Capacitor

© All Rights Reserved

9 views

Capacitor

© All Rights Reserved

- Ieee Pes-ias Chapter 24-01-13
- 7
- M8
- Design of a Robust Voltage Controller for an Induction Generator in an Autonomous Power System Us
- Optimisation Problems
- MGO 634 作業9
- operation research
- Rr410508 Mathematical Modelling and Simulation
- 11 26 2014 Technology Symbiosis AM and Topology Optimization Symposium
- 12_chapter7
- filtro 1
- 0809 Wind Voltage
- Acuvim-L Manual
- Allocation of Reactive Power Compensation Devices to Improve Voltage Profile Using Reactive Participation Index
- Investigation on D-STATCOM and DVR Operation for Voltage Control in Distribution Networks With A
- Risk Background Doc LQI Optimization+++++EQ
- Pareto Optimality
- Particle Swarm Optimization for Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem With Machine Eligibility Constraints
- Course Outline.doc
- Elc Eng-001-Patel Nikung Kumar Mohanlal

You are on page 1of 9

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

enhancement in distribution networks using articial bee colony-based

approach

Attia A. El-Fergany a,, Almoataz Y. Abdelaziz b

a

b

Department of Electrical Power & Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Department of Electrical Power & Machines, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 12 March 2013

Received in revised form 1 July 2013

Accepted 13 July 2013

Keywords:

Articial bee colony

Capacitor allocations

Loss reductions

Net saving maximizations

Voltage stability index

a b s t r a c t

This manuscript introduces an approach to allocate static capacitors along radial distribution networks

using the articial bee colony algorithm. In general practice the high potential buses for capacitor placement are initially identied using loss sensitivity factors. However, that method has proven less than satisfactory as loss sensitivity factors may not always indicate the appropriate placement. In the proposed

approach, the algorithm identies optimal sizing and placement and takes the nal decision for optimum

location within the number of buses nominated. The result is enhancement of the overall system stability

index and potential achievement of maximum net savings. The overall accuracy and reliability of the

approach have been validated and tested on radial distribution systems with differing topologies and

of varying sizes and complexities. In the manuscript the results are compared with those obtained using

recent heuristic methods and show that the proposed approach is capable of producing high-quality solutions with good performance of convergence, and demonstrated viability.

Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Reactive power addition can be benecial only when correctly

applied. Correct application means choosing the correct position

and size of the reactive power support. It is not possible to achieve

zero losses in a power system, but it is possible to keep them to a

minimum [13] to reduce the system overall costs. The reactive

power support is one of the well-recognized methods for the

reduction of power losses together with other benets; such as increased utilization of equipment, unloading of overloaded system

components, and stopping the premature aging of the equipment.

However, other alternatives can be used as the network reconguration, which can provide the same mentioned benets. Bear in

mind, too many capacitors at the wrong points will increase losses

on the lines. However, the minimization of losses does not guarantee the maximization of benets unless the problem is wellformulated.

Numerous methods for solving this problem with a view to

minimizing losses have been suggested in the literature based

on both traditional mathematical methods and more recent

heuristic approaches. A comprehensive survey of the literature

from the last decade focusing on the various heuristic optimiza Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 100 5705526.

E-mail addresses: el_fergany@ieee.org (A.A. El-Fergany), almoatazabdelaziz@

hotmail.com (A.Y. Abdelaziz).

tion techniques applied to determine the OCP and size is presented in [4]. Several heuristic methods have been developed

in the last decade such as tabu search [5], PSO [6,7], the harmony search algorithm [8], ant colony optimization-based algorithm [9,10] and a simulated annealing technique [11], GA [12]

and a GA-fuzzy logic algorithm [13] to solve capacitor placement optimization problems.

The bacterial foraging with a PSO algorithm used to determine the optimal placement of capacitors has been introduced

in [14], and PGSA has been used for capacitor placement in

[15]. More recently, an immune based optimization technique

[16], the integration of DE and PS [17], and Big Bang-Big Crunch

optimization [18] to obtain the optimum values of shunt capacitors in radial distribution networks have been utilized and

employed.

Algorithms for enhancing voltage stability of electrical systems

by OCP have been developed [19,20] and a relationship between

voltage stability and loss minimization and the concept of maximizing voltage stability through loss minimization were dened

and outlined [21,22].

In this article, an ABC-based algorithm is utilized to ascertain

the optimal size and select optimum locations of shunt capacitors.

High potential buses for capacitor placement are initially identied

by the observations of LSF with weak voltage buses. The proposed

method improves the voltage prole and reduces system losses in

addition to enhancing voltage stability. The method has been

0142-0615/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.07.015

236

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

Nomenclature

n

N

PLoss

QLoss

VSI(j)

Iij

Rij

Xij

|Vi|

|Vj|

Pj

Qj

Ce

T

PLa

PLb

CCi

CO

CC

NB

a

lF

nl

PSlack

QSlack

PD(i)

QD(i)

PL(i)

QL(i)

QC(i)

Vi,min

Vi,max

Q min

Ci

Q max

Ci

total number of network buses

total network peak active loss

total network peak reactive loss

voltage stability index of bus j

current of line ij

resistance of line ij

reactance of line ij

voltage magnitude of bus i

voltage magnitude of bus j

total effective real power load fed through bus j

total effective reactive power fed through bus j

energy cost

time period

total active power loss after compensation

total active peak power loss before compensation

cost of installation

capacitor operating cost

cost of the capacitor purchase

number of candidate effective buses (that have compensations with values >0)

depreciation factor

magnifying factor

number of load buses

active power supplied from the slack bus

reactive power supplied from the slack bus

active power demand of load at bus i

reactive power demand of load at bus i

active power loss at branch j

reactive power loss at branch j

amount of reactive power of installed capacitors at bus i

lower permissible voltage limit at bus i

upper permissible voltage limit at bus i

lower reactive power limit of compensated bus i

upper reactive power limit of compensated bus i

the detailed results are presented.

