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THESIS

IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY


THROUGH AUDIO-VISUALIZED NARRATIVE TEXT
(A Classroom Action Research in the Eight Grade Students of SMP Negeri 1
Tempuran, 2009/ 2010)

By:
INDAH PANUNTUN UTAMI
K2206004
This thesis is submitted to fulfill the requirement for Undergraduate Degree in
English Department Teacher Training and Education Faculty

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY
SURAKARTA
2011
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ABSTRACT
Indah
Panuntun
Utami.
K2206004.
IMPROVING
STUDENTS
VOCABULARY
MASTERY
THROUGH
AUDIO-VISUALIZED
NARRATIVE TEXT (A Classroom Action Research at Eight Grade of
SMPN 1 Tempuran in the 2009/2010 Academic Year). Thesis, Surakarta:
Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University, January
2011.
The purposes of this research were to find out 1) whether audiovisualized narrative text can improve students vocabulary mastery, 2) what
happens in the classroom when audio-visualized narrative text is implemented,
and 3) how audio-visualized narative text can improve students vocabulary
mastery at the eighth grade of SMPN Tempuran 1.
This classroom action research was conducted in two cycles. The first
cycle consisted of three meetings and in the second cycle there were two
meetings. Every cycle consisted of five steps: 1) identifying problems and
planning the action, 2) implementing the action, 3) observing the action, and 4)
reflecting the result of the action. The researcher collected the data by using
observation, interview, document analysis, and photographs. To analyze the
qualitative data, the researcher used Burns theory. It follows the steps of
assembling the data, coding the data, comparing the data, building interpretations
and reporting the outcomes. To find out the improvement of the students
vocabulary mastery the researcher conducted some tests. The tests were conducted
before the action (pre-test) and after the action (post-test). The mean score of each
test was quantitatively analyzed to find out the improvement of students
vocabulary mastery after the research action. The results of observation,
interview, document analysis, and photographs were analyzed as qualitative data
to find out what happen when audio-visualized narrative text is implemented in
the classroom and discribing the steps in using audio-visualized narrative text to
improve students vocabulary.
Result shows that: 1) Students test score improved: from 5.8 (3.06 in
spelling, 35.69 in meaning, and 2.75 in pronunciation) to 7.3 (4.25 in spelling,
40.36 in meaning, and 6.17 in pronunciation) in Cycle I and from 5.9 (3.78 in
spelling, 33.44 in meaning, and 3.83 in pronunciation ) to 7.1 (4.08 in spelling,
37.58 in meaning, and 8.25 in pronunciation) in Cycle II; 2) When Audiovisualized Narrative Text was applied in the class, students got more active and
enthusiastic in learning, and 3) Audio-visualized Narrative Text helped students
better understand vocabulary through its picturing each word visibly.
To conclude, audio-visualized narrative text: 1) can improve the
students vocabulary mastery, 2) make classroom situation more interactive, and
3) help students learn vocabulary better and more enjoyably.
The result of the research implies that English teachers need to choose
appropriate media in teaching vocabulary. One of the appropriate media to teach
vocabulary is audio-visualized narrative text. Audio-visualized narrative text
make an easier way to the teacher to get better understanding of her students
through its picturing each word commit
visibly. to
Inuser
using this media, the teacher should

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know how to segment the audivisualized narrative text, so that vocabulary can be
taught effectively . On the other hand, the students should pay full attention in the
teaching learning process.

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APPROVAL

This thesis has been approved to be examined by the board of the Thesis
Examiners of the Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret
University as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Undergraduate
Degree of Education in English.

On

By

Consultant I

Consultant II

Drs. Martono, M.A


NIP. 19600301 198803 1 004

Endang Setyaningsih, S.Pd. M.Hum


NIP. 19800513 200312 2 2002
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APPROVAL OF THE EXAMINERS

This thesis has been examined by the board of the Thesis Examiners of the
Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta
and has been accepted to be one of the Requirements for the Completion of
Undergraduate Degree of Education in English on 2011

Board of Examiners:
1. Chairman

: Drs. Suparno, M.Pd


NIP.19511127 198601 1 01

2. Secretary

: Dewi Sri Wahyuni, S. Pd, M.Pd


NIP. 19780818 200312 2 002

3. Examiner 1

: Drs. Martono, M.A


NIP. 19600301 198803 1 004

4. Examiner 2

: Endang Setyaningsih, S.Pd, M.Hum


NIP. 19800513 200312 2 002

Teacher Training and Education Faculty


Sebelas Maret University
The Dean,

Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd


NIP. 19600727 198702 1 001
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MOTTO

Sesungguhnya sesudah kesulitan ada kemudahan.


(QS. Al- insyirah: 6)

Bersyukur atas semua nikmat Allah.


Lihat ke atas perlu, namun janganlah lupa memandang ke bawah
(Ibu)

Takkan gentar oleh cerca dan takkan goyah oleh puja.


(Bapak)

Ukuran sukses sejati terletak pada kemampuan anda merasakan pikiran bahagia
(Erbe Sentanu)

Impossible = Im possible
(Unknown)

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DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to:
1. My beloved Mom and Dad, you are my passion. Thanks for your
unconditional love.
2. My big family, thanks for the love and prayers. Especially for (Alm) Hj.
Siti Zaenah, my Grandma who passed away last year.
3. All of my best friends in English Department 06
Especially for Nanik, Tiwi, Mila, Shanti as editor of her thesis and also
Risty, Nunun, Novi, Titik, Ana, Laras, Ika, Vina, Rela, Rois, Sari, Surya,
Zee, Yuniar, Ani, Wiwid, Wastuti, Upik, Dewi, Dini, Fatimah, Lusi,
Riana, Kristin, Anggi, Indra, Hasan, Aris, Dedi, Eko, Setyo, Nico, Agung
for their motivation in finishing her thesis.
4. All of my best friends in B-One (Ovi, Winda, Jujuk, Nunun, Teh Arin,
Irma, Teh Nita, Acid, Mbak Ita, Mbak Ima, Restu, Sinta, Rida, Atik, Mbak
Kiki, Mbak Fanni Mona, Mbak Kwok, Prita, Agni, Nofi, Yusmi, Syita,
Mbak Tika, Nyit2, Nurul, Wida, Lilin, Evi). Thanks for understanding me.
5. My best friends ever: Rahman Karim, Tombak Mahesa Baghaskara,
Yunita Andriyani, Azhoma Nazirin and (Alm) Erdiana Mutiaraningtyas
who passed away at 15th March 2007.
6. All of my friends in BEM UNS, Pendekar Tidar, Spenasal 03, GHS 06,
IKAMMAS. Thanks for every beautiful moments.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Praise to Allah, the Almighty who has given His blessing so that the writer
can finally finish this thesis as a partial fulfillment in achieving the Undergraduate
Degree of English Education.
The writer realizes that this thesis could not be achieved without the help
and assistance from others. Therefore, in this occasion the writer would give her
appreciation to the individuals and institutions who have given their help during
the process of writing so that this thesis is finally finished. She would like to
express her deepest gratitude to the following:
1. Prof. Dr. M. Furqon Hidayatullah, M.Pd, the Dean of Teacher Training
and Education Faculty.
2. Drs. Suparno, M.Pd, the Head of the Art and Language Education
Department.
3. Drs. Martono, M.A, both as the Head of the English Department of
Teacher Training and Education Faculty and as the writers first
consultant for his patient, guidance and advice.
4. Endang Setyaningsih, S.Pd, M.Hum, the writers second consultant for
her patient, guidance and advice.
5. Umi Hidayati, S.Pd, M.Pd, the Headmaster and as the English teacher
of Eighth Grade SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran Magelang Teacher for
helping me during the research.
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6. All of the students in VIIF of SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran Magelang for


participating well in this research.
7. My beloved Mom and Dad for their priceless love, prayers and spirits.
8. My beloved friends in the English Dept06. Thanks for everything.
This last four years would never be forgotten.
9. My best friend in kos Barokah 1. Its been my pleasure to be with you
all during the last four years.
10. My beloved friends who accompany in every steps of her life.
11. Last, thank you very much for everyone who had been the part of my
life.

