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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

The Background of Problems


In the learning process, teachers must first establish learning objectives to
be achieved. According to Bloom's Taxonomy in Wena (2011:14) theoretical
learning objectives divided into three categories, namely (1) the cognitive learning
objectives, (2) the effective domain of learning goals, and (3) the domain of
psychomotor learning objectives.
According to Djamarah (2010:8) in teaching, teachers are using a method
usually difficult to create a classroom atmosphere that is conducive. If there is a
change, the classroom atmosphere is difficult normalized again. It's a sign of
disturbance in the process of educational interaction. As a result, the road
becomes less effective lessons. The efficiency and effectiveness of goal attainment
was so disturbed, due to the poor students to concentrate. The method used only
one can not be played, because the disorder stems from the weakness of the
method.
Basically, teaching or learning strategy can be done in various ways. One
way that can be used is to use images that use color plot or setting in order to
attracting the attention of students. Story Maps has been believed to be able to
describe the elements of the story into a Story Maps. Story Maps gives a clear
picture of how the elements, the setting and plot in a story. Thus the mindset of
the students can guess how the course of an existing story through pictures

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displayed and rewriting stories that emerge from the image. By using the Maps it
will help student arrangement the story writing.
Writing is system for interpersonal communication using visible or graphic
symbols on a surface such as paper, or even stone slabs, the daily newspapers,
advertisements, bill, notices, letters etc. Writing is not just putting pen to paper or
writing down ideas but it is how these ideas are presented or expressed effectively.
This highly demanding process of writing requires a number of skills and
conventions like organization in the development of ideas and information; a high
degree of accuracy in choosing the right words so that there is no ambiguity of
meaning and also the right use of complex grammatical devices to focus and
emphasize ideas. Besides, writing demands the author to have careful choice of
vocabulary and understand grammatical patterns and to be able to write sentence
structures that is appropriate to the subject matter.
One type of written text in English language teaching is recount text. In
essence recount text is a recount experiences and events of the past with the aim
to provide information or to entertain the reader, which recount text usually has
the following structure; 1) Orientation, or the introduction which aims to provide
information about who, where, and when the event or events that happened in the
past. 2) Events, is a record of events that occurred, the delivery usually in
chronological order, such as "In the first day, I ...., And in the next day ...., And in
the last day ....". The events section is also usually contained personal comments
about the event or events narrated. 3) Reorientation is recognition that there is a

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repetition stage in orientation, repetition which summarizes a series of events,
event or activity that is told.
As stated in KTSP prepared by the Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan
(BSNP) that the ability to write to second year junior high school students
covering core competencies: (1) disclose information in summary form, (2) text
message, (3) slogan / poster.
The competency standards specified further in competence in the basic
rewrite information in summary form (recount text), with indicators to be
achieved is; SK (Standar Kompetensi) no 3 is Understanding and applying
knowledge (factual, conceptual, and procedural) based on curiosity about science,
technology, arts, culture and events related with phenomena. Then KD
(Kompetensi Dasar) no 3.12 is applying text structure and elements of the
Language to perform social functions recount text stating and inquire about
activities, events, and events, short and simple, according to the context of use
(Appendix 1).
Based on the composition of SK and KD government that has been
developed and applied to the entire junior high, it appears that the ability to write
as one of the standards of competence to be achieved by students is to
Understanding and applying knowledge (factual, conceptual, and procedural)
based on curiosity about science, technology, arts, culture and events related with
phenomena on writing.

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Through author observations done in Junior High School IT Syahruddiniyah
Kampar Kiri Hilir, encountered the phenomenon especially in English writing
lessons among others, are as follows:
1. The lack of curiosity of students towards the subject matter presented by the
teachers. In a learning situation, students tend to get tired and less
enthusiastic in learning the English language, especially on the ability to
write.
2. Students skills in writing stories is poor, the inverted arrangement of many
stories and not directed properly. The concept of the story that written is still
disheveled.
3. The low ability second year students in writing recount text, arrangement of
orientation, series of events and re-orientation is still not well-structured.
4. The teachers do not use a appropriate strategy in teaching writing, so it can
influence the students writing ability.
Based on some of these phenomena, indicating the lack of ability of the
students in writing essays. These circumstances, according to the author of the
analysis is influenced by the teaching methods used by teachers for writing this in
presenting the material.
One attempt repairs to evaluate students writing skill is applying the Story
Maps Strategy. Acording to Khatib (2012:1116) A Story Maps is considered as a
kind of graphic organizer which includes a visual aid that displays the chunks of
information to be studied and a Story Maps help students understand the
components of the story.

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Based on these descriptions, the author are interested in doing research by
headings The effect of using Story Maps strategy towards writing skills of the
second year students at SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.
1.2.

Setting ot the Problems


Based on the background of the study mentioned above, the identification of
the problem of the research are:
1. The lack of curiosity of students towards the subject matter presented by the
teachers. In a learning situation, students tend to get tired and less
enthusiastic in learning the English language, especially on the ability to
write.
2. The students skills in writing stories is poor, the inverted arrangement of
many stories and not directed properly. The concept of the story that written
is still disheveled.
3. The low ability second year students in writing recount text, arrangement of
orientation, series of events and re-orientation is still not well-structured.
4. The teachers do not use a appropriate strategy in teaching writing, so it can
influence the students writing ability.

1.3.

Limitation of the Problem


In this research the author will do experimental research. Author limited the
issues to be discuss is just to find out:

1. How the students ability to writing a story concept?


2. How the students ability in writing recount text by arrangement of
orientation, series of events and re-orientation?

1.4.

Formulation of the Problem


Based on the limitation of problem above, formulation of problem
formulation follows: Is there any significant effect of using Story Maps strategy
to improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah
Kampar Kiri Hilir?

1.5.

Objective of the Research


Based on the problems formulated above the objectives of this research is
follows:
1. To find out the effect of using Story Maps strategy towards writing skills of
the second year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.

1.6.

Significance of the Research


The results of this study are expected to provide benefits to various parties,
are as follows:
1. Students; Improve students' abilities and skills in aspects of writing. Then
enhances the activity, interest, motivation and achievement of students in
the learning process, especially in writing recount text material.
2. Teachers; Increase knowledge about how to improve writing skills, and
selecting appropriate learning strategies to be used in teaching language
subjects.
3. School; It can be as a solution fixes the value of learning through learning
strategies Story Maps. Then improve the quality of teachers training
difficulties in determining the appropriate learning strategies in teaching.

