STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
YEAR 2013
Q. 1
Q. 2
ONE MARK
P ^E1 - E2h
A ^E1 + E2h
(A) P
A
(B)
(C) PE2
AE1
(D) PE1
AE2
A long thin walled cylindrical shell, closed at both the ends, is subjected to
an internal pressure. The ratio of the hoop stress (circumferential stress) to
longitudinal stress developed in the shell is
(A) 0.5
(B) 1.0
(C) 2.0
(D) 4.0
TWO MARKS
YEAR 2013
Q. 3
A pin joined uniform rigid rod of weight W and length L is supported horizontally
by an external force F as shown in figure below. The force F is suddenly removed.
At the instant of force removal, the magnitude of vertical reaction developed at
the support is
(A) zero
(C) W/2
Q. 4
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(B) W/4
(D) W
Q. 5
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
A bar is subjected to fluctuating tensile load from 20 kN to 100 kN. The material
has yield strength of 240 MPa and endurance limit in reversed bending is 160 MPa.
According to the Soderberg principle, the area of cross-section in mm2 of the bar
for a factor of safety of 2 is
(A) 400
(B) 600
(C) 750
(D) 1000
ONE MARK
YEAR 2012
Q. 6
Q. 7
Q. 8
(D) 2.02
2
(D) 4ML
EI
For a long slender column of uniform cross section, the ratio of critical buckling
load for the case with both ends clamped to the case with both the ends hinged is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 4
YEAR 2012
(D) 8
TWO MARKS
Q. 9
The homogeneous state of stress for a metal part undergoing plastic deformation is
J10 5
0N
O
K
T = K 5 20
0O
K 0 0 - 10O
P
L
where the stress component values are in MPa. Using Von Mises Yield criterion,
the value of estimated shear yield stress, in MPa is
(A) 9.50
(B) 16.07
(C) 28.52
(D) 49.41
Q. 10
Q. 11
A solid steel cube constrained on all six faces is heated so that the temperature
rises uniformly by DT . If the thermal coefficient of the material is a, Youngs
modulus is E and the Poissons ratio is u, the thermal stress developed in the
cube due to heating is
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a (DT) E
(1 - 2u)
3a (DT) E
(C) (1 - 2u)
(A) -
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
2a (DT) E
(1 - 2u)
a (DT) E
(D) 3 (1 - 2u)
(B) -
YEAR 2011
Q. 12
ONE MARK
Q. 14
Match the following criteria of material failure, under biaxial stresses s1 and s2
and yield stress sy , with their corresponding graphic representations.
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(D) 1000
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 15
(C) 500
(D) 1000
YEAR 2011
TWO MARKS
Q. 16
(B) b 18TL l4
pqG
(D) b 2TL l4
pqG
(A) b 32TL l4
pqG
(C) b 16TL l4
pqG
Q. 17
The area moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a cross-section at a distance
x measured from the free end is
3
3
(B) bxt
(A) bxt
12l
6l
3
(C) bxt
24l
Q. 18
Q. 19
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3
(D) xt
12l
ONE MARK
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
YEAR 2010
TWO MARKS
Q. 20
Q. 21
YEAR 2009
Q. 22
If the principal stresses in a plane stress problem are s1 = 100 MPa, s2 = 40 MPa,
the magnitude of the maximum shear stress (in MPa) will be
(A) 60
(B) 50
(C) 30
Q. 23
(D) 20
Q. 24
A solid shaft of diameter d and length L is fixed at both the ends. A torque, T0
is applied at a distance L from the left end as shown in the figure given below.
4
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TWO MARKS
Q. 25
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
A frame of two arms of equal length L is shown in the adjacent figure. The
flexural rigidity of each arm of the frame is EI . The vertical deflection at the
point of application of load P is
3
(A) PL
3EI
3
(B) 2PL
3EI
3
(C) PL
EI
3
(D) 4PL
3EI
YEAR 2008
Q. 26
ONE MARK
Q. 27
Q. 28
A cantilever type gate hinged at Q is shown in the figure. P and R are the centers
of gravity of the cantilever part and the counterweight respectively. The mass of
the cantilever part is 75 kg. The mass of the counter weight, for static balance, is
(A) 75 kg
(C) 225 kg
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(B) 150 kg
(D) 300 kg
Q. 29
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 30
TWO MARKS
For the component loaded with a force F as shown in the figure, the axial stress
at the corner point P is
F (3L - b)
3 (3L + b)
(B)
4b3
4b3
F (3L - 4b)
F (3L - 2b)
(C)
(D)
4b3
4b3
A solid circular shaft of diameter 100 mm is subjected to an axial stress of 50
MPa. It is further subjected to a torque of 10 kNm. The maximum principal
stress experienced on the shaft is closest to
(A) 41 MPa
(B) 82 MPa
(C) 164 MPa
(D) 204 MPa
(A)
Q. 31
Q. 32
The rod PQ of length L and with flexural rigidity EI is hinged at both ends. For
what minimum force F is it expected to buckle ?
