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ALTERNATING CURRENT

ALTERNATING CURRENT
A current that is constantly changing in amplitude and
direction.

Advantages of AC:
Magnitude can easily be changed (stepped-up or stepped down) with the use of a
transformer
Can be produced either single phase for light loads, two phase for control motors,
three phase for power distribution and large motor loads or six phase for large
scale AC to DC conversion.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
Parameters of Alternating Signal

f = 1
T

= v
f

Period (T) the time of one complete cycle in seconds


Frequency (f) the number of cycles per second (Hertz)
a. 1 cycle/second (cps) = 1 Hertz (Hz)
b. Proper operation of electrical equipmnent requires specific frequency
c. Frequencies lower than 60 Hz would cause flicker when used in lightning
Wavelength () the length of one complete cycle
Propagation Velocity (v) the speed of the signal
Phase () an angilar measurement that specifies the position of a sine wave relative
to reference

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
THE SINUSOIDAL WAVE
Is the most common AC waveform that is practically
generated by generators used in household and industries
General equation for sine wave:

A(t) = Am sin (t + )
Where:
a(t) instantaneous amplitude of voltage or current at a given time (t)
Am maximum voltage or current amplitude of the signal
angular velocity in rad/sec; = 2f
t time (sec)
phase shift ( + or in degrees)

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
Measurements of AC Magnitude
AMPLITUDE
It is the height of an AC waveform as depicted on a graph over time
(peak, peak-to-peak, average, or RMS quantity)
PEAK AMPLITUDE the height of an AC waveform as measured from the
zero mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph. Also
known as the crest amplitude of a wave.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
PEAK-TO-PEAK AMPLITUDE the total height of an AC waveform as
measured from maximum positive to maximum negative peaks on a
graph. Often abbreviated as P-P

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
AVERAGE AMPLITUDE the mathematical mean of all a waveforms points
over the period of one cycle. Technically, the average amplitude of any
waveform with equal-area portions above and below the zero line on a
graph is zero.

For a sine wave, the average value so calculated is approximately 0.637 of its
peak value.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
RMS AMPLITUDE - RMS stands for Root Mean Square, and is a way of
expressing an AC quantity of voltage or current in terms functionally
equivalent to DC. Also known as the equivalent or DC equivalent
value of an AC voltage or current.

For a sine wave, the RMS value is approximately 0.707 of its peak value.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
The crest factor of an AC
waveform is the ratio of
its peak (crest) to its RMS
value.
The form factor of an AC
waveform is the ratio of
its RMS value to its
average value.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
1.. The sixth harmonic of an ac wave whose period is
0.001 second has a frequency of
A. 0.006 Hz.
B. 167 Hz.
C. 7 kHz.
D. 6 kHz.
2. A degree of phase represents:
A. 6.28 cycles.
B. 57.3 cycles.
C. 1/6.28 cycle.
D. 1/360 cycle.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
1.. The sixth harmonic of an ac wave whose period is
0.001 second has a frequency of
A. 0.006 Hz.
B. 167 Hz.
C. 7 kHz.
D. 6 kHz.
2. A degree of phase represents:
A. 6.28 cycles.
B. 57.3 cycles.
C. 1/6.28 cycle.
D. 1/360 cycle.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
3. Two waves have the same frequency but differ in phase by
1/20 cycle. The phase difference in degrees is:
A. 18.
B. 20.
C. 36.
D. 5.73.
4. A signal has a frequency of 1770 Hz. The angular frequency
is:
A. 1770 radians per second.
B. 11,120 radians per second.
C. 282 radians per second.
D. Impossible to determine from the data given.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
3. Two waves have the same frequency but differ in phase by
1/20 cycle. The phase difference in degrees is:
A. 18.
B. 20.
C. 36.
D. 5.73.
4. A signal has a frequency of 1770 Hz. The angular frequency
is:
A. 1770 radians per second.
B. 11,120 radians per second.
C. 282 radians per second.
D. Impossible to determine from the data given.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
5. A triangular wave:
A. Has a fast rise time and a slow decay time.
B. Has a slow rise time and a fast decay time.
C. Has equal rise and decay rates.
D. Rises and falls abruptly.
6. Three-phase ac:
A. Has waves that add up to three times the originals.
B. Has three waves, all of the same magnitude.
C. Is what you get at a common wall outlet.
D. Is of interest only to physicists.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
5. A triangular wave:
A. Has a fast rise time and a slow decay time.
B. Has a slow rise time and a fast decay time.
C. Has equal rise and decay rates.
D. Rises and falls abruptly.
6. Three-phase ac:
A. Has waves that add up to three times the originals.
B. Has three waves, all of the same magnitude.
C. Is what you get at a common wall outlet.
D. Is of interest only to physicists.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
7. In a 117-V utility circuit, the pk-pk voltage is:
A. 82.7 V.
B. 165 V.
C. 234 V.
D. 331 V.
8. In a perfect sine wave, the pk-pk value is:
A. Half the peak value.
B. The same as the peak value.
C. 1.414 times the peak value.
D. Twice the peak value.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
7. In a 117-V utility circuit, the pk-pk voltage is:
A. 82.7 V.
B. 165 V.
C. 234 V.
D. 331 V.
8. In a perfect sine wave, the pk-pk value is:
A. Half the peak value.
B. The same as the peak value.
C. 1.414 times the peak value.
D. Twice the peak value.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
9. If a 45-Vdc battery is connected in series with the 117-V utility mains
what is the the peak voltages will be:
A. 210 V and 120 V.
B. 162 V and 72 V.
C. 396 V and 286 V.
D. Both equal to 117 V.
10. If a 175-V dc source were connected in series with the utility mains
from a standard wall outlet, the result would be:
A. Smooth dc.
B. Smooth ac.
C. Ac with one peak greater than the other.
D . Pulsating dc.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC WAVEFORMS
9. If a 45-Vdc battery is connected in series with the 117-V utility mains
what is the the peak voltages will be:
A. 210 V and 120 V.
B. 162 V and 72 V.
C. 396 V and 286 V.
D. Both equal to 117 V.
10. If a 175-V dc source were connected in series with the utility mains
from a standard wall outlet, the result would be:
A. Smooth dc.
B. Smooth ac.
C. Ac with one peak greater than the other.
D . Pulsating dc.

