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Designing Industrial

Exhaust Systems

m 3 = m 1 + m 2

Member ASHRAE

hen engineers design supply systems, a few assumptions simplify the process of calculating pressure losses. One of the

main assumptions is that the air density remains constant

throughout the system. For this to be true, the process must be adiabatic

(no heat loss), incompressible, isothermal (constant temperature), and

isobaric (constant pressure).

From the perfect gas law, even first-year engineers know that density

increases as temperature decreases or as pressure increases. Likewise,

density decreases as temperature rises or pressure falls. Since pressure

drop due to friction is actually a function of density, density must be accounted for if it varies much from standard.

In supply systems, the pressure drop

correction often is made by applying a

factor equal to the ratio of the actual density to standard density:

a

(1)

FAN TPa = FAN TPS

s

where,

FAN TPa = fan total pressure requirement at actual conditions, in. w.g. (Pa)

FAN TPs = fan total pressure requirement calculated at standard conditions,

in. w.g. (Pa)

a = actual density of the air, lbm/ft3

(kg/m3)

s = density of standard air = 0.075

lbm/ft3 (1.204 kg/m3)

In exhaust systems, density might

change throughout the system. This can

occur if the effluents being exhausted are

at different temperatures and thus different densities. The effluents might also

consist of various types of gases and

amounts of particulates that affect the den1

ASHRAE Journal

junctions in exhaust systems, new densities are created. To properly design these

systems, engineers must account for differences in density throughout the system as they calculate pressure losses.

Fundamentals of Mass

and Energy Flow

The two fundamental concepts that

govern the flow of air in ducts are the

laws of conservation of mass and conservation of energy.

Conservation of Mass

The law of conservation of mass tells

us that, at steady state conditions, the

mass flow rate of gas entering a control

volume must equal the mass flow rate of

gas exiting the control volume. If the mass

flow rates entering the control volume are

given by m 1 and m 2, and the mass flow

rate exiting the control volume is given

by m 3, then:

(2)

of the gas stream () times the volume

flow rate (Q). Therefore, Equation 2 can

be written as:

(3)

3 Q3 = 1 Q1 + 2 Q2

Q3

Q1

Q2

where,

i = the density at the i cross-section,

lbm/ft3 (kg/m3)

Qi = the air volume flow rate, cfm (L/s,

converted to m3/s by dividing by 1,000).

Since the volume flow rate is simply the

velocity (V) times the cross-sectional area

(A), Equation 3 can also be written as:

3V3A3 = 1V1A1 + 2V2A2

(4)

VA

VA

V A

3 3 32 = 1 1 1 2 + 2 2 22

1,000

1,000

1,000

where,

V = the velocity, fpm (m/s).

A = the cross-sectional area, ft2 (mm2

converted to m2 by dividing by 1,0002).

Equation 4 will be used at junctions

where two gas streams are combined.

Conservation of Energy

Applying the conservation of energy

About the Author

Patrick J. Brooks is director of

Manufacturing Services for United

McGill, Columbus, Ohio. He is a member and former chair of TC 5.2, Duct

Design, and is a member of SPC 120,

Methods of Testing to Determine Flow

Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings, SPC 126, Methods of Testing

HVAC Air Ducts and SPC 134, Graphic

Symbols of HVAC&R Systems.

w w w. a s h r a e j o u r n a l . o r g

April 2001

ASHRAE Journal

and kinetic energy at the junction, and since no work is done,

the equation for conserving energy becomes:

h = m h + m h

m

(5)

3 3

1 1

2 2

where,

hi = the enthalpy of the gas stream at the i cross-section,

Btu/lbm (kJ/kg).

Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property of a homogeneous

gas. It can generally be calculated as a function of the average

specific heat of the gas for the process and the temperature:

hi = Cp ti

(6)

where,

Cp = is the average specific heat of the gas, Btu/lbm F

(kJ/kg C).

ti = the average temperature of the gas stream at the i

cross-section, F (C).