2
(A) p EI
L2
2
(C) p EI2
2L
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2 p2 EI
L2
2
(D) p EI
2L2
(B)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 33
A two dimensional fluid element rotates like a rigid body. At a point within the
element, the pressure is 1 unit. Radius of the Mohrs circle, characterizing the
state of stress at that point, is
(A) 0.5 unit
(B) 0 unit
Q. 34
(C) 1 unit
(D) 2 unit
Q. 35
Q. 36
If the Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio of the container material are 100 GPa
and 0.3, respectively, the axial strain in the cylinder wall at mid-depth is
(B) 6 # 10-5
(A) 2 # 10-5
(C) 7 # 10-5
(D) 1.2 # 10-4
Q. 37
The strain energy stored in the beam with flexural rigidity EI and loaded as
shown in the figure is
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
2 3
(A) P L
3EI
2 3
(B) 2P L
3EI
2 3
(C) 4P L
3EI
2 3
(D) 8P L
3EI
ONE MARK
YEAR 2007
Q. 38
(B) 30
(A) 25
(C) 35
Q. 39
(D) 60
A steel rod of length L and diameter D , fixed at both ends, is uniformly heated
to a temperature rise of DT . The Youngs modulus is E and the co-efficient of
linear expansion is a. The thermal stress in the rod is
(A) 0
(B) aDT
(C) EaDT
(D) EaDTL
TWO MARKS
YEAR 2007
Q. 40
A uniformly loaded propped cantilever beam and its free body diagram are shown
below. The reactions are
5qL
, R2 =
8
5qL
(C) R1 =
, R2 =
8
(A) R1 =
Q. 41
3qL
5qL
qL2
, R2 =
,M =
8
8
8
3qL
5qL
(D) R1 =
, R2 =
,M = 0
8
8
(B) R1 =
(A) 4.12
(C) 1.73
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3qL
qL2
,M =
8
8
3qL
,M = 0
8
(B) 3.46
(D) 0.86
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 42
Q. 43
Q. 44
The maximum principal stress in MPa and the orientation of the corresponding
principal plane in degrees are respectively
(A) - 32.0 and - 29.52
(B) 100.0 and 60.48
(C) - 32.0 and 60.48
(D) 100.0 and - 29.52
YEAR 2006
Q. 45
Q. 46
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ONE MARK
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
YEAR 2006
TWO MARKS
Q. 47
Q. 48
Q. 49
(A) 40 MPa
(C) 70 MPa
(B) 50 MPa
(D) 120 MPa
Q. 51
Q. 52
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ONE MARK
(B) sr =
Y 0, sz = 0
(D) sr =
Y 0, sz =
Y 0
Q. 53
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Two identical cantilever beams are supported as shown , with their free ends in
contact through a rigid roller. After the load P is applied, the free ends will have
The two shafts AB and BC , of equal length and diameters d and 2d , are made
of the same material. They are joined at B through a shaft coupling, while the
ends A and C are built-in (cantilevered). A twisting moment T is applied to
the coupling. If TA and TC represent the twisting moments at the ends A and C
, respectively, then
(A) TC = TA
(C) TC = 16TA
Q. 55
Q. 56
TWO MARKS
(B) TC = 8TA
(D) TA = 16TC
(A) zero
(B) PL
2
(C) 3PL
2
(D) indeterminate
A cantilever beam carries the anti-symmetric load shown, where W0 is the peak
intensity of the distributed load. Qualitatively, the correct bending moment
diagram for this beam is
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*Shipping Free*
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 57
Q. 58
The Mohrs circle of plane stress for a point in a body is shown. The design is
to be done on the basis of the maximum shear stress theory for yielding. Then,
yielding will just begin if the designer chooses a ductile material whose yield
strength is
(A) 45 MPa
(C) 90 MPa
Q. 59
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(B) 50 MPa
(D) 100 MPa
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
YEAR 2004
ONE MARK
Q. 60
In terms of Poissons ratio (u) the ratio of Youngs Modulus (E) to Shear Modulus
(G) of elastic materials is
(A) 2 (1 + u)
(B) 2 (1 - u)
(D) 1 (1 - u)
(C) 1 (1 + u)
2
2
Q. 61
The figure shows the state of stress at a certain point in a stressed body. The
magnitudes of normal stresses in x and y directions are 100 MPa and 20 MPa
respectively. The radius of Mohrs stress circle representing this state of stress is
Q. 62
(A) 120
(B) 80
(C) 60
(D) 40
YEAR 2004
Q. 63
The figure below shows a steel rod of 25 mm2 cross sectional area. It is loaded at
four points, K, L, M and N. Assume E steel = 200 GPa . The total change in length
of the rod due to loading is
(A) 1 mm
(C) 16 mm
Q. 64
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(B) - 10 mm
(D) - 20 mm
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Q. 65
Q. 66
Q. 67
ONE MARK
The second moment of a circular area about the diameter is given by (D is the
diameter).
