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Kineska pravoslavna crkva

Pravoslavni hram u angaju iz1936.

Kineska pravoslavna crkva (kineski: ; pinyin: Zhnghu Dngzhngjiohu)


je autonomna crkva pod jurisdikcijom Ruske pravoslavne crkve.

Nastanak
Nastala je 1956. godine kada je dobila autonomni status od Moskovske patrijarije.
KPC je preivela veliki progon tokom kulturne revolucije ezdesetih godina u Kini i antireligiozne
politike njene komunistike partije. U decembru 2004. godine u Pekingu se u svojoj 80-toj godini
upokojio poslednji kineski pravoslavni svetenik Aleksandar Du Lifu. On nije doekao da dobije
reenje od vlade za otvaranje pravoslavne parohije u Pekingu, jer su vlasti tvrdile da za to nema
dovoljno vernika (oko 300 ljudi).
U 21. veku pravoslavna crkva u Kini doivljava svoj preporod. Veliki broj kineskih studenata danas
studiraju na razliitim bogoslovskim institutima u Rusiji. Prema izvetaju svetenika Dionisija
Pozdnjajeva, koji je odgovoran za veze sa Kinom u OVCS Ruske pravoslavne crkve, u Kini ivi oko
13.000 pravoslavnih. Postoje i parohije bez svetenstva u Sinangu i Unutranjoj Mongoliji, dok
ruska pravoslavna crkva u Harbinu predstavlja lokalnu znamenitost. Moskovska patrijarija eli
zvanino priznavanje pravoslavne crkve, ali glavna prepreka za to je mali broj parohijana.

Istorija
Kineska pravoslavna crkva je nastala, istovremeno sa proirenjem Ruske Imperije na Daleki
Istok preko Sibira 1651. godine. Neto ranije, 1644. godine, dinastiju Ming su sa prestola zbacili
Manurci, koji su doveli na prestodinastiju ing, koja je vladala do 1911. godine. Naselja
ruskih kozaka u dolini reke Amur u Albazinu su bila napadnuta od strane kineske
armije 1685. godine, to je rezultiralo padom Albazina, a zarobljenici su prebaeni u glavni
grad Peking.
Deo albazinskih zarobljenika je imao ast da slui u jednom od najprivilegovanijih odreda odbrane
na dvoru cara Hansi u Pekingu. Njihovo pravo na duhovno rukovoenje je bilo priznato, i zbog toga
je u Peking poslan (protiv svoje volje) prvi pravoslavni svetenik otac Maksim Leontjev. Imigrantima
je dodeljen stari budistiki hram u severoistonom delu glavnog grada, i pastva ga je pretvorila u
pravoslavnu kapelu posveenu svetom Nikolaju udotvorcu, u ast udotvorne ikone koju je otac
Maksim doneo sa sobom.
Poslednjih 200 godina pre Bokserskog ustanka 1900. godine, broj pravoslavnih u Misiji se neznatno
poveao, uglavnom zahvaljujui brakovima sa albazincima i njihovim potomcima. To je bio veliki
kontrast u odnosu na aktivnu misionarsku delatnost katolike i protestantske Misije.
Sveti Mitrofan je zajedno sa drugih dvesta kineskih i albazinskih muenika dao svoj ivot za
hriansku veru u vreme bokserskog ustanka, ili ihetuanskog pokreta, kako su ga nazivali Kinezi. Od
tog vremena pa za narednih 200 godina, albazinci su se samo integrisali u lokalno stanovnitvo, koje
se spolja praktino nije nimalo razlikovalo od Kineza, iako su jo uvek smatrali da je njihovo etniko
poreklo rusko.
Broj pravoslavnog stanovnitva u Kini se u 20. veku veoma poveao, uglavnom zahvaljujui
doseljavanju. Arhimandrit Inokentije Figurovski, koji je 1902. godine postao prvi episkop Pekinga, je

zapoeo prevod pravoslavnog katihizisa i liturgijskih tekstova na govorni kineski jezik guanhua. To
vreme se smatra zlatnim dobom pravoslavlja u Kini kada je izgraeno mnogo hramova.
Veina Rusa je napustila Kinu kada su 1949. godine na vlast doli komunisti. Neki su se vratili u
Rusiju, a mnogi drugi su emigrirali u Australiju ili Severnu Ameriku. Poznati Svetitelj Jovan
Maksimovi, bivi arhiepiskop angajski, je bio jedan od poslednjih koji je napustio zemlju posle
dolaska komunista, i na kraju se naselio u Kaliforniji.
U dananje vreme u Kini ima nekoliko stotina vernika albazinskog ili ruskog porekla, koji sebe
smatraju pravoslavnima. Oni uglavnom ive u velikim gradovima, kao to
su Peking, angaj i Harbin. Mnogi drugi su se naselili po zapadnim i severnim autonomnim
regionima Sinangu i Unutranjoj Mongoliji.