Surakarta, Mei 2011

iput

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE................................................................................................................... i
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ ii
APPROVAL ....................................................................................................... iv
APPROVAL OF THE EXAMINERS .................................................................. v
MOTTO.............................................................................................................. vi
DEDICATION................................................................................................... vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................ viii
TABLE OF CONTENT ....................................................................................... x
LIST OF APPENDICES ................................................................................... xiii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... 1
A. Background of the Study ............................................................................. 1
B. Problem Limitation ...................................................................................... 4
D. Problems Statement ..................................................................................... 4
E. Objective of the Study ................................................................................. 4
F. Benefits of the Study .................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW ............................................................ 6
A. The Description of Vocabulary .................................................................... 6
1. The Definition of Vocabulary Mastery .................................................... 6
2. Teaching Vocabulary .............................................................................. 7
B. The Nature of Audio-visualized Narrataive Text ....................................... 10
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1. Review on Audio-visual Aids
...............................................................
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a. Definition of Audio-visual Aids ....................................................... 10


b. The Importance of Audio-visual Aids in Language Teaching ........... 11
c. Technique of Audio-visual Aids Application .................................... 12
d. The Kinds of Audio-visual Aids ....................................................... 13
2. Review on Narrative Text ..................................................................... 16
a. Definition of Text ............................................................................. 16
b. Definition of Narrative Text ............................................................. 17
3. Review on Audio-visualized Narrative Tet ............................................ 19
C. Rationale ................................................................................................... 20
D. Hypothesis ................................................................................................ 21
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................ 22
A. Research Setting ........................................................................................ 22
B. Research Subject ....................................................................................... 23
C. Research Method ....................................................................................... 23
D. Model of the Research ............................................................................... 24
E. Procedures of the Research ........................................................................ 25
F. Technique of Collecting Data ..................................................................... 26
G. Technique of Analyzing Data .................................................................... 28
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION ............................. 31
A. Introduction .............................................................................................. 31
B. The Implementation of Audio-Visualized Storytelling .............................. 32
C . Discussion ................................................................................................ 48
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION ............. 50
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A. Conclusion ................................................................................................ 50
B. Implication ................................................................................................ 50
C. Suggestion ................................................................................................. 51
BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................. 52
APPENDICES ................................................................................................... 55

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LIST OF APPENDICESS

1. Research Schedule

55

2. Pre Research Observation

56

3. Researchers Field Notes..............

62

4. Transcript of Interview

71

5. Lesson Plans .

78

6. List of Students Names .

87

7. List of Students Score

88

8. Observers Field Notes......................................................................

92

9. Vocabulary Test Scoring Rubric......................................................

97

10. Photographs......................................................................................

98

11. Pre-test and Post-test Question.........................................................

99

12. Students Worksheet

114

13. Legalization..

132

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study
English plays a very important role in the global communication. As
quoted in Undang-Undang SISDIKNAS, bahasa asing terutama bahasa Inggris
merupakan bahasa internasional yang sangat penting kegunaannya dalam
pergaulan global (2003: 85). However, English is a foreign language in
Indonesia, so not every Indonesian uses English well. Nevertheless, English can
be learned by every one who wants to acquire it. In fact, it becomes the major
subject to be learned and taught in both formal and informal school institution.
English is taught early from primary schools until high school and even
college. It is taught as muatan lokal (local content subject) when the students are
at elementary schools. But, it becomes a compulsory subject for Junior High
School (Sekolah Menengah Pertama) and Senior High School (Sekolah
Menengah Atas) students.
Learning English involves four basic skills. Those are reading, speaking,
listening and writing. One of the elements in the language that cannot be separated
from teaching linguistic skills is English vocabulary. It is difficult to master
foreign language without understanding the vocabulary. Horwitz (in Schmitt,
Norbert and Michael McCharthy 1997: 201) says that the most important part of
learning a foreign language is learning vocabulary. In learning English, the
beginners need to know vocabulary first and understand the meaning of the
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words. Teaching vocabulary as second

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teaching other language elements. Cross (1995: 5) stated that a good store of
words is crucial for understanding and communication. One cannot have
conversation with someone else if he or she does not master the vocabulary
needed.
Teaching vocabulary for beginner is not easy. There are many problems
that will be faced by the teacher when he/she introduces English to her students.
As stated in www.ezinearticles.com there are three critical problems in English
language teaching and learning: lack of learner motivation; insufficient time,
resources and material; and over crowded English classes. When the writer did
pre-observation, she found some problems in the English teaching learning
process in SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran, Magelang, Central Java. The teacher used
the same activities in every meeting: explaining the lesson, requesting the students
to do some excercises and then asking them to check the answers in the next
meeting. There were no other media, such as visual or audiovisual aids to make
students enjoy studying in the process of teaching and learning. The only source
the teacher used was a textbook. As a result, the students felt bored and only got a
few vocabularies.
While making an interview with the teacher, the writer knew that
majority of the students had some difficulties in grasping the synonym of words.
The students looked reluctant to join English class. In the drilling techique process
for example, not all of the students followed the teachers instruction. The
students seemed to be afraid of making mistake.
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To overcome those problems, the teacher must create interesting and


enjoyable teaching learning activities, especially for young learners. There are
many methods that are appropriate to teach English. One of the methods is audiovisualized narrative text. Audiovisual aids can help the students imagine the real
things. It can relate both teachers idea and students idea. By watching the movie
the students can see the real things.
Besides, the students will be entertained with attractive narrative and they
will feel comfortable with the atmosphere in process of teaching and learning.
Audiovisual aids used in narrative text have the potential material to overcome the
problem in SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran. Therefore, the problems of vocabulary can
be solved.
Based on the description above, the reseacher was interested to improve
students vocabulary mastery through audio-visualized narrative text. By
watching and listening the material within audio-visual aids, the students learn to
grasp by seeing and listening.
That is why the researcher conducted this research under the title:
IMPROVING STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY THROUGH AUDIOVISUALIZED NARRATIVE TEXT (A Classroom Action Research of the Eighth
Grade Students of SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran, 2009/ 2010).
B. Problem Limitation
The writer limited the scope of the research only in the techiques to help
the students memorizing certain vocabularies dealing with the themes used in
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teaching English to Eighth Grade Junior High School. The themes are Experience
in the Farm and Experience in the Kitchen.
C. Problem Statements
The problem of the study had been formulated into the following
questions:
1.

Can audio-visualized narrative text improve students vocabulary mastery?

2.

What happens when audio-visualized narrative text is implemented in the


classroom?

3.

How does audio-visualized narrative text improve students vocabulary?


D. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were:

1.

To find out whether audio-visualized narrative text can improve students


vocabulary mastery.

2.

To find out what happens when audio-visualized narrative text is


implemented in the classroom.

3.

To describe the steps in using audio-visualized narrative text to improve


students vocabulary.
E. The Benefits of the Study
There are some benefits expected from this study, both for the teacher

and the students.


1. For the Teacher
It is expected that the result of the study can give the following
benefits for the teacher to:

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a. provide clear drawing upon the use of Audio-visualized Narrative Text


to enrich vocabulary.
b. teach in a more interesting and amusing way.
c. solve problems dealing with gaining students

attention during

vocabulary drilling.
2. For the Students
It is expected that the result of the study will be beneficial for the
students to:
a. get more engaging experience dealing with vocabulary learning.
b. learn vocabulary in fun way.
c. help understand the materials taught to them better.