BASIC AC THEORY

AC QUANTITIES

BASIC AC THEORY

AC QUANTITIES
Inductive Reactance (XL)
The property of the inductor to oppose the alternating current

XL = 2fL

Inductive Susceptance (BL)


Reciprocal of inductive reactance

BL = 1
XL

BL =

1
2fL

Capacitive Reactance (XC)


The property of a capacitor to oppose alternating current

XC =

1
2fC

Capacitive Susceptance (BC)


Reciprocal of capacitive reactance

BL = 1
XC

BL = 2fC

BASIC AC THEORY

AC QUANTITIES
IMPEDANCE (Z)
Total opposition to the flow of Alternating current
Combination of the resistance in a circuit and the reactances
involved

Z = R + jXeq

Z = |Z|

Where: |Z| = R2 + X2
= Arctan Xeq
R

BASIC AC THEORY

AC QUANTITIES
If I = Im is the resulting current drawn by a passive, linear RLC circuit from a
source voltage V = Vm , then

Z = V = Vm = Z
I
Im
Z cos + jZsin = R + jX = R2 + X2 tan-1 X
R
Where: Z = Vm = R2 + X2 = magnitude of the impedance
Im
= = tan-1 X = phase angle of the impedance
R
R = Zcos = active or real component of the impedance
X = Zsin = reactive or quadrature component of impedance

BASIC AC THEORY

AC QUANTITIES
ADMITTANCE (Y)
The reciprocal of impedance
Expressed in siemens or mho (S)
Y = Im = Y = Ycos y + jYsin y = G + jB
Vm
Y = G2 + B2 tan-1 B
G
Where:

Y = Im = G2 + B2 = 1 = magnitude of the admittance


Z
y = = = tan-1 B = phase angle of the admittance
G
G = Ycos y = conductive/conductance component

BASIC AC THEORY

B = Ysin y = susceptive/susceptance component

AC RESISTOR CIRCUIT
Impedance (Z) = R
With an AC circuit like this which is purely resistive, the relationship of the voltage
and current is as shown:

Voltage (e) is in phase with the current (i)


Power is never a negative value. When the current is positive (above the line),
the voltage is also positive, resulting in a power (p=ie) of a positve value
This consistent polarity of a power tell us that the resistor is always
dissipating power, taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of heat
energy. Whether the current is negative or positive, a resistor still dissipated
energy.

AC CIRCUITS

AC INDUCTOR CIRCUIT
Impedance (Z) = jXL

The most distinguishing electrical characteristics of an L circuit is that current lags


voltage by 90 electrical degrees

Because the current and voltage waves arae 90o out of phase, there sre times when one
is positive while the other is negative, resulting in equally frequent occurences of
negative instantaneous power.
Negative power means that the inductor is releasing power back to the circuit, while a
positive power means that it is absorbing power from the circuit.
The inductor releases just as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs over the span
of a complete cycle.

AC CIRCUITS

AC INDUCTOR CIRCUIT
o Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating
current due to its phase-shifted storage and release of energy in its
magnetic field. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter X and is
measured in ohms just like resistance (R).
o Inductive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XL = 2fL
o The angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of expressing its
frequency, in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per
second. It is symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter omega, or .
o Inductive reactance increases with increasing frequency. In other words,
the higher the frequency, the more it opposes the AC flow of electrons.

AC CIRCUITS

AC CAPACITOR CIRCUIT
Impedance (Z) = -jXC

The most distinguishing electrical characteristics of an C circuit is that leads the voltage
by 90 electrical degrees

The current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage across it
A capacitors opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to alternating
voltage in general, which is by definition always changing in instantaneous magnitude
and direction. For any given magnitude of AC voltage at a given frequency, a capacitor
of given size will conduct a certain magnitude of AC current.
The phase angle of a capacitors opposition to current is -90o,meaning that a capacitors
opposition to current is a negative imaginary quantity

AC CIRCUITS

AC CAPACITOR CIRCUIT
o Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating
current due to its phase-shifted storage and release of energy in its electric
field. Reactance is symbolized by the capital letter X and is measured in
ohms just like resistance (R).

o Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula: XC = 1/(2fC)


o Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing frequency. In other words,
the higher the frequency, the less it opposes (the more it conducts) the
AC flow of electrons.