Different simplied methods of normal load distribution ow

and other special techniques have been proposed [23,24]; these

deal mainly with high ratio of R/X in distribution systems. As neither NewtonRaphson nor GaussSeidel methods have proven efcient, have experienced difculties and may not be convergent

[2529]. A method which can nd the LF solution of a radial distribution system directly by using topological characteristic of distribution network may overcome the limitations of NewtonRaphson

and GaussSeidel methods. The advantage of this technique is that

there is no problem of convergence with respect to radial networks

with high ratio of R/X. The distribution power ow suggested in

[24] is used in this study.

Sli

Srated

li

PFmin

PFmax

SN

D

fi

ti

xjmax

xjmin

uij

NCN

kVC

kPFC

kLFC

kCC

rated line transfer capacity

lower limit of overall system power factor at substation

(slack bus)

upper limit of overall system power factor at substation

(slack bus)

number of food sources/colony size

number of optimization parameters

cost value of ith solution

modied tness of ith solution

upper bounds for the dimension j

lower bounds for the dimension j

random number in the range [1, 1]

maximum cycle number

penalty function for voltage limit constraint

penalty function for power factor constraint

penalty function for line ow constraint

penalty function for maximum total compensation constraint

List of Abbreviations

ABC

articial bees colony

DE

differential evolution

GA

genetic algorithm

LSF

loss sensitivity factor

OCP

optimal capacitor placement

PGSA

plant growth simulation algorithm

PSO

particle swarm optimization

PS

pattern search

VSI

voltage stability index

HS

heuristic search

EA

evolutionary algorithm

P.U.

per unit

LF

load ow

(j) P 0. The node, at which the value of the VSI has lower value, is

more sensitive to collapse. The node with the smallest VSI is the

weakest node and the voltage collapse phenomenon will start from

that node. Therefore, to avoid the possibilities of voltage collapse,

the VSI of nodes should be maximized.

3. Problem and objective function formulation

The objective of capacitor placement in the distribution system

is to maximize the peak active power loss reduction, reduce capacitor costs and enhance the system static stability subject to specic

operating constraints. The objective function is mathematically

formulated as,

Many different indices have been introduced to evaluate the

power systems security level from the point of voltage static stability [3033]. A new steady state VSI is proposed [33] for identifying

the node, which is most sensitive to voltage collapse and expressed

in Eq. (1) is utilized in the work. Fig. 1 shows the simple electrical

equivalent of the radial distribution system.

1

Fig. 1. Line ij power system model.

237

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

"

Maximize C e PLb P La T a: C Ci N B C C

NB

X

#

Q C i C O N B lF

i1

N

X

)

VSIj

j2

2

Subject to the satisfaction of the Active and reactive power ow

balance equations and a set of inequality constraints.

3.1. Power balance constraints

Power balance (Active and Reactive) constraints, which are

equality constraints and include two nonlinear recursive power

ow equations, can be formulated as follows,

PSlack

9

>

>

>

>

>

=

nl

n

X

X

PD i

PL j

i1

j1

nl

NB

n

>

X

X

X

>

>

Q Slack

Q C i

Q D i

Q L j >

>

;

i1

i1

9

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

i1

i1

>

>

>

kPFC WPF max0; hPF ov erall PF max i max0; hPF min PF ov erall i >

>

>

=

"

#

n

X

rated

kLFC WL

max0; hSli Sli i

>

>

>

>

i1

>

>

"

*

+

!

#

>

>

nl

NB

>

X

X

>

>

>

kCC WC max 0;

Q C i

Q D j

>

;

i1

10

j1

i 1:::N

Reactive power constraint in which injected reactive power at

each candidate bus must be within their permissible ranges.

i 1:::NB

The estimation of these candidate nodes basically helps in signicant reductions of the search space for the optimization procedure. In this proposed work, LSF is utilized for this purpose [22]. It

is intuitive that a section in a distribution system with high losses

and lower voltage or VSI has higher priority for placement of

capacitors. Whereas, a low loss sections with good voltage are

not optimal for capacitor placements.

The LSF may be able to predict which bus will have the greatest

loss reduction when reactive compensation is put in place. Consider a distribution line connected between i and j buses as

shown in Fig. 1.

Active power loss in the ijth line between ij buses is given by

3I2ij Rij and can be expressed as shown in the following equation,

Pijloss 3

3.4. Line capacity limit

The apparent power ow through the line Sl is restricted by its

maximum rating limit as,

Sli 6 Srated

;

li

i 1:::n

From practical limitation, maximum compensation by using

capacitor bank is limited to the total load reactive power demand.

nl

NB

X

X

Q C i 6

Q D j

i1

j1

its limits and is expressed as,

max

Q min

Ci 6 Q Ci 6 Q Ci ;

"

#

N

N

X

X

kVC WV

max0; hjV i j V i;max i

max0; hV i;min jV i ji

WV, WPF, WL, and WC are the penalty function weights having large

positive value.