Chapter 6 of the 1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals

provides information to calculate enthalpies of gas mixtures

(including those with water vapor). Cp is relatively constant for

most gases over a wide range of temperatures. Under this assumption, Equation 5 can be rewritten as:

t

m 3 t3= m 1 t1+ m

(7)

2 2

or

t3 =

m 1 t1 + m 2 t2

m + m

1

(8)

density of the mixture. From the perfect gas law, the density

ratio of a gas at two different temperatures and pressures is

given by:

1 T2P1

(9)

2 = T P

1 2

where,

Ti is the absolute temperature of the gas at i, R (K).

Pi is the absolute pressure of the gas at i, in. Hg (kPa).

In gas streams, the change in absolute pressure is often negligible. For a gas stream composed mostly of air, in which

changes in absolute pressure are small, the density can be estimated from:

293

530

or 1 . 20 4 kg/m 3

a = 0.075 lbm /ft 3

(10)

Ta

Ta

Heat Loss/Gain

Heat loss/gain in each section of duct must also be accounted

for in exhaust design. This is because heat transfer to ambient

will cool a hot gas (or warm a cool gas) as it flows through

ducts.

If the gas temperatures are much different from ambient, duct

pressure drop calculations should account for this heat loss/

gain. The temperatures of the gases entering a junction must be

calculated. These are the temperatures of the gases that will mix

in the junction.

Chapter 32 of the ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals pro2

ASHRAE Journal

an application of the general heat transfer equation, Q = UA T.

The designer may also want to determine the duct wall temperatures to determine if insulation is necessary as a safety precaution or to reduce heat loss or gain.

Pressure Loss Corrections

There are two different types of pressure losses associated

with ductwork: friction losses and dynamic losses.

Friction Losses

In laminar flow, friction losses result from momentum exchange

between molecules. In turbulent flow, friction losses result from

momentum exchange between individual particles of adjacent

fluid layers moving at different velocities. The Darcy equation

is used to calculate friction loss.

2

L V2

L V

Pf = f

or f

(11)

Dh 1097

Dh 2

where,

f = the friction factor

L = the length of the duct, ft (m)

Dh = the hydraulic diameter, ft (m)

(the other terms are previously defined)

The friction factor in the Darcy equation is a function of the

material absolute roughness, hydraulic diameter, and Reynolds

Number. When the Darcy equation is used to calculate friction

loss, there is no need for additional correction factors because

the friction factor can be calculated for actual conditions. Either

the Colebrook equation or the Altshul-Tsal equation can be

used to determine the friction factor. Chapter 32 of the ASHRAE

HandbookFundamentals presents those equations.

Most designers do not take the time to apply the Colebrook

or Altshul-Tsal equations and calculate pressure drop with the

Darcy Equation. Instead, they use a friction chart or ductulator.

Those tools incorporate a friction factor based on standard

conditions. When friction losses are calculated at standard conditions, correction factors must be applied for actual conditions.

To correct the friction loss for temperature, use:

0.825

293 0.825

530

or

K t =

(12)

273 + ti

460 + t i

To correct the friction loss for changes in barometric pressure, use:

0. 9

0.9

or

K =

(13)

29.921

101.325

where, is the actual barometric pressure, in. Hg (kPa).

Example 1:

Air is flowing in a 6-in. (160-mm) diameter exhaust duct at 3,000

fpm (15 m/s). The friction loss from the ASHRAE friction loss

chart is 2.2 in. w.g./100 ft (16 Pa/m). [SI values in this example are

not direct conversions; they are approximate to the English values but are determined separately.] If the temperature of the gas

is 500F (260C) and the barometric pressure is 27 in. Hg (91.4

kPa) then Kt = 0.61 and K = 0.91. The friction rate becomes:

w w w. a s h r a e j o u r n a l . o r g

April 2001

Pressure Loss

0.61 0.91 2.2 in. w.g./100 ft = 1.22 in. w.g./100 ft

0.61 0.91 16 Pa/m = 8.9 Pa/m

Dynamic Losses

Dynamic losses are caused by flow disturbances from duct

mounted equipment and fittings that change the direction and/

or area of the airflow path. The fluid resistance coefficient C, is

the ratio of the total pressure (dynamic) loss to the velocity

pressure at the reference cross section.

p

C = p i {so pi = C pv}

(14)

v

Loss coefficients for many fittings are listed in the ASHRAE

Duct Fitting Loss Coefficient Tables. This information is also

available as a computerized ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database.