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4. Writer: Help the writer accomplish the purpose of getting Sarjana degree in
English Language Education. In short, to help the writer complete the
requirements for a graduate degree.
1.7.

Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a purposed of explanation for a phenomenon, the hypothesis

of this research are:


Ho : There is no significant effect of using Story Maps learning strategy to
improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.
Ha : There is a significant effect of using Story Maps learning strategy to
improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.
1.8.

Definition of the Key Terms


In order to avoid misunderstanding in this research, it is necessary for the
author to define the following terms:
1. Effect is a result or condition produced by a cause, something that happens
when one thing act on another, Longman (1987:79). In this research, effect
is defined as the result of teaching writing by using Story Maps learning
strategy.
2. Story Maps, is considered as a kind of graphic organizer which includes a
visual aid that displays the chunks of information to be studied. And a
Story Maps help students understand the components of the story, Khatib
(2012:1116).

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3. Writing, is a discovery process that involves discovering ideas, how to
organize them and what that you want to put over to your order, so a lot of
what a author does as a author doesnt actually appear on the page. It is a
means of communication. Whenever the author want to write, he has to
knowing the audience or reader, it will help in reaching the the goal of
communicating clearly and effectively, Alice (1999:42).

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1.

Review of the Related Theories


2.1.1.
Learning Strategies
According to Iskandarwassid (2011:7) a learning strategy is a persons
approach to learning and using information. Students use Learning Strategies to
help them understand information and solve problems. Students who do not know
or use good learning strategies often learn passively and ultimately fail in school.
Learning Strategy instruction focuses on making students more active learners by
teaching them how to learn and how to use what they have learned to be
successful. Learning strategy can be described as the nature and behavior. Rubin
conducted a study on the difference between the properties of successful language
learning and language learner properties that do not work, while Oxford defines
learning strategies as "behaviors or actions taken by learners in order to be more
successful language learning, focused, and fun". The definition proposed by the

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Oxford over actions that can be observed even though the notion may also include
cognitive measures were not observed.
Learning difficulties experienced by children, it is the most common and
most frequently encountered in a learning situation. According to Djamarah
(2011:233) satisfactory academic achievement can be achieved by any of the
students if they can learn to be fair, protected from various threats, obstacles and
interference. However, unfortunately threats, obstacles and interference
experienced by specific students. So that they have difficulties in learning. At
some level there is a protected can overcome learning difficulties without having
to involve anyone elses. But in certain cases, because the students have not been
able to overcome learning difficulties, the help of the teachers or other person is
required by the students.
Based on research conducted by Stalling and Kaskowitz in Trianto
(2010:45) the results showed that of the tests performed between the two groups
of teachers, which consists of a group to use teaching methods that are very
structured and formal (formal), and two groups using innovative and creative
methods (informal). Groups two is more successful than one group, and obtain the
high involvement of students.
Acording to Suryosubroto (2009:22) who explain In essence, if an activity
is planned in advance, the purpose of these activities will be more focused and
more successful. That is why a teacher should have the ability to plan instruction.
A teacher before teaching should plan a program of teaching, making teaching
preparation to be given.

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2.1.2. Writing
2.1.2.1.
Definition of Writing
Writing, as a process of expressing ideas or thoughts in words, should be
done at our leisure. How can we do something that we do not enjoy? Writing can
be very enjoyable as long as we have the ideas and the means to achieve it.
Writing is the activity or occupation of writing, for example books, stories, or
articles. We can take more times to think and choose words in order to express our
idea, thought, and feeling. We still can make editing or revision if it is not so clear
to express what intends to write. Writing is a progressive activity. This means that
when you first write something down, you have already been thinking about what
you are going to say and how you are going to say it. The after you have finished
writing, you read over what you have written and make changes and corrections.
Therefore, writing is never a one step actions; it is a process that has several steps.
Even though the construct of writing ability should be specified before
practical assessment procedure is designed, this basic principle is likely to be
missed amongst teachers. They are likely to focus on devising other test-related
features such as test-tasks, topics and scoring schemes. However, for the concern
of validity of assessment, that is, construct validity, there is a need to make sure
that they do establish it beforehand. As for the ways to set it up, the definition of
writing ability can be formed depending on the teachers own experience as
teachers. It can be also defined according to their ideology on writing. Ideology
means here teacherss philosophy on the nature of writing. Since communicative
approach was adopted for language teaching and learning, the context of language
use is treated as an important factor in defining, teaching and measuring language

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ability. As for writing skill, the context is in terms of five aspects: task, situation
organiser, author, setting and materials. Ideally, for communicative approach, all
of these five aspects should be considered when defining writing ability, but it is
not the case with most of studies on writing ability and the teaching of writing.
The choice of context, therefore, is an issue, Yi (2009).
According to Alice (1999) Writing is a discovery process that involves
discovering ideas, how to organize them and what that you want to put over to
your order, so a lot of what a author does as a author doesnt actually appear on
the page. It is a means of communication. Whenever the author want to write, he
has to knowing the audience or reader, it will help in reaching the the goal of
communicated clearly and effectively.
According to Groth (2013:1) there are three basic principles in academic
writing, namely, content, register, and offences. Referring to content, it should be
made clear, specific, and relevant. The register should be formal, to the point, and
concise. On the other hand, academic writing should be free from offences and, in
most cases, should avoid sensitive issues.
The teaching of writing is a matter of prescribing a set of predetermined
tasks or exercises to the students. When teachers teach writing course not only
teach about how to develop ideas in writing, but also need a serious attention of
how to write English sentences grammatically and systematically. So, teaching
writing will be good if depends on the teachers' ability how to teach writing
effectively which can make the students ability being improved.
2.1.2.2.

Purpose of Writing

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Writing is an activity to pour your thoughts, ideas, and feelings of
someone who expressed in written language. In another sense, writing is an
activity to express thoughts and feelings in the form of writing that is expected to
be understood by the reader and serve as a means of indirect communication.
Thus, we can affirm that one's understanding of writing is an activity to convey to
the reader the idea of writing in a language that can be understood by the reader.
According to OMalley and Pierce on Sari (2008), there are
three purposes of writing based on the types of writing in English language
learning, those are:
1. Informative
It is represented by informative writing, that is purposed to share
knowledge or information, give directions, and state ideas to other.
Informative writing involves describing events or experiences, analyzing
concept, speculating on causes and effect, and developing new ideas that
are purposed to inform something may important to the readers.
2. Expressive or Narrative
It is represented by expressive writing or narrative writing is that is
purposed to share a personal or imaginative expression. Commonly it is
composed by the author story or essay. Expressive or narrative often used
to perform a pleasure discovery, story, poems, or short play.
3. Persuasive
It is represented by persuasive writing that is purposed to persuade the
readers to do something. It effort to influences others and initiate action or
change. This type of writing includes evaluation of book, movie, consumer
product, or controversial issues.
2.1.2.3.

