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Abdallah Yasir H Alghifari

Assignment HW04 due 06/28/2016 at 02:00pm EDT

CSU MTH182 Summer16 1

the infinite series

1. (1 pt)
Use the Integral Test to determine whether the infinite series
is convergent.

4nen

n7

n=1

A. converges
B. diverges
SOLUTION:

n=1

Fill in the corresponding integrand and the value of the improper


integral.
Enter inf for , -inf for , and DNE if the limit does not
exist.
R
Compare with 1
dx =
By the Integral Test,

the infinite series

Solution:
Let f (x) = x7 . This function is continuous, positive and
decreasing on the interval x 1, so the Integral Test applies.
Moreover,
Z R
Z

 1
x7 dx = 16 lim R6 1 = .
x7 dx = lim
R 1
R
6
1

4nen

The integral converges; hence the series

n=1

3. (1 pt)
Use the Integral Test to determine whether the infinite series
is convergent.

n2

Solution:
2
Let f (x) = 4xex . This function is continuous and positive
on the interval x 1. Moreover, because

we see that f 0 (x) < 0 for x 1, so f is decreasing on the interval x 1. The Integral Test therefore applies. To evaluate the
improper integral, we use the substitution u = x2 , du = 2x dx.
We then find
4xe

x2

Z R

dx = lim

R 1

4xex dx

 2

4
2
lim eR e1 = 1 .
2 R
e

The integral converges; hence the series

4nen

Solution:
Let f (x) =

also con-

x2
9
3
x +6 2

. This function is continuous and positive


(
)
on the interval x 17. Moreover, because

n=1

verges.

(n3 + 6) 2
Fill in the corresponding integrand and the value of the improper
integral.
Enter inf for , -inf for , and DNE if the limit does not
exist.
R
Compare with 17
dx =
By the Integral Test,

n2
the infinite series
9
n=17 (n3 + 6) 2
A. converges
B. diverges
SOLUTION:
n=17


2
f 0 (x) = 4ex 1 2x2 ,

also con-

n=1

verges.

A. converges
B. diverges
SOLUTION:

n7

2. (1 pt)
Use the Integral Test to determine whether the infinite series
is convergent.

f (x) =

n7

n=1

9
7
2x x3 + 6 2 x2 92 x3 + 6 2 3x2
(x3 + 6)9

x(24 23x3 )
11

2(x3 + 6) 2

we see that f 0 (x) < 0 for x 17, so f is decreasing on the


interval x 17. The Integral Test therefore applies. To evaluate the improper integral, we use the substitution u = x3 + 6,
du = 3x2 dx. We then find

Fill in the corresponding integrand and the value of the improper


integral.
Enter inf for , -inf for , and DNE if the limit does not
exist.
R
Compare with 1
dx =
By the Integral Test,

Z
17
1

x2

Z R
9

(x3 + 6) 2

dx = lim

R 17

x2
9

(x3 + 6) 2

dx =

1
lim
3 R

Z R3 +6
du
173 +6

u9/2

2
lim
=
21 R

(R3 + 6) 2

1
7

4919 2

n=17

converges.

Solution: With an = en! ,




n+1
an+1
e
n!

= e
an (n + 1)! en = n + 1

7 .

21 4919 2
n2

The integral converges; hence the series

also

and

(n3 + 6) 2



an+1

= 0 < 1.
= lim
n an

4. (1 pt)
Apply the Ratio Test to determine convergence or divergence, or state that the Ratio Test is inconclusive.

Therefore, the series


n=1

n=1

n=1

1
n ln n

(Enter inf for .)

n=1

is:



an+1

=
= lim
n an

n=1

Solution:
With an = n ln1 n ,


an+1
1
n ln n
n
ln n


an = (n + 1) ln(n + 1) 1 = n + 1 ln(n + 1) ,


an+1

= 1 lim ln n .
= lim
n ln(n + 1)
n an
Now, using LHopitals

Rule,

and


an+1 1
= < 1.
= lim
n an
6

ln n
ln x
1/(x + 1)
x
= lim
= lim
= lim
= 1.
x x + 1
ln(n + 1) x ln(x + 1) x 1/x

Therefore, the series


n=1

Thus, = 1, and the Ratio Test is inconclusive for the series


1

n=2 n ln n .
1
Using the Integral Test, we can show that the series
n=2 n ln n
diverges.

1
6n

converges by the Ratio Test.

