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Preface

Climate and the built environment have always existed in a close relationship to one another.
The climatic and air-quality conditions under which we live depend not only on natural
circumstances but also very significantly on the distribution of land uses as well as the built
structure and arrangement of developed areas and buildings. The principal decisions for these
issues are made in the development of building and zoning plans, in which apart from new
aspects like climate protection and local climate change policies the traditional requirement
for exposure, air circulation, and sunlight for the creation and regaining of healthy living
and working conditions still holds fundamental importance today as a call for action.
During the early seventies, the term environmental protection became an ever more familiar
part of the language. The German Federal Environment Office came into being and important
additions were made to environmental legislation. The German Immission Control Act came

into force and alongside plant-specific regulations, this also sets out district-related
regulations. In this context air and climate raised to the status of planning factors.
This is also demonstrated by a look back to the first Climate Booklet for Urban
Development, Version 1, published in 1977 by the Interior Ministry of Baden-Wrttemberg.
This booklet achieved a high degree of recognition as a decision-making and technical aid for
zoning and planning both within and outside the state of Baden-Wrttemberg. The impetus for
this booklet was an amendment to Germany"s existing Federal Building Law with its new
requirements for consideration of climatic conditions in zoning and planning.
The term climate is used not merely to describe meteorological influences in the narrow
sense of climatology, but also air quality components in the sense of the urban climatology.
These include the investigation and rating of air pollution impacts (immissions), studies of
pollution dispersal (transmission), and measures for the reduction of pollutant releases
(emissions).
Because of the increasing importance of climate protection the revised edition of 1992 was
supplemented by the Climate Booklet for Urban Development, Version 2 in 1993.
The specific topics dealt with in this second booklet took into consideration frequently heard
questions from the realm of planning practice. Both booklets were updated in 1998 and
combined into one brochure. Fundamentals, selected topics, and concrete planning
recommendations are once more the highlights here, in which the planning, technical, and
legal possibilities and limitations for a climate-sensitive urban development are explained.
Since 2007 t his online version of the planning aid is available.
Against the background of the global climate change urban climate approaches based upon air
quality have to revaluate: climate-sensitive urban development contains now new challenges
considering additional aspects like climate protection and adaptation to impacts of climate
change. This makes also the amendment to Germany"s Federal Building Law clear. As one set
of actions for the necessary protection of our atmosphere, urban development considerations
and measures on the local level can contribute to reductions in energy use and the associated
minimization of pollutant entry into the earth"s atmosphere.
In accordance with the motto Think global, act local!, the state government established in
particular mitigation and adaptation of climate change in its objectives. Successful climate
protection and adaptation are based in large part on the knowledge and consideration of
climatic conditions. On the regional and especially on the local level urban development
considerations offer numerous occasions for adaptation to unavoidable impacts of climate
change.
Accordingly the Climate Booklet offers numerous hints and incitations allowing solution
concepts which are suitable for safeguarding sustainable environmentally responsible
development also with provision to the legally regulated simplification of inner development.
With the summarized materials in this comprehensive revised Climate Booklet for Urban
Development, the Ministry of Traffic and Infrastructure hopes to assist all those concerned
with urban development and planning in a proper consideration of climate-specific concerns,
and wishes this new edition a wide propagation and succeeding implementation.

Gisela Splett, Member of Parliament


State Secretary
Ministery of Traffic and Infrastructure
State of Baden-Wuerttemberg
Stuttgart, December 2012
Deutsch

Englisch

1. Climate as a Public Interest in Planning and Zoning


Burdens on the environment typically go hand in hand with the demands placed on
areas of land by correspondingly intense land uses. It therefore makes sense to use
the means of regional and urban development to pursue a precautious planning
towards the aim of environmental protection. Accordingly, the current German
environmental law deals with spatial planning in addition to its original focus on
the commercial realm. Zoning and planning at the municipal level thus serves as an
important instrument that contributes significantly to climate protection and the
preservation of air quality: A site plan that has been developed in accordance with
the land use plan of a municipality has binding authority to determine whether land
areas are used in a manner that the environment can tolerate. Various legal demands
also take this issue into account.
According to 1 (5) of the German Building Code BAUGESETZBUCH (BauGB),
urban development planning has to be sustainable, integrate social, economic and
ecologic demands and assume the responsibility for future generations. Urban
development plans have to contribute to an environment fit for human beings, to
the protection and development of natural resources, also in regard to climate
protection, as well as preserve and develop the urban pattern and the appearance of

the landscape and of the town or city.


According to 1 (6) of the German Building Code, especially the following aspects
have to be taken into account when establishing urban development plans:
No. 7 environment protection aspects, including the conservation of nature and
landscape management, especially
a) the consequences on animals, plants, soil, air, climate and the interactions
between them, as well as the landscape and biological diversity, ...
d) environmental effects on human beings and their health as well as on the
population as a whole,
e) the avoidance of emissions...,
f) the use of renewable energies as well as the economical and efficient use of
energy,
g) the presentation of landscape plans and green open space structure plans as well
as of other plans, especially concerning water rights, waste rights and pollution
control rights,
h) the conservation of the best possible air quality in areas where the fixed
immission protection limit values are not exceeded and
i) the interactions between the different aspects of environmental protection.
The requirements of the Federal Immission Control Act (BundesImmissionsschutzgesetz, BImSchG) concerning air pollution control strategies in
particular areas (see 49, 50 of the Federal Immission Control Act) are applied for
the weighing of interests in development planning especially with issue h).
Supplementary regulations in 1a of the German Building Code concretise these
ecological aspects which have to be weighed and which can also have a positive
influence on our climate:
In a soil protection clause the possibilities of the reclamation of land, infill
development and other measures of development of core areas are mentioned
exemplarly. The sealing of soil surface has to be restricted as much as possible (
1a (2)).
According to 1a (3) of the German Building Code, the compensation of intrusions
upon the natural environment also belongs to the aspects of environmental
protection which have to be taken into account. The compensation is done by
suitable descriptions according to 5 of the German Building Code in the structure
plan or by regulations in the zoning map according to 9.
We want to point out that one of the aims of nature and landscape protection is to

make sure that our natural assets (soil, water, climate, fauna and flora) can
regenerate and can be used sustainably in future (see 1 (1) no. 2 of the Federal
Nature Conservation Act (Naturschutzgesetz, NatSchG)).
According to the European Law Adaption Act for the construction sector
(conversion of EU guideline 2001/42/EC into national law), it had been necessary
in 2004 to amend the German Building Code. This was an occasion to revise the
German Building Code completely.
2 (4) of the German Building Code requires an environmental impact assessment
for development planning in which significant expected effects on the environment
are determined, described and evaluated. 2a requires, besides the argumentation
for a development plan draft, a separate environmental report as part of the
argumentation. This means that a separate regulation on environmental impact
assessments for particular urban development plans, like in 1a (2) no. 3, is no
longer necessary.
According to this, 17 of the Environmental Impact Assessment Law
(Umweltvertrglichkeitsprfungsgesetz, UVPG) makes clear that land-use plans in
the meaning of 2 (3) no. 3 and especially plans according to no. 18.1 to 18.9 of
Appendix 1 have to be carried out in compliance with the regulations of the
German Building Code.
The guidelines of the previous 1 (5) sentence 2 no.7 together with the regulations
of the previous 1a and 2a as well as with the regulations of annex I of the SEA
Directive and of annex IV of the EIA Directive are combined in 1 (6) no. 7 (see
above). Compared to the environmental assessement up to now according to the
EIA Directive, it is new that the investigation is not restricted to negative
environmental impacts.
The revision of the existing German Building Code from 1 January 1977 made
comparable demands for precautious environmental protection in zoning and
planning and also took into account the precautionary principle embodied in the
1974 Federal Immission Control Act. 50 of the Federal Immission Control Act
formulates a principle that binds every planning-related entity: "The areas foreseen
in spatial plans and measures for a defined use are to be arranged in a way that
environmentally-damaging effects are avoided as far as possible on exclusively or
predominantly residential areas as well as other areas requiring protection."
According to 4 (1) of the German Building Code, the municipality has to solicit
as early as possible the input of the authorities and other public agencies whose
areas of responsibility are affected. The public agencies have to be informed and
asked for a statement, also concerning the necessary extent and degree of
specification of the environmental impact assessment.
For the handling of the planning factors air and climate, however, no particular
authority or office is specifically responsible as public agency. The traditional bases
for climate protection and preservation of air quality lie (according to their

emphases) in the areas of:

Worksite protection, worksite medical services, and neighborhood


protection (protection from emissions and damaging environmental effects)

Local and environmental hygiene (from a largely medical perspective)

Nature and landscape protection

Various participants in planning processes can thus represent this interest in the
public-input process, especially because air and climate are omnipresent and
therefore overlap with other concerns.
The municipalities" role is to monitor the significant environmental impacts
expected as a result of the realisation of the urban development plans. This enables
them to determine unexpected negative impacts at an early stage and take the
appropriate measures. For this, the municipalities use the monitoring measures that
have to be indicated in the environmental report as well as the information given by
the authorities according to 4 of the German Building Code.
The law on the easier implementation of plans for the inner development of towns
and cities from 21 December 2006 amended the German Building Code as from 1
January 2007 to the effect that land-use plans for the reclamation of land, for infill
development and for other measures for the inner development of cities can be
established, under certain conditions, in an accelerated procedure and without an
environmental impact assessment (this is called a land-use plan for inner
development). The maximum size of the area for this procedure is 70,000 m and a
rough examination has to come to the estimation that the land-use plan is not
expected to have significant environmental impacts which would have to be
considered according to 2 (4) sentence 4 of the German Building Code
(preliminary examination of an individual case). The authorities and other public
agencies whose responsibilities can be affected by the planning are to be involved
in the preliminary examination of the individual case.
The German Building Code and the Land Use Ordinance
BAUNUTZUNGSVERORDNUNG (BauNVO) offer differentiated possibilities for
urban development that is climatically just. The legal catalogue of permissible
instruments in zoning and planning has been expanded ( 9 (1), (1a) of the German
Building Code). There is, however, no instrument that can bring about on its own a
healthy urban climate.
The new legal instruments embodied in the "urban planning contract" ( 11 of the
German Building Code) and the "project completion plan" ( 12 of the German
Building Code) accommodate the consideration of urban climate interests in several
regards:

The representation of the concrete project in the project completion plan allows for
the examination and assessment of all climatic effects on the surrounding area
resulting from the forms of built structures. This has relevance for the aspects of
sunlight, lighting, possibilities for solar use and bioclimatic conditions.
The instrument of the urban planning contract can tie together an energy provision
concept (e.g. solar-thermal energy) with its technical details.
Urban development contracts can also be used as goal-setting contracts for the
implementation of climate-protecting measures along the lines of the Federal
"Agenda 21" program.
In light of worldwide efforts towards the protection of the earths atmosphere, one
can conclude, based on altered appraisals in favour of environmental protection
especially in favour of air and climate that the value of these factors is no longer
limited to aspects of the local climatology and the climate of the local terrain.
Large-scale climate protection is to be taken into consideration in zoning and
planning as a public interest. This issue is now also dealt with in the German
constitution, which defines environmental protection in Article 20 a as a state goal.
Undefined legal terms (for example "in the interest of the general public") must
now be interpreted in light of this state goal.

2. Characteristics and Forms of the Urban Climate


2.1 Overview
The development and progression of the weather follow physical laws, which accounts for the
frequently quick temporal changes in the state of the atmosphere.
Climate, on the other hand, is defined as the average state of the atmospheric weather
conditions and their fluctuations at a specific location. The geographical situation, the
elevation of the location, and the distance to large water surfaces are all deciding influences.
Climate is described by the climatic elements of air temperature, humidity, precipitation, air
pressure, wind, cloudiness, and radiation.
One can see from these conceptual definitions that "the climate" cannot be quantified by
specific magnitudes. At most, only measurements, observations, and evaluations related to
specific aspects of the climate can be recorded. The Academy for Spatial Research and Land
Planning has published meteorological terminology for regional plans (Schirmer, 1988).
Bioclimatology (the effects of climate upon humans) has also attempted to connect various
climatic elements to one another and to evaluate them subjectively. One such example is the
concept of the thermal burden ("heat index"), developed from the combination of air
temperature, humidity, and radiation.
One of the main tasks of climatology lies synthesizing all climatic elements under
consideration of their respective dependencies and external influences (such as topography,
relief, and the built environment).

Notwithstanding frequently time- and cost-intensive measurements, virtually anyone can


recognize and in part assess climatic details through simple observations in the natural realm.
Examples include the observation of smoke movements as indications of wind direction and
atmospheric temperature gradation, the observation of vegetation and its development as
gauges for the levels of temperature and precipitation, and noting areas of ground fog cover as
an indication of local cold air pockets. Also to be mentioned are the observation of frost
damages and local cloud development.
Although climate is largely dependent upon natural features in rural areas, a different climate
is produced by the built environment in urban areas the urban climate. Today, the term
"urban climate" also encompasses the change in the natural composition of the air through
anthropological influences (air pollution and aerosols).
Every structure has an influence upon the individual climatic elements. Large built-up areas
divorce themselves in a climatic sense from their surrounding landscape. The significant
causes contributing to the production of a separate urban climate lie in the far-reaching
alteration of the heat budget and the local wind field. The city airs strong saturation with
particles from fires, traffic, industry, and powerplants also is a factor. The character of a
typical urban climate is first and foremost dependent upon the size of the city, but is also
influenced by the topography, urban form, and the proportion of open space.
Although there are elements of the urban climate that differentiate themselves very little based
on the location in the city (such as sunlight and precipitation), other climatic elements
affected by the heat retention capacities of buildings, by the soil capping, by altered water
budgets, and by heat discharges show substantial spatial variation (such as temperature and
wind patterns). Small spatial variations can be found in areas of buildings, streets, and green
spaces.
2.2 Urban Heat Budget
In contrast to the open landscape, the balance of energy which is largely determined by
shortwave radiation from the sun and by the longwave emanation of warmth in a city is
substantially altered. The relative influences on the urban heat budget are depicted
schematically in Figure 2/2 (ROBEL et al, 1978). Solar radiation (dispersion and absorption)
is reduced by particulate matter (pollutant gases and aerosols) in the city atmosphere. In the
ultraviolet spectrum, the reduction ranges from 5% in summer up to 30% in winter. Global
radiation (both direct solar radiation and diffuse celestial radiation) can be up to 20% less in
cities. The duration of daily sunshine is further lessened up to 15% (LANDSBERG, 1981).

Figure 2.2
Soil capping and the correspondingly smaller proportion of green space reduces evaporation,
contributing to increased temperatures in the city.
The built mass of the city accumulates heat from the incoming solar radiation, which indicates
that daily maximum temperatures occur later in the day and that the temperature fluctuation
range is narrower in a city versus in the surrounding land Fig. 2/3) (BRNDL et al, 1986)
(Fig. 2/3a). The buildings release the stored heat only slowly overnight, and are still relatively

warm in the morning.