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CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL REVIEW
A. The Description of Vocabulary
1. The Definition of Vocabulary Mastery
To learn means to know the meaning. In learning vocabulary it is
important to know what vocabulary is. Ur (1996: 60) states that vocabulary can be
defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language. While Hornby
(1995:1331) states that vocabulary is the total number of the words in a language.
As it is stated above, vocabulary is a collection of words that students learn in the
foreign language lesson. In addition, Hornby stated that vocabulary is not only in
foreign language teaching but also in a mother language. This statement is
heartened by Burns and Broman (1975: 295) who say that vocabulary means the
stock of words used by person, class, or profession. The use of word is classified
by people or field.
Likewise, Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) say that the term vocabulary refers
to a list or a set of words that individual speakers of language might use. Since
vocabulary is a list, the only system involved is alphabetical order in dictionaries.
The choice in vocabulary selection used in teaching vocabulary is an important
factor. It means that to get the meaning of words someone needs the process of
learning in context as stated by Allen (1983: 4). He said it is true that the students
will make mistakes if they learn the meaning of many words without learning how
to put together in a sentence. In other words, learning vocabulary cannot be
focused on the use of dictionary. Students also need to know the context of the
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word in the sentence. From the definitions above, it can be concluded that
vocabulary is a collection of words used by people or field including the context
in a certain language.
Meanwhile,

mastery

is

defined

by

Swannel (1994:

656)

as

comprehensive knowledge or use of a subject or instrument. While Hornby (1995:


523) adds that mastery is complete control of knowledge.
It can be concluded that vocabulary mastery is whole knowledge and
detail information to improve skill in target language. It is important to select
theme that is appropriate with students need. In addition, syllabus is also
important to know the goal of the study. In this context, vocabulary mastery is
limited by themes of the material for Junior High School.
2. Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the first thing that students have to learn to know a
language. Therefore, it must be understood that a learner has to possess
vocabulary mastery in order to learn a language successfully, including English.
Therefore, good vocabulary mastery plays an important role in learning English.
Coady (1997: 5) stated that vocabulary is central to language and of critical
importance to the typical language learner. Based on Coady, vocabulary is very
important for the students to learn a language. That statement is supported by
Lewis and Hill (1990: 12) who state that vocabulary is important for the students.
It is more than grammar for communication purpose, particularly in the early
stage when students are motivated to learn the basic words. Without having
proportional English vocabulary, students will get some difficulties in using
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English. In other words, it can be said that when students understand the meaning
of the words they will understand English easily.
In addition, vocabulary is an essential part of communication. Allen
(1983: 5) states that communication will stop when learners lack the necessary
word. It means that mastery of vocabulary has important roles in social
relationship. Someone who does not know what vocabulary contributes to
communicate with others will not be able to express his idea effectively and the
communication will be misunderstood.
According to Vermer in McCarthy and Schmitt (1997: 140):
Knowing words is the key to understanding and being understood. The bulk
of learning a new language consists of learning new words. Grammatical
knowledge does not make for great proficiency in a language.
It means to understand language and to make our language understandable, we
should know words first rather than grammar.
In addition, Rivers in Nunan (1998: 117) states that,
The acquisition of an adequate vocabulary is essential for successful second
language use because without an extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to
use the structures and function we may have learned for comprehensible
communication.
This view strengthen Vermers view above, that words should be mastered earlier
than grammar because without words, we cannot use the structure and functions.
Paying attention to the statements, it is known that mastering vocabulary is very
important to be successful in using language.
While Cross (1992: 5) states that a major aim of most teaching
to user
programmes is to help studentscommit
to gain
large vocabulary of useful words.

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Teaching vocabulary is very essential in beginner level. Teachers should give


certain attention in teaching vocabulary and decide the area of words that become
the basic need for the pupil. The teacher must give attention to develop the
vocabularies of each child through carefully planned instruction.
That statement is emphasized by Brown and Payne in Hatch and Brown
(1995: 373), saying that vocabulary being learned by the students follows five
essential steps.
1) Having sources for encountering new words
2) Getting a clear image, either visual or auditory or both, for the forms of the
new words
3) Learning the meaning of the words
4) Making a strong memory connection between the forms and meaning of the
words
5) Using the words
Based on the statement, the very beginning step in learning vocabulary is
by deriving it from some sources. After that, the learner knows the words form in
the real life by visual, auditory illustration or even the combination of them. By
looking at the illustration, the learner can assume the appropriate meaning of the
words. The teachers task in vocabulary teaching process is to make a strong
memory connection for both the words and meanings for his/her students. Using
the word in a sentence is the last step for checking the students vocabulary
mastery.
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The expert tries to suggest techniques that help to study vocabulary in


easier ways. The writer is using their combination both visual and auditory
illustration, audio visualized narrative text. By constructing a relaxed condition
and giving a real imagination, it is expected that the children will find an easy way
to learn vocabulary.
B. The Nature of Narrative Video
1. Review on Video
a.

Definition of Media
Etymologically, the word media comes from Latin language
medius. Literally, it means mediator or companion. Media is the
messages mediator or companion from the sender to the receiver (Arsyad,
2005:3).
Association for education and communication technology
(AECT) in Sadiman (2002:6) defines media as all forms and lines which
are used by people to convey information. According to Gagne, media is
many kinds of components in students environment that can stimulate
them to study (Sadiman dkk, 2002:6).
Based on those definitions above, it can be concluded that media
are all things that can be used to deliver the message from sender to
receiver so it can stimulate the mind, feeling, attention, and students
interest in order to attain the teaching and learning process.

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a. Kinds of Media
Media can be classified into three categories: visual, audio, and
audio visual (http://edu-articles.com).
1) Visual media
There are two kinds of visual media; those are unprojected
media and projected media.
a) Unprojected media
Unprojected media can be divided into:
(1) Realia or real thing. The object must not be presented in class, but
students should be able to see and observe them. For example the
students observe the ecosystem, plant, the diversity of living
thing, et cetera. These media are able to give real experiences to
the students.
(2) Model. Model is the imitation of real thing presented in three
dimension form as substitution of the real thing. This medium
helps the teacher to present the object that cannot be brought into
the class, for example digestion system, respiration system,
excretion system, et cetera.
(3) Graphic. The functions of graphic are to catch the students
attention, clarify the lesson, and illustrate the fact or forgettable
concept. There are many kinds of graphic, such as picture, sketch,
scheme, chart, and graph.
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b) Projected media
There are two types of projected media:
(1) Transparency of OHP. This is stated as the real media because the
teacher must not change the layout of the class and still able to
face the students. Transparency media includes software (OHT)
and hardware (OHP).
(2) Bordered film or slide. This is a transparent film that usually has
measurement of 35mms and border 2x2 inches. The use of this
medium is the same as OHP, but the visualization of this medium
is better than OHP.
2) Audio media
There are two kinds of audio media that are commonly used:
a) Radio. Radio is an electronic tool that can be used to listen to the
news, new important events, life problems, et cetera.
b) Audio cassette. This tool is cheaper than the other because the
supplying and the treatment cost are relatively cheap.
3) Audio visual media
There are many kinds of audio visual tool:
a) Video. This is one kind of audio visual media, besides film. In
learning process, this tool is usually presented in the form of VCD.
b) Computer. This tool has all the benefit of the other media. Computer
is able to show text, picture, sound and picture, and can also be used
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interactively. Even, computer can be connected to internet to browse


the unlimited learning sources.
b. Definition of Audio-visual Aids
Audio-visual is more efficient than the other media to use in the process
teaching and learning process. It has an integral part of good education. Good
teachers have always recognized that education and life are one and have used
everything at their command to vitalize the learning process through the five
sense. According to Basuki Wibawa et al in Media Pengajaran (2001: 71), media
audio-visual adalah media yang dapat dilihat sekaligus dapat didengar. In other
words, such media can be both seen and listened.
Meanwhile, Elliot et al in Rina (1998: 491) states that audio-visual aids
are the technology usually used to present information in several different formats
usually supplementing a teacher presentation; for example: TV and video players.
Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that audiovisual is the
technology usually used in supplementing a teacher presentation both in the audio
and visual form.
The strengths of audio-visual aids are to add, maintain and stimulate
interest; to save time; to clarify and clear up problems of ambiguity; to reinforce
the concepts you are trying to communicate in words; to be useful in conveying
emotive elements; to aid in memorization; to provide 'proof' and make an issue
'real'.
The weaknesses of audio-visual aids are as follows:
1) Production cost for video material can be expensive
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2) Material goes out-of-date quickly


3) It may require special equipment and space for viewing and listening
4) The equipment will require regular servicing to minimize breakdowns,
inclined to sit on the shelf
(http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au)
c.