Aspect of Writing

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As one aspect of language skills, writing or composing a complex activity.
The complexity lies in the writing demands the ability to organize ideas
coherently and logically, and presenting it in a variety of written language and
other writing conventions. However, despite its complexity, writing promises such
great benefits in helping the development of initiative and creativity, confidence
and courage, as well as the habits and the ability to find, collect, process, and
organize information.
According to Haris (1968:68) in having a good writing we need to look
for some indicators, they are grammar, form (organization), mechanic, vocabulary,
and style.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Grammar is employment of grammatical form and syntactic pattern.


Form (Organization) means the organizations of the content.
Mechanics means the use of graphic convention of the language.
Vocabulary means total number of words in language.
Style means choice of structure and lexical items to give a particular tone
or flavor to the writing.

2.1.2.4.

Types of Writing

Writing skills can be classified according to two different viewpoints. The


view point of the activity or activities in implementing writing skills and writing
the results of the product. Classification writing skills based on the viewpoint of
both generating division writing products. The type of writing system which exist
in the native language is an important factor in determining to easy of speech with
which students learn to write. According to Finocchiaro (1974) there are two types
of writing:

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1. Practical Writing
This type deals with the fact and functional writing. It is purposed to
special goal that we can find it in letters, papers, summaries, outlines, etc.
2. Creative or Imaginary Writing
This type usually exists in literature. Such as novel, romance, poem, short
story, science fiction, etc.
2.1.2.5.

Requirements of Good Writing

Good writing in any languages involves knowledge the convention of


written discourse in culture as well as the ability to choose the precise words that
convey ones meaning. To write an interesting text and good paragraph, we should
know what a paragraph is. A paragraph is a group of sentences which contain
relevant information about one main or central idea, Bram (1995).
A good paragraph normally focuses only on one idea that is expressed in
the topic sentence. Topic sentence is important to express an idea. Function of the
idea is to control the content of paragraph. Idea is the beginning of creative
process. A paragraph basically consists of three parts; those are introduction, body,
and conclusion.
2.1.3. Recount Text
2.1.3.1.
Definition of Recount Text
According to Hyland (2004) Recount is a kind of genre that has social
function to retell event for the purpose of informing or entertaining. The tense that
used in recount text is past tense. Social purpose of recount is to reconstruct past
experiences by retelling events in original sequence. We can look at the sample of
recount in personal letters, police report, insurance claims, and incident reports.

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According to Anderson (1997: 48) a recount is speaking or writing about
past events or a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order which
they happened. Recount text means the form of the text telling about someone
experience in the past that used in curriculum 2004, there for the experience of the
readers themselves, such as their adventure and their days activities. Recount text
means telling about oneself adventures or the days activities.
2.1.3.2.

Purpose of Recount Text

According to Indah (2010) a recount has social function. Recount tell


what happened. The purpose of a social recount is to document a series of events
and evaluate their significance in some way. It is also to give the audience a
descriptions of what occurred and when it occurred. The purpose of the literary /
story recount is to tell a sequence of events so that it entertains. The story recount
has expressions of attitude and feeling, usually made by narrator about the events.
2.1.3.3.

Aspect of Recount Text

Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its


purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication
among the participants and that differentiates from narrative. A recount focuses on
a sequence of events relating to a particular activity. The recount follows three
steps;

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time.

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The orientation forms the first paragraph of the written recount. This can
consist of one sentence but will often consist of at least two to three
sentences. The orientation sets the scene and supplies the necessary
introduction or background information that is needed to fully understand
the retelling. It establishes the rime, setting and who or what is
participating. It is important to include the when, who, what and where,
and sometimes why, to help the audience know what it is we want to retell.
2. Series of events: Describing series of event that happened in the past.
In this part of recount students need to focus on supplying details about the
who, what, where and when. Generally the recount is sequenced in time
order. Students should not start off explaining what happened at the
beginning of the day, then skip to the evening and back to the morning
again. During the drafting or planning students should list all the events
and number them in a time sequence. When writing personal recount
students writes in first person. Literary or researched factual recounts are
most likely to be written in the third person, although this change depends
on the point of view which the recount is told. Each time students begin to
write about a different event they should begin with a new paragraph. This
should have a few sentences in it.
3. Re-orientation: Stating personal comment of the author to the story.
This is an optional stage and is often used to complete the writing by
rounding off the series of events. It refers back to some of the information
in the orientation paragraph. It is best for students to try to avoid word then

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in the recount because it tends to be over used, becoming ineffective as a
sentence starter and conjunction.
2.1.3.4.

Types of Recount Text

In exploring how text works (Derewinka on Indah (2010)) there are six
types of recount, they are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Personal Recount Text,


Factual Recount Text,
Imaginative Recount Text,
Constructing a Written Recount Text,
Languages Features in a Recount Text,
Significant of Lexical Grammatical Features.

2.1.4. Story Maps Strategy


2.1.4.1. Definition of Story Maps
In 2004 Boulineau and colleagues investigated the effects of Story Maps
on elementary school students. They study examined whether the effects of Story
Maps would be maintained afer the intervention was discontinued. Similar to
Garidill and Jitendra on Moore (2003), the researchers observed a significant
increase in comprehension during the story Maps intervention. The six students in
this study correctly answered 31% of comprehension questions before the
intervention was implemented. During implementation the students mean
comprehension score dramatically increased to 48%. For the last phase of the
study, the Story Maps intervention was discontinued for three weeks. Upon
completion of three week period, students comprehension skills were tested for a
final time. The research revealed all six students maintained high levels of
correctly-answered comprehension questions, Herre (2010:16).