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.3A
Energy transfers in a city occur in large part not at ground level, but rather in the area of the
roof level and the upper floors of buildings.
The effective dispersal of radiation is reduced by the relatively high proportion of pollutant
gases (e.g. carbon dioxide), which can absorb longwave heat radiation and can thus lead to a
warming of the city atmosphere the local greenhouse effect.
A factor that can"t be neglected in urban areas is the anthropogenic heat generation inducing
an additional warming particulary in winter during the heating period. It depends on the
population density as well as the per capita consumption. The annual urban average in Central
European cities is 30 W/m (KUTTLER, 2010).
2.3 Urban Heat Islands
With regards to temperature, cities contribute constantly to warming; this, however, is not
necessarily a negative characteristic of the urban climate. On average, cities are annually 1 to
2 degrees Celsius warmer than their surrounding landscapes. Particularly large temperature
differentials arise on clear nights during the daily temperature minimum.
(MATZARAKIS et al., 2008; KUTTLER, 2011).
Figure 2/4 shows this relationship for European cities dependent upon on the size of the city.

Figure 2.4
Cities with millions of inhabitants can witness a temperature differential above 10 degrees.
One can also discern, however, a recognizable heat island effect throughout the smaller cities.
Studies in Munich (BRNDL et al, 1986) have shown that temperature levels in city districts
depend largely upon the degree of soil capping. An increase of 10% in the proportion of soil
capping thus produces a rise in average annual temperatures by 0.2 degrees.
For every 10% increase in the degree of capping, the long-term average level of the air
temperature in the built area (following completion of all construction activity) rises
approximately 0.2 degrees Celsius above the temperature of the non-built surroundings. In
sunny weather conditions, for every 10% increase in the degree of capping the daily average
temperature rises 0.3 to 0.4 degrees, the average daily maximum rises 0.3 degrees, and the
average daily minimum rises 0.5 to 0.6 degrees Celsius ( Figure 2/5).

FIGURE 2.5
This generally higher temperature level exerts a perceptible positive effect on the inner-city
vegetation. The effect can be noted by the presence of numerous warmth-loving plant types in
front yards and parks as well as in the lengthened vegetation period. Opportunities for outdoor
activities are also more frequent in cities. Similarly, the need for heating energy is reduced.
Various types of ground cover warm themselves at highly different rates on cloudless summer
days with little wind. This depends on the absorption ability, the heat capacity, the heat
conductivity, and the evaporation ability of the underlying ground.
For example, asphalt absorbs 80% to 90% of incoming radiation, whereas a white wall
absorbs only 20% to 35%. Temperature measurements vary between less than 30 degrees to
almost 50 degrees Celsius (LORENZ, 1973).
The diurnal variations in the temperatures of various materials and surfaces on a hot summer
day are shown in Figure 2/6 from FEZER (1975).

figure 2.6
In addition to the material properties of surfaces, the height and arrangement of buildings is
relevant to the temperature conditions in a city. Narrow streets and alleys produce shadowing
effects, which leads to a delay in the warming of the urban realm. The artificial narrowing of
the horizon also decreases the heat dissipation of the building surfaces, however, which
reduces nightly cooling in the streets.
The interaction of these factors inside the various structures and built densities of the city
leads to a mosaic of varied thermal microclimates, which join with each other to produce a
clearly-defined heat island (or heat archipelago) when compared with the surrounding land.
These heat island conditions are recognizable in infrared heat images (z. B. Thermal map,
Stuttgart Region, Chapter 5/2) with their large spatial differentials in surface temperatures.
The development of heat islands in Stuttgart is shown also in the following representation
(Figure 2/7) and (Figure 2/7a) of temperature distributions on 21 August 1965 at 6:00 AM
(HAMM, 1969). The figure shows the heat island effect in summer; according to the same
study, however, the heat island effect is of the same order of magnitude in winter. The large

temperature differentials in Stuttgart amount to roughly 6 degrees between the central city and
the edge zones of the city basin

Against the background of global climate change and the need to adapt to inevitable climate
change portion of the urban heat island has become the subject of numerous research projects
(e.g. EU project UHI , 2011 - 2014).
2.4 Humidity / Precipitation / Vegetation
In rural areas a substantial proportion of solar radiation is used to evaporate water stored in
the soil and in vegetation. This amount is significantly greater than changes in temperature
produced by building shadows.
Areas of vegetation particularly forests also carry out a sizeable filtering effect on the air.
As such, forest air has between 200 and 1000 times less dust and soot particles than air in
cities. Dust levels are also noticeably less in inner-city parks than in built-up areas. This
underscores the high importance of inner-city green spaces for the urban climate.
A common property of all forms of vegetation is the prevention of soil capping, to which
concrete climatic effects can be assigned:
Only small quantities of water can evaporate from capped, built-up surfaces. This is a very
significant contributor to the surplus temperatures ubiquitous in built-up areas. The discharge
factors for rain water discharge according to DIN 1986 Part 2 show that 90% of precipitation
water flows off when falling on plasters with joint grouting, black covers, or concrete surfaces
(compare with Chapter 6.1.4, Tab. 6/2).
The influence of non-evaporating water pockets on air warming is enunciated by the
following comparison: Approximately 2250 kJ of energy are required to vaporize 1 liter of
water at standard air pressure. However, the same amount of energy can increase the

temperature of 100 m3 of air by 18 degrees Celsius.


Owing to the decreased water vapor pressure in warmer built areas, a strong vapor pressure
gradient and corresponding potential for evaporation set in to the cooler and more humid
surroundings. This leads to the so-called Oasis Effect, which holds down air temperatures at
the edge of the built area while increasing the evaporation in the more humid neighboring
area. To this extent, the built structures surrounding a green space produce a disadvantageous
long-range effect on the green spaces spread like oases throughout a built-up area.
As an aside, it should be noted that the there is dispute as to the quantitative potential of
vegetated surfaces for oxygen generation, as well as the importance of this factor for humans
(ROBEL, 1975; BERNATZKY, 1985; MUERB, 1992).
One can assume that the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere has remained constant for
roughly 200 million years at about 21%. In that time period, therefore, a remarkably stable
equilibrium must have existed between oxygen generation and oxygen-requiring processes.
The latter have increased substantially in recent years due to technical and industrial processes
involving combustion. The oxygen use of organisms and technical processes is always so
quickly balanced by air exchange movements, however, that fluctuations in concentration
between only 1/100 and 1/1000 percent by volume can be observed in areas where humans
and plants exist. Fluctuations of this size are insignificant for oxygen-breathing animals and
humans. In particular, the decisive factor for effective respiration is the partial pressure of
oxygen, which changes according to air pressure. Hence it follows that larger drops in air
pressure, especially as a result of changes in the weather, have a greater effect on respiration
ability than slight fluctuations of the oxygen concentration in the air.
During the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll-containing plants extract carbon dioxide
from the air and release oxygen. In order to supply the annual oxygen requirements of a
human being, an area of approximately 130 m2 of vegetation must engage in photosynthesis
for the entire summer season, assuming a yearly oxygen production of 2 kg for every square
meter of vegetation. According to BERNATZKY (1985), a 100-year-old freestanding beech
tree 25 meters high bears a total of 1,600 m2 of exterior leaf surfaces, thus producing enough
oxygen for 10 human beings each year.
One must take into account, however, that the oxygen produced by plants during
photosynthesis is not a lasting gain for the breathable air. Nearly one-third of that oxygen is
consumed during the process of plant respiration, during which plants break down organic
substances with the help of oxygen. The remaining two-thirds is used up in lengthy
decomposition processes to break down dead vegetation substance. An enduring gain in
oxygen can only result from the long-term conservation of organic substances, which was the
case for example during the prehistoric formation of coal and oil deposits. The earth"s oceans
are the largest locations of oxygen production with a positive balance: Their phytoplankton
supplies roughly 70% of the oxygen used on earth. The remaining 30% comes from landbased plants, especially from the great continental forests. Our green areas and forests exert
only a spatially limited, stabilizing effect on the oxygen content of the air; this cannot,
however, be overlooked in light of the numerous anthropological sources of combustion near
the ground. The concept of city parks and green spaces as "Lungs of the City" should be
avoided, however, as their function in this regard is minor.
Because of the heat-island effect, the relative air humidity in cities is lesser than in the

surrounding areas, although the absolute humidity differs only slightly owing to the intake of
water vapor from the countryside due to burning processes. On average, the humidity in a city
is about 6% less than in the surrounding areas on a yearly basis. Particularly large differences
are visible in the formation of dew (up to 65% less in cities). As an example, Figure 2/8 shows
the measured humidity distribution in the area of the city of Karlsruhe on pleasant, windless
summer evening (FIEDLER, 1979).

