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CHAPTER 1

Chapter 2

LEARNING OUTCOME

Apply Laplace Transform to solve Ordinary Differential

Equation, ODE equations

Construct transfer function model

st

order system)

Analyze dynamic behavior of more complicated

process

nd

WHY MODELLING?

GENERAL MODELING

PRINCIPLES

The model equations are at best an approximation to the real

process.

Adage: All models are wrong, but some are useful.

Modeling inherently involves a compromise between model

accuracy and complexity on one hand, and the cost and effort

required to develop the model, on the other hand.

differential equations (ODE) and/or partial differential equations

(PDE), plus related algebraic equations.

required to make simplifying assumptions that result in an

appropriate model.

WHY DO WE NEED

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS?

understand dynamics

useful in control analysis (transform differential form into

algebraic form)

solution of D.E.s

example; Laplace of a constant e.g. L{1}

0

st

L{1}0est dt es

1

s

t 0

LAPLACE TRANSFORM OF

SOME BASIC FUNCTIONS

a st

a a

L(a)= ae dt e 0

0

s

s s

0

Constant

Function

-st

Exponential

Function

L(e )= e e dt e

-bt

-bt -st

Derivative

Function

df

L(f ) L

dt

Usually define

-(b+s)t

1

1

( b s)t

-e

dt

0

b+s

s+b

df -st

e dt

0 dt

f(0) = 0

sL(f) f(0)

CONTINUE.

Higher order Derivative Function

Chapter 2

dn f

L n

dt

Trigonometric Function

e -jt e jt

L(cos t) = L

2

1 1

1

2 s j s j

1 s j

s j

2

2

2

2

2 s

s

s

= 2

s 2

=

e j t - e jt

L(sin t) = L

2j

= 2

s 2

LAPLACE TRANSFORM IN

PROCESS CONTROL

Chapter 2

2. Analysis of linear control systems (frequency

response)

3. Prediction of transient response for different inputs

SOLUTION OF ODEs BY

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

1.Take the L of both sides of the ODE.

2.Rearrange the resulting algebraic equation in the s

domain to solve for the L of the output variable, e.g.,

Y(s).

3.Perform a partial fraction expansion.

4.Use the L-1 to find y(t) from the expression for Y(s)

Example A.1

Chapter 2

dy

5 4y 2

y 0 1

dt

First, take L of both sides of (3-26),

2

5 sY s 1 4Y s

s

Rearrange,

5s 2

Y s

s 5s 4

Take L-1,

(3-26)

(3-34)

5s 2

y t L

s 5s 4

y t 0.5 0.5e0.8t

(3-37)

PARTIAL FRACTION

EXPANSION

Higher order differential equations

HEAVISIDE

EXPANSION METHOD

Consider

+5

= 2

+ 5 + 4

=

+5

+5

=

2 + 5 + 4 ( + 4)( + 1)

+5

1

2

=

=

+

( + 4)( + 1) + 4 + 1

HEAVISIDE EXPANSION

METHOD CONTINUE

term (s+bi) and then set s=-bi. This will cause all terms except

one to be multiplied by zero.

+5

1

= 1 =

( + 1) =

3

+5

4

= 2 =

( + 4) =

3

+5

1/3

4/3

=

=

+

( + 4)( + 1) + 4 + 1

1 4 4

=

+

3

3

Example A.2:

Chapter 2

3

2

+ 6 2 + 11

+ 6 = 1

3

system at s.s.

1. Take Laplace Transform (L.T.)

2. Factor, use partial fraction decomposition

3. Take inverse L.T.

EXERCISE 4: HEAVISIDE

EXPANSION

Chapter 2

PROPERTIES

Final value theorem

lim y t lim sY s

t

s 0

1 a

s 1 s

a

sY(s)

s 1

Y(s)

lim

s 0

a

a

s 1

Chapter 2

t 0

For Y(s)=

4s+2

s(s+1 )(s+2 )(s+3 )

1

y()=

3

y( 0 )=0

Time Delay

Time delays occur due to fluid flow, time required to do an

analysis (e.g., gas chromatograph). The delayed signal can

be represented as

y t

time delay

L y t esY s

DISADVANTAGE OF

LAPLACE TRANSFORM

Dependent on initial steady state condition

Any changes in initial steady state condition cause the

model need to be rederived.

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