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Acording to Khatib (2012:1116) a Story Maps is considered as a kind of
graphic organizer which includes a visual aid that displays the chunks of
information to be studied. And a Story Maps help students understand the
components of the story.
The same meaning by Kurniawan (2013:5) sad Story Maps is a technique
used after a story has been read. It includes identifying the main elements, and
categorizing the main events in sequential order. A graphic representation is often
used to illuistrate the story structure and sequence of events. A Story Maps is a
visual depiction of the settings or the sequence of major events and actions of
story characters. This procedure enables students to relate story events and to
perceive in literary selections.
Moore (2003:6) explained these Story Maps are laminated so that story
ideas can be brainstormed on them by the teachers with an overhead pen and
wiped off when finished. The grapichs are attached with self-sticking Velcro after
the poster has been laminated. This allows the teachers to change the graphics
with ease in order to demonstrate many story ideas for children during carpet
time. Acording to Alice (1999:7), writing courses are essential because no matter
what you choose, you will be responsible for numerous papers in most of your
classes. By taking reading and composition classes, you learn to analyze and
understand required reading and discover ideas that you can use for writing
assignments and projects.
The Story Maps could be viewed as a visual depiction of the setting or the
sequence of major events and actions of story characters with the aim of enabling

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students to relate story events and to perceive structure in literary selections,
Ibnanian (2010:182).
Basically writing recount text and the reviews are not much different, the
purpose of writing a review is to let the reader know whether it is worthwhile to
read a certain book, to view a particular film, or to attend the performance of a
play. When you write a review, you have to present information which is
supported by evidence taken from the work itself and be able to state the strenghts
and the weakness of the work of performance through explanation, interpretation
and analysis, Groth (2013:171).
2.1.4.2. Steps of Story Maps
In a study conducted in Texas, Li investigated the effect of story Maps and
story Maps questions on story writing performance of students with learning
disabilities, regarding fluency and diversity of word usage. The students received
explicit instruction on the use of story Maps for writing stories, Tabatabaei and
Radi (2012:3).
Tabatabaei and Radi (2012:2) explained that everyone has his or her own
specific schemas. Every person has his or her own sense of story structures in his
mind or her mind. This mind structure can help one in comprehending stories.
Story Maps is a visual representation of the story by writing the important
elements (for example, character, setting, goal, etc). The only important point in
drawing the story Maps form is should contain the main elements of a story.
According to Moore (2003:8) explain the steps of Story Maps are
following:

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1. Read the class a picture book example of the plot pattern you are studying.
2. Gather concepts/ ideas from the book and add them to your idea Bank.
3. Choose character graphics.
4. Create a Story Maps for the children using one or more new character
graphics.
5. Have children create their own Story Maps using one or more of the new
character graphics you provide them. They will also base their story
problem on the same concept/ idea you modelled and collected from the
author. Do not have children write the story. The point of these story
planning sessions is to build the concept of story problem and resolution.
6. Repeat this process of: reading books, collecting ideas, modeling a Story
Maps, and students creating own story Maps five times. If students show a
strong grasp of the plot structure go on to writing a story which uses this
pattern.
The Story Maps could be viewed as a visual depiction of the setting or the
sequence of major events and actions of story characters with the aim of enabling
students to relate their writing skills. Based on some expert opinion above, then
the researcher can assume that story Maps strategy can help students in grouping
scheme of the story that will be written through visual forms of (character, setting,
goal, etc), because the main concept of strategy Maps story is used after a story
has been read then students have to visualized the component of the story and
group them into one and put it into written form.
2.2.

Past Studies

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Some researcher shows that teaching by using Story Maps is improving
students writing skills, below the successful research are;
Table 2.1
Past Studies
No. Researcher
1 Salem
Saleh
Khalaf Ibnian,
Journal
of
University for
Graduate
Studies Vol. 3,
No. 4.

Year
2010

Title
The
Effect
of
Using the StoryMaps Technique on
Developing Tenth
Grade
Students
Short
Story
Writing Skills in
EFL

Result
Results revealed the
effect of using the story
Maps
technique
on
developing tenth grade
students' short story
writing skills.

Jamie Herre,
Journal
of
University of
Dayton, Ohio.

2010

The Effects of
Story Maps on the
Comprehension
Skills of Students
With
Attention
Deficit
Hyperactivity
Disorder

An analysis of the data is


expected to reveal that
Story Maps increases
comprehension skills for
students with ADHD and
that this effect is
maintained after the
intervention
is
discontinued. Limitations
of the results and
implications for future
research are discussed.

No. Researcher
3 Omid
Tabatabaei and
Nafise
Radi,
Journal
of
Islamic Azad
University,

Year
2012

Title
The Effect of Story
Mapping
on
Writing
Performance
of
Iranian
EFL
Learners

Result
The findings of this study
revealed
that
intermediate L2 learners
enjoy
using
Story
Mapping to develop their
writing proficiency (both

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Najafab
Branch, Iran.

Mohammad
Khatib, Journal
of Languange
Teaching and
Researcher,
Vol. 3, No. 6,
pp. 1114-1121

2012

The Impact of
Using Story Maps
as
Graphic
Organizers
on
Development
of
Vocabulary
Learning of EFL
Learners.

Ashadi
Kurniawan,
Journal
of
Tanjungpura
University,
Pontianak.

2013

Improving
Students Reading
Comprehension On
Narrative
Text
Through
Story
Maps Strategy

in
overall
and
components of writing).
Therefore, it can be
concluded that Story
Mapping have the criteria
of fostering meaningful
learning (i.e., clarity of
materials.
Using Story Maps as
graphic organizers for
understanding
short
stories was found to be of
great
importance
to
enhance the learners'
incidental
vocabulary
learning. A story Maps
helps students understand
the components of the
story more clearly by
breaking
down
the
components of a storycharacters, setting, and
dialogue in a series of
events or conflicts. This
will comprehend the
events of the story.
The research findings
showed that Story Maps
strategy was appropriate
for teaching reading
comprehension.
Students mean score
increased from 56.68 to
73.19.
Story
Maps
provides structure and
organization so students
were able to comprehend
the story more effective.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METODOLOGY

3.1.

Research Design

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The research is experimental research. An experimental research is the
traditional approach to conducting quantitative research Creswell (2005:282). In
an experiment, test an idea (or practice or procedure) to determine whether it
influence an outcome or dependent variable. An experiment is use establish
possible cause and effect between the independent dependent variables. This
means that researcher control all variables that influences the outcome expect for
the independent variable. Then the independent variable influences the dependent
variable, the independent variable caused or probably caused the dependent
variable.
It involves two groups, an experimental group and control group. They
were treats differently: however, the teachers, the length of the time, and the
material are same. The experimental group treated by story maps learning
strategies, while the control one treated as usual without story maps learning
strategies.
Table 3.1
Research Design
No
.
1
2

Group

Pre-test

Treatment

Post-test

Experiment
Control

Writing Test
Writing Test

Story maps
-

Writing Test
Writing Test

In order to show the effect of variable in this study, both of variables


shown in following figure:
Figure 3.1.
Research Design
Independent Variable
Story Maps
(X)

Treatment

Dependent Variable
Writing Skills
(Y)

24

3.2.