AC CIRCUITS

SERIES RESITOR-INDCUTOR CIRCUIT


For a series resistor-inductor circuit, the voltage and current relation is
determined in its phase shift. Thus, current lags voltage by a phase shift
()

Impedance (Z) = R + jXL


Admittance (Y) =

1 = R jXL
R + jXL R2 + jXL2

AC CIRCUITS

SERIES RESITOR-INDUCTOR CIRCUIT

Phase shift () = Arctan ( XL ) |Z| = R2 + jXL2 = e


R
i
o When resistors and inductors are mixed together in circuits, the total
impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and +90o. The
circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and -90o.
Series AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as series DC
circuits: current is uniform throughout.

AC CIRCUITS

SERIES RESISTOR-CAPACITOR CIRCUIT


For a series resistor capacitor circuit, the voltage and current relation is
determined by the phase shift. Thus the current leads the voltage by an
angle less than 90 degrees but greater than 0 degrees.

Impedance (Z) = R jXC


Admittance (Y) =

1 = R + jXC
R jXC
R2 + jXC2

AC CIRCUITS

SERIES RESISTOR-CAPACITOR CIRCUIT

Phase shift () = Arctan ( XC ) |Z| = R2 + jXC2 = e


R
i

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-INDUCTOR

Y = G jL

where: G conductance = 1/R


L susceptance = 1/XL
Z = E , by Ohms Law
I

The basic approachwith regarda to parallel circuits is using admittance


because it is additive

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-INDUCTOR
o When resistors and inductors are mixed together in parallel circuits (just
like in series cicuits), the total impedance will have a phase angle
somewhere between 0o and +90o. The circuit current will have a phase
angle somewhere between 0o and -90o.
o Parallel AC circuits exhibit the same fundamental properties as parallel DC
circuits: voltage is uniform throughour the circuit, brach currents add to
form the total current, and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal
formula) to form the total impedance.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR

Y = G + jC

where: G conductance = 1/R


C susceptance = 1/XC

o When resistors and capacitors are mixxed together in circuits, the total
impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between 0o and -90o.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
1. A coil and capacitor are connected in series. The inductive reactance is 250
, and the capacitive reactance is 300 . What is the net impedance vector, R
+ jX?
A. 0 + j550
B. 0 - j50.
C. 250 -j300
D. 300 + j250.
2. A coil and capacitor are in parallel, with jBL j0.05 and jBC j0.03. What is
the admittance vector, assuming that nothing is in series or parallel with
these components?
A. 0- j0.02
. B. 0 - j0.07.
C. 0 + j0.02
D. 0.05 + j0.03

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
1. A coil and capacitor are connected in series. The inductive reactance is 250
, and the capacitive reactance is 300 . What is the net impedance vector, R
+ jX?
A. 0 + j550
B. 0 - j50.
C. 250 -j300
D. 300 + j250.
2. A coil and capacitor are in parallel, with jBL j0.05 and jBC j0.03. What is
the admittance vector, assuming that nothing is in series or parallel with
these components?
A. 0- j0.02
. B. 0- j0.07.
C. 0 + j0.02
D. 0.05 + j0.03

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
3. A resistor of 51.0 , an inductor of 22.0 H and a capacitor of 150 pF are in
parallel. The frequency is 1.00 MHz. What is the complex impedance, R +
jX?
A. 51.0 j14.9
B. 51.0 + j14.9.
C. 46.2 j14.9.
D. 46.2 + j14.9
4. A coil of 3.50 H and a capacitor of 47.0 pF are in parallel. The frequency is
9.55 MHz. There is nothing else in series or parallel with these
components. What is the admittance vector?
A. 0 + j0.00282.
B. 0 j0.00194.
C. 0 + j0.00194.
D. 0 j0.00758.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
3. A resistor of 51.0 , an inductor of 22.0 H and a capacitor of 150 pF are in
parallel. The frequency is 1.00 MHz. What is the complex impedance, R +
jX?
A. 51.0 j14.9
B. 51.0 + j14.9.
C. 46.2 j14.9.
D. 46.2 + j14.9
4. A coil of 3.50 H and a capacitor of 47.0 pF are in parallel. The frequency is
9.55 MHz. There is nothing else in series or parallel with these
components. What is the admittance vector?
A. 0 + j0.00282.
B. 0 j0.00194.
C. 0 + j0.00194.
D. 0 j0.00758.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
5. A resistor of 0.0044 siemens, a capacitor whose susceptance is
0.035 siemens, and a coil whose susceptance is 0.011 siemens are
all connected in parallel. The admittance vector is:
A. 0.0044 + j0.024.
B. 0.035 j0.011
C. 0.011 j0.035
D. 0.0044 j0.046.
6. A resistor of 100 , a coil of 4.50 H, and a capacitor of 220 pF are in
parallel. What is the admittance vector at 6.50 MHz?
A. 100 + j0.00354.
B. 0.010 + j0.00354.
C. 100 j0.0144.
D. 0.010 + j0.0144.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
5. A resistor of 0.0044 siemens, a capacitor whose susceptance is
0.035 siemens, and a coil whose susceptance is 0.011 siemens are
all connected in parallel. The admittance vector is:
A. 0.0044 + j0.024.
B. 0.035 j0.011
C. 0.011 j0.035
D. 0.0044 j0.046.
6. A resistor of 100 , a coil of 4.50 H, and a capacitor of 220 pF are in
parallel. What is the admittance vector at 6.50 MHz?
A. 100 + j0.00354.
B. 0.010 + j0.00354.
C. 100 j0.0144.
D. 0.010 + j0.0144.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
7. A resistor of 51.0 , an inductor of 22.0 H and a capacitor of 150 pF
are in parallel. The frequency is 1.00 MHz. What is the complex
impedance, R + jX?
A. 51.0 j14.9
B. 51.0 + j14.9.
C. 46.2 j14.9.
D. 46.2 + j14.9
8. A series circuit has 99.0 of resistance and 88.0 of inductive
reactance. An ac rms voltage of 117 V is applied to this series
network. What is the current?
A. 1.18 A.
B. 1.13 A.
C. 0.886 A.
D. 0.846 A.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
7. A resistor of 51.0 , an inductor of 22.0 H and a capacitor of 150 pF
are in parallel. The frequency is 1.00 MHz. What is the complex
impedance, R + jX?
A. 51.0 j14.9
B. 51.0 + j14.9.
C. 46.2 j14.9.
D. 46.2 + j14.9
8. A series circuit has 99.0 of resistance and 88.0 of inductive
reactance. An ac rms voltage of 117 V is applied to this series
network. What is the current?
A. 1.18 A.
B. 1.13 A.
C. 0.886 A.
D. 0.846 A.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
9. What is the voltage across the reactance in the above example?
A. 78.0 V.
B. 55.1 V.
C. 99.4 V.
D. 74.4 V..
10. A wattmeter shows 57 watts of VA power in a circuit. The
resistance is known to be 50 , and the true power is known to be
40 watts. What is the absolute-value impedance?
A. 50 .
B. 57 .
C. 71 .
D. It cant be calculated from this data.