In contrast to the claims of earlier literature, the occurrence of fog in cities limited by the
strengthened heat-island effect and the substantial decrease in airborne dust has become less
than in the surrounding countryside. The average range of visibility in cities has also
increased considerably.
The amount of precipitation and the number of rainy days in cities is 5 to 10% greater and the
number of summer days with thunderstorms is 15 to 20% greater. During storms, the strongest
precipitation occurs above all leeward from the city ((Fig. 2/8a). Intensified hail activity in
German cities cannot be proven thus far. Days with snowfall are less frequent in cities than in
the countryside, and snow cover disappears quicker in cities on account of the higher
temperatures present (KUTTLER, 2010).

2.5 Wind
A special characteristic of the city is the change in wind patterns with regards to both the
direction and the velocity of wind. The larger surface area and irregularity of a built area
causes increased friction that reduces wind velocity up to 30% less on average per year. In
particular, the frequency of zero-wind conditions is increased by up to 20%, which leads to a
reduction in air circulation and thus hinders the dispersal of pollutants.
Figure 2/9 depicts the differences in the wind profiles of the inner city, the city periphery, and
the countryside. In addition to a reduction in wind velocity as one nears the city center, one
can also notice a greater disturbance of the wind field in the city center (ROBEL et al., 1978).

At the same time, the gustiness in cities can also be increased by the formation of whirlpools
next to tall buildings, which leads to the emergence of drafts near the ground and partially to
restrictions on uses in the areas around the buildings (Figure
2/10) (GANDEMER, 1977).

The illustration shows sketches of air flows around buildings that can lead to whirlpool
formation depending on flow conditions. The eddying of air in the vicinity of buildings exerts
particular effects on the diffusion of particulate matter from fireplaces and other pollutant
sources near the ground. As a rule, the disruption of the wind field from a building stretches to

a distance corresponding to ten times the building"s height.


Local wind systems, which mainly show up in areas of weak regional winds, can also be of
importance to the movement of air in city areas. These are distinguished between systems that
are dependent on topography and those that are determined by the built environment.
Erstere, zu denen Hangwinde sowie Berg- und Talwinde gehren, sind stark durch das
vorhandene Relief geprgt. Figure 2/11 shows sketches of the circulation pattern of slope,
mountain, and valley winds (LILJEQUIST, 1974). This circulation is important above all for
cities in valleys and "bowl" or "basin" locations, since it contributes to the removal of
pollutants as well as to the supply of fresh air. The development of cold air flows, which
typically occur at night close to the ground, depends on the size of the surfaces that produce
cold air and on the incline of the slope.

Figure 2/12 and 2/13 show an increasing of the cool air flow in Freiburg i. Breisgau.
(RICHTER u. RCKLE, 2003)

The latter (corridor winds) are much more difficult to demonstrate and are much less
pronounced. They are important to cities with a relatively flat relief and are directed towards
the middle of the city (BARLAG, KUTTLER (1991),HUPFER, KUTTLER, 1998, WEBER,
KUTTLER (2003))
For the wind speed, the following calculations be valid:

Meters per second

1 m/s

= 1,943 Knots
= 3,600 km/h

Kilometers per hour

1 km/h

= 0,540 Knots
= 0,278 m/s

Knots (nautical miles per


hour)

1 kn

= 1,852 km/h
= 0,515 m/s

Table 2/1: Conversion table for the wind speed


2.6 Bioclimate
Meteorological elements do not exert separately their effects on humans; as such, a combined
assessment of these elements is necessary. The thermal complex is especially important, since
it involves all of the climatic elements that directly influence the human heat budget. In this
context, complex measurements such as sultriness, comfort, and perceived temperature are
brought into play. An assessment of these quantities is subjective and depends upon the
current temperament of the individual person.
It is above all the occasional overheating of the city that can exert a negative bioclimatic
effect. The persistence of overheating during nights with calm winds can lead to negative
sleep patterns. Overheating can be a problem during the day as well, often in connection with
high air humidity and intensive sunshine. The thermal burden that is introduced leads further
to reductions in human efficiency.
The assessment of the thermal complex is based upon the heat balance equation of the human
body. Building upon this equation, the comfort equation according to FANGER (1972) is
recommended as the standard application. Fanger created the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote)
index as a measure of the degree of comfort or discomfort. The index shows the average
subjective appraisal of a large group of persons, and several corresponding measurement
devices have been developed to obtain measurements for determining the index.
A coupling of this basis with solar and terrestrial radiation flows has found wide acceptance as
a planning tool under the name "Climate-Michel-Modell" (JENDRITZKY et al. ,1990),
among other things because it makes possible planar representations.
Table 2/2 shows the feelings and comfort grades to be expected for each PMV value.

PMV

Thermal
perception

Stage of stress

Physiological effect

-3,5
-2,5
-1,5
-0,5
0,0
0,5
1,5
2,5
3,5

very cold
cold
cool
slightly cool
comfortable
slightly warm
warm
hot
very hot

extreme
great
moderate
weak
none
weak
moderate
strong
extreme

cold stress
.
.
.
none
.
.
.
heat stress

Tabelle 2/2: Predicted Mean Vote PMV, thermisches Empfinden und Belastungsstufen
For more elaborate thermo-physiological observations the heat budget model "MEMI"
(HOEPPE, 1984) is also available and is especially suited for cases in which medical concerns
are of particular importance. From this model the PET (Physiological Equivalent
Temperature) quantification was developed. Details of the bioclimatic assessment of the urban
climate can be taken from the VDI guideline VDI 3787, Page 2 (2008), revised at the moment
as well as the handbook "Bioclimate and Air Hygiene" (MORISKE et al., 2006).
2.7 Air Exchange
Strong air movements guarantee air exchange in cities, which can lead to the removal of
pollutant particles from the air.
In contrast, wind patterns during weather conditions with low winds are more problematic
(e.g. during the influence of persistent high pressure). When the vertical air exchange is
strongly hindered at the same time, low- or no-exchange weather conditions are present. In
these wind patterns, local wind systems supplying fresh air are of exceptional importance.
The lack of air exchange is produced by the presence of a temperature inversion that prevents
the vertical removal of pollutants. In such an inversion, the temperature in an air gradient
increases with altitude. This means that colder and thus heavier air is concentrated near the
ground (Fig. 2/15).

Weather conditions with inversions (which can also persist throughout the day) typically
appear in winter, as decreased sun elevations and shorter durations of sunshine do not produce
a decisive warming of the ground or the layer of air above it.
Basin landscapes and valleys which also happen to be the preferred locations of urban and
industrial development are especially favorable for the formation of such conditions.
2.8 Pollutant Emissions
Every day in cities large quantities of pollutants are released into the atmosphere from traffic,
home heating, industries, and power plants.
Due to the enormous multiplicity of these substances it has proven appropriate to study closer
five main components, which as "indicative components" have importance for an entire
region. These components are:

Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)


Solids (dust and particulate matter especially soot) (PM10 and PM2,5)
Organic compounds (CnHm) (especially Benzene)
Carbon Monoxide (CO2)
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

CO and SO2 are now only of minor importance. Due to the global aspects of climate change,
carbon dioxide emissions (see Kap. 2.11) have for years also been taken into consideration.