Variable X

: To find out the ability of students writing skills by using


story maps.

Variable Y

: To aim how increasing or different achievement being


taught by using story maps.

Location and Time of the Research


The research has been completed on second year students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir located at Raya Pekanbaru-Taluk Kuantan
streets, Km. 30, Kampar Kiri Hilir. This research have completed within a month
on May 2015. The schedules of this research are shown in table 3.2 as follow:
Tabel 3.2
Schedules of in Class Instruction for Experimental Class
No
1
2
3
4

Meetings

Activity

Meeting I
May 07th 2015
Meeting II
May 08th 2015
Meeting III
May 14th 2015
Meeting IV
May 15th 2015

Writing recount text


(Pre-test)
Learning recount text
using Story Maps strategy
Learning recount text
using Story Maps strategy
Writing recount text
(Post-test)

Participant Class
Experimental Class
Experimental Class
Experimental Class
Experimental Class

Tabel 3.3
Schedules of in Class Instruction for Control Class
No
1
2

Meetings

Activity

Meeting I
May 09th 2015
Meeting II

Writing recount text


(Pre-test)
Writing recount text

Participant Class
Control Class
Control Class

25
May 16th 2015

(Post-test)

3.3.

The Population and Sample of the Research


3.3.1. Population
According

Sugiyono

(2012:115)

definition

of

population

is

generalization which consists of objects/ subjects that have certain qualities and
characteristics are determined by the investigator to be studied and then drawn
conclusions. The total number populations are 154 students. The population of
this research is the second grade student at SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri
Hilir is shown by table 3.4 as follow:
Table 3.4
The Population of Research
No
.
1
2
3
4
5

Class
VIIIA
VIIIB
VIIIC
VIIID
VIIIE
Total

Male
30
33
31
94

Gender
Female
30
30
60

Total Student
30
33
31
30
30
154

3.3.2. Sample
According Sugiyono (2012:115) definition of sample is part of the number
and characteristics possessed by the population. According Arikunto (2002:112)
explain when the subject is less than 100 people, is better taken all that research is
the study population. In this research consist of two classes, then the researcher
only have license consist for two classes assumes that each class has similar
characteristics, so this research is divided into experimental group and control

26
group on VIIID class and VIIIE class. Table 3.5 shown classification of participants
as follow:
Table 3.5
The Sample of Research
No
.
1
2

Class

Group

Total Student

VIIID
VIIIE

Experimental
Control

30
30
60

Total
3.4.

Indicators of the Research


In this research, the indicators of this research adapted from Rencana
Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP) curriculum of 2013 of English Study for second
year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir 2014. This RPP
focused in writing recount paragraph. Table 3.6 shown indicator of writing
recount text as follow:
Table 3.6
Indicator of Writing Score Recount Text

3.5.

N
o
1

Indicators

Max Score

Description

Orientation

40

Series of events

30

Re-orientation

30

Introducing the participants, place and


time.
Describing series of event that
happened in the past.
Stating personal comment of the author
to the story.

Data Collecting Technique


In order to give the data for this research, the author use the following
techniques:
1. Pre-Test
Pre-Test is an initial evaluation conducted to test the concept and
execution that will be planned. The pre-test is carried out to determine the

27
early background ability of the students select as the sample. The test items
use for pre-test are the same with the test items use in post-test, whether it
is experimental class.
2. Treatment
The treatment conducts for experimental class. In this research, the
treatment use Story Maps learning strategies on experimental class.
3. Post-Test
Post-Test evaluation was conducted to see the achievement of
objectives and serve as input for subsequent analysis of the situation. Post
test values will be compared with pretest values to determine how the
difference or increase between pretest and posttest.
To obtain the data need in this research, the author collect the data by
distributing test to the students. The test is used to find the score of students
writing recount paragraph. The author have done pre-test and post-test to
experiment class and control class in order to know the effect of Story Maps
toward writing skills. The recount text here is a text that retells events or
experiences within the past in detail. The rubrics score of writing recount text of
this research is shown in table 3.7 as follow:
Table 3.7
Rubrics Score of Writing Recount Rext
No.

Criteria

Score

Excellent

81 100

Criteria
- Using the appropriate title
- Introduct paragraph effectively,
Mentioned topic and lead to the
contents, Refers to the arrangement
of matter planning (must be

28

generalized by readers), Provide


evidence
that
support
and
conclusions are logical complete.
2

Very Good

61 80

- Using the appropriate title


- Introduction and conclusion of the
table of contents is acceptable, but
there are some ideas that are not
developed well. Logical sequence,
but the transitional expression does
not seem.

Good

41 60

- Introduction or conclusion problem


with
sequence
of
content,
generalization is not supported by
the available evidence, the problem
of organizing and table of contents.

Fair

21 40

- Limited preliminary contents


- Reading the content is predictable
- Unusual problem with organizing
ideas, lack of evidence support and
illogical conclusion and doesnt
match with the content.

Poor

0 20

- There is no introduction and


conclusion.
- No organization could be seen in
content/ sctructure of the essay,
lack of evidence and the author
does not make organization
composition (not visible to reader).
References : Brown, J.D & Bailey, M (1984:254)
3.6.

Research Procedure
In this research, the procedure of collecting data divided into two phrases.
First, the procedure of collecting data for experimental group and second the
procedure of collecting data for control group.
1. Research Procedure for Experimental Group
a. Pre-Test
Before treatment, the students in experimental group given pre test
by using writing recount text. The purpose is to know the students writing
skills before treatment. Pre test conduct for the first meeting.

29
b. Treatment
After giving the pre test, the author began the treatment through use
of story maps learning strategies. This treatment given in order to know is
there significant effect on the students writing skills. Treatment has been
done for two meeting. The treatment gives to experimental group only.
c. Post-Test
After treatment finish, the author gives post test to the student. It
aims to know how the effect by using story maps toward writing skills of
the student. It is has been completed to figure out whether there is any
significant effect between these groups.
2. Research Procedure for Control Group
a. Pre-Test
On the first meeting, the student in control group has been given pre
test by using writing recount text.
b. No treatment
There is no treatment by author, when teaching learning process in
control group class. The students studied in the class depend on subject
using their textbook and generally strategies by their own English teachers.
c. Pos-test
The post test has been given after the pre test. It has purpose to know
how the writing skills student, after learning by their teachers without story
maps learning strategies.

3.7.