The Importance of Audio-visual Aids in Language Teaching


Amir Hamzah Sulaeman (1981: 16) states that there are three reasons

why using audio-visual aids is effective:


1) Audio-visual aids enable people to transfer and to receive knowledge or
information and also to avoid misunderstanding.
2) Audio-visual aids improve curiosity to know better. It motivates and raises
the curiosity to know and investigate a new innovation.
3) Audio-visual aids preserve knowledge everlastingly. It produces an effective
knowledge transfer and makes it long stand in the memory.
4) Audio-visual aids is popular.
In addition, Kemp (1980: 6) states that there are five benefits of using
audio-visual aids in teaching:
1) It makes education more productive with various experiences for learners. It
makes education more productive through increasing the rate of learning by
providing worthwhile experiences for learners that teachers need not, or
cannot, furnish.
2) It makes education more individual giving various alternative resources so
that the learners can take place their preference. It makes education more
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individual through providing many alternative paths with a variety of


resources so that learning can take place according to the learners study
preference.
3) It makes learner closer to worlds conception. It makes learning more
immediate through bridging the gap between the worlds inside and outside
the classroom by means of the experiences these resources can provide.
4) It makes access to education more equal for learner wherever they are. It
makes access to education more equal for learners wherever they are, through
the portability of various materials (audio and video cassettes, filmstrips,
film, self-study packages) and through the use of effective delivery systems
(air transmission, cables, satellites) for transmitting information.
5) It gives instruction more specific base. It gives instruction a more specific
base through providing a framework for systematic instructional planning.
d. Technique of Audio-visual Aids Application
Procedures are basic to effective teaching with audiovisual aids. It will be
helpful in the process teaching and learning if the teacher knows how to use it.
DeBoer et al (1970: 344) state there are three procedures in using audio-visual
aids. They are: preparation, presentation, and follow-up.
1) Preparation is finding the specific of audiovisual aids to gain the purpose of
the study. After that, make integration with the total learning situation. Is the
purpose for using the material clear in the minds of the students?. Then,
choose the best physical aspect of the environment.
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2) Presentation is the most important things in the technique. In this step,


transfer knowledge takes place. Physical arrangements relegated to
unobtrusiveness. Then, use of the aid as often as instructional needs dictate.
3) Follow-up is needed to know the success of the process in teaching and
learning. Make discussion of the material presented. After that, make an
evaluation of material.
2. Review on Narrative Text
a. Definition of Text
Willis (1998: 67) says that text, in general sense, means a continuous
piece of spoken or written language. Texts in this sense will include recordings of
spoken language and extracts from video, in addition to the printed word.
Thwaites et al (1994: 67) states that text is a combination of signs. The
sign has such meaning for various groups of people in various social contexts.
This statement is strengthened by Santosa (2003: 17) who defines text as language
use that performs task to express function or social meaning in a situated and
cultural context.
From the definition above, it can be concluded that the text is a verbal
record which is the combination of sign consisting of continuous piece of spoken
or written language contextually.
Santosa (2003: 60) says that text structure is the unity of form
(symbol/textual) and meaning (experiential, logical, rhetorical or interpersonal)
which wholly point out to the aim/social function of the text.
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The structure of text are opening, body, and closing. The structures
simultaneously make meaning organism to gain social function. Every meaning
organism has different rhetorical side as social function. Text does not either stuck
at the structure but also picture of SS beside the road. It means that in front of
the sign is winding road as stated by Santosa (2003: 60-61).
Based on the communicative purpose, Pardiyono (2007:93-98) classifies
the text into eleven types. They are: description, recount, narrative, procedure,
explanation, discussion, exposition, news item, report, anecdote, and review.
However, in this study the text was focused on the narrative text.
b. Definition of Narrative Text
Narrative text is a text which says the past activities or event which
concerns on the problematic experience and resolution in order to amuse and even
give the moral messages to the reader. The generic structure of narrative text are
orientation; stating the topic of an activity or event which will be told, sequence
of events; presenting the story about the past activities or events which has the
chronological of conflicts and resolutions; resolution; stating the problem solving,
and coda; concluding in order to give the moral values.
Gerot and Wignell (1994: 204) said that the social function of narrative is
to amuse, to entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different
ways; Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning
point of some kind, which in turn find a resolution. It is strengthened by
www.ncowie.wordpress.com in which it is stated that the basic purpose of
narrative is to entertain, to gain and to hold a readers interest. However narratives
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can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes/social opinions e.g. soap
operas and television dramas that are used to raise optical issues. Narratives
sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that
through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must
eventually find a way to be resolved.
According to Hartono (2005:7), the language features used in narrative
text are:
a. Focus on specific participants.
Narrative text focuses on the story of certain participant or character.
b. Use of past tense.
Tenses used in narrative text is past tense, because it tells about a story
happened in the past. The formula of past tense is
S + V2 or

S + to be (was/were)...

c. Use of temporal conjunction.


The examples of temporal conjunction are: first, finally, then, when, next,
last, before, etc.
d. Use of material (or action) processes.
Material process relates to the physical action done by the participants.
The examples of materials process are:
The water

flows.

Participant

process

e. Use of mental process.


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Mental process relates to the verbs which indicate the participants feeling,
thinking, and perceiving, for example:
Mr. Setiawan is satisfied with his new car.
Senser

mental

phenomenon

To sum up, narrative text is a text retelling past event that included some
problems to amuse and gain interest.
3. Review on Narrative Video
Narrative is one of genre taught in Junior high School. Narrative can be
the starting-point for a wide variety of related language and learning activities.
Narrative creates teaching learning process feel relaxing and amusing for students
as the purpose of the text type genre. Thus, it can create enjoyable atmosphere that
increase students motivation. Therefore, when students enter the class they will
not fill any pressure.
The attractiveness of this technique will increase when it is presented in
the video form. This technique will therefore not be a conventional narrative text
any longer but it becomes an audio-visualized narrative text. Presenting the
narrative video needs the support of video. Video are are the technology usually
used in supplementing a teacher presentation both the audio and visual form.
With the use of video, the students can get clear imagination of the
narrative video. Children can learn the story through narrative video by their
sense, by seeing, and by hearing. It will be easier for young learner to grasp the
core of material and the message of the story in more interesting way.
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To sum up, narrative video is verbal of narrative genre based on


technology including both the audio and visual form to make students interested
in the teaching and learning process and to a better attitude.
C. Rationale
Vocabulary mastery is the most important language element to
understand a language. Vocabulary is an important element that people need to be
able to communicate his/her ideas to other people in a more effective manner.
Without choosing the right ones, there will be misundersanding. In teaching and
learning process, teachers can use some media to deliver the materials. One of the
media that can be used in teaching English vocabulary is audio-visualized
narrative text.
Narrative can make students interested in the teaching and learning
process and that creates a better attitude. It can create comfortable atmosphere in
the classroom. It guides students to grasp the core of the material especially
vocabulary with enjoyable learning. In this technique, the students will memorize
new vocabularies that are exposed by the teacher. The technique is also important
to motivate, to stimulate to imagination, and to create the foundations of basic
language functions.
With the usage of video, the students can get clear imagination of the
narrative video. Besides, the usage of video can entertain the students. Video are
one of the ways usually used in supplementing a teacher presentation both the
audio and visual form. The students will learn how to get the meaning with the
audio-visual material. It can transfer real information better than other media. It
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also helps the students to memorize better. This medium will help the teacher to
teach one of English elements i.e. teaching new vocabulary.
By using this medium, it is expected that the students will posses ability
in understanding meaning of words. The ability of understanding the meaning of
the words can be identified through the improvement of new words mastery of the
students. It is also expected that by using this medium the students can get the
point of narrative text in enjoyable classroom atmosphere.
D. Hypothesis
Based on theories above, the writer constructed the hypothesis of the
research as: using narrative video can improve the students achievement in
vocabulary mastery.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Research Setting
This research was conducted for 5 months from January 2010 to May
2010. It included pre observation activities (try out and pre-test). This research
was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran. SMP Negeri 1 Tempuran is one of the
junior high schools located in Tempuran district, Magelang Regency. This school
is located on Jl. Tempuran-Purworejo Km 11. Physically, SMP Negeri 1
Tempuran has 18 classrooms consisting of 6 classes for 7th grades, 6 classes for 8th
grades, and 6 classes for 9th grades. Each class consists of thirty to thirty six
students. The facilities in this school are headmasters room, administrators
room, teachers room, science laboratory, language laboratory, computer
laboratory, skills room, library, BP/BK, health room, cooperation room, mosque,
OSIS room, kitchen, warehouse, parking areas, garden, and toilets.
The researcher used Language Laboratory room in this research because
there is no LCD (Liquid Chrystal Display) in this classroom. There is only one
portable LCD in this school.
Language Laboratory room is a special room for teachers who want to
use audio visual media in their teaching. This room is located between computer
laboratory room and VIII D class. There are a white board, 40 chairs and 40 tables
and head phones. It is also facilitated with LCD, TV, a set of computer, and an
AC (Air Condition).
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B. Research Subject
The subject of this research is the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1
Tempuran. It consists of thirty six students: 16 males and 20 females.
C. Research Method
The research method used in this study is classroom action research.
Nunan (1992: 229) says that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry
carried out by practioners, aimed at solving problems, improving practice, or
enhancing understanding. Meanwhile Carr and Kemmis (1982) in Burns
(1999:30) states that action research is simply a form of self-reflective enquiry
undertaken by participants in social situation in order to improve the rationality
and justice of their own practices, their understanding of this practices and the
situations in which the practices are carried out. While Mills (2000: 6) states that
the action research is any systematic inquiry conducted by teacher researchers,
principals, school counsellors, or other stakeholders in teaching or learning
environment, to gather information about the ways that their particular schools
operate, how they teach, and how well their students learn.
Burns (1999: 30) mentions some characteristics of action research taken
from some experts definitions as follow:
1. Action research is contextual, small-scale and localized. It identifies and
investigates problems within a specific situation.
2. It is evaluating and reflective as it aims to bring about change and
improvement in practice.
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3. It is participator as it provides for collaborative investigation by teams of