4
4
(B) pD
(A) pD
16
4
4
(C) pD
32
4
(D) pD
64
Q. 68
Q. 69
Two identical circular rods of same diameter and same length are subjected to
same magnitude of axial tensile force. One of the rod is made out of mild steel
having the modulus of elasticity of 206 GPa. The other rod is made out of cast
iron having the modulus of elasticity of 100 GPa. Assume both the materials to be
homogeneous and isotropic and the axial force causes the same amount of uniform
stress in both the rods. The stresses developed are within the proportional limit
of the respective materials. Which of the following observations is correct ?
(A) Both rods elongate by the same amount
(B) Mild steel rod elongates more than the cast iron rod
(C) Cast iron rod elongates more than the mild steel rods
(D) As the stresses are equal strains are also equal in both the rods
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Q. 70
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
The beams, one having square cross section and another circular cross-section,
are subjected to the same amount of bending moment. If the cross sectional area
as well as the material of both the beams are same then
(A) maximum bending stress developed in both the beams is same
(B) the circular beam experience more bending stress than the square one
(C) the square beam experience more bending stress than the circular one
(D) as the material is same, both the beams will experience same deformation.
Q. 71
Q. 72
Consider the arrangement shown in the figure below where J is the combined
polar mass moment of inertia of the disc and the shafts. k1, k2, k 3 are the torsional
stiffness of the respective shafts. The natural frequency of torsional oscillation of
the disc is given by
(A)
k1 + k 2 + k 3
J
(B)
(C)
k1 + k 2 + k 3
J (k1 k2 + k2 k 3 + k 3 k1)
(D)
k1 k 2 + k 2 k 3 + k 3 k1
J (k1 + k2)
k1 k 2 + k 2 k 3 + k 3 k1
J (k2 + k 3)
Maximum shear stress developed on the surface of a solid circular shaft under
pure torsion is 240 MPa. If the shaft diameter is doubled then the maximum
shear stress developed corresponding to the same torque will be
(A) 120 MPa
(B) 60 MPa
(C) 30 MPa
YEAR 2003
(D) 15 MPa
TWO MARKS
Q. 73
A simply supported laterally loaded beam was found to deflect more than a
specified value. Which of the following measures will reduce the deflection ?
(A) Increase the area moment of inertia
(B) Increase the span of the beam
(C) Select a different material having lesser modulus of elasticity
(D) Magnitude of the load to be increased
Q. 74
A shaft subjected to torsion experiences a pure shear stress t on the surface. The
maximum principal stress on the surface which is at 45c to the axis will have a
value
(A) t cos 45c
(B) 2t cos 45c
(C) t cos2 45c
(D) 2t sin 45c cos 45c
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
The maximum and minimum principal stresses respectively from the Mohrs
circle are
(A) + 175 MPa, - 175 MPa
(B) + 175 MPa, + 175 MPa
(C) 0, - 175 MPa
Q. 76
Q. 77
(D) 0, 0
ONE MARK
The total area under the stress-strain curve of mild steel specimen tested upto
failure under tension is a measure of
(A) ductility
(B) ultimate strength
(C) stiffness
(D) toughness
Q. 78
TWO MARKS
Q. 79
Q. 80
The ratio of Eulers bucking loads of columns with the same parameters having
(i) both ends fixed, and (ii) both ends hinged is
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 8
YEAR 2001
Q. 81
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ONE MARK
The shape of the bending moment diagram for a uniform cantilever beam carrying
a uniformly distributed load over its length is
(A) a straight line
(B) a hyperbola
(C) an ellipse
(D) a parabola
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
YEAR 2001
Q. 82
TWO MARKS
The maximum principal stress for the stress state shown in the figure is
(A) s
(C) 3s
(B) 2s
(D) 1.5s
**********
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
SOLUTION
Sol. 1
Sol. 2
Sol. 3
When the Force F is suddenly remove, then due to W , the rod is in rotating
condition with angular acceleration a.
