for long bit run which would force a lowering of the jet velocity,
consider 3 jets with a diverting ball dropped in lower section to
maintain the jet velocity.
Bit Pressure Drop to be 50 % to 65 % of the total system
pressure drop.
Calculate total system losses and adjust if pressure drops through
drill string and annulus exceed 50%. Do not adjust volume below
30 GPM/Inch of bit diameter. Consider drill string changes, nozzle
adjustments, etc.

DD Hydraulics 2.09.01

Hydraulic & Related Formulas

NOMENCLATURE
CD
CW
DH
DP
G
JV
L
M
NZ
NA
PXX

= Chip Diameter, inch


= Chip Weight, ppg
= Diameter of Hole, inch
= Diameter of Pipe, inch
= Gallons Per Minute ( gpm )
= Jet Velocity ( fps )
= Length in feet
= Mud Weight (ppg )
= Nozzle Size ( 32nds of inch )
= Nozzle Area ( square inch )
= Pressure Loss ( psi )

PV
VAS
VAM
YP
f
n
p
Re
U

= Plastic Viscosity, cps


= Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fps )
= Velocity, Annular Fluid ( fpm )
= Yield Point (lbs / 100 ft.)
= fanning friction factor
= Consistency index
= Numerical Constant, 3.14159
= Reynolds Number, dimensionless
= Viscosity, apparent, effective, cps

PAN
PSI
GPM
FPS
FPM
PPG

= Pressure Drop, Annulus ( psi )


= Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch
= Gallons per Minute
= Feet per Second
= Feet per Minute
= Pounds per Gallon

other nomenclature found in formulas themselves

Hydraulic Formulas. Bit Related


Nozzle Pressure Loss ( psi )
Nozzle Volume ( gpm )
Nozzle Total Flow Area ( sq.in. )
Nozzle Area ( per size ) (sq.in. )
Nozzle Size ( 32nds inch )
Jet Velocity of Nozzles ( fps )
Impact Force of Nozzles ( psi )

( psi )
Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, Total
Bit Hydraulic Horse Power, per Sq.In.

PNZ = ( M G 2 ) ( 10858 NA 2 )
= ( { P NZ 10858 NA 2 } M ) 0.5
GNZ
NA
= ( { M G 2 } { 10858 PNZ } ) 0.5
NA
= ( N Z 32) 2 ( 4)
= 32 (N A { .7854 Qty } ) 0.5
NZ
JV (F/S) = ( 0.32 G ) N A
IF
= JV 0.0173 G ( P NZ M ) 0.5
IF
= 0.000516 JV G M
BHHP (TOTAL) = PNZ G 1713.6
BHHP / sq. in = BHHP ( BIT OD 0.7854 )

Drill String Bore Pressure Loss ( psi )


Turbulent flow ( sii )
Turbulent flow ( security )
Turbulent flow ( fanning )

PID = ( 0.0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) ID 4.82


PID = ( 0.000061 M G 1.86 L) ID 4.86
PID = ( f M V ID (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 DP

DD Hydraulics 2.09.02

Hydraulic & Related Formulas

Annulus Flow
Annular Flow Velocity ( fpm )
Annular Flow Velocity ( fps)
Annular Critical Velocity ( fps )
Optimum Annular Velocity (fpm )
Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm)
Optimum Annular Flow ( gpm)

VAM = ( 24.51 G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 )
VAS = ( { 24.51 60 } G ) ( DH 2 - DP 2 )
VCA = 1.08PV + 1.08( PV 2 9.3{ DH - DP } 2 YP M ) 0.5 M ( DH - DP )
VOA = 11800 ( M DH )
Opt Flow ( Annulus ) = 482 ( DH 2 - DP 2 ) ( DH M )
Opt Flow ( Open hole) = ( 265 DH + 10 DH 2 ) M

Annulus Pressure Loss ( psi )


Turbulent Flow ( sii )
Turbulent Flow ( security )
Turbulent Flow ( fanning )
Newtonian Laminar Flow ( hagan )
Plastic Laminar Flow ( beck, etc )

PAN
PAN
PAN
PAN
PAN

= ( .0000765 PV 0.18 M 0.82 G 1.82 L ) ({ DH - DP } 3 { DH + DP } 1.82 )


= 0.00000014327 M L VA 2 ( DH - DP )
= ( f M VAn (F/S) 2 L ) 25.8 ( DH - DP )
Note: V = Apparent Viscosity (cps)
= V L Va ( 1500 {DH - DP } )
= ( { L YP } 225 { DH - DP } ) + ({ L Va PV } ( 1500 { DH - DP } )

Bottom Hole Pressure


Bottom Hole Hydrostatic Pressure ( psi )
B. H. Circulating Pressure ( psi )
Equivalent Circulating Density ( ppg )

( ppg )

BHP = ( 0.5195 M L )
BHCP = BHP + PAN
ECD = BHCP ( 0.52 L )
ECD = (PAN { 0.052 L } ) + Mud Weight

Hole Cleaning
Rock Chip Slip Velocity

Note: use 21 as cutting density and 0.25 as cutting diameter if unknown

Lam. - Spherical Chips ( Stokes )


Lam. - Flat Chips ( Pigott )
Turb. - Spherical Chips ( Rittinger )
Turb. - Flat Chips ( Pigott )
Slip Velocity ( ft / Min )

V C = ( 8310 CD 2 { CW - M }) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) VA )
V C = ( 3226 CD 2 { CW - M } ) ( PV + ( 399 YP { DH - DP }) V A )
V C = 159 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 )
V C = 60.6 ( ( CD { CW - M } M ) 0.5 )
VS = V C - V A