Figure 2/16 shows the emitted quantities for various groups of sources in Stuttgart (2008),
while the development of pollutant emissions in Stuttgart since 1996 to 2008 is depicted in
Figure 2/17.

The prevailing influence of traffic on emissions is particularly clear in the case of carbon
monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and organic compounds.
Next to the atmospheric altitude attained by emissions, the deciding factor for air pollution is
the spatial distribution of emission sources throughout the urban area. Figure 2/18 shows an
example of the nitrogen oxide emissions in the area of the region of Stuttgart. Easily
recognizable are the quadrants with high emissions in the area of highways and near
individual sources such as powerplants and heating centers.

A Depending on the pollutant component and the type of source, emissions are not distributed
evenly across the year. Heating-produced pollutants exhibits a noticeable yearly variation.
Transport emissions are relatively evenly distributed throughout the year (except holidays).
2.8.1 The Traffic as Pollutant Source
The growth in individual motorized traffic (IMT) which can be expected to continue
increasing in the future with the common market of the European Community and the
opening of the borders to the East places new demands on transportation policy. In many
places, people today already speak of a collapse in traffic conditions on the roads, particularly
in built-up areas. This increase in traffic is connected with a substantial burden on the
environment, especially through noise and air pollution.

The emissions have not only local and regional significance. With CO2 emissions from
transport, this aspect will receive a completely new global dimension (see also Chapter 2.11).
The automobile dominates person and cargo traffic in the Federal Republic of Germany. As
such, in 2009 about 80% of the 1123 billion total person-kilometers were driven with
passenger cars, and nearly 71% of the 583 billion total ton-kilometers were driven with
trucks.
Figure 2/19 shows the proportion of pollutant emissions attributed to road traffic in the
Federal Republic of Germany in reference to the year 2009. The amount of pollutants
produced by traffic was 19% of particulate matter PM10, 45% of nitrogen oxide (as NO2), 10%
of NMVOC, and 19,5% of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2).
The European Commission adopted a white paper entitled "Roadmap to a Single European
Transport Area Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system" (KOM(2011)
144 final). The white paper studies our future transport challenges (dependence of transport
on oil as energy source, CO2 emissions, increasing traffic volume, increasing costs through
congestion, road safety). Ten goals for a competitive and resource efficient transport system
are defined on that basis (DStGB, Deutscher Stdte- und Gemeindebund (German Association
of Towns and Municipalities), 2011).
These goals are very ambitious. They include:

1. Halve the use of conventionally-fuelled cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them
out in cities by 2050. Achieve CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.

2. Reduce CO2 emissions from maritime traffic by 40 % by 2050. Increase the use of
low-carbon sustainable fuels in aviation to reach 40 % by 2050.

3. Shift 30 % of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail or waterborne
transport by 2030. More than 50 % even should be shifted by 2050.

4. Complete a European high-speed rail network by 2050. Triple the length of the
existing high-speed rail network by 2030.

5. Develop an EU-wide multimodal core network (TEN) by 2030 including a


corresponding set of information services.

6. Connect all core network airports to the rail network by 2050. Furthermore, connect
all core seaports to the rail freight system.

7. Deploy the modernised air traffic management infrastructure in Europe by 2020 and
complete the European Common Aviation Area. Furthermore, deploy the European
Global Navigation Satellite System (Galileo) by 2020.

8. Establish the framework for a European multimodal transport information,


management and payment system by 2020.

9. Move close to zero fatalities in road transport by 2050. Halve road casualties by 2020.

10. Move towards full application of user pays and polluter pays principles and
private sector engagement to eliminate distortions. Convert the transport system to
generate revenues and thus ensure financing for future transport investments.
The combustion of petrol or diesel in an automobile motor produces an array of pollutants, of
which the following pollutant components stand out in particular measure:
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) = Nitrogen Monoxide and Dioxide (NO, NO2)
Particulate Matter, for example (PM10)
The starting point for the consideration of both emission-side and immission-side exhaust gas
levels on roads is the specific pollutant output of motor vehicles, which varies strongly with
the respective operating condition. Petrol and diesel motors also exhibit large differences in
emissions behavior.
The emission rates of pollutant components in automobile exhaust can be calculated by the
multiplication of the temporal traffic volume by the so-called "exhaust emissions factors,"
which are based in turn on the emissions of an individual car or truck in average condition.
Motor vehicle emissions depend on the speed and manner of driving, i.e. the so-called
"driving models" on the roads. A specific driving model can be assigned to every traffic
situation. Table 2/3 gives an overview of various driving models with the indication of the
average driving speed.
Basis for determining the exhaust emission factors is the Handbook Emission Factors for
Road Transport (Infras, 2010) . For this preparation following traffic situations can be used:

AB120:

Motorway, speed limit 120 km/h

AB100d:

Motorway, speed limit 100 km/h, heavy traffic

AB80d:

Motorway, speed limit 80 km/h, heavy traffic

ABS80d:

Urban motorway, speed limit 80 km/h, heavy traffic

AOS-HVS80:

Urban motorway, speed limit 80 km/h

AOS-HVS80d

Urban motorway, speed limit 80 km/h, heavy traffic

AOS-HVS70

Urban motorway, speed limit 70 km/h

AOS-HVS60:

Urban motorway, speed limit 60 km/h

AOS-HVS60d:

Urban motorway, speed limit 60 km/h, heavy traffic

AOS-HVS50:

Urban motorway, speed limit 50 km/h

AOS-HVS50d:

Urban main road, speed limit 50 km/h, heavy traffic

AOS-HVS50g:

Urban main road, speed limit 50 km/h, saturated traffic

IOS-NS40:

Urban side street or development road, speed limit 40 km/h

IOS-NS40g:

Urban side street or development road, speed limit 40 km/h, saturated traffic

Table 2/3: Examples of various styles of driving for different types of roads; Source:
Lohmeyer by INFRAS 2010.
In these factors, road gradients and cold engine starts can also be taken into consideration. A
cold engine increases exhaust emissions, as the catalytic converter is not yet fully functioning.
One can choose in the database from emissions factors for various vehicle categories (e.g. car,
truck, bus, motorcycle) as well as years of reference.

Table 2/4 lists examples of emissions factors. Benzene emissions tend to decrease with rising
vehicle cruising speeds. Remarkably, in the cases of NOx and particulates the emissions factor
is roughly 10 times that for trucks as for cars.
Various calculation models are used for the evaluation of pollutant levels on roads (see
Chapter 4.3). Usually these are the Gauss model, the Lagrange model, and the Box model, the
last being used especially for street canyons.
Wind tunnel analyses also come into play for the simulation of the exhaust gas propagation on
streets and for the quantification of the resulting immission levels (see Chapter 4.2).
road
paramete
rs

traffic

specific emission factors for each vehicle (g/km) 2010

spee
d

condition
(car
s
s)

PM10/
PM2,5

NO
x

PM10

PM2,5

(only
(onl
(only
wear
and
y
exhaus
resuspensio wea
t
n)
r)
gases)