Thus equation of motion
SMO = IO a
WL = I a = mL2 a
O
3
2
2
mgL
mL
or
=
a
2
3
3g
or
a =
2L
Also the centre of the rod accelerate with linear acceleration a . Thus from FBD
of rod
W - R = ma
...(i)
mg - R = ma
From the relation of linear and angular acceleration, we have
3g
3g
a = ra = L #
=
2
4
2L
Substitute this value in equation (i), we obtain
3g
R = mg - m #
4
mg W
=
R =
4
4
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Sol. 4
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
sin b 3px l dx
L
L
= ;- cos b 3px l # L E
3p 0
L
=-;- L - L E = 2L
3p
3p
3p
This load acting at the centre of the beam because of the sin function. Now
taking the moment about point B , we have
SMB = 0
RA # L = 2L # L
3p
2
RA = L
3p
Option (D) is correct.
Given
Fmin = 20 kN , Fmax = 100 kN , sy = 240 MPa = 240 N/mm2 , FOS = 2
se = 160 MPa = 160 N/mm2
F =
Sol. 5
3
smin = Fmin = 20 # 10
Area
A
3
F
smax = max = 100 # 10
A
Area
3
3
Now
smean = smax + smin = 120 # 10 = 60 # 10
2
2A
A
3
3
and
sv = smax - smin = 80 # 10 = 40 # 10
2
2A
A
According to soderbergs criterion
1 = sm + sv
sy se
FOS
3
3
1
60
# 10 + 40 # 10
or
=
2
160A
240A
3
3
1 = 10 + 10
or
2
4A 4A
or
A = 1000 mm2
Sol. 6
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...(i)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
s2 =
and
Sol. 7
p 1.01r 1
pr
pr 2
= #
= 1.0202 1
2t1
1 # 9.99t1
2t2
Since
EI
Integrating
EI
At x = 0,
So
Hence Eq.(i) becomes
d 2y
=M
dx2
dy
= mx + C1
dx
dy
=0
dx
EI (0) = M (0) + C1 & C1 = 0
EI
Again integrating
At x = 0, y = 0 ,
Then Eq. (ii) becomes
Sol. 8
^At x = L, y = y maxh
Option (C) is correct.
...(i)
dy
= mx
dx
2
EIy = mx + C 2
2
EI (0) =
...(ii)
m (0) 2
+ C2 & C2 = 0
2
2
EIy = Mx
2
2
y = Mx
2EI
2
= p EI
L2
For both ends clamped L = L
2
2
& y max = ML
2EI
...(i)
Sol. 9
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p2 EI
L 2
2
^2h
Ratio for both ends clamped to both ends hinged is = 2
= 42 # L = 4
1
p EI
L
2
L
Option (B) is correct.
According to Von Mises Yield criterion
2
2
2
+ t yz
+ t zx
)@
sY2 = 1 6(sx - sy) 2 + (sy - sz ) 2 + (sz - sx ) 2 + 6 (t xy
2
R10 5
0VW
S
Given,
T = S 5 20
0W
SS 0 0 - 10WW
T
X
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
txy = 5
tyz = 0
sz =- 10
tzx = 0
sY2 = 1 6(10 - 20) 2 + (20 + 10) 2 + (- 10 - 10) 2 + 6 (52 + 02 + 02)@
2
= 1 # [100 + 900 + 400 + (6 # 25)] = 27.83 MPa
2
OR = (AR) 2 + (AO) 2
AO = AB = BN - AN = 100 - 40 = 30
2
2
2
Therefore,
Sol. 11
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Sol. 12
OR =
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
...(i)
Slenderness ratio = l
k
k =
bh3 /12
b#h
I =
A
Sol. 14
Sol. 15
Sol. 16
1
3
-12
# 20 # (10) # 10
12
=
k =
10 # 20 # 10-6
= 8.33 # 10-6 = 2.88 # 10-3 m
1
Slenderness ratio =
= 347.22 - 346
2.88 # 10-3
Option (C) is correct.