V i;min 6 jV i j 6 V i;max ;

where

j1

The overall power factor (PFoverall) is the value of power factor at

the main feeder of the primary substation; supplying the radial

distribution network. System power factor should be maintained

within desirable lower and upper limits.

added to the objective function in order to force the solution to

stay away from the infeasible solution space; to respect the

inequality constraints. Therefore, the optimal solution is established when no constraints is violated or even with acceptable tolerance and the objective function is maximized.

The penalty function can be formulated as follows,

P2j Q 2j

jV j j2

:Rij

11

loss with reactive power; Qj, as indicated in the following equation,

Qj

@Pijloss

6

Rij

@Q j

jV j j2

12

The values are arranged in descending order for all the lines of

the given system. The descending order of the elements vector

will decide the sequence in which the buses (receiving-end of

lines) are to be considered for compensation. Receiving-end buses

of the lines of higher LSF and lower VSI have a greater chance of

being identied as candidate locations for capacitor installations

for the purposes of bi-objective (net saving and VSI) solution

and loss minimizations objective. However, in case of the objective is to maximize system VSI only, the buses with lower VSI

are identied.

5. Articial bees colony algorithm

The ABC algorithm was proposed by Karaboga for optimizing

numerical problems in 2005 [34]. It simulates the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees warms. It is a very simple, robust and

population based stochastic optimization algorithm. The performance of the ABC algorithm has been compared with those of

other well-known modern heuristic algorithms such as GA, DE

and PSO on constrained and unconstrained problems [35,36]. Nowadays, the ABC algorithm is one of the most popular approaches

used in optimization problems and requires less control parameter

to be tuned. The ABC algorithm has three phases: employed bee,

onlooker bee and scout bee. In the employed bee and the onlooker

bee phases, bees exploit the sources by local searches in the neighborhood of the solutions selected based on deterministic selection

238

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

onlooker bee phase. In the scout bee phase which is an analogy

of abandoning exhausted food sources in the foraging process,

solutions that are no longer benecial for search progress are abandoned, and new solutions are inserted instead of them to explore

new regions in the search space. The algorithm has a well-balanced

exploration and exploitation ability.

The main steps of the ABC algorithm in the form of Pseudo-code

are given below [35]

Step 1: Initialize the population of solutions xi,j, i = 1, . . ., SN,

j = 1, . . ., D

Step 2: Evaluate the population

Step 3: Cycle = 1

Step 4: Repeat

Step 5: Produce new solutions (food source positions) vi,j in the

neighborhood of xi,j for the employed bees using the

formula v i;j xi;j /ij xi;j xk;j (k is a solution in

the neighborhood of i) and evaluate them

Step 6: Apply the greedy selection process

Step 7: Calculate the probability values Pi for the solutions xi,j by

means of their tness values using Eq. (13)

fit

pi PSN i

m1 fit m

13

following Eq. (14) is employed;

(

fit i

1

1fi

if f i P 0

1 jfi j if f i < 0

14

for each individual ith solution through Eq. (2).

Step 8: Produce the new solutions (new positions) vi,j for the

onlookers from the solutions xi,j selected depending on

Pi and evaluate them

Step 9: Apply the greedy selection process

Step 10: Determine the abandoned solution (source), if it exists,

and replace it with a new randomly produced solution

xi,j for the scout using Eq. (15)

15

achieved so far

Step 12: Cycle = Cycle + 1

Step 13: Until Cycle = MCN.

There are three control parameters used in the ABC-based

algorithm; the number of the food sources which is equal to

the number of employed or onlooker bees, the value of limit

and the MCN. In ABC, providing that a position cannot be improved further through predetermined number of cycles, then

that food source is assumed to be abandoned. The value of predetermined number of cycles is an important control parameter

of the ABC algorithm; this is termed the limit for

abandonment.

The ABC algorithm employs four different selection processes:

(1) A global selection process used by the articial onlooker

bees for discovering promising regions.

(2) A local selection process carried out in a region by the articial employed bees and the onlookers depending on local

information for determining a neighbor food source around

the source in the memory.

(3) A local selection process called greedy selection process carried out by all bees.

(4) A random selection process carried out by scouts.

The procedure of the ABC algorithm to solve OCP can be summarized in the ow chart diagram of Fig. 2.

6. Test cases, numerical results and simulations

In order to test the effectiveness and performance of the proposed ABC-based algorithm, it has been applied to several distribution radial test systems (10-bus, 22-bus, 28-bus, 30-bus, 33-bus,

34-bus, 69-bus radial distribution feeders and an actual Portuguese

radial distribution system with 94 nodes).

Due limitations of space supposed by submission guidelines,

only two radial distribution systems: the 34-bus and the actual

Portuguese radial distribution system with 94-node are selected

for reporting and demonstration in this article, to examine the

applicability of the proposed approach. In all calculations; for all

the test cases, the following constants are assumed and applied

as shown in Table 1.