Hydraulic & Related Formulas

DD Hydraulics 2.09.03

HYDOSTATIC FLUID FORMULAS


WEIGHT DENSITY
= Weight / Unit Volume
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
= Weight of Substance per Unit Volume / Weight of Water per Unit Volume
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. ( PSI )
= 0.05195 x Mud Weight x Depth
PRESSURE GRADIENT
= 0.05195 x Mud Wt. (Lbs/ Gal )
BUOYANCY FACTOR OF A FLUID
= ( Object Density - Fluid Density ) / Object Density
Buoyed Weight
= Object Weight x Object Buoyancy Factor
POWER TRANSMISSION FORMULAS
PRESSURE ( PSI )
= FORCE ( LBS ) / AREA ( SQUARE INCH )
FORCE ( LBS )
= PRESSURE ( PSI ) x AREA ( SQUARE INCH )
FORCE ( OUTPUT )
= FORCE ( IN ) x ( AREA (OUT ) / AREA ( IN )
LENGTH ( OUTPUT)
= LENGTH ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) )
SPEED ( OUTPUT )
= SPEED ( IN ) x (AREA ( IN ) / AREA (OUT ) )
WORK
= FORCE x DISTANCE
WORK (INCH-LBS)
= FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( INCH )
WORK (FOOT-LBS)
= FORCE ( LBS ) x Travel ( FEET )
POWER
= WORK(FTLBS) / TIME(MINUTES OR SECONDS)
HORSEPOWER
= 3300 FTLBS / 1 MINUTE OR 550 FTLBS / 1 SECOND
HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER
= PRESSURE DROP (PSI) x FLOW RATE (GPM)
CIRCULATION RELATED FORMULAS
TRIPLEX PUMP (BBLS/STK)
= 3 ( ID2 / 12353 ) x STROKE LENGTH (IN.)
DUPLEX PUMP(BBLS/STK)
= 4 ( ID2 / 12353 ) - 2 ( OD2 / 12353 ) ) x S.L.)
VOLUMETRIC-RATE OF FLOW
= VELOCITY ( FPM ) x AREA
VELOCITY (FT/MIN)
= VOLUMETRIC-RATE / AREA
FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN)
= ( 24.51 x GPM ) / DIAMETER2
FLUID FLOW VELOCITY (FT/MIN)
= ( 24.51 x GPM ) / ( DIAMETER2 x 60 )
Volume
Conversions

Cubic
Inches

Gallons

Cubic Feet

1728

7.48052

Barrel

9702

42

5.61458

Gallon

231

0.02381

0.13368

Barrels

0.17811

Cubic
Feet

COMMON
DENSITIES

Water ( 39.20F )
Water ( 68.00F )
Sea Water
Steel
Iron
Aluminum

RELATIVE
DENSITY

1.000
0.998
1.026
7.804
7.853
2.700

LBS PER
CU.FT.

LBS PER
GALLON

GRAMS /
CU. CM

62.4
62.3
64.0
487.0
490.0
168.5

8.34
8.33
8.55
65.10
65.50
22.50

1.000
0.998
1.026
7.804
7.853
2.700

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

Hydraulic & Related Formulas

Effective Viscosity
A. Viscosity Definition
B. Bingham Plastic
C. Shear Stress, Power Law Fluids
D. Effective Viscosity , Power Law
E. Annular Shear Rate
F. Consistency Index
G. Power Law Index
New Press. (Change: GPM or MW )
Hook Load
OverPull Maximum
Neutral Point (STRAIGHT HOLE)
Buoyancy Factor ( GALLONS )
BUOYED WEIGHT
Natural Frequency
Excitation Frequency
Excitation Frequency
Frequency w/ Shock
Mechanical Horsepower Created

U = SS / Sr
U = ( PV + ( 399 YP x ( DH - DP)) / VA )
SS = k x Sr n
U e= k x Sr n-1
S r = 2.4 VA / ( DH - DP )
k = 511( YP + PV ) / 511n
n = 3.32 log 10 ( YP + 2PV ) / ( YP + PV )
P2 = P1 x ( M2 / M1 ) x ( G2 / G1 ) 2 x P1
HL = ( ( Pipe Wt/Ft x Feet ) + ( Collar Wt/Ft x Feet ) ) x Buoyancy Factor
OP = ( Yield Strength of Pipe - Hook Load )
NP = Bit Weight / ( Weight/Foot * Buoyancy Factor )
BF = ( 65.5 - M ) / 65.5 ( 65.5 lbs = steel in gallons )
BW = AIR WEIGHT x BOUNCY FACTOR
FN = 4212 / Drill Collar Length (ft)
FE = RPM / 20
Ncrit = FN x 20
FNS = P x ( shock spring rate (k) / Total Wt. DCs (w) ) 0.5
HrsPwr(Mech) = Torque x RPM/ 5252

DD Hydraulics 2.09.04

Hydraulic & Related Formulas

Expansion of Steel: Temperature Changes


C

= Coefficient of Expansion for steel


= 0.0000828 per foot, per degree Fo
L = Length in feet
T = Change in temperature, Fo
ET = C x L x T

Maximum Tensile Loading w/ Collapse Pressure Applied


Y = Minimum Yield Strength of Pipe ( PSI )
A = Cross-sectional area of Pipe Body
P = Collapse Pressure on the Pipe ( PSI )
C = Collapse Rating w/ no load ( tables )
L= Y x A x (( 1-.75 x (P/C)2 ) 0.5 - ( .5 x (P/C) )