(P) Maximum-normal stress criterion " (M)
(Q) Maximum-distortion energy criterion " (N)
(R) Maximum-shear-stress criterion " (L)
So correct pairs are, P-M, Q-N, R-L
d = b 18TL l4
pqG
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20 # 10-3
12 # 10 # 20
Sol. 17
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
letOE = h
...(i)
...(i)
2
2
0 = 12PL3 + C1 & C1 =- 12PL3
Ebt
Ebt
Again integrating equation (i),
x2
...(ii)
y = 12PL
3 # 2 + C1 x + C 2
Ebt
When x = L , y = 0
3
3
So,
0 = 12PL3 # L2 + C1 L + C2 = 6PL3 - 12PL3 + C2
2Ebt
Ebt
Ebt
3
C2 = 6PL3
Ebt
From equation (ii),
2
2
3
...(iii)
y = 6PLx3 - 12PL3x + 6PL3
Ebt
Ebt
Ebt
The maximum deflection occurs at x = 0 , from equation (iii),
3
3
y max = 0 + 0 + 6PL3 = 6PL3
Ebt
Ebt
So,
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Sol. 19
Sol. 20
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
...(i)
RC # 4 = 6000 # 3
RC = 18000 = 4500 N = 4.5 kN
4
And from equation (i),
RA = 6000 - 4500 = 1500 N = 1.5 kN
Taking a section X - X at a distance x from A and taking the moment about
this section
(x - 2)
MXX = RA # x - 3 (x - 2) #
F = 3 (x - 2) and d = x - 2
2
2
= 1.5x - 1.5 (x - 2) 2
For maximum Bending moment,
d (M ) = 0
XX
dx
...(ii)
1.5 - 2 # 1.5 (x - 2) = 0
1.5 - 3x + 6 = 0
- 3x =- 7.5
x = 2.5 m = 2500 mm
So the maximum bending moment occurs at 2500 mm to the right of A.
Sol. 21
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Sol. 22
Sol. 23
M2+T2
First, the shaft is divided in two parts (1) and (2) and gives a twisting moment
T1 (in counter-clockwise direction) and T2 (in clock wise direction) respectively.
By the nature of these twisting moments, we can say that shafts are in parallel
combination.
...(i)
So,
T0 = T1 + T2
From the torsional equation,
T = t = Gq
& T = GJq
r
J
l
l
But, here
So,
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G1 = G 2
q1 = q2
J1 = J 2
T1 l1 = T2 l2
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
T1 # L = T2 # 3L
4
4
T1 = 3T2
Now, From equation (i),
T0 = 3T2 + T2 = 4T2
And
T2 = T0
4
T1 = 3T0
4
T1 > T2
So, maximum shear stress is developed due to T1 ,
T1 = tmax
& tmax = T1 # r
r
J
J
Substitute the values, we get
Here
tmax =
Sol. 25
3T0
4
p
32
32 # 3T0 = 12T0
d
#2 =
pd 3
8p # d 3
d
4
We have to take sections XX and YY along the arm BC and AB respectively and
find the total strain energy.
So, Strain energy in arm BC is,
L
UBC =
#
0
M x2 dx =
2EI
#
0
^Px h2
dx
2EI
Mx = P # x
UAB =
#
0
M y2
dy =
2EI
2 3
=PL
2EI
#
0
P2 L2 dy
2EI
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My = P # L
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
From the application of load P , the length of the rod increases by an amount of
DL
DL = PL = p PL2 = 4PL
AE
pD 2 E
4D E
And increase in length due to applied load P in axial or longitudinal direction,
the shear modulus is comes in action.
Shearing stress
= ts = ts L
G =
Shearing strain TL/L TL
So, for calculating the resulting change in diameter both youngs modulus and
shear modulus are used.
Sol. 28
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
& m = 300 kg
The figure shown the Gerbers parabola. It is the characteristic curve of the
fatigue life of the shaft in the presence of the residual compressive stress.
The fatigue life of the material is effectively increased by the introduction of a
compressive mean stress, whether applied or residual.
Sol. 30
Sol. 31
The shaft is subjected to a torque of 10 kN-m and due to this shear stress is
developed in the shaft,
3
From Torsional equation
txy = T # r = 10 # 10 # d
p d4
2
J
32
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
3
4
= 16 # 10 3# 10 = 16 # 10 -1 3 = 160 = 50.95 MPa
3.14
pd
3.14 # (10 )
Maximum principal stress,
s + sy 1
2
+
s1 = x
(sx - sy) 2 + 4txy
2
2
Substitute the values, we get
s1 = 50 + 1 (50) 2 + 4 # (50.95) 2 = 25 + 1 12883.61
2
2
2
113
.