AC CIRCUITS

PARALLEL RESISTOR-CAPACITOR
9. What is the voltage across the reactance in the above example?
A. 78.0 V.
B. 55.1 V.
C. 99.4 V.
D. 74.4 V..
10. A wattmeter shows 57 watts of VA power in a circuit. The
resistance is known to be 50 , and the true power is known to be
40 watts. What is the absolute-value impedance?
A. 50 .
B. 57 .
C. 71 .
D. It cant be calculated from this data.

AC CIRCUITS

APPARENT POWER (S)


APPARENT POWER
Represents the rate at which the total energy is supplied to the
system
Measured in volt-amperes (VA)
It has two components, the Real Power and the Capacitive or
Inductive Reactive Power

S = Vrms Irms = Irms2 |Z|

POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

APPARENT POWER (S)


Power Triangle

Complex Power

S = P jQ
POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

REAL POWER (R)


REAL POWER

The power consumed by the resistive component


Also called True Power, Useful Power and Productive Power
Measured in Watts (W)
It is equal to the product of the apparent power and the power factor

P = Scos
Power Factor
Cosine of the power factor angle ()
Measure of the power that is dissipated by the cicuit in relation to the
apparent power and is usually given as a decimal or percentage

Pf = cos
POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

REAL POWER (R)


Ratio of the Real Power to the Apparent Power ( P

when:
Pf = 1.0
Pf = lagging
Pf = leading
Pf = 0.0 lag
Pf = 0.0 lead

I is in phase with V; resistive system


I lags V by ; inductive system
I leads V by ; capacitive system
I lags V by 90o; purely inductive
I leads V by 90o; purely capacitive

Power factor Angle ()


The angle between the apparent power and the real poweer in the power triangle
Let

v(t) = Vm cos(t + v) volts


V = Vrms v
i(t) = Im cos(t + i) A
I = Irms i

POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

REAL POWER (R)


Instantaneous Power (watts)

P(t) = v(t) i(t)


P(t) = VmIm cos (v i) + VmIm cos (2t + v + i)
Average Power (watts)

P(t) = VmIm cos (v i) = VmIm cos


Where: = phase shfit between v(t) and i(t) or the phase angle of the
equivalent impedance

POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

REACTIVE POWER (QL or QC)


REACTIVE POWER
Represents the rate at which energy is stored or released in any of the
energy storing elements (the inductor or the capacitor)
Also called the imaginary power, non-productive or wattless power
Measured in volt-ampere reactive (Var)
When the capacitor and inductor are both present, the reactive power
associated with them take opposite signs since they do not store or
release energy at the same time
It is positive for inductive power (QL) and negative for capacitive
power (QC)

Q = VmIm sin

Reactive factor
Ratio of the Reactive Power to the Apparent Power
Sine of the power factor angle ()

Rf = sin

POWER IN AC CIRCUITS

Is a circuit that achieves resonant


varying the sources frequency.

condition by

Is a circuit that
achieves
resonant
condition by
varying
a circuit parameter
(either L or C).

2. The magnitude of the equivalent


impedance (or admittance) is either
for series resonance or

for parallel or antiresonance

at resonance the circuit acts as a low


impedance and frequency selective
network
Resonant Frequency, fr (Hz)
Where: L = inductance ( H )
C = capacitance ( F )

1.
2.

XL

Xc

Circuit impedance (Z) is minimum

| Zo |

3. Current (I) is maximum

Io

fr

Z
4.

is resistive
freq > fr

5. At

,
freq < fr

6. At

is inductive

Z
,

is capacitive

also known as Figure of Merit


it refers to the goodness of a reactive
component
In series circuit: the voltage magnification
factor at the time of resonance

A range of frequencies taken between


two-half power points which
operation is satisfactory.

A word of caution is in order with series LC resonant


circuits: because of the high currents which may be
present in a series LC circuit at resonance, it is possible to
produce dangerously high voltage drops across the capacitor
and the inductor, as each component possesses significant
impedance.

