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PEMP

ACD2501

Aircraft Structures

Session delivered by:


Mr Ramjan Pathan
Mr.

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M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
ACD2501

Session Overview
Following topics will be covered in this session
Analysis
A l i off aircraft
i
f structure, its
i assemblies,
bli subb
assemblies and the types of loading these are
subjected.
subjected
Methods of analysis of loads on aircraft components
and its distribution on the structure
Behaviour of structural components under the applied
loads
Method to assess the design using different analysis
techniques
q
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ACD2501

Structural Engineers Dream

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ACD2501

Stress Analysis

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ACD2501

Aircraft Structures Overview


Aircraft are generally built up from the following
basic components
Wings, Fuselages, Tail (H & V) , and control surfaces

Delta wing aircraft have no horizontal tail


Example : TEJAS, M2000, RFAEL

Some have a canard configuration such as that of the


Eurofighter (Typhoon).
Each component has one or more specific functions
and must be designed to ensure that it can carry out
these functions safely.
y
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ACD2501

Aircraft Structures Overview


The structure of an aircraft is required to support two
distinct classes of load:
Ground loads, includes all loads encountered by the
aircraft duringg movement or transportation
p
on the gground
such as taxiing and landing loads, towing and hoisting
loads
Air
Ai loads,
l d comprises
i loads
l d imposed
i
d on the
h structure during
d i
flight by manoeuvres and gusts.

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ACD2501

Aircraft Structures Overview


Aircraft designed for a particular role encounter loads
peculiar to their sphere of operation.
operation
Naval aircraft, are subjected to catapult take-off and
arrested landingg loads
Large civil and practically all military aircraft have
pressurized cabins for high altitude flying
Amphibious aircraft must be capable of landing on water
Low altitude high speed aircraft have tremendous loads due
to high density and turbulence.
turbulence

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M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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ACD2501

Aircraft Structures Loads


There are basically two ways loads are transferred
S
Surface
f
f
forces
which
hi h actt upon the
th surface
f
off the
th structure,
t t
e.g. aerodynamic and hydrostatic pressure
Body forces which act over the volume of the structure and
are produced by gravitational and inertial effects.
Eg. Turns, dive pull-up etc

Pressure distribution over the various surfaces of an


aircrafts structure is obtained from aerodynamics
calculations.
calculations

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ACD2501

Typical Aerodynamic Loads

Pressure distribution
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Replaced b
by loads

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ACD2501

Typical Aerodynamic Loads

Note : The reduction near the centre line (fuselage effect)


and tips (tip effect)
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Loads During Dive Pull-up

As W*n = L
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Random Gust Loads

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V-n Diagram

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Typical Ground Loads


Ground loads encountered in landing and taxiing
subject the aircraft to concentrated shock loads
through the undercarriage system.
The majority of aircraft have their main undercarriage
located close to the wings,
Nosewheel or tailwheel in the vertical plane of symmetry.

Position of the main undercarriage should take care of


the stabilityy
When the aircraft is on ground.

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ACD2501

Typical Aircraft sub assemblies

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ACD2501

Aircraft structures examples

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Typical Structural Breakdown

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Bomber

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Harrier Jumpjet

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Commercial Plane

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Structural Components
The basic functions of an aircrafts structure
ttransmit
it andd resist
i t the
th loads
l d
provide an aerodynamic shape
and to protect passengers,
passengers payload,
payload systems,
systems etc.
etc from the
environmental conditions encountered in flight.

Monocoque
q : Thin shells which rely
y entirelyy on their
skins for their capacity to resist loads

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Structural Components
Semi-monocoque : thin shell structures where the
outer surface is usually supported by
longitudinal stiffening members
and transverse frames to enable it to resist bending,
bending
compressive and torsion loads without buckling.