The coefficients are tabulated as a function of size and/or airflow and area ratios. Once the loss coefficient is determined, it

is multiplied by the velocity pressure at the reference cross

section to determine the pressure loss of the fitting. The velocity pressure is given by:

2

V 2

V

, Pa

p v =

, in. w.g.

(15)

1097

2

If the velocity pressure is calculated as if the gas were at

standard conditions ( = 0.075 lbm/ft3, [1.204 kg/m3]), equation

15 reduces to:

2

V

pv =

, in. w.g.

0.602 V 2 , Pa

(16)

4005

When the velocity pressure is calculated for standard conditions using equation 16, the total pressure loss must be corrected multiplying it by the ratio of actual to standard densities.

Example 2:

Calculate the loss of a die-stamped elbow under the same

conditions of Example 1. The airflow rate is 600 cfm (300 L/s).

From the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database, the loss coefficient is, C = 0.14, the velocity pressure at standard conditions

is 0.58 in. w.g. (135 Pa), and the pressure loss at standard conditions is 0.08 in. w.g. (19 Pa).

The actual ratio of densities from Equation 9 is:

a 530 27

=

= 0.50

s 460 + 500 29.921

293 91.4

273 + 260 101.325

(17)

0.08 or 0.04 in. w.g. (9.5 Pa).

Since we know the ratio of densities, we could also have

calculated the actual density (0.075 0.50 = 0.0375 lbm/ft3

[1.204 0.50 = 0.602 kg/m3]). The true velocity pressures could

have been calculated as:

2

3056

p v = 0.0375

= 0.29 in. w.g.

1097

152

= 68 Pa

0.602

2

April 2001

to Section 1 has 600 cfm (300 L/s) at 500F [260C]. Inlet to

Section 2 has 600 cfm (300 L/s) at 70F (20C). Sections 1 and

2 are each 10 ft (3 m) long. Section 3 is 20 ft (6 m) long.

Multiplying the actual velocity pressure by the loss coefficient gives identical results.

System Losses

To determine system losses, individual component losses

must be calculated and the total pressure loss in each path

summed. The following example illustrates this process.

Example 3:

Barometric Pressure = 27 in. Hg (91.4 kPa). The inlet loss

coefficients are both equal to 0.93. The ducts are sized to maintain 3,000 fpm (15 m/s) to avoid particulate dropout.

Sections 1 and 2 are sized at 6-in. (160-mm) diameters. The

size for Section 3 must be determined for the actual volume flow

rate in Section 3. The volume flow rate is the mass flow rate

divided by the density.

The first step is to calculate the densities and mass flow rates

in Sections 1 and 2. The conditions in Section 1 are the same as

in Example 2. The density in Section 1 has already been calculated as 1 = 0.0375 lbm/ft3 (0.602 kg/m3).

The density for Section 2 can be calculated using Equation 9

as:

530 27

3

2 = 0.075

= 0.068 lb m /ft

460 + 70 29.921

293 91 . 4

3

1 . 204 273 + 20 101 . 325 = 1.086 kg/m

300

= 0.18 kg/s

m 1 = 0.0375 600 = 22.2 lbm/min 0.602

1000

m = 0.068 600 = 40.8 lb /min

2

2 as:

=m

+m

= 22.2 + 40.8 = 63 lb /min

m

3

1

2

m

[0.18 + 0.32 = 0.50 kg/s]

Neglecting the heat loss in the short 10 ft (3 m) lengths, the

duct leaving temperatures are assumed to be the same as the

entering temperature. The temperature of the air entering Section 3 can therefore be calculated using Equation 8 as:

22.2 500 + 40.8 70

t3 =

= 222F

63

0.18 260 + 0.32 20

= 106C

0.5

ASHRAE Journal

ASHRAE Journal

Knowing the temperature allows us to calculate the density

in Section 3 as:

530 27

3

3 = 0.075

= 0.053 lbm /ft

293 91.4

3

1.204 273 + 106 101.325 = 0.84 kg/m

mass flow rate by the density.