At resonance, the circuit acts as a high


impedance and a frequency selective network
Resonant Frequency

fr (Hz) =
Where: L = inductance ( H )
C = capacitance ( F )

Theoretical Parallel Resonant Circuit

1. Circuit impedance (Z) is


Z

2. Total current (I) is

fr

3.

is resistive

4. At freq > fr
capacitive

freq < fr

5. At

is

is inductive

also known as Figure of Merit


In parallel circuit: the current magnification
factor at the time of resonance.

=
=

I (t)
Vs

C
L

Theoretical Parallel Resonant Circuit

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The description of two sine waves that are in step with each other
going through their maximum and minimum points ate the same
time and in the same direction.
a. Sine waves in phase
b. Stepped sine waves
c. Phased sine waves
d. Sine waves in coordination
2. Term used for the out of phase, non-productive power associated
with inductors and capacitors.
a. Effective power
b. True power
c. Reactive power
d. Peak envelope power

REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The description of two sine waves that are in step with each other
going through their maximum and minimum points ate the same
time and in the same direction.
a. Sine waves in phase
b. Stepped sine waves
c. Phased sine waves
d. Sine waves in coordination
2. Term used for the out of phase, non-productive power associated
with inductors and capacitors.
a. Effective power
b. True power
c. Reactive power
d. Peak envelope power

REVIEW QUESTIONS
3. Refers to a reactive power.
a. Wattles, non productive power
b. Power consumed in circuit Q
c. Power loss because of capacitor leakage
d. Power consumed in wire resistance in an inductor
4. A 240 V, 25 Hz sinosoidal generator is connected to a 20 ohms
resistor. Determine the instantaneous current when elapsed time is
0.01 second.
a. 15043A
b. 16.30 A
c. 16.97 A
d. 12.00 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
3. Refers to a reactive power.
a. Wattles, non productive power
b. Power consumed in circuit Q
c. Power loss because of capacitor leakage
d. Power consumed in wire resistance in an inductor
4. A 240 V, 25 Hz sinosoidal generator is connected to a 20 ohms
resistor. Determine the instantaneous current when elapsed time is
0.01 second.
a. 15043A
b. 16.30 A
c. 16.97 A
d. 12.00 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
5. The product of current and voltage in an AC circuit refers to the
a. Real power
b. Useful power
c. Apparent power
d. DC power
6. The distance covered or traveled by a waveform during the time
interval of one complete cycle.
a. Frequency
b. Wavelength
c. Time slot
d. Wave time

REVIEW QUESTIONS
5. The product of current and voltage in an AC circuit refers to the
a. Real power
b. Useful power
c. Apparent power
d. DC power
6. The distance covered or traveled by a waveform during the time
interval of one complete cycle.
a. Frequency
b. Wavelength
c. Time slot
d. Wave time

REVIEW QUESTIONS
7. The power dissipated accross the resistance in an AC circuit.
a. Real power
b. Reactive power
c. Apparent power
d. True power
8. It is the number of complete cycles of alternating voltage or
current complete each second
a. Period
b. Frequency
c. Amplitude
d. Phase

REVIEW QUESTIONS
7. The power dissipated accross the resistance in an AC circuit.
a. Real power
b. Reactive power
c. Apparent power
d. True power
8. It is the number of complete cycles of alternating voltage or
current complete each second
a. Period
b. Frequency
c. Amplitude
d. Phase

REVIEW QUESTIONS
9. How many degrees are there in one complete cycle?
a. 720 deg
b. 360 deg
c. 180 deg
d. 90 deg
10. The impedance in the study of electronics is represented
by resistance and ___ .
a. Reactance
b. Inductance and capacitance
c. Inductance
d. capacitance

REVIEW QUESTIONS
9. How many degrees are there in one complete cycle?
a. 720 deg
b. 360 deg
c. 180 deg
d. 90 deg
10. The impedance in the study of electronics is represented
by resistance and ___ .
a. Reactance
b. Inductance and capacitance
c. Inductance
d. capacitance

REVIEW QUESTIONS
11. A series-resonant circuit is to be made for 14.1 MHz. A coil
of 13.5 H is available. What size capacitor is needed?
a.
b.
c.
d.

0.945 F.
9.45 pF.
94.5 pF.
945 pF.

12. It is a rotaing sector that represent either current or


voltage in an AC circuit.
a. Resistance
b. Phasor
c. polar diagram
d. velocity

REVIEW QUESTIONS
11. A series-resonant circuit is to be made for 14.1 MHz. A coil
of 13.5 H is available. What size capacitor is needed?
a.
b.
c.
d.

0.945 F.
9.45 pF.
94.5 pF.
945 pF.

12. It is a rotaing sector that represent either current or


voltage in an AC circuit.
a. Resistance
b. Phasor
c. polar diagram
d. velocity

REVIEW QUESTIONS
13. The relationship of the voltage accros an inductor to its current is
described as
a. Leading the current by 90 deg
b. Lagging the current by 90 deg
c. Leading the current by 180 deg
d. In phase with the current
14. Find the phase angle between the voltage across through the cicuit
when Xc is 25ohms, R is 100 ohms and XL is 50 ohms.
a. 76 deg with the voltage leading the current
b. 24 deg with the voltage lagging the current
c. 14 deg with the voltage leading the current
d. 76 deg with the voltage lagging the current