The net savings are calculated using:

Net

sav ings

fcos t of energy reductions a

year

cos t of installation cos t of purchase

yearly operating cos tg

16

buses signicantly help in the reduction of the search space for

the optimization procedure. Setting the lower limit of capacitor

range to 0, will permit the proposed approach to select the optimum locations within the range of bus nominations initially identied by the LSF method which has to be set manually by the user;

just to set the number of buses due for search. After intensive trials

with nominating 1025% of total network number of buses after

ranking is guaranteeing the optimal or near to optimal solutions

(these percentage gures are obtained after many trials). For small

size networks, user may nominate/set the initial number of higher

potential buses to 2025% of network buses (i.e. for 34-bus test

case, set to 9 as initial number of buses for capacitor allocations)

and for medium size, nominate 1520% of network buses. However, for large scale radial networks, set the number of potential

buses for capacitor placement to 1015% of network buses (i.e.

for 94-bus radial network is 15 buses might be nominated initially

for capacitor placements).

It is well-known that LSF observations, may not lead to the optimum locations. Due to the fact the LSF calculations depend on the

network topology, congurations, loading, etc. and to tackle these

limitations, the algorithm will search the optimum number of

buses and select them for capacitor placements.

The magnifying factor (lF) is chosen to equal 500 for the two

case studies of 34-bus and 94-bus radial distribution systems.

The proposed method has been programmed and implemented

using MATLAB [37,38].

6.1. 34-Bus test system numerical results and simulations

This 34-bus test case has 4-lateral radial distribution system

which is shown in Fig. 3. The data of the system are obtained from

[2]. The total load of the system is (4636.5 + j2873.5) kVA.

Using base LF to candidate the potential buses for capacitor

placement and based on LSF values; {19, 22, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25,

26 & 27}. Parameters adopted for the ABC algorithm for the test

case of a 34-bus, and the required inequality constraints that

should be respected are given in Table 2.

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

239

Cycle=1

(busdata, line data,)

bees, run LF and evaluate the objective

function.

values for voltages, losses and VSI

Calculate the probability values for the

solutions

onlookers and evaluate them

buses for capacitor placement.

the onlookers

Set lower and upper bounds for the

constraints, set algorithm control

parameters and MCN

Initialize the population within their

lower and upper bounds, run LF and

evaluate the objective function

Cycle=Cycle+1

No

If Cycle< MCN

Initialize the population, for amount of

vars to be injected within their lower and

upper bounds

Get Optimal Solution

and report

Table 1

Constants for the rates using a long with test cases.

Table 2

Control parameters adopted for the ABC algorithm and target setting for the

constraints.

SN

Item

Proposed rate

1

2

3

4

5

6

Depreciation factor

Purchase cost

Installation cost

Operating cost

Hours per year

$0.06/kW h

20%

$25/kVAr

$1600/location

$300/year/location

8760

14

Proposed Setting

Limit

MCN

Bus voltage constraint

Power factor constraint

Allowable capacitor range

60

30

100

0:95 6 V i 6 1:05

0:95 6 PF ov erall 6 0:99

0 kVAr to 1500 kVAr with step of 50 kVAr

16

13

Slack

1

15

Item

28

29

30

31

32

33

10

11

12

24

25

26

34

17

18

19

20

21

22

27

23

LSF to 9. After running the proposed optimization algorithm to

select the optimal locations and determine the capacitor optimal

sizes, the outcome leads to only 2 locations for capacitor placement

which are buses 19 and 24 with optimum capacitor ratings of

950 kVAr and 900 kVAr, respectively. The CPU computational time

needed is 10.08 s to accomplish this optimization process by the

proposed ABC-based method. The results of the proposed method

compared with the results of GA method [12], PSO method [6],

HS-based method [2], PGSA method [15] and EA method [39] for

the reactive compensation required and relevant bus allocations

are shown in Table 3.

For comparison purposes, the reported gures in [12,6,2,15,39]

of reactive power at specic buses are recycled to calculate the system losses and the net savings (see Table 4) with the same rates

proposed in this article as shown in Table 1 and Eq. (16).

The system overall power factor is signicantly corrected from

0.8557 lagging (base case) to 0.9798 lagging with capacitor allocations, respectively. The VSI of a 34-bus radial distribution system

without and with compensations is depicted Fig. 4.

From the results illustrated and shown in table 4, the proposed

algorithm yields to reduce peak losses to 167.99 kW with 1,850

240

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

Table 3

Optimal location of capacitor placement and value of capacitor size in KVAr.

Method

Proposed

GA [12]

PSO [6]

HS [2]

PGSA [15]

EA [39]

(19, 950)

(24, 900)

(19, 781)

(22, 803)

(20, 479)

(26, 1400)

(11, 750)

(17, 300)

(4, 250)

(19, 1200)

(22, 639)

(20, 200)

(8, 1050)

(18, 750)

(25, 750)

1850

(5, 300)

(9, 300)

(12, 300)

(22, 600)

(26, 300)

1800

2063

2700

2039

2550

Table 4

Results and comparisons of a 34-Bus radial feeder test case without and with OCP showing different heuristic approaches.