50
= 25 + 56.75 = 81.75 MPa - 82 MPa
= 25 +
2
Sol. 32
Sol. 33
C =1
2
Wcr = p EI
L2
Wcr = F cos 45c
F = Wcr =
cos 45c
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2 p2 EI
L2
and
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
k2 = D1 3 = 20 3 = 8
k1 b D2 l b 10 l
k2 = 8k1
So, stiffness is increased by 8 times.
Sol. 34
Sol. 35
...(i)
Here,
p = Pressure of the fluid inside the shell
So, pressure at 1 m depth is,
p = rgh = 1000 # 10 # 1 = 10 4 N/m2
From equation (i),
4
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Sol. 37
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
...(i)
RB # 4L - P # L - P # 3L = 0
RB # 4L - 4PL = 0
RB = 4PL = P
4L
From equation (i),
R A = 2P - P = P
With the help of RA and RB , we have to make the Bending moment diagram
of the given beam. From this B.M.D, at section AC and BD Bending moment
varying with distance but at section CD , it is constant.
2
Now strain energy
U = # M dx
2EI
Where M is the bending moment of beam.
Total strain energy is given by
L (Px) 2 dx
L (Px) 2 dx
(PL) 2 2L
+
U = #
+#
2EI
2EI
2EI
0
4
4 3 1044 2 44 3
1{44
2 44 3 {1for44sec2
tion CD}
for section AC}
{for section BD}
2
(Px) 2 dx P 2 L3
+
=P
EI
2EI
EI
0
Integrating above equation, we get
=2#
Sol. 38
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#0
x2 dx + P L
EI
2 3
2 3
2 3
2
3 L
2 3
U = P :x D + P L = P L + P L = 4P L
3EI
EI
3EI
EI 3 0
EI
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
...(i)
& RB = 60 N
RA = 100 - RB = 100 - 60 = 40 N
Maximum bending moment occurs at point C ,
MC = RA # 0.5 + 10 = 40 # 0.5 + 10 = 20 + 10 = 30 N-m
Sol. 39
of
temperature if the ends of the bar were free to expand or
contract.
a =
dl
l # TT
or,
dl = l # a # TT
And temperature strain,
e = dl = l # a # TT = a # TT
l
l
Basically temperature stress and strain are longitudinal (i.e. tensile or compressive)
stress and strain
E = Stress = s
e
Strain
s = Ee = EaTT
Sol. 40
In equilibrium of forces,
...(i)
R1 + R2 = qL
This cantilever beam is subjected to two types of load.
First load is due to UDL and second load is due to point load at B. Due to this
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
& R2 =
3qL
8
3qL
5qL
=
8
8
qL2 5qL2
-M = 0
+
2
8
M =
qL2
8
5qL
3qL
qL2
, R2 =
and M =
8
8
8
Option (C) is correct.
Given : T = 10 N - m = 10 4 N - mm , G = 80 GPa = 80 # 103 N/mm2
L1 = L2 = 100 mm , d1 = 50 mm , d2 = 25 mm
We know that for a shaft of length l and polar moment of inertia J , subjected to
a torque T with an angle of twist q. The expression of strain energy,
2
U = 1 Tq , and q = Tl
U = 1T l
2
2 GJ
GJ
So Total strain energy,
2
2
2
J = p d4
U = T L + T L = T L:1 + 1 D
32
2G J1 J2
2GJ1 2GJ2
Substitute the values, we get
(10 4) 2 # 100
1
1
U =
+
2 # 80 # 103 ; 32p (50) 4 32p (25) 4 E
6
1
1
= 10 # 32 :
+
p 625 # 10 4 390625D
16
6
1
= 10 4 # 32 : 1 +
p 625 39.0625D
16 # 10
= 63.69 # 60.0016 + 0.0256@ = 1.73 N - mm
Therefore, R1 =
Sol. 41
Sol. 42
n
p
E
1
b u or m l
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
We know the relation between volumetric strain, youngs modulus and Poissons
ration is given by,
Dn = 3p (1 - 2u)
n
E
Substitute the values, we get
Dn = 3 # 15 (1 - 2 0.3)
#
106
200 # 103
Dn = 45 # 10 (1 - 0.6) = 225 # 0.4 = 90 mm3
2
Sol. 43
Sol. 44
Sol. 45
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sx = ?