Data Analysis Technique


After the data of the research are collect, it is necessary to analyze by
using statistical analysis to analyze the data. To know the result whether it is
statistically significant, it will be analyzed by using t-test. Before applying the ttest, it is necessary to follow the following steps:

30
1. To find students individual score:
R
X = 100
N
Where:
X
: Individual score
R
: Total correct answer
N
: Amount of test items
100 : Constant number
2. To find out the mean score ( X )
X
X =
N
Where:
X
: Mean score
X
: Total score
N
: Number of students
3. To find out standard deviation
X2

S=
N1

Where:
S

: Standard deviation

X2

: Total score

: Number of students

: Constant number

4. To find out the variance


X2

Variance=
N1
Where:
x2 : Total score
N
: Number of student
1
: Constant number

5. To find out degree of freedom.


DF=( N 11 ) +(N 21)

31
Where:
DF
= Degree of freedom
N1
= Number of students in experimental group
N2
= Number of students in control group
1
= Constant number
6. To find out the t-test
X e X c
T obs=
S( X e X c )
Where:
T
: T-value (t-test)
Xe
: The average score of experimental group
Xc
: The average score of control group
After computing the t-test (Tobs), the degree of freedom has to be found in
order to determine if the t-score is significant. If the value t-calculated is smaller
than t-table, there is significant or null hypothesis is rejected. Vice versa, if the
value of t-calculated is bigger than value t-table, it means there is no significant or
alternative hypothesis accepted.

32
CHAPTER IV
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1.

Description of the research


The author has conducted research that has been done in second year
students at SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir. There were two classes in
this researched, they were experimental class and control, VIIID as experimental
group and VIIIE as control group. The author provided written test consist.
The writer gave two tests: pre-test and post test for each of class, pre-test
for the experimental group was given before the writer apply story maps learning
strategies while control class given before the lessons begins. During in the
treatment, the writer applying the story maps in teaching conducted for two times
meetings. At the end of the treatment, the students were given post-test, in the
post-test happened improve the students score and some of the students could
write down recount text correctly.

4.2.
Research Finding
4.2.1. The Result of Pre-test
Before conducting a treatment, the writer had given pre-test to the
experimental group and control group. It was to know the students writing skills
of the second year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir. The
writer gave pre-test to know the students writing ability. The writer used the
written text based on student concept/ideas.

33
Table 4.1
The Result of Students Pre-test in Experimental Class

Based on table 4.1, it can be seen that the calculation of students score by
30 students for pre-test in experimental class is 1725. The maximal of students
score is 85, minimum of students score is 20, mean of students score is 57,50
standar deviation of students score is 17,36 and variance of students score is
301,29.

34
Table 4.2
The Result of Students Pre-test in Control Class

Based on table 4.2, it can be seen that the calculation of students score by
30 students for pre-test in control class is 1750. The maximal of students score is
85, minimum of students score is 20, mean of students score is 58,33 standar
deviation of students score is 21,83 and variance of students score is 476,44.

35
4.2.2. The Result of Post-test
Post-test was conducted after all of the treatment of strory maps have been
implemented to the students in experimental group. The result of this test was
taken as the data of the research, and then, the score was compared with the pretest one. As a further information, the written tests whether in pre-test or post-test
were the same only has different while choosen topic. Below was presented the
result of pos-test of both experimental and control group.
Table 4.3
The Result of Students Post-test in Experimental Class

36
Based on table 4.3, it can be seen that the calculation of students score by
30 students for post-test in experimental class is 2330. The maximal of students
score is 100, minimum of students score is 55, mean of students score is 76,67
standar deviation of students score is 16,65 and variance of students score is
277,13.
Table 4.4
The Result of Students Post-test in Control Class

37
Based on table 4.4, it can be seen that the calculation of students score by
30 students for post-test in control class is 2315. The maximal of students score is
100, minimum of students score is 50, mean of students score is 77,17 standar
deviation of students score is 16,54 and variance of students score is 273,59.
4.2.3. The Increasing from Pre-test to Post-test
Both of classes were given the same materials, but they got the different
result. The difference result of these two groups can be seen in the table below:
Table 4.5
The Result of Pre-test
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Data

Experimental Class

Control Class

Maximal score
Minimal score
Total score
Mean
Standar deviation
Variance

85
20
1725
57,50
17,36
301,29

85
20
1750
58,33
21,83
476,44

Table 4.5 showed difference result between experimental class and control
class in term of maximal score, minimal score, total score, mean, standar
deviation and variance.
Table 4.6
The Result of Post-test
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Data

Experimental Class

Control Class

Maximal score
Minimal score
Total score
Mean
Standar deviation
Variance

100
55
2330
77,67
16,65
277,13

100
50
2315
77,17
16,54
273,59

38
Table 4.6 showed difference result between experimental class and control
class in term of maximal score, minimal score, total score, mean, standar
deviation and variance.
Table 4.7
The Result Test of Experimental Class Score
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Data

Pre-test

Post-test

Increasing

Percentage

Maximal score
Minimal score
Total score
Mean
Standar deviation
Variance

85
20
1725
57,50
17,36
301,29

100
55
2330
77,67
16,65
277,13

15
35
605
20,17
-0,71
-24,16

15,00%
63,64%
25,97%
25,97%
-4,26%
-8,72%

Table 4.7 explained there is increasing of students test result between pretest and post-test in term of maximal score increased for 15 point (15.00%),
minimal score increased for 35 point (63.64%), total score increased for 605 point
(25.97%), mean increased for 20,17 point (25.97%), standar deviation decrease
for -0,71 point (-4,26%) and variance decrease for -24,16 point (-8,72%) of
experimental class by using story maps toward students writing skills.
Table 4.8
The Result Test of Control Class Score
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Data

Pre-test

Post-test

Increasing

Percentage

Maximal score
Minimal score
Total score
Mean
Standar deviation
Variance

85
20
1750
58,33
21,83
476,44

100
50
2315
77,17
16,54
273,59

15
30
565
18,84
-5,29
-202,85

15,00%
60,00%
24,41%
24,41%
-31,98%
-74,14%

Table 4.8 explained there is increasing of students test result between pretest and post-test in term of maximal score increased for 15 point (15.00%),

39
minimal score increased for 30 point (60.00%), total score increased for 565 point
(24,41%), mean increased for 18,84 point (24,41%), standar deviation decrease
for -5,29 point (-31,98%) and variance decrease for -202,85 point (-74,14%) of
control class without using story maps toward students writing skills.
Table 4.9
The Result of All Tests
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Data

Experiment

Control

Difference

Percentage

Maximal score
Minimal score
Total score
Mean
Standar deviation
Variance

100
55
2330
77,67
16,65
277,13

100
50
2315
77,17
16,54
273,59

5
15
0,5
0,11
3,54

0,00%
9,09%
0,64%
0,64%
0,66%
1,28%

Based on table 4.9, the writer concludes that the difference of data score
percentage in experiment class was higher than the control class in terms of
maximal score has no differences, minimal score has differences for 5 point
(9,09%), total score has differences for 15 point (0,64%), mean has differences for
0,5 point (0,64%), standar deviation has differences for 0,11 point (0,66%) and
variance has differences for 3,54 point (1,28%).
4.3.