Point of comparison

Vmin (P.U.)a

Vmax (P.U.)a

VSImin

VSImax

P34

j2 SVIj

Ploss (kW)

Reductions in Ploss%

Qloss (kVAr)

Reductions in Qloss%

PFoverall

P

Qc (kVAr)

Net Savings/year

a

Without OCP

With OCP

0.9416

0.9941

0.786

0.9765

28.6211

221.7373

65.2230

0.8557

Proposed approach

GA [12]

PSO [6]

HS [2]

PGSA [15]

EA [39]

0.9496

0.9949

0.81294

0.9797

30.1221

0.9478

0.9949

0.8071

0.9796

29.0894

0.9486

0.9950

0.8097

0.9800

29.1353

0.9522

0.9953

0.8219

0.9811

29.3214

0.9479

0.9950

0.8074

0.9800

29.1149

0.9501

0.9952

0.8149

0.9808

29.2675

167.99

24.24%

49.015

24.85%

0.9798

1850

$17756.00

164.9586

25.61%

49.9643

23.39%

0.9825

1800

$15093.00

169.3592

23.62%

47.1771

27.67%

0.9970

2063

$15570.00

168.4811

24.02%

48.4489

25.72%

0.9989

2700

$12017.00

171.9643

22.45%

48.6740

25.37%

0.9738

2039

$15590.00

161.2673

27.27%

49.0518

24.79

0.9837

2550

$17173.00

The reported values of Vmin and Vmax are shown excluding the slack bus # 1.

optimally selected using the current methodology out of 9 initial

higher potential buses estimated by LSF calculations. The net savings gained are $15093.00, $15570.00, $12017.00, $15590.00,

$17173.00 and $17756.00 using GA [12], PSO [6], HS [2], PGSA

[15], EA [39] and the proposed algorithm, respectively. One may

note the superiority of the proposed approach compared to the

others. Tables 3 and 4 conclude that the proposed ABC-based approach possesses higher system stability index and higher annual

net saving compared to other heuristic methods with lesser number of locations which realizes, an added value to the proposed

approach.

In case of the objective is to minimize the active power loss only

or to maximize VSI only, the maximization of the cost savings is

not guaranteed. Set the number of initial higher potential buses

to 9 (for Ploss objective using ranked buses with higher LSF and

for VSI, utilize the buses with lower values of VSI). Table 5 depicts

Table 5

Summaries for the VSI and Ploss objectives.

Item

VSI maximization

SVImin

SVImax

P34

j2 SVIj

0.8163

0.981

29.2815

0.82376

0.9807

30.3061

Ploss (kW)

Qloss (kVAr)

PF

Poverall

Qc (kVAr)

Net Savings/year

161.087

47.1452

0.9978

2600 (3 locations)

$17,018.00

169.92

49.2659

0.9952

2450 (8 locations)

$8,785.00

the extracted summaries for the cases of VSI maximization and Ploss

minimization as well. In the case of VSI maximization, the nominated buses for capacitor allocations are identied based on lowest

buses VSI values. For Ploss objective, the algorithm selected 3 locations out of 9 nominated buses with higher LSF. However, for the

0.98

VSI with OCP

VSI without OCP

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.9

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

0.8

0.78

5

10

15

20

25

30

Bus Number

Fig. 4. VSI values against bus number for a 34-bus radial distribution feeder with and without OCP (2 locations).

241

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

Table 6

Control parameters adopted for the ABC algorithm and targets for the constraints

(case of a 94-node).

Item

Proposed setting

Limit

MCN

Bus voltage constraint

Power factor constraint

Allowable capacitor range

100

50

100

0:90 6 V i 6 1:10

0:95 6 PF ov erall 6 0:99

0 kVAr to 1500 kVAr with step of 50 kVAr

Table 8

Summaries and results for the case of a 94-node actual Portuguese radial distribution.

Point of

comparison

Table 7

Optimal locations and sizes for the 94-nodes test case.

Bus/location

18

21

54

Total

KVAr

600

450

1050

2100

nominated with lower VSI (refer to Table 5). Higher potential buses

ranked based on VSI values are {27, 26, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 34,

33, 12, 32, 11, 31, 10, 9, 18, . . .} that are used only in case of the

objective is to maximize the system VSI, ignoring the maximum

revenue of capacitor allocation.

The proposed ABC-based approach can reduce peak real losses to

161.087 kW (i.e. percentage of reduction is 27.35%) with total reactive compensation of 2600 kVAr allocated at buses of 8, 18 and 25

with ratings of 900 kVAr, 900 kVAr and 800 kVAr, respectively. The

net yearly saving is $17018.00 which is lesser than that obtained

in the case of bi-objective (both saving and VSI maximizations) as

indicated in Tables 4 and 5. However, the net savings is dramatically

reduced in case of a pure VSI maximization objective. On the other

hand, the total VSI has been signicantly improved. The constraints

have been checked and found within acceptable limits.

This proposed approach has been applied to an actual Portuguese radial distribution system with 94 nodes, as shown in

Fig. 5. The network layout, including line data and load data, and

its physical characteristics are summarized and obtained from

[40]. This network consists of 22-lateral radial branches with total

loads of (4797 + j 2323.9) kVA.