LV SV

LV

SV

LV SV LV SV

AB12
0

92,
8

0,3
17

3,3
06

0,01 0,06
33
04

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
12

0,0
53

AB10
0d

122 0,4
,0 81

3,0
04

0,01 0,05
86
17

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
11

0,0
48

AB80
d

75, 0,2 3,5 0,01 0,06 0,0


0,0 0,0
0,2
57
31
18
06
22
15 56
5

ABS8
0d

71,
0

0,2
29

4,0
89

0,01 0,08
03
21

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
16

0,0
59

AOSHVS8
0

70,
0

0,2
29

3,7
17

0,00 0,06
83
71

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
16

0,0
60

AOSHVS8
0d

56,
4

0,2
79

4,4
55

0,00 0,06
99
85

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
18

0,0
66

IOSHVS
70

45,
0

0,3
22

5,0
17

0,01 0,06
45
99

0,0 0,3 0,0


4
8 21

0,0
62

IOSHVS6
0

37,
0

0,4
11

6,0
81

0,01 0,09
67
85

0,0 0,4 0,0


5
5 22

0,0
62

IOS-

30,

0,3

6,3

0,01 0,09

0,0 0,6 0,0

0,0

HVS6
0d

90

41

IOSHVS5
0

52,
0

0,3
12

4,1
49

IOSHVS5
0d

43,
0

0,3
36

IOSHVS5
0g

66,
2

IOSNS40

58

22

22

62

0,01 0,05
37
95

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
19

0,0
57

4,8
60

0,01 0,06
48
52

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
21

0,0
62

0,3
08

3,7
59

0,01 0,05
38
49

0,0
0,0
0,2
22
16

0,0
53

36,
8

0,3
96

6,4
23

0,01 0,09
66
93

0,0 0,3 0,0


4
8 22

0,0
62

IOS23,
NS40g 1

0,5
12

8,3
12

0,02 0,12
00
55

0,0
0,0
0,6
6
22

0,0
62

Table 2/4:Emission factors in g / km per vehicle for the forecast year 2015, Source: Lohmeyer by INFRAS
(2010)

2.8.2 Computational Estimation of Traffic Immissions


In order to estimate levels of pollution on roads it is necessary for a model to reproduce the
causal relationship emission transmission immission as exactly as possible. The result is a
so-called "dispersal model." Input values include data about traffic (traffic counts, driving
behavior), meteorology (wind flow and dispersion conditions), and the geometric border
conditions (topography) (Fig. 2/20).

A typical basis for such a calculation is the construction of a Gauss distribution (Gauss model)
for the concentrations on those streets (typically without bordering development) to be
considered as linear sources (e.g. Prokas model see Chapter 4.3.5).
A more empirical basis is employed in the Merkblatt ber Luftverunreinigungen (Instruction
Booklet for Air Contamination on Streets MLuS-02) (see Chapter 4.3.4), which sets forth
the reduction functions for individual pollutants depending upon the distance from whence
they are measured.
Substantially more complex is the calculation of concentrations according to a Lagrange
model (JANICKE, 1990). This involves releasing discrete particles representing air pollutants
at various locations across the road area and calculating their subsequent paths (trajectories).
Since the particles must be so small that they directly follow the turbulence in the atmosphere,

the calculation of many such trajectories (several tens of thousands!) produces a spatial
distribution that corresponds to the distribution of pollutant concentrations.
Box models in various modified forms are typically used for street canyons (see Chapter 4.3
und auf die Zusammenstellung bei LUBW (2010).
In contrast to the dispersal of pollutants from relatively freestanding streets, the dispersal in
street canyons (Fig. 2/21) takes place under strongly altered conditions resulting from the
whirlpool formations occurring there (Fig. 2/22). In particular, the buildings that form the
borders of street canyons impede the removal of pollutants. The width of the street plays a
deciding role here. Due to the circulation patterns arising from whirlpool formation, the
windward and leeward sides of the road have different pollutant levels.

2.9 Pollutant Levels and Threshold Values


The wide array of substances in the urban atmosphere some studies of the air in cities have
identified more than 1,000 different substances does not allow all components to be
regularly monitored. The resulting vapor bell above the city characterized in its extreme
form as smog does not only afflict humans, it also reduces the general brightness, the
amount of solar radiation received, and the duration of sunshine.
Inversion weather conditions strongly enrich the urban air with pollutants. Figure 2/23 shows
a inversion situation in Stuttgart. The higher the altitude of this lower inversion boundary is,
the greater is the volume of the mixed air above the city. In addition, the concentrations of
various pollutants depend upon the altitude of the typical source. At low inversion lower limit
is primarily affected by traffic emissions from ( low dropout height ). A rising inversion lower
limit rise to industrial units , since now higher sources entering the mixing layer.

Since the middle of the 1960s pollutants in Baden-Wrttemberg have been analyzed regularly.
Although reductions in the levels of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter are recognizable,
levels of the pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have increased further. This is due primarily to
continuously increasing traffic. In cities above all, the threshold values of the TA Luft
publication (1986) are in part exceeded in street canyons (LANDESHAUPTSTADT
STUTTGART, 2012; REGIERUNGSPRSIDIUM STUTTGART, 2005 und 2010).
Classical smog situations no longer exist nowadays. The term "smog" is a combination of
"smoke" and "fog"; it is used to describe heavy, partially visible air pollution above urban and
industrial agglomerations. Today the term is used more generally describing a high level of
airborne pollution even without the visible fog.
The problem of high pollutant concentrations in cities is not new. Even in 66 AD, Seneca
wrote: "As soon as I escaped from the oppressive atmosphere of Rome , and from that awful
odour of reeking kitchens which, when in use, pour forth a ruinous mess of steam and soot, I
perceived at once that my health was mended."
It is long known that there is a connection between air pollution and health problems. This
becomes most apparent when the rate of fatalities is higher than average in times of heavy
smog, like during the smog catastrophe of London in 1952 when more than 4,000 people died.
Besides a high pollutant concentration during inversions in winter, which are the result of
exhaust gases from heating and traffic, there is also smog in summer (Fig. 2/23a).The major
source of summer smog is traffic (with e.g. nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon
monoxide). Due to bad air exchange conditions in combination with strong insolation, the
gases are chemically converted in the atmosphere and photo-oxidants are produced. In this
context, the main substances are ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) along with
peroxides, aldehydes etc.

2.9.1 Limits and Assessment values


The immission threshold values outlined in the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Contral
(TA Luft) (see table 2/5) serve for the air-hygienic evaluation of industrial facilities (new or
altered) that require permitting. Distinguished are in the process three values depending on the
relevant pollutant: The arithmetic annual average of the immission values, the arithmetic daily

average of the immission values and the short-term value refers to 99,8% of the cumulative
frequency distribution.
The compliance with the regulation is the requirement for the permission of an industrial
facility. The evidence is offered by comparing imission values with the sum of incriminating
background and additional pollution caused by the planned industrial facility. The
incriminating background is determined by an stipulatory procedure (TA Luft).
The TA Luft values are not a legal planning instrument; they define rather the legal concept of
"damaging environmental effect." In partitions analogical with the 39 nd BImSchV"s limit
values. These are of great importance because the need of measurements directly in the street
canyon. It seems likely to exceed the limit values in much frequented areas.
The 39 nd BImSchV is based on the Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (EU
2008/50/EG). When the limit values are exceeded, clean air plans need to be drawn up, which
allow for the implementation of traffic guidance and/or traffic restriction measures in order to
reduce negative environmental impacts caused by the pollutants (Stuttgart "s Regional
Administrative Authority/ Regierungsprsidium Stuttgart , 2005 and 2010). The limit values
for NO2 and particulate matter (PM10) are and will be exceeded in numerous heavily
frequented urban canyons.
This means that the impact of roads must be thoroughly analysed and taken into account in
future urban land use planning, and this not only in the context of noise implications but also
in regard to pollutant levels.
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2011)has released health-related indicator values.The
definition of "maximum immissions values" (MI values) (VDI Regulation 2310) from the
VDI commission "Air Quality Maintenance" aims at avoiding damage, whether short- or
long-term, to the health of humans, especially children, the elderly, and the sick, and further
aims at protecting animals, plants, and goods from harm. The concept of "health" also
includes the well being of a human, to which one"s biological and material environment
contributes. The MI values are concerned with purely effect-related, scientifically established
values guided by practical experience and with a medical or natural science indication. The
values do not take into account technical practicability.