7. (1 pt)
Use the Root Test to determine the convergence or divergence of the given series or state that the Root Test is inconclusive.


n+9 n

n=1 2n + 16
p
L = lim n |a | =
(Enter inf for .)

5. (1 pt)
Apply the Ratio Test to determine convergence or divergence, or state that the Ratio Test is inconclusive.

en

n!

n=1

n=1



an+1

=
= lim
n an

is:

Solution: With an = 61n ,




an+1
1 6n
1


an = 6n+1 1 = 6

and

1
6n

(Enter inf for .)

A. convergent
B. divergent
C. The Ratio Test is inconclusive
SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

lim

6n

A. convergent
B. divergent
C. The Ratio Test is inconclusive

converges by the Ratio Test.

6. (1 pt)
Apply the Ratio Test to determine convergence or divergence, or state that the Ratio Test is inconclusive.

n ln n



an+1

=
= lim
n an

en
n!

n+9
2n+16

n

is:

A. convergent
B. divergent
C. The Root Test is inconclusive
SOLUTION:

(Enter inf for .)

en

n=1 n! is:
A. convergent
B. divergent
C. The Ratio Test is inconclusive


n+9 n
Solution: With an = 2n+16
,
s


n+9 n
n+9
n
an = n
=
2n + 16
2n + 16

SOLUTION:
2

 n
1
Since
converges (its a geometric series with |r| =
n=1 6

1
1
6 < 1 ), we conclude by the Comparison Test that n6n also
n=1
converges.

and
lim

1
n
an < 1.
2

Therefore, the series converges by the Root Test.


n=1

8. (1 pt)
Use the Root Test to determine the convergence or divergence of the given series or state that the Root Test is inconclusive.


1 n
1
+

4n
n=1
p
n
(Enter inf for .)
L = lim |an | =
n

1 n

is:
n=4 1 + 4n
A. convergent
B. divergent
C. The Root Test is inconclusive
SOLUTION:

10. (1 pt)
Use the Comparison Test to determine whether the infinite
series is convergent.
n5
n5 + n
n=1
By the Comparison Test,
1

n5
the infinite series 5
n=1 n + n
A. converges
B. diverges


1 n
,
Solution: With an = 1 + 4n
s




1 n
1 1
n
n
an =
1+
= 1+
4n
4n
and
lim

Note: You are allowed only one attempt on this problem.


SOLUTION:
Solution:
For n 1,

n
an = 11 = 1.

Therefore, the Root Test is inconclusive for the series


1 n
. Because
1 + 4n

n5
1
n5
5 = 24 .
n5 + n
n
n5

n=1

"


 # 14
1
1 n
1 4n
lim an = lim 1 +
= e 4 6= 0,
1+
= lim
n
n
n
4n
4n

24
24 is a p-series with p = 5 > 1, so it conn5
verges. By the Comparison Test we can therefore conclude that

The series

n=1

this series diverges by the Divergence Test.

n5
the series
n=1 n5 +n also converges.

9. (1 pt)
Use the Comparison Test to determine whether the infinite
series is convergent.

1
n6n
n=1

11. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series
cos8 (n)
n4
n=1

1
By the Comparison Test, the infinite series n
n6
n=1
A. converges
B. diverges

This series is convergent.


This series is divergent.

Note: You are allowed only one attempt on this problem.


SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:
SOLUTION
8
Note that 0 cos8 (n) 1. So 0 cosn4(n) n14 .
1
Now,
n=1 n4 converges because it is a p-series with p = 4 >

Solution:

 n
1
We compare with the geometric series
. For n 1,
6
 n
1
1
1
n=
.
n6n
6
6

cos (n)
1. So by the Comparison Test,
converges.
n=1 n4
3

This series is convergent.


12. (1 pt)

7
n
.
Determine convergence or divergence of
6n
+
9
n=1

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:

A. converges
B. diverges

SOLUTION
1 + (1)n
9n
n=1

Note: You are allowed only one attempt on this problem.


SOLUTION:
Solution:
Apply the Limit Comparison Test with an =
1
:
6

7n
6n+9

7n
6n+9
1
6

and bn =

The series

1
6
7

So the series is a scalar multiple of the Harmonic Series, and


therefore is divergent.

n
1
= lim
= .
n 6n + 9
6

is a divergent p-series p =

6
7

15. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series


< 1 . Be-

n=1 n
cause L > 0 exists, by theLimit Comparison Test we can con
7
n
clude that the series
also diverges.
6n
+
9
n=1

 
5
sin n
n=1

This series is convergent.

13. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:

10n

20n 2n

SOLUTION
Motivated by the approximation sin(x) x for small x, apply
the Limit Comparison Test with the series 1n .

n=1

This series is convergent.


This series is divergent.
SOLUTION:

lim

=
=
=
=

sin( 5n )
5
n

=
=

SOLUTION
n
10n
The terms 2010
n 2n suggest we look at the series 20n .
n
10n
Let an = 2010
n 2n and bn = 20n . We will use the Limit Comparison test:
an
lim
n bn

1
1
n
9 n=1

n7

1
1
1
9 + 18 + 27 + 
1 1
1
1
9 1 + 2 + 3 +

=
=

n7

an
L = lim
= lim
n bn
n

1
1
= 0 + 91 + 0 + 18
+ 0 + 27
+

=
=
=

20n
lim n
n 20 2n
20n ln(20)
lim n
n 20 ln(20) 1
20n (ln(20))2
lim n
n 20 (ln(20))2
1

cos( 5n )(5/n2 )
n
5/n2
 
5
lim cos
n
n

5
cos lim
n n
cos 0
1
lim

So the Limit Comparison Test tells us that sin n1 converges


if and only if n1 converges. But the latter series is the Harmonic
Series, and is divergent.
16. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

where we used LHopitals Rule twice. So by the Limit Com10n


parison Test,
n=1 20n 2n converges.

(1)n1
n2/5
n=1

14. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

This series is absolutely convergent.


This series is conditionally convergent.

1 + (1)n
9n
n=1

This series is divergent.


4

This series is absolutely convergent.

SOLUTION:

This series is conditionally convergent.

SOLUTION
n1
Let an = (1)
.
n2/5
1
1
, and n2/5
is divergent since
The absolute value of an is n2/5
it is a p-series with p 1. So the given series is not absolutely
convergent.
1
1
However, { n2/5
} is decreasing, and limn n2/5
= 0. So by

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:
SOLUTION
Let an = cos(9n)
8n .

(1)n1

the Leibniz Test,


n=1 n2/5 is convergent.
Therefore the given series is conditionally convergent.

Note that 0 | cos(9n)| 1. So 0 | cos(9n)|


81n .
8n
1

Now, n=1 8n converges because it is a geometric series with

17. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

| cos(9n)|
|r| = 18 < 1. So by the Comparison Test,
conn=1
8n
verges.
cos(9n)
Therefore
is absolutely converent.
n=1 8n

(1)n n6
5
n=1 n + 4

20. (1 pt)
Determine convergence or divergence by any method.

This series is absolutely convergent.

This series is conditionally convergent.

n=1

n6
n7 n

A. converges
B. diverges
SOLUTION:

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:
SOLUTION
n n6
.
Let an = (1)
n5 +4
A series cannot converge if its terms do not approach 0 as
n . Since the degree of the numerator of an is greater than
the degree of the denominator, limn an does not exist. There(1)n n6
fore
n=1 n5 +4 diverges.

Solution:
Apply the Limit Comparison Test and compare with the divergent harmonic series:
L

n6
n7 n
= lim 1
n
n

n7
= 1.
n n7 n

= lim

18. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

sin n
4
n3
n=1

Because L > 0, we conclude that the series


n=1

n6
n7 n

diverges.

21. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

This series is absolutely convergent.

7 n7 + 7

n=1

This series is conditionally convergent.

This series is convergent.

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:

This series is divergent.


SOLUTION:

SOLUTION
sin( n )
Let an = n34 .
We have that 0 |an | n13 . And n13 is convergent because
it is a p-series with p > 1. So |an | is convergent by the Comparison Test. So an is absolutely convergent.

SOLUTION

The sequence {1/ 7 n7 + 7} is positive. The combination of


the 7th power and 7th root suggest that we apply the Limit Comparison Test with n1 .
1
Let an =
and bn = n1 .
7 7
n +7

19. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

lim

an

n bn

=
=

cos(9n)
8n
n=1

=
5

lim
n 7 n7 + 7

1
lim p
1 + 7/n7
1

n 7

1
So by the Limit Comparison Test,
n=1 7 7

n +7

converges if

SOLUTION
The series certainly converges for x = 12. For x 6= 12, we can
apply the ratio test:

and only if the Harmonic Series converges, which it does not.