0.84848

0.99508

0.5183

0.9803

62.2577

0.90721

0.99699

0.6774

0.9879

75.0565

0.9038

0.93726

0.99726

0.771687

0.988937

79.6829

Ploss (kW)

Reductions in Ploss (%)

Qloss (kVAr)

Reductions in Qloss (%)

PFoverall

P

QC (kVAr)

362.8580

504.0420

0.8769

Net Savings/year

271.3590

25.23%

374.5060

25.70%

0.9931

2100

(3

locations)

$35732.00

271.9854

25.04%

376.0200

25.34%

0.9878

1900

(8

locations)

$33302.00

317.293

12.56%

419.713

16.73%

0.998867

2400

(8

locations)

$5248.60

The reported values of Vmin and Vmax are shown excluding the slack bus # 1.

45

49

44

48

50

51

71

73

69

70

72

74

12

13

14

15

16

60

61

62

63

38

35

39

52

36

40

53

59

37

41

54

58

64

57

65

43

46

47

10

42

55

76

87

18

19

20

21

22

75

77

83

84

85

80

81

82

23

86

DE-PS

based [41]

Vmin (P.U.)a

Vmax (P.U.)a

VSImin

VSImax

P94

j2 SVIj

34

Proposed

approach

88

89

24

25

90

11

56

93

94

26

27

28

91

92

29

30

31

32

78

79

With

compensation

(pure VSI

objective)

using proposed

approach

The bus voltages constraints are (1 P.U. 10%) have been proposed in this test case with 15 kV voltage level.

The most likely buses for capacitor placements as identied by

LSF indicators are {11, 10, 90, 18, 8, 21, 54, 52, 15, 9, 83, 20, 16, 24,

23, 25, 12, 13, 19, 17, . . .}. Table 6 shows the parameters adopted

for the ABC algorithm for the test case of a 94-node actual Portuguese radial distribution and the required constraints.

Set the number of initial higher buses range resulted by the LSF

observations to 15, to let the proposed algorithm to select the optimal locations and amount of compensations required accordingly.

The approach has selected 3 buses for optimal capacitor allocations

with the relevant amount of reactive compensation required per

each location which is depicted in Table 7. The computational time

exhausted to complete this optimization process is 70.25 s on average. Once again, this proves the ability of the proposed approach to

allocate capacitors at a minimum number of locations. The summaries and numerical results are tabulated and shown in Table 8.

The reductions in the peak active and reactive losses are 25.23%

and 25.70%, respectively. However, the overall power factor has

Slack

Without

With compensation

compensation (bi-objective)

Fig. 5. Single line diagram of an actual Portuguese 94-nodes radial distribution system.

17

66

33

242

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

1

VSI with OCP

VSI without OCP

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6

0.55

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Bus Number

Fig. 6. VSI values against bus number for a 94-bus radial distribution feeder with and without OCP (3 locations).

1

VSI with OCP

VSI without OCP

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6

0.55

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Bus Number

Fig. 7. VSI values against bus number with and without OCP (8 locations) for a 94-bus radial distribution feeder with a pure objective of VSI.

a signicant improvement has been observed regarding the system

stability aspects. Fig. 6 shows the improvement in the bus stability

indices before and after capacitor installations.

Compared to DE-PS method [41], the obtained net year savings

is higher and in less number of locations.

In case of the objective is to maximize the system SVI, the

ranked buses based on VSI values are {92, 91, 90, 33, 32, 31, 30,

94, 29, 28, 93, 27, 26, 89, 25, . . .}. Fig. 7 depicts the trend of VSI

against buses with and without compensations and outcome values are tabulated in Table 8 (column 4). The total system VSI and

VSImin are considerably improved to 79.6829 and 0.7717, respectively. On the other hand, the yearly net savings has been dramatically reduced. One may note that both net saving maximizations

and system VSI are conicting objectives.

7. Conclusions

The application of the ABC-based optimization approach for

solving the problem of capacitor allocations (sizing and location)

to maximize the net benets and to improve system static voltage

stability has been depicted and investigated. The OCP problem has

been solved by two step method, 1) the candidate locations for

compensation are pre-identied using LSF values based on the initial case of LF run, and 2) the nal optimal locations and size of

capacitors being obtained using the ABC-based approach. The

improvement in active and reactive power losses reductions, voltage stability enhancements, and power factor corrections while

maximizing the net savings. The proposed ABC-based approach

outperforms other methods showcased in the recent state-of-the

art literature in the area of OCP in terms of the quality of the solution and the computational efcacy. The main advantage of the

ABC-based algorithm is that it does not require expending more effort in tuning the control parameters, as in the case of GA, DE, PSO

and other EAs. This feature marks the proposed ABC-based algorithm as being advantageous for implementation.

References

[1] Haque MH. Capacitor placement in radial distribution systems for loss

reduction. IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib 1999;146(5):5015.

[2] Chis M, Salama MMA, Jayaram S. Capacitor placement in distribution system

using heuristic search strategies. IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib

1997;144(3):22530.

[3] Short TA. Electric power distribution equipment and systems capacitor

application. 1st ed. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; 2005. ISBN10.0849395763.

[4] Sirjani R, Azah M, Shareef H. Heuristic optimization techniques to determine

optimal capacitor placement and sizing in radial distribution networks: a

comprehensive review. PRZEGLAD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY (Electr Rev)

2012;88(7a):17.

[5] Gallego RA, Monticelli AJ, Romero R. Optimal capacitor placement in radial

distribution networks using tabu search. IEEE Trans Power Syst

2001;16(4):6307.