colleagues, practitioners and researchers.
4. Changes in practice are based on the collection of information or data which
provides the impetus for changes.
It can be concluded that action research is a form of self-reflective
inquiry by teachers, researchers, principals, school counsellors, or other
stakeholders in teaching or learning environment to solve problems in order to get
improvement.
In this research, the writer used action research because she tried to solve
classroom problem in vocabulary mastery. Her purpose was to improve the junior
high school students vocabulary mastery so that the result would be higher than
the previous. The researcher used audio-visualized narrative text to teach
vocabulary in communicative activity. The result of the research shows whether
or not there was an improvement on the students vocabulary mastery and the
implementation of audio visualized narrative text in the classroom.
D. Models of the Research
The model of action research used in this research is the model
developed by Kemmis and Mc Taggart in Burns (1999:32). According to the
model, the implementation of the classroom action research includes four steps in
the following:
1. Identifying problems and planning the action.
2. Implementing the action
3. Observing the action.

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4. Reflecting the result of the observation.


Visually, the steps in action research by Kemmis and Mc Taggart
(Hopkins, 1993:48) can be illustrated as follows:

E. Procedures of the Research


The model of action research is the framework in undertaking classroom
action research. Action researchs procedure covers planning, action, observation,
and reflection. In conducting this action research, there is collaboration between
the writer and the English teacher. The procedures of action research in this
research are as follows:
1. Identifying the Problem
In this stage, the writer as the researcher conducted a preliminary
observation at the school. Besides observing the classroom interaction, the
researcher interviewed the English teacher and students.
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2. Planning the Action


The writer prepared everything related to the action that would be
implemented. The writer prepared the material, lesson plan, and designed the
steps in doing the action. Then, the writer also prepared the teaching aid and
media used in teaching and learning process.
3. Implementing the Action
The writer implemented the teaching vocabulary mastery through audiovisualized narrative text.
4. Observing the Action
The writer, as observer, observed all activities in teaching and learning
process while the teacher is teaching. The result of the observation was noted in
the form of field notes.
5. Reflecting
The researcher analyzed the collected data, determining whether the
action is successful or not. The result of this step became the basis for the next
activity or cycle and also answers the hypothesis that had been proposed by the
writer before the action was carried out.
F. Technique of Collecting Data
In this classroom action research, the writer used what Burn says in her
book Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teachers (1999: 78)
as observational technique in collecting the data. The writer also used tests,
interview and document analysis. The techniques used are in line with the types of
data:

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1. Qualitative Data
The qualitative data in this research were collected by using some
techniques including:
a. Observation
Observation is taking regular conscious notice of classroom action and
occurrences, which are particularly relevant to the issues or topics being
investigated (Burns, 1999:80). The observation was conducted before and during
the research. The observation was aimed to know the situation of the teaching
learning process when the media was used.
b. Interview
Interviews and discussions are face-to-face personal interactions, which
generate data about the research issue and allow specific to be discussed from
other people perspective (Burns, 1999:17). The interviews were conducted to
teacher and students.
c. Document Analysis
The document consists of lesson plans, students worksheet, scoring
notes and field notes.
d. Photos
Photograph is a technique for data collection, which combines a range of
language classroom tasks and activities effectively where visual aids are an
invaluable support in learning (Burns, 1999:101). The photographs were taken
while the actions were implemented. Photographs were used to show the activity
done by the students in the class during vocabulary mastery.
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2. Quantitative Data
The quantitative data were collected by using tests. The tests were given
four times: in the beginning of the research and in the end of each cycle. These
tests were conducted to measure the students vocabulary mastery improvement.
Then the post test result was compared to the students score before the actions
were implemented.
Table 3.2 Table of Collecting Data

Implementatio
n

Pre
research

Steps of the
research

Participants

Techniques of
collecting

Data

Researcher
Students
Teacher

Test
Observation
Interview

Scores
Field notes

Researcher
Students
Teachers

Observation
Document

Photographs
Students
Answer sheet

Techniques
of analysis
Constant
Comparative
Method and
descriptive
statistic
Constant
Comparative
Method

Teaching and
learning
process
Students
achievement
in
vocabulary
Students
motivation

Researcher

G. The Technique of Analyzing The Data


After collecting the data, the next step of the study was analyzing the
data. The data were analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative data analysis.
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1. Qualitative Data Analysis


The data of pre-research observation report, field notes, and the
photographs of teaching learning process were analyzed by using qualitative data
analysis. Related to the technique of analysis data in action research, Burns
(1999: 156-160) proposes five steps in analysing qualitative data. The processes
of analysis data are:
a. Assembling the data
The first step is to assemble the data is collecting over the period of the period.
The researcher assembles the data that have collected over the period of the
research: field notes, questionnaires, interviews, and test.
b. Coding the data
Coding is a process of attempting to reduce the large amount of data that may
be collected to more manageable categories of concepts, themes, or types.
c. Comparing the data
After coding the data, the data are compared to see whether themes or patterns
are repeated or developed across different data gathering techniques.
d. Building the data
This is the point where the researcher moves beyond describing, categorizing,
coding, and comparing to make some sense of the meaning of the data.
e. Reporting the outcomes
This last step involves presenting an account of the research for others.