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
T = t = Gq
r
J
l
Take first two terms,
T =t
r
J
T = t
p d4
d
32
2
16
tmax = T3
pd
Sol. 46
According to Eulers theory, the crippling or buckling load (Pcr ) under various end
conditions is represented by a general equation,
2
...(i)
Pcr = Cp 2EI
L
Where,
E = Modulus of elasticity
I = Mass-moment of inertia
L = Length of column
C = constant, representing the end conditions of the column or end
fixity coefficient.
Here both ends are hinged, C = 1
2
Substitute in equation (i), we get Pcr = p EI
L2
Sol. 47
Sol. 48
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
3
=- 1.25 mm
DL = PL = - 200 # 10 # 2000
AE
1600 # 200 # 103
In magnitude,
Sol. 49
Compressive
DL = 1.25 mm
Given :
A = 700 mm2
From the free body diagram of the segment QR,
Force acting on QR,
P = 28 kN (Tensile)
Stress in segment QR is given by,
3
s = P = 28 # 10-6 = 40 MPa
Area
700 # 10
Sol. 50
= 6.75 kN-m
I = Moment of inertia = p d 4
64
y = Distance from the neutral axis to the external fibre = d
2
sb = Bending stress
So,
sb = M # y
I
Substitute the values, we get
6
32400
6
sb = 6.75 # 10 # 75 =
# 10
p (75) 4
2
p # 2 # (75) 4
64
= 1.6305 # 10-4 # 106 = 163.05 MPa
- 162.98 MPa
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Sol. 52
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Sol. 53
Sol. 54
= qBC
= Gq
L
...(i)
& q = TL
GJ
= TC L
GJBC
L
= TC #
G # 32p (2d) 4
= TC 4
16d
= 16TA
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
RC # L = P # L
2
RC = P
2
For the equilibrium of forces on the beam,
RA + RC = P
RA = P - P = P
2
2
Now for the bending moment about point A, take the moment about point A,
MA + RC # 2L - P # bL + L l = 0
2
Sol. 56
Sol. 57
MA + P # 2L - P # 3L = 0
2
2
MA = PL
2
Option (C) is correct.
We know that, for a uniformly varying load bending moment will be cubic in
nature.
(A) We see that there is no shear force at B , so the slope of BMD at right of B
must be zero and similarly on left end A there is no shear force, so slope of
BMD also zero.
(B) Now due to triangular shape of load intensity, when we move from right
to left, the rate of increase of shear force decreases and maximum at the
middle and therefore it reduces.
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
-2
s = 10-x8 # 10 = 60 # 106 x
2
10
12
From equation (i), Bending stress at point A (x = 0),
...(i)
sA = 60 # 106 # 0 = 0
And at point C (x = 1 m)
sC = 60 # 106 # 1 = 60 MPa
As no any forces are acting to the right of the point C .
So bending stress is constant after point C .
Sol. 58
t = smax - smin
2
Maximum shear stress at the elastic limit in simple tension (yield strength) = sY
2
s
s
max - smin
Y
To prevent failure
#
2
2
Here
So,
Sol. 59
smax - smin = sY
smax =- 10 MPa , smin =- 100 MPa
sY =- 10 - (- 100) = 90 MPa
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
2g = k (0.21 - 0.2)
k = 2 # 9.8 = 1960 N/m
0.01
So, L = 210 mm , and k = 1960 N/m
Sol. 60
Now,
Sol. 61
E = 2G (1 + u)
E = youngs modulus
G = Shear Modulus
u = Poissons ratio
E = 2 (1 + u)
G
Sol. 63
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2
;100 - (- 20)E = 60
2
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
DL = PL
AE
DL
1
100 # 500 - 150 # 800 + 50 # 400@
25 # 200 # 103 6
1
=
- 50000@ =- 10 mm
5000 # 103 6
Option (A) is correct.
Given : d = 60 mm , T = 1600 N-m
From the torsional formula,
T =t
r = d and J = p d 4
r
2
32
J
So,
tmax = pT 4 # d = 16T3
2
pd
32 d
Substitute the values, we get
16 # 1600
9
tmax =
= 8152.866
# 10
(60) 3
3.14 # (60 # 10-3) 3
= 0.03774 # 109 Pa = 37.74 MPa - 37.72 MPa
=
Sol. 64
Sol. 65
Sol. 66
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Sol. 67
2IXX = IP
4
IXX = IP = pD = IYY
2
64
Sol. 68
Where, RA and RB are the reactions acting at the ends of the beam.