The Progress of Students Writing Skills Component


After calculating the result of all tests, we can see the students progress of
each components in writing recount text in pre-test and post-test.
Table 4.10
Mean of Writing Recount Text Components in Experimental Class

Pre-test Mean
Post-test Mean

Recount Text Components


Orientation
Series of events Re-orientation
23,83
21,33
12,33
31,33
25,33
21,00

40
Total Score Increase
7,50
4,00
8,67
Percentage (%)
23,94%
15,79%
41,27%
It can be seen from table 4.10 that the increasing is shown by students in
students writing skills who taught by Story maps learning strategy. The increasing
of students for orientation was 23.94%, series of event was 15.79% and reorientation was 41.27%. The percentages of students writing recount text
component can be seen in this following graphic:
Figure 4.1 Students Increasing in Writing Recount Text Components in
Experimental Class

Figure 4.1 showed the students average score increased in each recount
text components from the low score to higher score. First, from the graphic we
can see the lowest mean score was re-orientation where in pre-test the students got
12,33 points in pre-test and score in post-test increased become 21,00 points or
increased 41,37%. Second, in series of events the students got 21,33 points in pretest and increased become 25,33 points in post-test or increased 16,40%. Third, in

41
orientation, the students got 23,83 points in pre-test then increased become 31,33
points in post-test or increased 24,05%.
Table 4.11
Mean of Writing Recount Text Components in Control Class

Pre-test Mean
Post-test Mean
Total Score Increase
Percentage (%)

Recount Text Components


Orientation
Series of events Re-orientation
25,00
23,33
10,00
29,83
25,86
22,76
4,83
2,53
12,76
16,18%
9,78%
56,06%

We can see from table 4.11 that the increasing is shown by students in
writing recount text and doesnt teaching by story maps and used by teacher own
strategy. The increasing of students for orientation was 16.18%, series of event
was 9.78% and re-orientation was 56.06%. The percentages of students writing
recount text component can be seen in this following graphic:
Figure 4.2

Students Increasing in Writing Recount Text Components in


Control Class

42
Figure 4.2 showed the students average score increased in each recount
text components from the low score to higher score. First, from the graphic we
can see the lowest mean score was re-orientation where in pre-test the students got
10,00 points in pre-test and score in post-test increased become 22,76 points or
increased 56,06%. Second, in series of events the students got 23,33 points in pretest and increased become 25,86 points in post-test or increased 9,78%. Third, in
orientation, the students got 25,00 points in pre-test then increased become 29,83
points in post-test or increased 16,18%.
4.4.

Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis testing used to know how the result of the research. In this
study the researcher used hypothesis testing was null hypothesis.
H0 :

There is no significant effect of using story maps learning strategy to


improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.

Ha :

There is a significant effect of using story maps learning strategy to


improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.
If the observed statistic was smaller than the critical statistic, the null

hypothesis is accepted. If the observed statistic was greater than the critical value
for than statistic, the null hypothesis was rejected. Having rejected the null
hypothesis, one of the two alternatives was automatically accepted.
T obs=
Where:

X e X c
S( X e X c )

43
T
Xe
Xc
S

: T-value (t-test)
: The average score of experimental group
: The average score of control group
: Mean Deviation Between Mean
87,6777,17
T obs=
4,28
T obs=

10,50
4,28

T obs=2,45
T table =2,00
Based on the calculation of t-test above, it was clearly seen that the value
of Tobs 2,45. Meanwhile, the value of ttable on the degree of freedom 58 (DF 30 +
30 2 = 58) at = 0.5. in level of significant for two tail test is 2,00 (Sudijono,
2012). We could see the significant difference between tobs and ttable was much
greater. (2,45 > 2,00).
It can be conclude, because of tobs was much greater than ttable, the null
hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted. And the
alternative hypothesis is There is a significant effect of using story maps learning
strategy to improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir. We could see it through the increasing of
means of the experimental group the pre-test to the post-test.
4.5.

Interpretation Data
After the treatment was given in teaching for experimental group for two
meetings through story maps toward students writing skills of recount text, the
post test was administrated for groups, experimental group was 77,67 and control
group 77,17. It could be seen that the mean increase made by experimental group

44
for the pre-test 57,50 to post-test 77,67 and increased for 20,17 point (25,97%).
The evidence indicates that the experimental group teaching by using story maps
building the student aknowledgement based on their orientation, series of event
and re-orientation better than the control group. So, by using story maps toward
students writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah
Kampar Kiri Hilir was one of creative strategy to teaching writing could help the
students to improve their writing skills especially in this research was recount
text.
Moreover, based on the calculation the standard deviation of the
experimental and control group in the hypothesis testing, it was found that value
of tobs was greater than ttab (2,45 > 2,00) in alpha decision level (0,5) with degree
of freedom (DF = 58) consequently, the null hypothesis is rejected. It means
there was a significant effect of using story maps learning strategy to improve
writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri
Hilir.
4.6.

Story Maps to Improve Students Writing Skills


In teaching writing to the second year students of SMP IT Syahruddiniyah
Kampar Kiri Hilir, the writer used story maps to build students understanding of
concepts and in writing story, as well as expand the ideas and creativity of the
students become better. There has been research conduct on the many and varied
benefits of using story maps to enhance lesson with preschool and elementary age
school children.