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2. Quantitative Data Analysis


In analyzing the test score of the vocabulary test, a statistical descriptive
technique is used to find the students mean score. The data from the test were
analyzed in order to prove whether or not teaching vocabulary using audiovisualized narrative text can improve students vocabulary mastery. In this
research, the students mean score of the post test 1 is compared to the students
mean score of the post test 2 to know whether there was an improvement of the
students vocabulary mastery. The formulas used to compute the mean scores are:

x= x
N

y=

y
N

In which:
x = Means of pre-test scores

N = Number of sample

y = Means of post-test scores

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CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, the writer presents the result of her classroom action
research. The subject of this research was the eighth grade students of SMPN 1
Tempuran in the 2009/2010 academic year. This chapter is divided into four parts:
Introduction, The Implementation of Audio-visualized Narrative Text, Research
Finding, and Discussion.
A. Introduction
Based on the pre-research which was conducted to eighth grade students
of SMP N 1 Tempuran, the writer found that the students had low vocabulary
mastery. It was revealed in the interview with the English teacher and the
students, and through classroom observation.
The students low vocabulary mastery was caused by their low
motivation. It was seen from their reluctance to join English class. Some of them
did not seem to be interested in the teaching learning process. When the teacher
did drilling technique, only some of the students followed the teacher instruction.
The students seemed to be afraid of making mistake.
Moreover, in the teaching and learning activity, the students got
difficulties in understanding and grasping the meaning of words. For one thing,
when the teacher asked some commonly taught words (such as: sew, paint, burn,
hungry, spend, throw, and thirsty) to one of her students, the students could not
answer her question correctly.
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The students also had problem in writing words or group of words


correctly. Based on the interview with the English teacher, the writer knew that
students sometimes understood the meaning of a word, but they could not write it
correctly. For example, they wrote excelent for excellent. They could not
pronounce it correctly either.
In this study, audio-visualized narrative text was used to overcome those
problems. Audio-visualized narrative text was used by teacher to help the students
grasp

meaning, pronounce and use words correctly in fun and motivating

atmosphere.
Audio-visualized narrative text gives the audio-visual of words to the
students. Audio provides the model of the correct pronounciation of words and
visualization can help to show the spelling of words. It also stimulates students
motivation and interest in genuine context of use.
In short, there were two targets that the researcher wanted to achieve
through the use of audio-visualized narrative text: to improve of students
vocabulary mastery and to create interesting situation in the classroom.
B. The Implementation of Audio-visualized Storytelling
This section presents the implementation of teaching English vocabulary by
using audio-visualized narrative text. This study was conducted in two cycles.
Each cycle was completed through five steps, namely: 1) identifying problems
and planning the action, 2) implementing the action, 3) observing the action, and
4) reflecting the result of the action.
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1. Cycle 1
a. Identifying the Problems and Planning the Action
Before conducting the research, the researcher had given the students a
pre-test, through which the problems on vocabulary that the students had could be
revealed. It was conducted on Saturday, 24th April 2010 at the last two periods,
from 08.35 am to 09.55 am. The test consisted of written test and spoken test. The
result showed how the students found it difficult to identify the meaning of words,
and to spell the words. Besides, when they were tested to pronounce some English
words, they often made mistake. Knowing this, the researcher planned three
meetings to accommodate students to improve their vocabulary mastery, by
drawing their motivation and interest at first. Table 4.1 is the result of the pre-test.
In the first cycle, she planned to draw students interest in vocabulary
learning. The researcher chose audio-visualized narrative text which were closely
related to child world. To support the process of teaching and learning, the
researcher prepared the lesson plan, materials, students worksheet, teaching aids
(such as: computer, LCD, active speaker and headset), and post test. The post test,
containing the same model as the pre test, was designed to know the students
improvement in vocabulary after the implementation of the action. The theme
which was taught in the first cycle was experience in the farm.
Table 4.1 The Result of Pre Test
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Nama
Afrah Laila
Ahmad Azizurohman
Ahmad Syahrir Choirul Anwar
Alfiani Riastuti
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Ari Wicaksono

Score
6,0
5,2
6,0
5,8
6,4

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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

Baniyah
Desi Dwi Ariyanti
Dewi Larasati
Dyah Taurisna Pujiyatun
Erlia Zulianti
Fajar Sigit Riyanto
Faristawati
Fuat Akrom
Hafidh Kurnia Adi
Hana Juliana
Hanif Prasojo
Hannuna Dzawinnuha
Indra Utami Yanastiti
Irna Risma Wati
Irvan Kurniawan
Khori Adella Ariesta
Muhammad Alvian Setyadi
Muhammad Hafidz Suyuti
Rani Hartiwi
Resti Dwi Yanti
Ria Subekti
Rina Wahyu
Robby Alif Nugroho
Satria Agung Gemilang
Savira Ramadhani
Septian Dwi Cahyo
Sidiq
Siti Laelatul Fauziyah
Sri Rahayu
Teguh Arif Yanto Sudrajat
Zimika Mala Sari
Mean Score

5,6
6,1
6,2
5,0
5,6
5,6
6,0
6,6
6,3
7,6
6,2
6,0
6,1
5,4
6,6
6,4
5,3
6,1
5,4
6,4
6,1
5,8
6,8
3,7
6,3
5,1
5,9
5,6
5,0
6,4
6,1
5.8

b. Implementing the Action


As what the researcher had mentioned above, the first cycle was
conducted in three meetings. The instructional process in each meeting consisted
of three phases: opening, main activity, and closing. In the following is the
schedule of first cycle implementation.
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Table 4. 2 The Schedule of First Cycle.


Meeting
I

Date
28-04-2010

II
III

29-04-2010
1-05-2010

Material
Meaning
(including
synonyms
antonyms), Pronounciation, Spelling,
Meaning of words in a sentence
Pronounciation

and

The following is the description of the action implementation from the first
until the third meeting.
1) The First Meeting
The first meeting was conducted on Wednesday, 28th April 2010. It
began at 07.00 am and ended at 08.20 am, taking place in the language laboratory.
Acting as the teacher was the researcher, and acting as the observer was Mrs. U,
the English teacher of the class.
The teacher opened the lesson by greeting and reintroducing herself.
Everyone was present that day. She then checked students readiness to join the
lesson. The class condition was crowded and noisy. After having the students
quiet, she stated the topic they were going to learn that day.
To begin the discussion, the teacher posed a question to the students
whether they had ever heard about ranch. No students answered the question.
They were not familiar with the word ranch. Some students were busy opening
dictionaries, some others were quiet. The dictionaries the students used were not
standard, so they could not find the meaning of ranch. Then, she explained the
meaning of ranch. After that, she asked the students to mention some words
they knew dealing with ranch. Some students just kept silent. Some others tried to
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answer the question although they made some mistakes in pronouncing the words
they mentioned. She then corrected their mistakes.
The teacher then posed the next question. She asked the students dealing
with their experience in the ranch. No one was willing to answer the question, so
she pointed the chairman of the class to tell his experience. The next turn was
given to the boy student who was pointed by the chairman of the class. Later, she
made a discussion about the story. She let the students to mention some words
dealing with ranch from what their friend had told. She also gain some other
words from the rest of the class.
Afterwards, the teacher asked her students if they were interested in
cartoon film. Most girl students answered Yes and a few boy students answered
No. After having short conversation with the students, the teacher played the
film about experience in a farm. Since the video was on, the teacher asked the
students to write the difficult word they heared in the video to their book.
Unfortunately, most of the students did not follow her instructions. She asked
some students to find out why it happened. After that, she knew that the students
did not understand the difficult words because there is no subtitle. Most of them
got nothing since they could not clearly catch the words spoken in the film. Only
three students could grasp some words in the video. Then, the teacher asked three
students who had noted their difficult words to write down on the whiteboard and
pronounce them. The students in fact could pronounce the words well but they
misspelled them. She also asked the students to find out the meaning of the words
in their dictionary.

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After that, the teacher decided to replay the video with English subtitle.
The students looked happy. The teacher repeated the same task to the students, to
write down the difficult words on their book. Since the video was turned on, the
teacher moved around the class to monitor the students activities. From her
monitoring of the students works, she found that the students still had difficulties
in spelling some words that should have be familiar for eighth grade.
Because of the limited time, the researcher only replayed half of the
video. After that, she and the students discussed the unfamiliar words together.
She wrote the words on the whiteboard. Then, she taught them the meaning, how
they should be spelled, and how they should be pronounced. She asked the
students to find the antonyms and synonyms of the words. The teacher also asked
the students to make some sentences by using the words. Since the time was
limited, the teacher set this task as students homework.
In the end of the meeting, the teacher asked students about their feeling.
She asked them about their perception about her using film as teaching learning
media. What is your perception about that film? Bagaimana pendapat kalian
tentang film itu? One of them answered, Seneng bu, ceritanya bagus. Other
student answered the same way, Seneng bu, menarik However, another student
sitting in front of the teachers desk answered, Boring bu, ceritanya gak
menarik.
She also asked the students about their difficulty in grasping the meaning
in the film and then gave some solution for them. They answered Bahasanya
asing, Ngomongnya kecepetan. The teacher gave them motivation that they
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would soon get accustomed with English sounds, and they would got it easier by
taking more practice. Finally, she reminded the students to do their homework and
closed the meeting.
2)