Japanese Orthodox Church


History
St. Nicholas of Japan (baptized as Ivan Dmitrievich Kasatkin) broughtOrthodox Christianity to Japan
in the 19th century.[1] In 1861 he was sent by the Russian Orthodox
Church to Hakodate, Hokkaid as a presbyter to a chapel of the Russian consulate. [2] Though the
contemporary Shogun's government prohibited Japanese conversion to Christianity, some neighbors
who frequently visited the chapel converted in 1864[3]Nicolai's first three converts in Japan. While
they were his first converts in Japan, they were not the first Japanese to become Orthodox
Christianssome Japanese who had settled in Russia had converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Apart from brief trips Nicholas stayed in Japan, even during the Russo-Japanese War (19041905).
He proclaimed Orthodox Christianity nationwide, and was appointed as the first bishop of the
Japanese Orthodox Church. He moved his headquarters from Hakodate to Tokyo around 1863. In
1886 the Japanese Orthodox Church had over 10,000 baptized faithful. [4]In 1891 Nicholas founded a
cathedral church in Tokyo in Kanda district. He spent most of the last half of his life there, and
hence Tokyo Resurrection Cathedral became nicknamed Nikorai-do by Kanda citizens.
St. Nicholas of Japan is also known for his Japanese translation of the New Testament and some
Christian liturgical books (Lenten Triodion, Pentecostarion, Feast Services, Book of
Psalms,Irmologion).[5]
The early mission to establish a Japanese Orthodox Church depended on the Russian Orthodox
Church, especially in financial matters. The war between Russia and Japan created a politically
difficult situation for the church. After theRussian Revolution of 1917, the support and
communications both spiritual and financial from the Russian Orthodox Church were severely
curtailed.[6] The Japanese government had new suspicions about the Japanese Orthodox Church; in
particular, that it was used as a cover for communist Russian espionage. The second bishop of
Japan, Metropolitan Sergius (Tikhomirov), called Sergii by the Japanese, suffered from such
governmental suspicion, and was forced to resign his episcopacy. The Russian Church similarly was
suffering from Stalinist policy and had no ability to help the young Church in Japan.
The Great Kant earthquake in 1923 did serious damage to the Japanese Orthodox Church. The
headquarters, Nikorai-do, was destroyed and burnt, including its library with many valuable
documents. Nikorai-do was rebuilt in 1929 thanks to contributions gathered from the faithful, whom
metropolitan Sergius visited nationwide.[7]
During the Fifteen Years War (19301945), which from 1939 to 1945 was part of World War II, the
Christians in Japan suffered severe conditions, the Orthodox Church especially. In 1945 after the
Japanese surrender the Allied Occupation leaders had a generous attitude to Christian groups, given
their predominantly American connections. As the majority of the Slavic- and Greek-Americans

would attend local Orthodox Christian parishes, the Orthodox Christian community in Japan took a
step forward. During the war the Japanese Orthodox Church had had almost no foreign contact.
After the war instead of the Russian Orthodox Church the precursors of the Orthodox Church in
America (OCA) helped re-invigorate the Japanese Orthodox Church. The Japanese Orthodox
Church became governed by bishops from the Orthodox Church in America, [2] and several youths
who studied at the OCA's Saint Vladimirs Orthodox Theological Seminary, then in New York City,
are now leaders of the Japanese Orthodox Church.
Annunciation Cathedral in Kyoto

Later, as the situation of the Orthodox Church improved in Russia, the Japanese Orthodox Church
came under their leadership again.[2] In 1970 the founder of the Orthodox Church in Japan, Nicolai
Kasatkin, was glorified by the Patriarch of Moscow and is recognized as St. Nicholas, Equal-to-theApostles to Japan; his commemoration day is February 16. In 2000 the Russian Orthodox Church
also canonized as a saint bishop Andronik (Nikolsky) who had been appointed the first bishop
of Kyoto and had later as archbishop of Perm become a martyr during the Russian Revolution.
In 2005 the first Orthodox Christian monastic house (male) of the Japanese Autonomous Orthodox
Church was opened in Tokyo near Holy Resurrection Cathedral (Nikolai-do). The abbot of the
monastic community is hieromonk Gerasimus (Shevtsov), who came from Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra.[8]
As of 2007, the leader of the Orthodox Church in Japan is Daniel (Nushiro), Metropolitan of All Japan
and Archbishop of Tokyo, elevated to his seat in 2000. [9] It is estimated that the Church has some
30,000 adherents today.[10]

Organization and hierarchy


The Japanese Orthodox Church has three dioceses:

Tokyo Archdiocese (Tokyo: Archbishop Daniel Nushiro)

Eastern Japan Diocese (Sendai: Bishop Seraphim Tsujie)

Western Japan Diocese (Kyoto)

Before becoming archbishop of Tokyo and metropolitan of all Japan Metropolitan Daniel had been
bishop of Kyoto and since 2001 he has been also in charge of the Kyoto diocese as locum tenens.
The Japanese Orthodox Church runs the Tokyo Orthodox Seminary. The seminary accepts only
male faithfuls and gives a three-year theological education to those who expect to become ordained
presbyters and missionaries. The Seminary also publishes a monthly journal, "Seikyo Jiho". [11]
The Japanese Orthodox Church publishes religious books, including the Japanese Orthodox
translation of the New Testament and Psalms and liturgical texts, available as texts alone or with
musical scores. Its headquarters in Tokyo and local parishes publish brochures for the faithful
looking for further religious education.

Liturgy
The Japanese Orthodox Church celebrates its liturgy in Japanese, and occasionally in other
languages such as Church Slavonic or Greek. As many liturgical and Biblical texts were first
translated into Japanese by Archbishop Nicolas andNakai Tsugumaro, a Japanese Christian scholar
of literary Chinese, their Japanese today reads archaically.

The liturgical style found in the Japanese Orthodox Church community remains influenced by that of
the Church in late 19th-century Russia.


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