In equilibrium condition of forces,
P = RA + RB
Taking the moment about point A,
RB # L = P # L
3
RB = P
3
RA = P - RB = P - P = 2P
3
3
Now bending moment at the point of application of the load
M = RA # L = 2P # L = 2PL
3
3
9
3
Or,
M = RB # 2L = 2PL
3
9
Option (C) is correct.
Given : Ls = Li , Es = 206 GPa , Ei = 100 GPa , Ps = Pi , Ds = Di , & As = Ai
Where subscript s is for steel and i is for iron rod.
We know that elongation is given by,
DL = PL
AE
Now, for steel or iron rod
Ai Ei = Ei
DLs = Ps Ls
Es
As Es # Pi Li
DL i
From equation (i),
Sol. 69
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...(i)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Let,
Where,
fibre.
...(i)
s =Bending stress
For square cross-section bending stress,
a = 6Ms
s
ss = M
a # 2
a3
12
And for circular cross-section,
c
sc = pMc 4 # d = 32M
2
d3
64 d
On dividing equation (iii) by equation (ii), we get
sc = 32Mc
a3
16 a3
# 6M = 3 3
3
ss
s
d
d
From equation (i),
p 2 3/2
3
2 3/2
a 4 d k = (a ) = a
...(ii)
...(iii)
Mc = Ms ...(iv)
a3 = p 3/2 = 0.695
d3 a 4 k
Substitute this value in equation (iv), we get
sc = 16 0.695 = 3.706
ss
3 #
sc > 1
& sc > ss
ss
So, Circular beam experience more bending stress than the square section.
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Sol. 71
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
Sol. 72
wn =
k1 k 2 + k 2 k 3 + k1 k 3
J (k1 + k2)
(Given)
J = p d4
32
= 30 MPa
Alternative Method :
From the Torsional Formula,
t =T r
J
So, maximum shear stress,
Sol. 73
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r = d and J = p d 4
2
32
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
= 1 Mx + c1
EI
2
...(i)
y = 1 b Mx l + c1 x + c2
EI 2
where, y gives the deflection at the given point. It is easily shown from the
equation (i), If we increase the value of E and I , then deflection reduces.
Again integrating,
Sol. 74
Let consider a element to which shear stress have been applied to the sides AB
and DC . Complementary stress of equal value but of opposite effect are then
setup on sides AD and BC in order to prevent rotation of the element. So,
applied and complementary shears are represented by symbol txy .
Consider the equilibrium of portion PBC . Resolving normal to PC assuming
unit depth.
sq # PC = txy # BC sin q + txy # PB cos q
= txy # PC cos q + txy # PC sin q cos q
= txy (2 sin q cos q) # PC
sq = 2txy sin q cos q
The maximum value of sq is txy when q = 45c.
sq = 2t sin 45c cos 45c
Sol. 75
Given (txy = t)
Given, Mohrs circle is a point located at 175 MPa on the positive Normal stress
(at point P )
So, s1 = s2 = 175 MPa , and tmax = 0
So, both maximum and minimum principal stresses are equal.
Alternate Method :
sx = 175 MPa sy = 175 MPa and txy = 0
Maximum principal stress
2
s1 = 1 7(sx + sy) + (sx - sy) + 4txy
A = 12 6(175 + 175) + 0@
2
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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
= 175 MPa
Minimum principal stress
2
s2 = 1 7(sx + sy) - (sx - sy) + 4txy
A = 12 6(175 + 175) - 0@
2
= 175 MPa
Sol. 76
Sol. 77
Sol. 78
Sol. 79
en =
(1 - 2u)
(s1 + s2 + s3)
E
Put s1 = s2 = s3 =- s ,
3 (1 - 2u)
(in magnitude)
en = 1 - 2u (- 3s) =
s
E
E
The above equation gives the volumetric strain when the elemental volume is
subjected to a compressive stress of s from all sides. Negative sign indicates a
compressive volumetric strain.
en = 3 (1 - 2u) &
s =
E
So,
s
en
E
3 (1 - 2u)
s = K (Bulk modulus)
But
en
Hence,
Sol. 80
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E = 3K (1 - 2u)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
W(i)
=4=4
1
W (ii)
Mx =- Wx # x =-Wx
2
2
The equation for Mx gives parabolic variations for B.M. Maximum B.M. occurs
at x = L and is equal to WL2 /2 . (in magnitude)
Sol. 82
***********
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