REVIEW QUESTIONS
13. The relationship of the voltage accros an inductor to its current is
described as
a. Leading the current by 90 deg
b. Lagging the current by 90 deg
c. Leading the current by 180 deg
d. In phase with the current
14. Find the phase angle between the voltage across through the cicuit
when Xc is 25ohms, R is 100 ohms and XL is 50 ohms.
a. 76 deg with the voltage leading the current
b. 24 deg with the voltage lagging the current
c. 14 deg with the voltage leading the current
d. 76 deg with the voltage lagging the current

REVIEW QUESTIONS
15. Calculate the period of an alternating current having a equation of
I=20sin 120t
a. 4.167 ms
b. 8.33 ms
c. 16.67 ms
d. 33.33 ms
16. What do you mean by root-mean-square (rms) value?
a. It is the average value
b. It is the effective value
c. It is the value that causes the same heating effect as the DC
voltage
d. b or c

REVIEW QUESTIONS
15. Calculate the period of an alternating current having a equation of
I=20sin 120t
a. 4.167 ms
b. 8.33 ms
c. 16.67 ms
d. 33.33 ms
16. What do you mean by root-mean-square (rms) value?
a. It is the average value
b. It is the effective value
c. It is the value that causes the same heating effect as the DC
voltage
d. b or c

REVIEW QUESTIONS
17. Capacitive susceptance is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Positive and real valued.


Negative and real valued.
Positive and imaginary.
Negative and imaginary.

18. If an AC signal has a peak voltage of 55V, what is the


average value?
a. 35 V
b. 61.05V
c. 86.34 V
d. 38.89 V

REVIEW QUESTIONS
17. Capacitive susceptance is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Positive and real valued.


Negative and real valued.
Positive and imaginary.
Negative and imaginary.

18. If an AC signal has a peak voltage of 55V, what is the


average value?
a. 35 V
b. 61.05V
c. 86.34 V
d. 38.89 V

REVIEW QUESTIONS
19. If an AC signal has an average voltage of 18V, what is the rms
voltage?
a. 12.726 V
b. 19.980 V
c. 25.380 V
d. 16.213 V
20. A 220-V, 60Hz is driving a series RL circuit. Determine the current if
R=100 ohms and 20 mH inductance
a. 2.2 A (lagging)
b. 2.0 A (lagging)
c. 2.2 A (leading)
d. 2.0 A (leading)

REVIEW QUESTIONS
19. If an AC signal has an average voltage of 18V, what is the rms
voltage?
a. 12.726 V
b. 19.980 V
c. 25.380 V
d. 16.213 V
20. A 220-V, 60Hz is driving a series RL circuit. Determine the current if
R=100 ohms and 20 mH inductance
a. 2.2 A (lagging)
b. 2.0 A (lagging)
c. 2.2 A (leading)
d. 2.0 A (leading)

REVIEW QUESTIONS
21. Ignoring any inductive effects, what is the impedance of RC series
capacitor made up of a 56K ohm resistor and a 0.33uF capacitor at a
signal frequency of 4650 Hz.
a. 66730 ohms
b. 56000 ohms
c. 45270 ohms
d. 10730 ohms
22. Absolute-value impedance is equal to the square root of:
A. G2 +B2
B. R2 +X2.
C. Zo
D. Y

REVIEW QUESTIONS
21. Ignoring any inductive effects, what is the impedance of RC series
capacitor made up of a 56K ohm resistor and a 0.33uF capacitor at a
signal frequency of 4650 Hz.
a. 66730 ohms
b. 56000 ohms
c. 45270 ohms
d. 10730 ohms
22. Absolute-value impedance is equal to the square root of:
A. G2 +B2
B. R2 +X2.
C. Zo
D. Y

REVIEW QUESTIONS
23. What is the realtionship between frequency and the value of XC ?
a. Frequency has no effect
b. XC varies inversely with frequency
c. XC varies indirectly with frequency
d. XC varies directly with frequency
24. The reactance of a 25mH coil at 5000Hz which of the following?
a. 785 ohms
b. 785000 ohms
c. 13 ohms
d. 0.0012 ohms

REVIEW QUESTIONS
23. What is the realtionship between frequency and the value of XC ?
a. Frequency has no effect
b. XC varies inversely with frequency
c. XC varies indirectly with frequency
d. XC varies directly with frequency
24. The reactance of a 25mH coil at 5000Hz which of the following?
a. 785 ohms
b. 785000 ohms
c. 13 ohms
d. 0.0012 ohms

REVIEW QUESTIONS
25. There are no transients in pure resistive circuites because they
a. Offer high resistance
b. Obey ohms Law
c. Are linear circuits
d. Have no stored energy
26. The reciprocal of capacitance is called
b. Conductance
a. Elastance
c. Permitivity
d. permeability

REVIEW QUESTIONS
25. There are no transients in pure resistive circuites because they
a. Offer high resistance
b. Obey ohms Law
c. Are linear circuits
d. Have no stored energy
26. The reciprocal of capacitance is called
b. Conductance
a. Elastance
c. Permitivity
d. permeability

REVIEW QUESTIONS
27. The AC system is prefered over DC system because
a. Ac voltages can easily changed in amgnitude
b. Dc motors do not have fine speed control
c. High voltage AC transmission is less efficient
d. DC voltage cannot be used for domestic aplliences
28. An altenating voltage is given by v = 20 sin 157 t. The
frequency of the alternating voltage is
a. 50 Hz
b. 25 HZ
c. 100 Hz
d. 75 Hz