1 is divergent.
So
n=1 7 7
n +7



an+1
=
lim
n an
=

22. (1 pt)
Determine the convergence or divergence of the series

(1)n+1

(2n + 10)!

n=1

So the series converges for |x 12| < 1 and diverges for


|x 12| > 1.
There are two cases where |x 12| = 1.
If x = 13, then the series simplifies to
n=0 n which is not
convergent.
n
If x = 11, then the series simplifies to
n=0 (1) n which is
not convergent.
So the interval of convergence is (11, 13).

This series is convergent.


This series is divergent.
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION
(1)n+1
} is alternating. If an =
The sequence { (2n+10)!
|an | =

1
(2n+10)!

(1)n+1
(2n+10)! ,



n+1

lim
(x 12)
n
n
|x 12|

then

is a positive decreasing sequence approaching 0


n+1

(1)
as n . By the Leibniz Test,
n=1 (2n+10)! must be convergent.

25. (1 pt)
Find the interval of convergence for the power series

23. (1 pt)
Use the Ratio Test to determine the radius of convergence of
the following series:

2n n
x
n=1 n

xn

22n

Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use


, type INF. If there is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only
point in the interval of convergence, you would answer with [0].

n=0

R=
SOLUTION:
Solution:
With an =

xn
22n ,

SOLUTION:



an+1 |x|n+1 22n
|x|


an = 22n+1 |x|n = 22
and

SOLUTION
The series certainly converges for x = 0. For x 6= 0, we can
apply the ratio test:



an+1 |x|

= .
= lim
n an
22

n+1

2 xn+1
n+1

lim n

n 2 xn
n
n
=
lim
|2x|
n n + 1
=
|2x|



an+1

=
lim
n an

|x|
22

By the Ratio Test, the series converges when =


< 1, or
|x| < 22, and diverges when = |x|
>
1,
or
|x|
>
22.
The
radius
22
of convergence is therefore R = 22.
24. (1 pt)
Find the interval of convergence for the power series

So the series converges for |2x| < 1 and diverges for |2x| > 1.
That is, it converges for |x| < 12 and diverges for |x| > 12 .
There are two cases where |x| = 12 .
1
If x = 21 , then the series simplifies to
n=1 n which is the
Harmonic Series, and not convergent.
n1
If x = 12 , then the series simplifies to
n=1 (1) n which is
the Alternating Harmonic Series, and is convergent.

So the interval of convergence is 21 , 12 .

n (x 12)

n=0

Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use


, type INF. If there is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only
point in the interval of convergence, you would answer with [0].
SOLUTION:
6

So the series converges for |x + 5| < 1 and diverges for


|x + 5| > 1.
There are two cases where |x + 5| = 1.
(1)n
If x = 6, then the series simplifies to
n=10 n8 which is
convergent by the Leibniz Test.
1
If x = 4, then the series simplifies to
n=10 n8 which is a
convergent p-Series.
So the interval of convergence is [6, 4].

26. (1 pt)
Find the interval of convergence for the power series

(1)n 49n x2n

n=0

Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use


, type INF. If there is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only
point in the interval of convergence, you would answer with [0].

28. (1 pt)
Find the interval of convergence for the power series

SOLUTION:

(10)n
(x 7)n
n!
n=0

SOLUTION
The series certainly converges for x = 0. For x 6= 0, we can
apply the ratio test:




(1)n+1 n+1 x2n+2
an+1
n+1


49
= lim
lim

n
n an
(1)n 49nn x2n
n+1 2
=
lim
x
n 49n
1 2
=
49 x

Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use


, type INF. If there is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only
point in the interval of convergence, you would answer with [0].
SOLUTION:
SOLUTION
The series certainly converges for x = 7. For x 6= 7, we can
apply the ratio test:



(10)n+1

n+1
an+1
(n+1)! (x 7)

= lim
lim
n an
n (10)n (x 7)n

1 2
1 2
So the series converges for 49
x < 1 and diverges for 49
x >
1. That is, it converges for 7 < x < 7 and diverges for x < 7
and x > 7.
1 2
There are two cases where 49
x = 1.
If x = 7, then the series simplifies to
n=0 n which is not
convergent.
n
If x = 7, then the series simplifies to
n=0 (1) n which is
also not convergent.
So the interval of convergence is (7, 7).

n!

=
=

10
|x 7|
n+1
0

So the series converges for all x, and the interval of convergence is (, ).

27. (1 pt)
Find the interval of convergence for the power series

29. (1 pt)
Use Eq. (1) from the text to expand the function into a power
series with center c = 0 and determine the set of x for which the
expansion is valid.