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Function of Aircraft Structures:


Part specific

ACD2501

Skin
1. Resists the applied torsion and shear forces by
Transmitting aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and
transverse supporting members
Supports the longitudinal members in resisting the applied
bendingg and axial loads
Supports the transverse members in resisting the hoop, or
circumferential, load when the structure is pressurized.

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Function of Aircraft Structures:


Part specific

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Ribs and Frames : The skeleton


11.
2.

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Structural
St
t l integration
i t
ti off the
th wing
i andd fuselage
f l
Keep the wing in its aerodynamic profile

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Typical Wing construction

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Function of Aircraft Structures:


Part specific

ACD2501

Spar
1 Resist bending and axial loads
1.
2. Form the wing box for stable torsion resistance

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Function of Aircraft Structures:


Part specific

ACD2501

Stiffener or Stringers
1 Resist bending and axial loads along with the skin
1.
2. Divide the skin into small panels and thereby increase its
bucklingg and failingg stresses
3. Act with the skin in resisting axial loads caused by
pressurization.

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Simplifications

1.

The behavior of these structural elements is often idealized


to simplify the analysis of the assembled component
2 The webs (skin and spar webs) carry only shearing stresses.
2.
stresses
3. The longitudinal elements carry only axial stress.
4. The transverse frames and ribs are rigid within their own
planes,
l
so that
h the
h cross section
i is
i maintained
i i d unchanged
h
d
during loading.

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Aircraft Structures
1. Truss-type Structures
Had struts and wire-braced wings
Occupants sat in open fabric-covered cockpits,
2. Stressed-skin Structures
All oof thee sstructural
uc u loads
o ds aree ccarried
ed by thee sskin..
Thin wood skin Or aluminum-alloy sheets

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Structures
Wing Construction Truss-type

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Airframe Units
1. Fuselage : Bulkheads, Frames, Stringers
2 Wings
2.
i
: Spars,
S
Ribs
ib stiffeners
iff
3. Tail plane : Stabilizers , Flight control surfaces,
L di gear
Landing

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Structural Loads/Stress
Deformation : Nonpermanent Deformation
Deformation disappears when the load is removed.
Permanent Deformation
Wrinkles observed on top of wing and bottom of
horizontal stabilizer.
Stretch marks on the bottom of the wing or top o the
stabilizer. (positive gs)

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ACD2501

Materials For Aircraft Construction


Wood : Old small 2 seat
aircrafts, Pushpak,
Tigermoth
Aluminum Alloys : Most modern planes use a variety
of alloys of Al
Honeycomb : Sandwiches
Magnesium & Stainless Steel : Very specific
applications

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Old examples : Wood

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Fuselage Construction
This is the preferred method of constructing an allg .
aluminum fuselage
A series of frames in the shape of the fuselage cross
sections are held in position on a rigid fixture, or jig.
These are then joined with lightweight longitudinal elements
called stringers.
These are then covered with a skin of sheet aluminum,
aluminum
attached by riveting or by bonding with special adhesives.
The fixture is then removed from the completed fuselage
shell
Most modern large aircraft are built using this technique

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ACD2501

Fuselage Construction

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ACD2501

Fuselage

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B747 Fuselage

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Typical Skin Stiffeners

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Fuselage Construction
Monocoque : Virtually no internal framework
Semi
monocoque : Internal arrangement of formers and
Semi-monocoque
stringers is used to provide additional rigidity and strength to
the skin.

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Semi-monocoque

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Cantilever

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Cantilever Wing

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Braced Wing

In flight Lift acting


upwards
countering
t i weight
i ht

On ground no
Lift, only weight

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Load Relief Due Fuel in Wing

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ACD2501

Wing Construction
Spar
p : main structural member
of the wing, running at right
angles to the fuselage.
The
Th spar carries
i flight
fli ht loads
l d
and the weight of the wings
whilst on the ground.
Generally there are 2 spars in
most aircraft wings.
Other
O h structurall andd forming
f
i
members are Ribs.