A.A. El-Fergany, A.Y. Abdelaziz / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 54 (2014) 235243

[6] Prakash K, Sydulu M. Particle swarm optimization based capacitor placement

on radial distribution systems. In: IEEE PES general meeting, Tampa, FL; 2007.

p. 15.

[7] Singh SP, Rao AR. Optimal allocation of capacitors in distribution systems using

particle swarm optimization. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 2012;43(1):

126775.

[8] Sirjani R, Mohamed A, Shareef H. Optimal capacitor placement in a radial

distribution system using harmony search algorithm. J Appl Sci 2010;10(23).

2996-2996.

[9] Chang CF. Reconguration and capacitor placement for loss reduction of

distribution systems by ant colony search algorithm. IEEE Trans Power Syst

2008;23(4):174755.

[10] Annaluru R, Das S, Pahwa A. Multi-level ant colony algorithm for optimal

placement of capacitors in distribution systems. Congress on Evol Comput, CEC

2004;2:9327.

[11] Chiang HD, Wang JC, Cockings O, Shin HD. Optimal capacitor placements in

distribution systems: part 1: a new formulation and the overall problem. IEEE

Trans Power Deliv 1990;5(2):63442.

[12] Swarup KS. Genetic algorithm for optimal capacitor allocation in radial

distribution systems. In: Proc the 6th WSEAS Int. Conf Evolut Comput, Lisbon,

Portugal, June 1618; 2005. p. 15259.

[13] Hsiao YT, Chen CH, Chien CC. Optimal capacitor placement in distribution

systems using a combination fuzzy-GA method. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst

2004;26(3):5018.

[14] Tabatabaei SM, Vahidi B. Bacterial foraging solution based fuzzy logic decision

for optimal capacitor allocation in radial distribution system. Electr Power Syst

Res 2011;81(4):104550.

[15] Rao RS, Narasimham SVL, Ramalingaraju M. Optimal capacitor placement in a

radial distribution system using plant growth simulation algorithm. Int J Electr

Power Energy Syst 2011;33(5):11339.

[16] Huang S. An immune-based optimization method to capacitor placement in a

radial distribution system. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 2000;15(2):7449.

[17] Attia El-Fergany. Optimal capacitor allocations using evolutionary algorithms.

IET Gener Transm Distrib 2013;7(6):593601.

[18] Sedighizadeh M, Arzaghi-haris D. Optimal allocation and sizing of capacitors to

minimize the distribution line loss and to improve the voltage prole using big

bang-big crunch optimization. Int Rev Electr Eng (IREE) 2011;6(4):20139.

[19] El Arini M. Optimal capacitor placement incorporating voltage stability and

system security. Eur Trans Electr Power (ETEP) 2000;10(5):31925.

[20] Satpathy PK, Das D, Gupta PB. Critical switching of capacitors to prevent

voltage collapse. Electr Power Syst Res 2004;41(1):1120.

[21] Jasmon B, Lee LHCC. Maximising voltage stability in distribution networks via

loss minimization. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 1991;13(3):14852.

243

[22] Ault Graham W, McDonald James R. Planning for distributed generation within

distribution networks in restructured electricity markets. IEEE Power Eng Rev

2000;20(2):524.

[23] Teng JH. A direct approach for distribution system load ow solutions. IEEE

Trans Power Deliv 2003;18(3):8827.

[24] Gzel T, Eminoglu U, Hocaoglu MH. A tool for voltage stability and

optimization in radial distribution systems using MATLAB GUI. Simul Model

Pract Theory 2008;16(5):50518.

[25] Abdellatif Hamouda, Khaled Zehar. Improved algorithm for radial distribution

networks load ow solution. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 2011;33(3):

50814.

[26] Iwamoto S, Tamura Y. A load ow calculation method for ill-conditioned

power systems. IEEE Trans Power Apparat Syst 1981;100(4):173643.

[27] Ghosh S, Das D. Method for load ow solution of radial distribution network.

IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib 1999;146(6):6418.

[28] Singh Sachin, Ghose T. Improved radial load ow method. Int J Electr Power

Energy Syst 2013;44(1):7217.

[29] Augugliaro A, Dusonchet L, Favuzza S, Ippolito MG, Riva Sanseverino E. A

backward sweep method for power ow solution in distribution networks. Int

J Electr Power Energy Syst 2010;32(4):27180.

[30] Moghavemmi M, Omar FM. Technique for contingency monitoring and voltage

collapse prediction. IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib 1998;145:63440.

[31] Musirin I, Rahman TKA. Estimating maximum loadability for weak bus

identication using FVSI. IEEE Power Eng Rev 2002;22:502.

[32] Anhit S, Ndarajah M, Kwang S. A maximum loading margin method for static

voltage stability in power systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 2006;21(2):96572.

[33] Charkravorty M, Das D. Voltage stability analysis of radial distribution

networks. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 2001;23(2):12935.

[34] Karaboga D. An idea based on honey bee swarm for numerical optimization.

Technical report TR06, Computer Engineering Department, Erciyes University,

Turkey; 2005.

[35] Karaboga D, Basturk B. On the performance of articial bee colony algorithm.

Appl Soft Comput 2008;8:68797.