The Second Meeting


The second meeting was also conducted in the language laboratory. It

was held on Thursday, 29th April 2010. The topic was the same, it was about
experience in the farm. The teacher started the lesson by greeting the students and
checking attendant list. Afterwards, she asked the students to write their
homeworks on the whiteboard. Then, they disccused it together. The next section
was showing the example of simple present tense and past tense.
Next, the teacher gave the students a worksheet. Then, she asked them to
watch the same film again as the one played the day before. While watching the
film, she asked them to complete the missing words in their worksheet. They
might not open their dictionary. They should try to catch the words from the film.
This was aimed at training the students to identify the meaning of words. Besides,
through this activity, they could also learn how to spell words correctly, and
recognize the words spoken in the film. After watching the video, they were given
some more minutes to complete the worksheet.
Having finished completing the worksheet, the students then discussed
their work together with the teacher. Some mistakes were done by the students
both in identifying the correct words to fill in the blanks and in spelling the words.
The teacher helped them find their mistakes and how to correct them. Then, she
led the students relist the correct missing words.
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Before ending the activity, the teacher asked the students to work in pair.
She asked the students to make four sentences from any four of the missing words
they have completed through the listening activity. After that, they disscussed
their work together.
Next, the teacher reviewed the material and asked students feeling
during teaching and learning process. Because it was the last period, the teacher
asked the chairman of the class to lead the praying session. Finally, she closed the
meeting by saying good bye.
3) The Third Meeting
The third meeting was held on Saturday, 1st May 2010 at the two last
periods. The topic was the same as the one in the previous meeting; it was about
experience in the farm. As usual, the teacher opened the lesson by greeting the
students first. After that, she checked students attendance.
Afterward, the teacher presented a power point about some words dealing
with farm and asked her students to read. She found that the students had poor
pronounciation. After that, she played a film with English subtitle. She asked the
students to pay attention to the pronounciation. Unfortunately, the students got
nothing. They felt the actreess spoke too fast. Then, the teacher paused the film on
the particular words. This method worked quite well.
She then wrote some words dealing with experience in the farm. She
asked the students to spell and pronounce the words. Some students could do it
well but some others made mistakes. Then, she drilled the whole class.
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Next, the researcher distributed the copies of the material and started to
review the vocabulary the students had learned in the previous meeting. Some
students were very noisy, so the researcher warned them. Can you keep silent?
she said. Then they continued the discussion together.
Finally, the researcher closed the lesson by thanking the students for their
attention and then said goodbye.
By the end of cycle I, the researcher conducted a post test to evaluate the
students on what they already learnt during the cycle. It was conducted on
Wednesday, 5th May 2010, from 7.00 am through 8.20 am. The result of the test is
shown on Table 4.2.
Table 4.3 The Result of Post Test 1
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

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Afrah Laila
Ahmad Azizurohman
Ahmad Syahrir Choirul Anwar
Alfiani Riastuti
Ari Wicaksono
Baniyah
Desi Dwi Ariyanti
Dewi Larasati
Dyah Taurisna Pujiyatun
Erlia Zulianti
Fajar Sigit Riyanto
Faristawati
Fuat Akrom
Hafidh Kurnia Adi
Hana Juliana
Hanif Prasojo
Hannuna Dzawinnuha
Indra Utami Yanastiti
Irna Risma Wati
Irvan Kurniawan
Khori Adella Ariesta
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Muhammad Alvian Setyadi

Post-Test
7,3
7,1
6,4
7,4
6,7
8,7
6,4
8,3
7,3
7,7
7,4
7,1
6,4
6,7
8,7
7,4
8,0
6,7
7,0
6,3
7,0
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23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

Muhammad Hafidz Suyuti


Rani Hartiwi
Resti Dwi Yanti
Ria Subekti
Rina Wahyu
Robby Alif Nugroho
Satria Agung Gemilang
Savira Ramadhani
Septian Dwi Cahyo
Sidiq
Siti Laelatul Fauziyah
Sri Rahayu
Teguh Arif Yanto Sudrajat
Zimika Mala Sari
Mean Score

7,0
5,4
7,4
6,4
7,9
8,6
7,0
8,4
6,7
7,0
6,0
6,6
8,0
8,0
7.3

c. Observation
Some points of the implementation on the audiovisualized storytelling
based on the teaching learning process, document analysis, and test can be
explained as follows:
1) The improvement of students vocabulary mastery score.
The test result showed that students got improvement on vocabulary
mastery although it was not satisfying. The mean score of pre test was 5.8, while
in post test 1 the mean score was 7.3.
2) Students were more interested and more motivated in the teaching learning
process
The students were more interested in the teaching learning process. Using
film as an authentic material and choosing appropriate topic for students in
teaching vocabulary made the class more alive. From the short conversation with
the students, the researcher found that they felt happy watching the film. They
also said that the film was interesting.
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d. Reflection
Reflection was done to evaluate the teaching and learning process she has
done so far. Recalling the targets of the first cycle, which were to increase
students interest and motivation and to improve their vocabulary mastery, the
researcher found some positive results and weaknesses from the action in the
cycle I.
The positive results which can be found in the first cycle were:
1) Implementing audio-visualized storytelling in teaching and learning process
attracted the students attention. It was revealed through their being very
enthusiastic in watching the film.
2) There was an improvement of students vocabulary mastery. It was shown
from the result of the first post-test.
3) There was an improvement of students behavior in teaching and learning
process. The students did the task and assignment actively.
She also found the weaknesses in cycle 1, as follows:
1) Some students were still passive in teaching and learning process. Some of
them were afraid to answer the teachers questions. They must be pointed.
2) Some students still made mistakes in spelling and pronouncing some words.
3) The students still made mistakes in using words in the right context.
Based on the weaknesses above, the researcher planned to take a revised
action to get the target she had set. The revised action was conducted in the
second cycle. The plan in cycle II focused more on spelling and pronounciation as
well as improving students behavior from passive to be more active.
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2. Cycle 2
From the reflection done by the end of Cycle I, the researcher found
some weaknesses related students activity in the class and their vocabulary
mastery. Dealing with activity, some students were still passive when joining
teaching and learning activities. Some of them were afraid to answer the teachers
questions. In vocabulary mastery, some students still made mistakes in spelling
and pronouncing some words. Besides, they still made mistakes in using the
words in the right context.
Based on the weaknesses above, the researcher revised the action in
Cycle II. The action in the cycle would focus more on spelling and pronounciation
as well as improving students behavior from passive to be more active.
a. Planning the Action
Before she implemented the plan, she held a pretest again. The theme
was Experience in the Kitchen. The pretest took place on Saturday, 8th May
2010. The following is the result:
Table 4.3 The Result of Pre Test 2
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Nama
Afrah Laila
Ahmad Azizurohman
Ahmad Syahrir Choirul Anwar
Alfiani Riastuti
Ari Wicaksono
Baniyah
Desi Dwi Ariyanti
Dewi Larasati
Dyah Taurisna Pujiyatun
Erlia Zulianti
Fajar Sigit Riyanto
Faristawati
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Fuat Akrom

Score
7,6
6,0
5,3
4,7
6,6
4,3
5,9
4,7
4,7
5,6
5,9
5,1
6,3

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14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

Hafidh Kurnia Adi


Hana Juliana
Hanif Prasojo
Hannuna Dzawinnuha
Indra Utami Yanastiti
Irna Risma Wati
Irvan Kurniawan
Khori Adella Ariesta
Muhammad Alvian Setyadi
Muhammad Hafidz Suyuti
Rani Hartiwi
Resti Dwi Yanti
Ria Subekti
Rina Wahyu
Robby Alif Nugroho
Satria Agung Gemilang
Savira Ramadhani
Septian Dwi Cahyo
Sidiq
Siti Laelatul Fauziyah
Sri Rahayu
Teguh Arif Yanto Sudrajat
Zimika Mala Sari
Mean Score

