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LAPLACE TRANSFORM

CHAPTER 1

Chapter 2

LEARNING OUTCOME
Apply Laplace Transform to solve Ordinary Differential
Equation, ODE equations
Construct transfer function model
st

Analyze dynamic behavior of the process (1 and 2


order system)
Analyze dynamic behavior of more complicated
process

nd

WHY MODELLING?

GENERAL MODELING
PRINCIPLES
The model equations are at best an approximation to the real
process.
Adage: All models are wrong, but some are useful.
Modeling inherently involves a compromise between model
accuracy and complexity on one hand, and the cost and effort
required to develop the model, on the other hand.

Dynamic models of chemical processes consist of ordinary


differential equations (ODE) and/or partial differential equations
(PDE), plus related algebraic equations.

Process modeling is both an art and a science. Creativity is


required to make simplifying assumptions that result in an
appropriate model.

WHY DO WE NEED
LAPLACE TRANSFORMS?
understand dynamics
useful in control analysis (transform differential form into
algebraic form)
solution of D.E.s
example; Laplace of a constant e.g. L{1}

L(f (t)) = f (t)e-st dt


0

st
L{1}0est dt es
1
s
t 0

LAPLACE TRANSFORM OF
SOME BASIC FUNCTIONS

a st
a a
L(a)= ae dt e 0
0
s
s s
0

Constant
Function

-st

Exponential
Function

L(e )= e e dt e
-bt

-bt -st

Derivative
Function

df
L(f ) L
dt

Usually define

-(b+s)t

1
1
( b s)t
-e

dt
0
b+s
s+b

df -st

e dt
0 dt

f(0) = 0

sL(f) f(0)

(e.g., the error)

CONTINUE.
Higher order Derivative Function

Chapter 2

dn f
L n
dt

s n F ( s) s n1 f (0) s n2 f (1) (0) sf ( n2) (0) f ( n1) (0)

Trigonometric Function

e -jt e jt
L(cos t) = L
2

1 1
1

2 s j s j

1 s j
s j

2
2
2
2
2 s
s
s
= 2
s 2
=

e j t - e jt
L(sin t) = L

2j

= 2
s 2

TABLE A.1 (PG. A-3)

LAPLACE TRANSFORM IN
PROCESS CONTROL
Chapter 2

1. Solution of differential equations (linear)


2. Analysis of linear control systems (frequency
response)
3. Prediction of transient response for different inputs

SOLUTION OF ODEs BY
LAPLACE TRANSFORMS
1.Take the L of both sides of the ODE.
2.Rearrange the resulting algebraic equation in the s
domain to solve for the L of the output variable, e.g.,
Y(s).
3.Perform a partial fraction expansion.
4.Use the L-1 to find y(t) from the expression for Y(s)

Example A.1

Chapter 2

Solve the ODE,


dy
5 4y 2
y 0 1
dt
First, take L of both sides of (3-26),
2
5 sY s 1 4Y s
s
Rearrange,
5s 2
Y s
s 5s 4

Take L-1,

(3-26)

(3-34)

5s 2
y t L

s 5s 4

From Table A.1,

y t 0.5 0.5e0.8t

(3-37)

PARTIAL FRACTION
EXPANSION
Higher order differential equations

HEAVISIDE
EXPANSION METHOD
Consider

+5
= 2
+ 5 + 4

Factor the denominator


=

+5
+5
=
2 + 5 + 4 ( + 4)( + 1)

Expanded into partial fraction


+5
1
2
=
=
+
( + 4)( + 1) + 4 + 1

Find values 1 and 2 .

HEAVISIDE EXPANSION
METHOD CONTINUE

Multilply both sides of the equation by one of the denominator


term (s+bi) and then set s=-bi. This will cause all terms except
one to be multiplied by zero.

Multiply both sides with (s+4) and set s=-4


+5
1
= 1 =
( + 1) =
3

Then multiply both sides with (s+1) and set s=-1


+5
4
= 2 =
( + 4) =
3
+5
1/3
4/3
=
=
+
( + 4)( + 1) + 4 + 1

Inverse laplace, get y(t)

1 4 4
=
+
3
3

Example A.2:

Chapter 2

3
2

+ 6 2 + 11
+ 6 = 1
3

system at s.s.

To find transient response for u(t) = unit step at t > 0


1. Take Laplace Transform (L.T.)
2. Factor, use partial fraction decomposition
3. Take inverse L.T.

EXERCISE 4: HEAVISIDE
EXPANSION

Chapter 2

OTHER LAPLACE TRANSFORM


PROPERTIES
Final value theorem

lim y t lim sY s
t

s 0

Example 3: step response


1 a
s 1 s
a
sY(s)
s 1

Y(s)

lim
s 0

a
a
s 1

offset (steady state error) is a.

Initial value theorem

lim y(t)= lim sY(s)

Chapter 2

t 0

For Y(s)=

4s+2
s(s+1 )(s+2 )(s+3 )

1
y()=
3

by final value theorem

y( 0 )=0

by initial value theorem

Time Delay
Time delays occur due to fluid flow, time required to do an
analysis (e.g., gas chromatograph). The delayed signal can
be represented as

y t

time delay

L y t esY s

DISADVANTAGE OF
LAPLACE TRANSFORM
Dependent on initial steady state condition
Any changes in initial steady state condition cause the
model need to be rederived.