Pollutant
SO2

I1
I2
24 h
1h
1/2 h
10 min

Immission
values
"TA Luft"

MIKvalues
VDI 2310

50
125m
350l

300
1000
-

Conductanc
Limit and
e
target value
WHO
39. BImSchV

Guidelines
german
bath
association

20
-

125m
350l

500

NO2

I1
I2
24 h
1h
1/2 h

40
200c
-

20
50
-

40
200
-

40
200c
-

15 - 34b
30 - 50b
-

O3

I1
I2
8h
1h
1/2 h

100
120

100
-

120o
180/ 240k
-

PM10

I1
I2
24 h
1h

40
50i
-

75f
150/ 250e,f
500f

20
50
-

40
50i
-

15 - 24b
30 - 48b
-

PM2,5

I1
24 h

10
25

25n
-

CO

I1
I2
24 h
8h
1/2 h

10000
10000
50000

10000
-

I1
I2

5
-

5
-

4-5
8 - 10

Benzol

Table 2/5: Limits and guidelines in g/m with exlanation


I1: arithmetical annual mean value
I2: 98- Percentil during 1 year

depending from location; I2-values as a 14 days mean


c
18 exceedings are allowed in the year
d only for 2 successive values
e on successive days
f
total dust
i
allowed 35 excceedings per year
180: limit value to inform the population
k
240: limit value to warn the population
l
allowed 24 excceedings per year
m allowed 3 excceedings per year
n target value to 01/01/2015
o allowed 25 days excceedings per year
b

Download: Table - Limits and guidelines (2012) (pdf)

2.10 Effect of Pollutant


The effect of air pollution both on vegetation especially our forests and on humans and
their health still stands in the middle of political discussions about the environment.
Especially breathing illnesses such as asthma, bronchitis, and even lung cancer, airborne
pollutants are included under the assumed causes. In addition to the effects of short-term
health problems, long-term health problems must also be taken into consideration.
(LANDESAMT NRW, 2012; UBA, 2012).
The most frequent illnesses caused by air pollution are the following:

Irritations of the eyes and air passages from sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides,

inflammations of the lungs, caused by sulfur dioxide in connection with airborne


particles,

cell damage from metals and soot,

disruption of the oxygen exchange of the blood from carbon monoxide,

Tumors resulting from effects of some hydrocarbons,

psychosomatic diseases appearing in the form of general weaknesses in function and


concentration.

The following schematic representation (Fig. 2/24 shows the most significant relationships
and influences as cause-and-effect structures (HAGEL, 1974).

2.11 Climate Change


During the last 100 years, the global temperature has increased and this by 0.74 kelvin (K)
since the beginning of the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) sees the reason for the increase with a very high probability (of more than 90 %) in
man-made influences.
The main reason for this development is our use of fossil fuels with an emission of about 32
billions of tons of CO2 worldwide (2010) (Source: Climate Service Center, Geesthacht), rising
trend continues (by about 2.5 % every year).
Especially since 1950, the temperature curve has risen sharply. Most probably, the average
temperatures in the northern hemisphere have been higher than in any other period of fifty
years during the last 500 years. They probably exceed the values of even the last 1,300 years
or even longer. Mountain glaciers and snow layers are receding worldwide and the sea level
rose by an average of 17 centimetres during the 20th century.
If we continue to emit greenhouse gases at that rate into the atmosphere, scientists expect a
temperature increase of 1.8 to 4.0 K until the end of the century some experts even consider
6.4 K as possible.
The regions with the highest increase will probably be the mainland and the polar regions.
The arctic ice will continue to melt. Some models even expect its almost total disappearance
during the summers in the second half of our century. This could lead among others to an
increase of the sea level of 18 to 59 centimetres until the year 2100.
What will most probably also change are the intensity and distribution of precipitation: While
humidity will rise in higher latitudes, it will diminish in most subtropical regions. This would
mean that the current trend continues.

Climate models also predict that heat waves, local heavy rainfalls and hurricanes could be
more frequent and even more intense. Figure 2/25Figure 2/25 shows the development of the
temperatures from 1850 to 2005.

The linear trend since 1850 (black line) , since 1900 (the yellow line) and since 1950 (red
line) is steeper. The trend curve (polynomial fit of the time series) shows the dramatic increase
since the late seventies (black curve).
Figure 2/26 shows the warming of the earth"s surface scenarios. If the greenhouse gas
emissions have been frozen at the 2000 level , the orange line would have been expected . The
gray bars on the right show the likely range of the temperature rise , as they forecast the six
scenarios of the IPCC (IPCC 2007).

2.11.1 Climate Change in Germany


Since 1901, the average temperature in Germany has risen by almost 0.9 K. The years from
2000 to 2009 were the warmest decade recorded by meteorologists for at least 130 years.
Temperatures have especially increased in the Southwest of Germany, with an average annual
increase of 1.2 K in Saarland for example. In contrast to this, the registered increase in
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was only 0.4 K.
What has also increased is the amount of rain. Meteorologists have reported an increase of
precipitation of about 9 % since the beginning of the 20th century. The last 15 years have been
particularly wet with only four exceptions.
While there is nowadays more rain in spring (until June), the months of July and August
become drier and drier. Higher amounts of precipitation have also been recorded in winter
months, but as the variation from one year to another is very big, a clear statistical statement
is not possible yet.
What will the future look like? Global climate models are too broad for precise local
predictions. The horizontal grid is at least 120 kilometres wide, sometimes even more than
200 kilometres. This is why regionalisation methods are used. Some use measured
information from climate stations for forecasts; others refine global data by means of physiconumerical methods and apply it to a smaller grid with minimum intervals of currently ten
kilometres. Four regional climate models (REMO, CLM, WETTREG and STAR) are used for
Germany.
Predictions about the future always include uncertainties. In the context of global and regional
climate models, this means that several hardly predictable factors could either compensate

each other or add up.


The amount of greenhouse gases reaching the atmosphere depends on many factors and
cannot be predicted exactly. These factors include the development of the population, of the
economy and of energy prices, the type of land use and the extent to which technologies for
reducing greenhouse gas emissions will be realised. Another uncertainty is the actual
dimension of the harmful effect of various greenhouse gases.
In order to deal with the uncertainties but remain able to act, the IPCC has defined emission
scenarios. These describe possible developments of our society and environment and form the
basic conditions for climate models. But it is absolutely clear that models can be no more than
approximations of reality, preferably as close as possible. Our "real" climate is far more
complex and cannot be entirely represented with all factors and correlations. The farther the
model is meant to look into the future and the smaller the regional grid is, the more uncertain
the prognosis becomes. The accuracy of a prediction can be increased, however, by
overlapping several models. After all, four regional models with three emission scenarios each
have been used in Germany , further calculations will follow.
For further information on climate change implications for Baden-Wrttemberg, please see
the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Traffic (2012).
Figure 2/27 and Figure 2/28 show the possible development of the number of days with heat
stress in this century at the example of Greater Stuttgart as well as implications for the
number of affected people.

2.11.2 Prevention of Climate Change


International agreements were reached to prevent climate change. In the aftermath of the UN
Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, more than 192
nations ratified a Framework Convention on Climate Change which committed all signatory
nations to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would
prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Rio +20 was another
Earth Summit entitled "United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development", which was
held in Brazil in June 2012. The objectives declared in Rio de Janeiro were concretised in
later conferences, like 1997 in Kyoto . The Kyoto Protocol set binding obligations to reduce
the emission of greenhouse gases until 2012. The signatory nations have meanwhile agreed to
a roadmap for a second commitment period. By signing the treaty of the Rio Conference, the
member states, including Germany , have spoken out in favour of a long-term, sustainable
development. They have explicitly committed themselves to start a "Local Agenda 21" for
action at the local level. The "Local Agenda 21" wants to find answers to the question: What
needs to be done on the local level to secure the future of our children in the 21st century.
This means that local governments and all citizens are called upon facing the threat of the
greenhouse effect. We must prevent a further increase of greenhouse gas emissions, which are
mainly the result of the combustion of fossil fuels. There are huge possibilities for lowering
the emission of these harmful gases and cities and their inhabitants play an important role in
their reduction. This is particularly true for the room heat and transport sectors (Fig. 2/29).