[36] Karaboga D, Bakay B. A comparative study of articial bee colony algorithm. J

Appl Math Comput 2009;214:10832.

[37] http://www.mathworks.com.

[38] http://mf.erciyes.edu.tr/abc/.

[39] Ali E, Boudour M, Rabah G. New evolutionary technique for optimization shunt

capacitors in distribution networks. J Electr Eng 2011;62(3):1637.

[40] Pires DF, Antunes CH, Antnio GM. An NSGA-II approach with local search for a

VAR planning multi-objective problem. Inst Syst Eng Comput 2009;8. ISSN:

1645-2631.

[41] El-Fergany A. Optimal capacitor allocations using integrated evolutionary

algorithms. Int Rev Model Simul 2012;6:25909.

- Ieee Pes-ias Chapter 24-01-13Uploaded byadnan
- 7Uploaded byanjarcahya
- M8Uploaded byRoman Targosz
- Design of a Robust Voltage Controller for an Induction Generator in an Autonomous Power System UsUploaded byapi-27465568
- Optimisation ProblemsUploaded byArtemie Bilevici
- MGO 634 作業9Uploaded byShang-Jen Chang
- operation researchUploaded bykaran_tiff
- Rr410508 Mathematical Modelling and SimulationUploaded byandhracolleges
- 11 26 2014 Technology Symbiosis AM and Topology Optimization SymposiumUploaded byagniflame
- 12_chapter7Uploaded byJimmy Alexander Barus
- filtro 1Uploaded byYeye Angel
- 0809 Wind VoltageUploaded bymike
- Acuvim-L ManualUploaded byWarong Natdurong
- Allocation of Reactive Power Compensation Devices to Improve Voltage Profile Using Reactive Participation IndexUploaded byIOSRjournal
- Investigation on D-STATCOM and DVR Operation for Voltage Control in Distribution Networks With AUploaded bysirageldeen
- Risk Background Doc LQI Optimization+++++EQUploaded byPachern Yangyuen
- Pareto OptimalityUploaded byBaqer Merchant
- Particle Swarm Optimization for Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem With Machine Eligibility ConstraintsUploaded bymaharusdi
- Course Outline.docUploaded bySarang Hae Islam
- Elc Eng-001-Patel Nikung Kumar MohanlalUploaded byjaydiiphajra
- 03_20061013_V4.00_EVRC2A_Manual_ControlUploaded bycacr_72
- PSE-1 Introduction b06_317Uploaded byAnonymous N3LpAX
- Merged Sk GuptaUploaded byMadhavanIce
- statcom UPFCUploaded byHarish Manikandan
- 4.2d - 4.6b -Uploaded byVashish Ramrecha
- 20080226 Periodic Review 2 FreightUploaded byManprita Basumatary
- 2722012Uploaded byharsh
- QAPPT CH-1.pptUploaded byHibret
- New Stuff VulcanUploaded byppvasquezco
- Ijsrdv5i Paper 2Uploaded byKalpesh Mahajan

- Image Processing and IOT Based ApplicationsUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
- PSS User GuideUploaded byelaineurb
- How to Draw How to Draw a Rose Step by Step - Hellokids.comUploaded byEduardo B. Quintero
- ICHALEC Improved Cluster Head And Low Energy Consumption Protocol In Wireless Sensor NetworkUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- SyamalaDevi ResumeUploaded bySyamala Devi
- P2_RelNotesUploaded bymfruge7
- 7-90107V3_PW_4.1_SP1_User_Guide_August_14_2013Uploaded byDavid García Márquez
- FSD Unit 1 16072016 071724AM Converted ConvertedUploaded byShrujal Tailor
- China- The Baidu DecisionUploaded byGlobalEcon
- Engro Foods Crm on Demand Case StudyUploaded byjawwad-ali-733
- datasheet atemega8Uploaded byFrancisco A. Paludo
- RH124Uploaded byMera Karam
- 100 Computer ShortcutsUploaded bylakshmibava
- Gayatri ThesisUploaded byAnuradha Mishra Awasthi
- u-blox_ZED-F9P_InterfaceDescription_(UBX-18010854).pdfUploaded byfbascona
- readme.pdfUploaded byArifa DeLantern
- Pertemuan-3-PPC BU IKE UB LALALA YEYEUploaded bydearsdea
- Data Processing (1).docUploaded byRahul Nigam
- ShipRight FDA Level 2 FAQUploaded bynkoreisha7752
- Mass, Stiffness, And Damping Matrix Estimates From Structural MeasurementsUploaded bycarlos0094
- Project Management Lollapalooza (166289562)Uploaded byEDUCAUSE
- pyopt_quickguideUploaded byDavid
- Eagle v6_enUploaded byreadertwo9
- 07_Render.pdfUploaded byCristian Ortiz
- Mil Std 756bUploaded byNicolasSuch
- Efficient Realization of Sigma-Delta Kalman Lowpass Filter in Hardware Using FPGAUploaded byCharoensak
- 03-Geocoding & Georeferencing in ArcGISUploaded bySubodha Manoj
- Representation of Process Control EngineeringUploaded byBGV26
- Arjo Huntleigh Flowtron Universal DVT Pump - Maintenance ProcedureUploaded byRamilson
- RRC CauseUploaded bywesamhos

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.