Q3 =

63

= 1189 cfm

0.053

0.50

3406

PV 3 = 0.053

= 0.51 in.w.g.

1097

18.9 2

= 150 Pa

0.84

2

Inlet Losses

Inlet total pressure losses are determined by multiplying the

inlet loss coefficient times the sections velocity pressure.

pt , inlet 1 = 0.93 0.29 = 0.27 in. w.g.

[0.93 67 = 62 Pa]

pt, inlet 2 = 0.93 x 0.53 = 0.49 in. w.g.

[0.93 121 = 113 Pa]

Friction Losses

From the ASHRAE friction chart in Chapter 32 of the FundaWe want to size Section 3 to maintain 3,000 fpm (15 m/s)

carrying velocity. To do this, we divide the airflow rate by the mentals handbook, the friction loss rates at standard condidesired velocity to determine the required area, then solve for tions are:

f ,1 f , 2

the diameter.

,

= 2.2 in.w.g./10 0 ft (16 Pa/m)

595

2

1189

100 100

2

=

1000

39

,

666

mm

A3 =

= 0.396 ft

15

f ,3

3000

= 1.8 in.w.g./100 ft (14 Pa/m)

100

4 39,666

4 0.396

D3 =

12 = 8.5 in.

= 225 mm

The friction losses at standard conditions are calculated as:

10

This size should be rounded down to a standard available

p f,1 , p f,s = 2.2

= 0.22 in.w.g. [16 3 = 48 Pa ]

100

size to maintain the carrying velocity, so we will use an 8-in.

(200-mm) diameter.

20

[14 6 = 84 Pa ]

p f ,3 = 1.8

= 0.36 in.w.g

The next step is to determine the areas, velocities, and veloc100

ity pressures in each section. These factors are needed to deThe correction factors from Equation 12 and Equation 13 are:

termine loss coefficients and pressure losses.

0.825

0.825

530

293

2

=

,

K

62

160

= 0.61

t1

= 20,106 mm 2

A1, A2 =

= 0.196 ft2

460 + 500

273 + 260

4144

4

Kt = 1

2

82

200 2

2

0.825

0.825

2

A3 =

= 0.349 ft

=

31

,

416

mm

530

293

=

K

,

4 144

= 0.81

4

t

3

460 + 222

273 + 106

600

300

V1 , V 2 =

= 3061 fpm

0.9

0.9

27 91.4

0.196

20,106 1000 = 14.9 m/s

K , K , K =

,

= 0.91

1

2

3

29.921 101.325

1189

595

V3 =

= 3406 fpm

The friction losses at actual conditions become:

0.349

31,416 1000 = 18.9 m/s

From Equation 15:

[48 0.61 0.91 = 27 Pa]

2

3061

PV 1 = 0.0375

= 0.29 in.w.g.

1097

14.9 2

= 67 Pa

0

.

602

3061

PV 2 = 0.068

= 0.53 in.w.g.

1097

14.9 2

= 121 Pa

1.086

2

ASHRAE Journal

[48 1 0.91 = 27 Pa]

pf 3 = 0.36 0.81 0.91 = 0.27 in. w.g.

[84 0.81 0.91 = 62 Pa]

Junction Losses

From the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database for fitting ED5-2

(Wye, 45, Converging), the loss coefficient Cs for the main

flow (Section 1 to Section 3) referenced to Section 1 is 0.19. The

loss coefficient Cb for the intersecting branch referenced to the

branch is 0.48.