45
One of the biggest hurdles for students to overcome in story writing is
having good ideas and an awareness of how to develop and resolve the story
problem. The purpose of story maps learning strategy is to help children develop
an inner library of ideas and the ability to plan successful story problems and
resolutions through story maps. It does not involve the story writing process,
although it certainly leads there. This is accomplished through the teacher guiding
the class in researching picture boks and chapters.
These story maps are laminated so that story ideas can be brainstormed on
them by the teacher with an overhead pen and wiped when finished. The graphics
are attached with self-sticking after the post er has been laminated. This allows
teacher to change the graphics with ease in order to demonstrate many story ideas
for students during carpet time.
Firstly, teacher ask students to read the class a picture book example of
the plot pattern were studying. Second, students gathering concepts/ ideas from
the book and add them to idea bank form. Third, students choose character
graphics. Fourth, students create a story maps for the children using one or more
new character graphics. Fifth, teacher let students to create their own story maps
using one or more of the new character graphics provide them. They will also base
their story problem on the same concept/ idea you modelled and collected from
the author. Sixth, the point of these story planning sessions is to build the concept
of story problem and resolution. Seventh, repeat this process of: reading books,
collecting ideas, modeling a story maps, and students creating own story maps

46
five times. If students show a strong grasp of the plot structure go on to writing a
story which uses this pattern.
SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir, the researcher used story maps
as the strategy of teaching writing. The researcher chosen this strategy because it
would be improves students ideas and concept to writing. Before applying this
strategy, the teaching writing at class was monotonous, so the student got bored
and didnt have motivation on learning. The monotonous strategy made student
feels lazy to write because teacher only ask students to write a story based on
their experience only. By using story maps, students can further develop their
ability to write stories not only based on his experience, but also his ability to
arrange a story based on his imagination.
Building a fun and interested situation on learning is possible by using
attractive strategy. Because the student will be received the material easily. So, the
students were not bored and enthusiastic on learning situation. In general, the
writer concluded that improving students writing skills through story maps could
encourage the students ability in recount text. It is mean, that improving students
writing skills through story maps was effective. The students writing skills
improvement could be shown in descriptions of students improvement below:
1) Eka Dian Safitry (Students no. 7, experimental class, VIIID)
Before the writer gave treatment that was teaching writing skills by using
story maps. Basically, she has been able to compile recount text at the
pretest, based on the orientation that explains aspects of participant, place
and time as well as aspects of the series of events that describes the events
that have passed. But there is no re-orientation at the end of the paragraph.

47
When the post test, she have good results about story writing and
developing the ideas conceptualized story.
2) Novi Agata Ananda Putri (Students no. 13, experimental class, VIIID)
Before the writer gave treatment that was teaching writing skills by using
story maps. Basically, she has been able to compile recount text at the
pretest, based on the orientation that explains aspects of participant, place
and time. But she had difficulty in establishing the concept of a story that
has happened. The stories seem disheveled and not sequentially. But there
is re-orientation at the end of the paragraph. When the post test, she have
good results about story writing and developing the ideas conceptualized
story.
3) Dinda Aulia (Students no. 9, control class, VIIIE)
Before the teacher gave treatment that was teaching writing skills by using
teacher own strategy. Basically, she has been able to compile recount text
at the pretest, based on the orientation that explains aspects of participant,
place and time as well as aspects of the series of events that describes the
events that have passed. There is re-orientation at the end of the paragraph,
but it just only a few words and still not show the maximal re-orientation.
When the post test, she have good results about story writing and
developing the ideas conceptualized story.
4) Thia Rezky Hedriani (Students no. 27, control class, VIIIE)
Before the teacher gave treatment that was teaching writing skills by using
teacher own strategy. Basically, she has been able to compile recount text
at the pretest, based on the orientation that explains aspects of participant,
place and time. But she had difficulty in establishing the concept of a story
that has happened. The stories seem disheveled and not sequentially. But

48
there is re-orientation at the end of the paragraph. When the post test, she
have good results about story writing and developing the ideas
conceptualized story.
Based on the result of the four students above, the writer concluded that
was an increase of writing skills achievement. It could be seen from the students
ability. Overall, there is an increase in both the experimental class and control
class, but basically the experimental class is superior to the 20,17 point increase
on the average, while the superior control class with 18,83 points increase based
on the average.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1.

Conclusion
This section will discuss about the conclusion of this research. After the
writer analyzed the data in chapter IV, the writer can make the conclusion which is
related to the research. The conclusion involved the theoretical conclusion and
practical conclusion presented the result of research. However, this study also
described and explained about the recommendations not only for students, but
also for the teacher which especially by using story maps toward students writing
skills.

5.1.1. Theoretical Conclusion

49
From the theory, story map is one of the good learning strategies to
teach writing skills. Story maps help students to categorizing the main
events in sequential order. A graphic representation is often used to
illuistrate the story structure and sequence of events.
5.1.2. Practical Conclusion
This research is an experimental research. It is done in two groups:
an experimental group and control group. The experimental group treats by
using story maps and the control group treats without using story maps.
The location of the research was SMP IT Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri
Hilir. Target population of this research was second year of SMP IT
Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir, was 154 and sample was 60.
Based on analysis of data in previous chapter, the result of research can be
concluded as follows:
1) There is a significant effect of using story maps learning strategy to

improve writing skills of the second year Students of SMP IT


Syahruddiniyah Kampar Kiri Hilir.
2) Experimental class taught by the story maps, is more effective in
improving students' writing skills than the control class.
5.2.

Suggestion
From the explanation in previous chapters, the author want to give the
some suggestion that related to the thesis, especially for English language
teaching and in the future can hopefully be increased in the teaching of English
writing skills.

5.2.1.

Suggestion for English Teacher

50
Basically the learning strategies that used by teachers has been very
good in improving students' writing skills but, students still confious to
draft story idea. This limitations of the students writing stories based on
personal experiences and difficult when develop the story in sequence.
Based on the results of this study can be known that the story maps
is more effectively on maximizing the ability of students to write stories
especially recount text in accordance with the aspects contained in the
recont text.
Acording to Khatib (2012:1112) a Story Maps is considered as a
kind of graphic organizer which includes a visual aid that displays the
chunks of information to be studied. And a Story Maps help students
understand the components of the story.
5.2.2. Suggestion for Students
The ability of students to write a story quite well. But the content of
the story is less interesting and there are some students who still do not
sequential story ideas. Students are expected to continue to develop his
writing skills not only to recount text, but also various types of other text.
According to Bram (1995:29) good writing in any languages
involves knowledge the convention of written discourse in culture as well
as the ability to choose the precise words that convey ones meaning. To
write an interesting text and good paragraph, we should know what a
paragraph is. A paragraph is a group of sentences which contain relevant
information about one main or central idea.

51
5.2.3. Suggestion for the Next Researchers
The writer suggests that the other researchers can try this learning
strategy to improve various capabilities in other language such as writing
(another text genre), reading, listening and speaking. So this story maps
learning strategies can be used for all components of a study supported by
scientific explanations and educative.
Kurniawan (2013:5) sad story maps is a technique used after a
story has been read. It includes identifying the main elements, and
categorizing the main events in sequential order. This procedure enables
students to relate story events and to perceive in literary selections.
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