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A Summary of The analysis of pile driving A state-of-the-art

By G.G. Goble, Frank Rausche, G. E. Likins. Jr


A summary by: Fakhrur Rozy Harnas G0801005BThe paper presents a review of available analytical methods and gives examples both of
equipment used for measurement and results obtained from the wave analysis or analysis of the
elastic pile. Several results expected from the wave analysis are the static bearing capacity,
driveability, integrity, pile stresses and the efficiency of the driving system.
The first analysis of one dimensional wave propagation applicable to pile driving was presented
by St. Venant. He found the differential equation governing one dimensional wave propagation in
an elastic rod and also its solutions. With the development of computer technology, Smith
developed the program known as wave equation. This program is further advanced by several
researchers.
At the beginning, strain measurements were made using piezoelectric force transducers.
Michigan departments of Highways used specially designed force transducer and also added a
strain gage accelerometer. The most extensive stress wave measurement began at Case institute
of technology. Case use resistance strain gages which was amplified by an AC amplifier and
recorded on high speed oscillograph. Case also uses impedance quartz crystal accelerometer to
measure the acceleration. As the electronic technology develops, tape recorders and
minicomputers are introduced to the system.
Bearing capacity of a pile can be determined from force and acceleration measurement on the top
of the pile. A closed form equation known as Case method is developed by Case institute of
technology. The case pile wave analysis program (CAPWAP) developed by the same university
was also conceived and tested. CAPWAP uses the same force and acceleration measurements as
Case method. The pile top force or pile top can be chosen as velocity boundary condition for the
dynamic analysis of CAPWAP. In CAPWAP, three soil constants must be known for each pile
element in the embedded portion: static resistance, Ru; quake, q; and damping, J. Outputs of the
dynamic analysis are pile element forces and motions and soil resistance forces. The dynamic
analysis sometimes does not agree all the time. The agreement can be improves iteratively by
changing the soil resistance parameters. TNO method is another method that utilizes force and
acceleration measurements. However, the prediction exercise of TNO method is different from
CASE and CAPWAP. The basic assumption is that the impact force is a test load the ensuing pile
set is measured. By increasing the loads, and plotting the set, the load deformation curve can be
obtained.
A reliable wave equation bearing capacity analysis depends on the availability of accurate soil
and reliable driving system performance. The Case method avoids the wave equation problems
with hammer performance and to some extent with soil parameter selection. Since Case method

is computationally simple, it can obtained in the field, However the CAPWAP method avoids all
assumption that Case uses and provides a direct estimate of bearing capacity and resistance
distribution. PDA (Case) and CAPWAP have been used in drive-ability study, pile integrity,
measurement of the pile stresses during driving and also the performance of the driving system.