Ribs

S
Spar
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Structures
Stressed-skin
S
d ki Wing
Wi Construction
C
i

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Control Surface Construction

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Undercarriage

ACD2501

Landing gear is the structure under a plane's fuselage


that allows it to land safely
Older landing gear had two wheels forward of the
aircraft's center of ggravityy and a third,, smaller wheel at
the tail. This configuration has the nickname the
"taildragger
Tricycle landing gear consists of a forward (nose)
wheel and a pair of wheels located midway on the
f l
fuselage.
Th nose gear is
The
i steerable
bl by
b means off the
h
rudder pedals.

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Undercarriage

ACD2501

Tandem landing gear (also called bicycle landing


gear) consists of a main gear of two sets of wheels
set one behind the other.

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ACD2501

Elements of Structures
Three common structural elements are used:
skins, stiffeners, and beams

Materials may experience both tension, and compression

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Compression can cause the elements to buckle


Requires determination of air loads
Requires determination of mass properties (weights)
Check for parts exceeding yield stress
Check for buckling

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Fatigue
Structural fatigue occurs when an element is
subjected to repeated application and removal of
loads
ee.g.
g Wing experiencing unsteady gusts
The number of load cycles a material can tolerate depends
on the stress level
Smaller cross sections, will have higher stresses, easily fail
Structural analyses can identify hot spots where fatigue
will
ill first
fi t occur

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Composition of Composites

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Types of composites
Composite material include :
F
Fabric
b i glass
l material
t i l usedd to
t repair
i the
th parts
t including
i l di wing
i
trailing & leading edge panel, floor panel & body fairing.
Honey comb material used in floor panel, body fairing &
wing panels and galley partition.
Graphite reinforced plastic or carbon reinforced plastic
(CFRP or CRP) usedd in
i some major
j structurall area (eg:
(
B777 cabin lateral floor beam structure)

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Composites : Pros & Cons

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Typical Aircraft Material

Fuselage
&WingLE
fairings

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Fuselage
skin&aircraft
str ct res
structures

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Use of Composites in B767

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Use of Composites in B777

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Boeing 787 - Dreamliner

Materials by weight,
weight are 50% composite,
composite 20% aluminum,
aluminum 15%
titanium, 10% steel, and 5% other.
Aluminum is used on wing and tail leading edges, titanium
used mainly on engines and fasteners
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Typical Fuselage Diameters

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Why Worry about Structures ?


Structural design is critical to aircraft safety, and also
plays a key role in aircraft cost and performance.
performance
The airplane cost is related to the structural design in
complex ways,
ways
Typically aircraft cost $400-$1000 per kg
Military aircraft such as the B
B-22 reportedly costs more per
kg than gold.

Aircraft structural weight also affects performance.


Every kilogram of airplane structure means one less
kilogram of fuel when the take-off weight is specified

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Why Worry about Structures ?


Classical aircraft range equation:
R = (V/
(V/sfc)
f ) (L/D) ln
l (W initial/W final)
one might think of the first term representing the role of
propulsion, the second term aerodynamics, and the third
term, structures.

To estimate the aircraft empty weight, we must


estimate the weight of each of the component
we need to understand how a component structure is sized;
and to do this, we need to estimate the loads that they will
have to support

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Cascading Effect of Structure

The above table, clearly indicates the effect of structure mass,


and the reason mass reduction is always important

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Empty mass examples

A330 & B777 are higher


hi h because
b
structure
t t
is
i designed
d i
d for
f stretch
t t h versions
i
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Data From : Ajoy Kundu

(a) All types of aircraft


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(b) Midrange (Boeing and Airbus type)

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Fuel Load Component

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Wing Area and Takeoff weight

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Mass estimation
Step 1
Here, suffixes
ffi
TO
O means take-off,
k ff E means Empty
and F means Fuel
Step
St 2 more detailed
d t il d

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Typical subsystem weights

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Typical Component Weights

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Thank you !

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