(x + 5)n
n8
n=10

Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use


, type INF. If there is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only
point in the interval of convergence, you would answer with [0].

f (x) =
1
15x

SOLUTION:

1
1 5x

=
n=0

The interval of convergence is:


SOLUTION:

SOLUTION
The series certainly converges for x = 5. For x 6= 5, we
can apply the ratio test:




(x+5)n+1
an+1
(n+1)8
=

lim
lim
n
n an
n (x+5)
n8

Solution: Substituting 5x for x in Eq. (1), we obtain

1
= (5x)n = (5)n xn .
1 5x n=0
n=0

This series is valid for |5x| < 1, or |x| < 15 . Thus, the interval of

1
convergence is 1
5 ,5 .

n8
|x + 5|
n (n + 1)8
|x + 5|
=
=

lim

lim

SOLUTION:
30. (1 pt)
Expand the function f (x) =

1
in a power series with
1 + 10x

Solution:
Substituting 3x for x in the Maclaurin series for

center c = 0.

1
= an xn , where an =
1 + 10x n=0
What is the interval of convergence? Give your answer using interval notation. If you need to use , type INF. If there is
only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only point in the interval of
convergence, you would answer with [0].
.
The interval of convergence is
SOLUTION:

1
1x

gives

1
= (3x)n
1 3x n=0
This series is valid for |3x| < 1, or |x| < 31 . Thus, the interval of
convergence is ( 13 , 31 ).
33. (1 pt)
Find the Maclaurin series for f (x) = cos(15x).

cos(15x) =

n=0

On what interval is the expansion valid? Give your answer


using interval notation. If you need to use , type INF. If there
is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only point in the interval of
convergence, you would answer with [0].
The expansion is valid on
.
SOLUTION:

SOLUTION
The geometric series tells us that

1
1r

rn

n=0

for |r| < 1. So substituting 10x in for r, we have


1
1 + 10x

(10x)n

n=0

SOLUTION
The Maclaurin series for sin(x) has

n n

(10)

cos(x) =

Since the geometric series equality holds exactly when |r| <
1, the equality we have holds exactly when | 10x| < 1. Than
1
.
is, when |x| < 10

1 1
So the interval of convergence is 10
, 10 .

f (x) =
SOLUTION:

f 00 (0) = 1,

(1)n 152n x2n


(2n)!
n=0

cos(15x) =

Above we substituted 15x for x into a series which is valid


for all x. So this Maclaurin expansion is valid for x in (, ).

if
f 0 (0) = 12,

Substituting 15x for x gives

31. (1 pt)
Write out the first four terms of the Maclaurin series of f (x)
f (0) = 10,

(1)n x2n
n=0 (2n)!

n=0

f 000 (0) = 14

34. (1 pt)
Find the Maclaurin series for f (x) = sin(2x).

sin(2x) =

n=0

On what interval is the expansion valid? Give your answer


using interval notation. If you need to use , type INF. If there
is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only point in the interval of
convergence, you would answer with [0].
The expansion is valid on
.
SOLUTION:

Solution:
The first four terms of the Maclaurin series of f (x) are
f (0) + f 0 (0)x +

f 00 (0) 2 f 000 (0) 3


x +
x
2!
3!

= 12x 10 +

x2 14x3
+
.
2
6

32. (1 pt)
Find the Maclaurin series and corresponding interval of convergence of the following function.
f (x) =

SOLUTION
The Maclaurin series for sin(x) has
(1)n x2n+1
n=0 (2n + 1)!

sin(x) =

1
1 3x

Substituting 2x for x gives

f (x) =

(1)n 22n+1 x2n+1

(2n + 1)!
n=0

sin(2x) =

n=0

The interval of convergence is:


8

Above we substituted 2x for x into a series which is valid for


all x. So this Maclaurin expansion is valid for x in (, ).

SOLUTION
The Maclaurin series for ex has
ex

35. (1 pt)
3
Find the Maclaurin series for f (x) = x2 ex .
x3

x2 e =

xn

n!

n=0

Substituting

n=0

x3

for x gives
ex

On what interval is the expansion valid? Give your answer


using interval notation. If you need to use , type INF. If there
is only one point in the interval of convergence, the interval notation is [a]. For example, if 0 is the only point in the interval of
convergence, you would answer with [0].
.
The expansion is valid on
SOLUTION:

x3n
n=0 n!

And multiplying by x2 gives


x 2 ex

n! x3n+2

n=0

x3

Above we substituted for x into a series which is valid for


all x. So this Maclaurin expansion is valid for x in (, ).

c
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