5,6
7,7
6,1
7,7
4,6
5,7
5
6,3
6,4
5,3
6,7
6,0
6,7
6,0
6,0
4,6
7,3
6,0
6,1
5,7
4,9
5,9
6,6
5.9

b. Implementing the Action


There were two meetings in this cycle. Both meetings were treatment
meeting. To know the result of cycle 2, she also made post test 2.
1) The first meeting
The first meeting was on Wednesday, 12th May 2010. The theme was
Experience in the Kitchen. She began the lesson by greeting and checking
students attendance. After that she stated the topic of that day.
The teacher began the lesson by reviewing the last lesson. She asked the
students to mention some vocabularies dealing with experience in the farm. Most
of the students still remembered some words in the previous lesson. Next, the
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teacher introduced the new topic to the students by giving some questions about
experience in the kitchen. The teacher asked the students about tools that were
usually used by the students in the kitchen. Then, she asked three of the students
about their experience in the kitchen.
After that, she played a film. Then she asked the students to find out the
dificult words in the film. Then, they disscussed the words together. She also led
the students to play mix and match game about kitchen tools in pair.
The second material to discuss was imperative. The teacher showed
power point about formula of imperative and the example. Then, she asked the
students to made five sentences about imperative.
Time is up, before closing the lesson, researcher asked, Students, may I
know your perception about the implementation of video in your vocabulary?
They answered, Menyenangkan, Filmnya lucu. At last, researcher closed the
meeting by reviewing the material and pointed out the chairman of the class to
lead them pray.
2) The Second Meeting
It was carried out on 15th May 2010. The theme was the same, experience
in the kitchen. The teacher opened the lesson by asking students to sit down on
their own chair and greeted them. She opened the power point, showed the
vocabulary and then drilled the students one by one. She found that the students
did it incorrectly. Then she asked the students to watch a film. She wanted the
students to pay attention of the pronounciation. After that, she drilled words one
by one.

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The teacher also asked the students to do an exercise including finding


words antonym and synonym task. After that, she disscussed together with the
students. In the end of the session, the researcher informed the students that the
second post test would be held in the following week. Finally, she closed the
lesson by asking the chairman of the class to lead them pray.
The next week, on Wednesday, 19th May 2010, a post test was held. It
was to evaluate the students learning vocabulary during cycle II. The result of the
test is presented in the following table.
Table 4.4 The Result of Post Test 2
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Nama
Afrah Laila
Ahmad Azizurohman
Ahmad Syahrir Choirul Anwar
Alfiani Riastuti
Ari Wicaksono
Baniyah
Desi Dwi Ariyanti
Dewi Larasati
Dyah Taurisna Pujiyatun
Erlia Zulianti
Fajar Sigit Riyanto
Faristawati
Fuat Akrom
Hafidh Kurnia Adi
Hana Juliana
Hanif Prasojo
Hannuna Dzawinnuha
Indra Utami Yanastiti
Irna Risma Wati
Irvan Kurniawan
Khori Adella Ariesta
Muhammad Alvian Setyadi
Muhammad Hafidz Suyuti
Rani Hartiwi
Resti Dwi Yanti
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Ria Subekti

Score
6,7
7,1
7,3
7,3
6,6
7,1
7,4
7,3
6,6
7,6
6,6
6,6
7,1
6,6
8
6,6
7,9
6,7
7,3
7,3
6,7
6,6
7,1
7,4
7,7
6,9

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27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

Rina Wahyu
Robby Alif Nugroho
Satria Agung Gemilang
Savira Ramadhani
Septian Dwi Cahyo
Sidiq
Siti Laelatul Fauziyah
Sri Rahayu
Teguh Arif Yanto Sudrajat
Zimika Mala Sari
Mean Score

7,4
7,1
6,7
8,6
7,8
6,7
6,6
7,1
7,9
7,3
7,1

c. Observation
In this stage, she did observation and evaluation through observation
toward the teaching and learning process, document analysis, and pre test and post
test of the cycle 2. The result of observation can be reported as follows:
1) The improvement of the students vocabulary score.
This improvement can be seen from the result of vocabulary test. In pre
test 2 the students mean score was 5.9. In post test 2, their mean score improved
though not significantly to 6.9.
2) The students perception of audiovisualized narrative text as an interesting
media in mastering vocabulary.
In general, the students have a good perception about film. They said that
the film was funny and looks enthusiastic in the teaching learning process. When
they saw a funny scene, they laughed They enjoyed the film.
d. Reflection
After analyzing the result of the tests and the observation results in the
second cycle, she found some improvements. The improvements were as follows:
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1) The improvement of students vocabulary mastery


There was an improvement in students vocabulary mastery which could
be seen from their achievement in the last post test.
The implementation of film gave a significant contribution in improving
students vocabulary mastery. This improvement could also be revealed from their
qualities in using words in the right context. After using the media, students were
also able to spell and pronounce words correctly.
2) The increasing of students motivation and interest.
The students were motivated to be involved in the teaching learning
activity. They were also more active in the teaching learning process.
B. Discussion
The research findings are based on the teaching learning process,
document analysis, and test. They can be explained as follows:
1.

The improvement in students vocabulary mastery


The students could understand and grasp the meaning more easily. The

students could also pronounce the words correctly. They could use and spell the
words correctly, too. The students did more practices in understanding,
pronouncing, spelling, and using the words. They are helped by watching film and
doing some tasks so they could have more practices for enriching vocabulary
mastery using audio-visualized narrative text. The result of the tests shows
improvement: from 5.8 to 7.3 in Cycle I and from 5.9 to 7.1 in Cycle II.
2.

The improvement in classroom atmosphere


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The classroom atmosphere improved. The students were more interested


in joining the activities and they enjoyed the teaching learning process. The
students were more active and more enthusiastic during teaching learning process
because of the teacher use interesting materials. When the researcher asked them
about their perception, they answered, menyenangkan, filmnya lucu. The
students also gave more concentration during teaching learning process. It can be
seen from their relevant answer to some question given by the teacher related to
the lesson.
There are some improvements after the teacher giving the students some
treatments. These improvements include the improvement in vocabulary aspects,
such as pronunciation and spelling. As a conclusion, the use of Audiovisualized
Narrative Text can improve students vocabulary mastery. The evidence is the
improving scores. In addition, the classroom atmosphere also become more
positive. The indicators are:
a.

The students more actively participate in the teaching learning process

b.

The students are more interested in the teaching learning proces

c.

The students are more concentrated at classroom activity

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION
In this chapter, the writer presents conclusion, implication, and
suggestion of the study about improving students vocabulary mastery through
audio-visualized narrative text.
A. Conclusion
Based on the research findings and discussion in the previous chapter, the
researcher makes a conclusion that teaching vocabulary through audio-visualized
narrative text can improve students vocabulary mastery. The students
improvement on vocabulary mastery is shown by the enhancement of the
students achievement in vocabulary test, before and after the actions. The mean
score improved from the pre-test 1 to the cycle 1 test and from the pre-test 2 to the
cycle 2 test. In the pre-test 1 the students got 5.8 and in the post test 1 test they
got 7.3. In the pre-test 2 the students got 5.9 and in the post test 2 they got 7.1.
The quality of interesting classroom also improved. The students are
more interested in the teaching learning process. Using video as an authentic
material and choosing appropriate topic for students in teaching vocabulary made
the class more alive.
B. Implication
Based on the conclusion in this study and supported by all of the data of
the research, there is an improvement in teaching vocabulary by Audio-visualized
narrative text. Audio-visualized narrative text is an effective and interesting way
to improve students vocabulary mastery. Audio-visulized narrative text can
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improve students vocabulary mastery and also create interesting situation in the
classroom.
C. Suggestions
The writer would like to propose some suggestions dealing with the
result of this research. Hopefully, the following suggestions will be useful for the
teachers, the other researchers and educational institutions.
1. For the Teachers
The teachers should choose appropriate technique or teaching aids that
suitable with the situation in their classroom. It is important to attract students
interest of teaching learning process. The interesting way will make the students
more easily buy into the learning process.
2. For the Institutions
The institutions should provide technique and teaching aids reference that
support the teaching learning process in order to improve the teaching learning
quality.
3. For Other Researchers
This study is just one of many efforts in increasing motivation and
achievement students vocabulary. The writer hopes that the result of this study
can stimulate other researchers to conduct other researchers related to this field or
the technique.

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