The total pressure losses of the junction fitting are calculated

w w w. a s h r a e j o u r n a l . o r g

April 2001

Pressure Loss

as:

pt,13 = Cs pv1 = 0.19 0.29 = 0.05 in. w.g. [0.19 67 = 13 Pa]

pt,23 = Cb pv2 = 0.48 0.53 = 0.25 in. w.g. [0.48 121 = 58 Pa]

System Pressure Losses and Balancing

To determine the system pressure requirements, the total pressure loss for each section is calculated, then the individual

section losses are summed.

Section 1 Losses = Inlet + Friction + Junction

= 0.27 + 0.12 + 0.05 = 0.44 in. w.g.

[62 + 27 + 13 = 102 Pa]

Section 2 Losses = Inlet + Friction + Junction

= 0.49 + 0.20 + 0.25 = 0.94 in. w.g.

[113 + 44 + 62 = 219 Pa]

Section 3 Losses = Friction

= 0.27 in. w.g. (62 Pa)

Path 1 3 Pressure Loss = 0.44 + 0.27 = 0.71 in. w.g.

[102 + 62 = 164 Pa]

Path 2 3 Pressure Loss = 0.94 + 0.27 = 1.21 in. w.g.

[219 + 62 = 281 Pa]

The fan must be sized to provide an airflow in Section 3 of 1189

cfm (595 L/s) at a temperature of 222F (106C) and a total pressure of 1.21 in. w.g. (281 Pa) at the fan inlet. Fan manufacturers

ratings tables are based on air at standard temperature and pressure. When using the fan manufacturers rating table to select

fans for duty at non-standard conditions, choose the fan for the

volume airflow (cfm or L/s) at actual conditions. Multiply the

calculated fan total pressure required at actual conditions by the

ratio of standard density to actual density to determine the fan

total pressure at standard conditions for picking the fan. Because lower density makes it more difficult to develop pressure,

a fan that must produce 1.21 in. w.g. (281 Pa) of pressure moving

air at a density of 0.055 lbm/ft3 [0.89 kg/m3] will have to be capable of developing 1.65 in. w.g. [383 Pa] at standard conditions.

Horsepower also varies with the density ratio. The lower

density at hot conditions means the fan requires less power

than at standard conditions. A fan selected for hot duty might

need a larger motor for start up at cold conditions than to run at

design conditions.

April 2001

The pressure drop from one point (the room) to any other

point (the fan inlet) must be the same regardless of the path the

air takes. Because Path 13 requires only 0.71 in. w.g. (164 Pa),

Section 1 will need an additional pressure drop to make the pressure drop in Path 13 equal to the pressure drop in Path 23.

Otherwise, the airflow in Path 13 would increase and the airflow

in Path 23 would decrease to make the pressure drops equal.

The additional pressure drop can be achieved by adding a damper,

reducing the duct size, increasing airflow, or a combination of the

three.

Summary

Even though Sections 1 and 2 have the same design airflow

rates, they have much different pressure requirements. The pressure loss for Section 1 is only 0.44 in. w.g. (102 Pa) compared to

0.94 in. w.g. (219 Pa) for Section 2. Part of this difference is due

to the higher pressure loss through the branch of a junction

compared to the main. However, most of the difference results

because the less dense air in Section 1 creates lower pressure

drops.

Since Sections 1 and 2 are not naturally in balance, too much

air would be pulled from Section 1 and not enough from Section

2, possibly causing fallout of particulate in Section 2. Design

changes will be needed to bring Section 1 into balance. If actual

conditions and the density corrections not had been used to

calculate the pressure losses, the degree of imbalance would

not have been known. The actual conditions at the fan inlet

would also not have been known, and the fan would not have

been sized properly.

References

1. 1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals, Chap. 32.

2. 1997 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals, Chap. 6.

3. ASHRAE Duct Fitting Loss Coefficient Tables.

4. ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database.

5. ASHRAE Terminology of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning

& Refrigeration, Section I Terms and Definitions, December 8, 1989.

Editorial Note

For information on the basics of duct pressure drop calculations for air at standard conditions, see Brooks, P. 1995. Duct

design fundamentals. ASHRAE Journal 37(4):6976.

ASHRAE Journal

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