REVIEW QUESTIONS
27. The AC system is prefered over DC system because
a. Ac voltages can easily changed in amgnitude
b. Dc motors do not have fine speed control
c. High voltage AC transmission is less efficient
d. DC voltage cannot be used for domestic aplliences
28. An altenating voltage is given by v = 20 sin 157 t. The
frequency of the alternating voltage is
a. 50 Hz
b. 25 HZ
c. 100 Hz
d. 75 Hz

REVIEW QUESTIONS
29. An alternating current given by i = 10 sin 314 t. The time taken to generate
two cycles of current is
a. 20 ms
b. 10 ms
c. 40 ms
d. 50 ms
30. In a pure resistive circuit, the instantaneous voltage and are current are
given by:
v=250 sin 314t
i=10sin314t
The peak power in the circuit is
a.1250 W
b. 25 W
c. 2500 W
d. 250 w

REVIEW QUESTIONS
29. An alternating current given by i = 10 sin 314 t. The time taken to generate
two cycles of current is
a. 20 ms
b. 10 ms
c. 40 ms
d. 50 ms
30. In a pure resistive circuit, the instantaneous voltage and are current are
given by:
v=250 sin 314t
i=10sin314t
The peak power in the circuit is
a.1250 W
b. 25 W
c. 2500 W
d. 250 w

REVIEW QUESTIONS
31. An average value of 6.63 A is _____ the effective value of 7.07 A.
a. The same area
b. Less than
c. Greater than
d. Any of these
32. A current of 10 A and a pf of 0.8 lagging is taken from a single
phase 250 V supply. The reactive power of the system is___.
a. 1500
b. 2000
c. 250
d. not

REVIEW QUESTIONS
31. An average value of 6.63 A is _____ the effective value of 7.07 A.
a. The same area
b. Less than
c. Greater than
d. Any of these
32. A current of 10 A and a pf of 0.8 lagging is taken from a single
phase 250 V supply. The reactive power of the system is___.
a. 1500
b. 2000
c. 250
d. not

REVIEW QUESTIONS
33.An R-L series ac circuit has 15V across the resistor and 20V across
the inductor. The supply volatge is
a. 35 V
b. 5 V
c. 25 V
d. 175 V
34. The active and reactive powers of an inductive circuit are equal.
The power factor of the circuit is
a. 0.8 lagging
b. 0.707 lagging
c. 0.6 lagging
d. 0.5 lagging

REVIEW QUESTIONS
33.An R-L series ac circuit has 15V across the resistor and 20V across
the inductor. The supply volatge is
a. 35 V
b. 5 V
c. 25 V
d. 175 V
34. The active and reactive powers of an inductive circuit are equal.
The power factor of the circuit is
a. 0.8 lagging
b. 0.707 lagging
c. 0.6 lagging
d. 0.5 lagging

REVIEW QUESTIONS
35. Determine the power angle in the series circuit which consists of
R=25 ohms, L=0.2 H across a power supply of 200V, 30Hz.
a. 36.4 degrees
b. 52.4 degrees
c. 46.4 degrees
d. 56.4 degrees
36. An AC circuit has a resistance of 6 ohms, inductive reactance of 20
ohms, and capacitive reactance of 12 ohms. The circuit power
factor will be
a. 0.8 lagging
b. 0.8 leading
c. 0.6 lagging
d. 0.6 leading

REVIEW QUESTIONS
35. Determine the power angle in the series circuit which consists of
R=25 ohms, L=0.2 H across a power supply of 200V, 30Hz.
a. 36.4 degrees
b. 52.4 degrees
c. 46.4 degrees
d. 56.4 degrees
36. An AC circuit has a resistance of 6 ohms, inductive reactance of 20
ohms, and capacitive reactance of 12 ohms. The circuit power
factor will be
a. 0.8 lagging
b. 0.8 leading
c. 0.6 lagging
d. 0.6 leading

REVIEW QUESTIONS
37. A 25 ohm resistor connected in series with a coil of 50 ohm
resistance and 150mH inductance when frequency is 60Hz. What is
tha pf of the circuit?
a. 85%
b. 80%
c. 90%
d. 75%
38. A current wave is represented by the equation i = 10 sin 251t. The
average and RMS value of current are
a. 7.07 A; 6.63A
b. 6.36A; 7.07A
c. 10A; 7.07A
d. 6.36A; 10A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
37. A 25 ohm resistor connected in series with a coil of 50 ohm
resistance and 150mH inductance when frequency is 60Hz. What is
tha pf of the circuit?
a. 85%
b. 80%
c. 90%
d. 75%
38. A current wave is represented by the equation i = 10 sin 251t. The
average and RMS value of current are
a. 7.07 A; 6.63A
b. 6.36A; 7.07A
c. 10A; 7.07A
d. 6.36A; 10A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
39. Calculate the susceptance in mho of a circuit consisting of resistor of 10
ohms in series with a conductor of 0.1H, when the frequency is 50Hz.
a. 0.0303
b. 0.0092
c. -0.029
d. 32.95
40. An inductive circuit of resistance 16.5 ohms and inductive of 0.14H takes a
current of 25 A. If the frequency is 50Hz, the supply voltage is
a. 117.4 V
b. 1174 V
c. 1714 V
d. 1471 V

REVIEW QUESTIONS
39. Calculate the susceptance in mho of a circuit consisting of resistor of 10
ohms in series with a conductor of 0.1H, when the frequency is 50Hz.
a. 0.0303
b. 0.0092
c. -0.029
d. 32.95
40. An inductive circuit of resistance 16.5 ohms and inductive of 0.14H takes a
current of 25 A. If the frequency is 50Hz, the supply voltage is
a. 117.4 V
b. 1174 V
c. 1714 V
d. 1471 V

REVIEW QUESTIONS
41. The current taken by a circuit is 1.2 A when the applied potential
difference is 250 V and the power taken is 135W. The power factor
is
a. 0.35
b. 0.45
c. 0.55
d. 0.65
42. A capacitor has a capacitance of 20uF. The current supplied if it is
placed across a 1100 V, 25 Hz supply.
a. 3.554 A
b. 6.91 A
c. 3.45 A
d. 9.61 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
41. The current taken by a circuit is 1.2 A when the applied potential
difference is 250 V and the power taken is 135W. The power factor
is
a. 0.35
b. 0.45
c. 0.55
d. 0.65
42. A capacitor has a capacitance of 20uF. The current supplied if it is
placed across a 1100 V, 25 Hz supply.
a. 3.554 A
b. 6.91 A
c. 3.45 A
d. 9.61 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
43. The form factor of half wave rectified signal is equal to ___
a. 1.11
b. 0.786
c. 2.22
d. 1.57
44. An impedance draws a current I=10 cos(wt-30) from the
voltage V=220sin(wt+30). What is the impedance?
a. 15.6 - j15.6
b. 15.6 +j 15.6
c. 19.1- j 11.1
d. 11.0 + j19.1

REVIEW QUESTIONS
43. The form factor of half wave rectified signal is equal to ___
a. 1.11
b. 0.786
c. 2.22
d. 1.57
44. An impedance draws a current I=10 cos(wt-30) from the
voltage V=220sin(wt+30). What is the impedance?
a. 15.6 - j15.6
b. 15.6 +j 15.6
c. 19.1- j 11.1
d. 11.0 + j19.1

REVIEW QUESTIONS
45. The input of an a.c circuit having pf=0.8 lagging is 20KVA. The
power drawn by the circuit is _____Kw.
a. 12
b. 20
c. 16
d. 8
46. A capacitor connected to a 115 V, 25 Hz supply takes 5 A. What
current will it take when the capacitance and frequency are
doubled?
a. 2 A
b. 5 S
c. 10 A
d. 20 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
45. The input of an a.c circuit having pf=0.8 lagging is 20KVA. The
power drawn by the circuit is _____Kw.
a. 12
b. 20
c. 16
d. 8
46. A capacitor connected to a 115 V, 25 Hz supply takes 5 A. What
current will it take when the capacitance and frequency are
doubled?
a. 2 A
b. 5 A
c. 10 A
d. 20 A

REVIEW QUESTIONS
47. At what frequency will an inductor of 5mH have the same
reactance as a capacitor of 0.1F?
a. 7.12 kHz
b. 7.12 Hz
c. 7.12 MHz
d. 7.12 Ghz
48. What capacitance must be placed in series with an inductance of
0.05H, so that when the frequency is 100 Hz, the impedance
becomes equal to the ohmic resitance?
a. 70.5 uF
b. 50.7 uF
c. 5.7 uF
d. 7.05 uF

REVIEW QUESTIONS
47. At what frequency will an inductor of 5mH have the same
reactance as a capacitor of 0.1F?
a. 7.12 kHz
b. 7.12 Hz
c. 7.12 MHz
d. 7.12 Ghz
48. What capacitance must be placed in series with an inductance of
0.05H, so that when the frequency is 100 Hz, the impedance
becomes equal to the ohmic resitance?
a. 70.5 uF
b. 50.7 uF
c. 5.7 uF
d. 7.05 uF

REVIEW QUESTIONS
49. A 220 v, 60 Hz source is driving a series RL circuit. Determine the
current in the circuit if R=100 ohm XL= 100 ohm.
a. 1.10 lagging
b. 1.55 lagging
c. 2.20 lagging
d. 4.40 lagging
50. What is the resonant frequency of a circuit when an inductance of
1uH and capacitance of 10 picofarad are in series?
a. 15.9 MHz
b. 50.3 MHz
c. 15.9 kHz
d. 50.3 KHz

REVIEW QUESTIONS
49. A 220 v, 60 Hz source is driving a series RL circuit. Determine the
current in the circuit if R=100 ohm XL= 100 ohm.
a. 1.10 lagging
b. 1.55 lagging
c. 2.20 lagging
d. 4.40 lagging
50. What is the resonant frequency of a circuit when an inductance of
1uH and capacitance of 10 picofarad are in series?
a. 15.9 MHz
b. 50.3 MHz
c. 15.9 kHz
d. 50.3 KHz

REVIEW QUESTIONS
51. The _____ the Q of a circuit, the narrower the bandwidth.
a. Lower
b. Higher
c. Broader
d. Selective
52. Find the half power bandwidth of a parallel resonant circuit which
has a resonant frequency of 3.6MHz and Q of 218.
a. 606 kHz
b. 58.7 kHz
c. 16.5 kHz
d. 47.3 kHz

REVIEW QUESTIONS
51. The _____ the Q of a circuit, the narrower the bandwidth.
a. Lower
b. Higher
c. Broader
d. Selective
52. Find the half power bandwidth of a parallel resonant circuit which
has a resonant frequency of 3.6MHz and Q of 218.
a. 606 kHz
b. 58.7 kHz
c. 16.5 kHz
d. 47.3 kHz

THANk YOU