Numerous cities have enacted climate protection concepts in recent years. The City of
Stuttgart developed a Climate Protection Concept (Fig. 2/29a) (LANDESHAUPTSTADT
STUTTGART, 1997) that contains comprehensive measures for climate protection. The
following are particularly relevant for planning:

Traffic-reducing zoning and planning


Support for bicycle traffic
Urban park concepts
Spatial measures for structuring developments
Energy-conscious zoning and planning
Support for construction of low-energy housing
Support for short-distance heat provision from block heating plants
Planning of locations for wind power plants

Effective climate protection demands the efforts also in a financial sense of all participants to
not only develop measures and concepts but also to see these implemented.
2.11.3 Adaption to Climate Change

Climate change is in progress and cannot be completely prevented. This makes it necessary to
adapt to its inevitable effects. Numerous steps have been taken for some years: The German
government adopted a German Adaptation Strategy (Federal Environment Ministry, 2009) as
well as an Adaptation Action Plan (Federal Environment Ministry, 2011). Many cities have
also established their own concepts, like Berlin 's Senate Department for Urban Development
(2011) or the City of Stuttgart (2012).
Climate change implications and adaptation needs can be felt in a number of sectors, like
health, hydrologic balance, water management, traffic, tourism, nature conservation and
biodiversity, as well as building and regional and urban planning. An urban planning
challenge could be, for example, to create a system of ventilation openings for fresh air
streaming as far as possible from the hinterland into the centre. Another possibility could be
the increase of the percentage of urban green spaces (LOZAN J. L. et al., 1998, City of
Stuttgart, 2010).
For further details, please see especially Chapter 3 Energy-conscious planning and zoning
and Chapter 6 Recommendations for planning.

3. Energy-Conscious Planning and Zoning


3.1 Overview
In 2009, approximately 789 million tons of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide were generated
in the Federal Republic of Germany, further burdening our global climate. Of the 67 million
tons that were generated in the state of Baden-Wrttemberg, 26% originated from
powerplants, 27% from households (particularly from heating), 15% from industry, and 31%
from traffic. As incurred except carbon dioxide in the home heating and air pollutants such as
nitrogen dioxide or, carbon monoxide and particulate matter , there must be an important goal
for future planning to reduce the ( fossil ) fuel consumption by saving energy and using
renewable energies. Conservation options should not, however, be limited solely to better
insulation for new buildings and the renovation of old buildings (EnEV 2009), but should also
include the possibility of energy conserving planning and zoning.
Fully realizing the potential for energy conservation pays for itself in three ways:
through decrease in the costs of usage for electrical lighting and building heating,
through conservation of energy reserves, and
through less pollution of the environment.
Decisive climate protection goals were defined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change (Kyoto Protocol) by the international community of states in 1992. Arising from this
is the so-called two-degree target, which is based in its current form on the information from
the IPCC Third Assessment Report, which was revised in 2009. The two-degree target is a
political definition of the prevention of a "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
climate system" as generally determined in the Framework Convention. The official
recognition of the two-degree target came only in December 2010 at the UN Climate Change
Conference in Cancn . In order to reach this target, global greenhouse gas emissions need to
start decreasing between 2015 and 2021 and drop to a level of 40 to 48.3 billion tons in 2020.
A reduction of 48 to 72 % compared with the year 2000 needs to be realised by 2050 (UNEP,

2010; download as PDF)).


On this basis, the Climate Alliance of European Cities (1,600 members, including 92 cities
and municipalities from Baden-Wrttemberg) aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 10 % every
five years and by 50 % per capita by 2030 (from 1990 baseline). The German government
developed an Integrated Energy and Climate Protection Programme (IEKP) with the objective
to reduce CO2 emissions by 40 % until 2020 (from 1990 baseline).
The EU cooperation movement "Covenant of Mayors", with many German signatories,
commits to increase energy efficiency and support renewable energies and to reach the 20 %
CO2 reduction objective by 2020. Baden-Wrttemberg"s government defines a reduction of
30 % by 2020 in its Climate Protection Concept 2020 Plus. It even envisions an 80 %
reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (compared with 1990).
Baden-Wrttemberg"s government defines a reduction of 30 % by 2020 in its Climate
Protection Concept 2020 Plus. It even envisions an 80 % reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions by 2050 (compared with 1990).
The imperative necessity of a drastic reduction in CO2 requires decisive modifications to
energy policy. It is especially important to fully realize the considerable potential for energy
conservation, an important area of which is in building and housing for example,
economical energy concepts for heating, lighting, and electricity.
The sole disadvantage of the "energy source" of energy conservation is the negative
connotation of the word "conserve." Where there is talk of conservation, one often associates
with it the concepts of deficiency and loss of comfort. This does not, however, in any way
apply to the topic at hand. At the simplest level, one can see the possibilities for energy
conservation with regards to heating energy by means of architectural measures alone.
The provision of spatial heating and water heating contributes about 31% of the total CO2
emissions for Germany (2010). Reducing this quantity by one-fourth seems possible in spite
of the necessary amount of new construction, because this goal in contrast to other energy
sectors can be reached without new technologies; that is, by making use of available
building materials and proven techniques for the avoidance of unnecessary energy
consumption (Information platform of the Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena) about
economic possibilities to save energy under http://www.zukunft-haus.info). More information
and hints can be found at the Federal Ministry (Bundesministerium fr Verkehr, Bau und
Stadtentwicklung (BMVBS) and under
http://www.klima-sucht-schutz.de (german!).
Although the improvement of insulation in exterior building components, the thickening of
windows and doors, the improvement or replacement of heating units and their controls, and
other changes in building conditions are important starting points for energy conservation, the
concept of low-energy houses goes beyond the installment of energy-saving building

components:
If a building is seen as a system exchanging energy with its environment, then it is possible to
include this aspect in the energy-efficient planning and realisation of buildings. An energyefficient urban land use planning allows for an ideal combination of reducing losses and
gaining room heat. The most important measures are compact buildings and best possible
conditions for the use of active and especially passive solar energy. Solar energy supports the
heating of the building in order to cover as much of the required heat as possible,
supplemented by an efficient heat supply. The implementation of such efforts in the area of
everyday architecture requires urban planning that takes into consideration issues and
problems related to energy (information can also be found in the SOLAR BOOKLET - Urban
planning measures, Publisher Ministry of Economics Baden -Wuerttemberg, 2007 and
YUDELSON J., 2009).
The legal planning tools for energy-saving building methods, optimized distances between
buildings, building orientation, and roof pitch are given in Chapter 6, especially Sections
6.1.4, 6.2.4 and 6.3.2. The legal instrument of the urban development contract ( 11 BauGB)
allows the requirement of low-energy building methods and the realization of heat and energy
concepts for entire sets of buildings.
In the realm of meteorological influences pertaining to energy-conscious planning, one must
distinguish between large-scale climatic differences (e.g. between the sea coast and the
interior highlands) and microclimatic variations that are determined by topography. This
small-scale aspect stands in the center of the following sections with respect to the climatic
parameters of sun exposure, air temperature, and wind patterns.
Hints to save energie in old buildings you can find in the impulse program old buildings "Save energie in old buildings" Landesgewerbeamt Baden Wrttemberg
(http://www.zukunftaltbau.de ).
3.2 The Sun as Energy Source
The fundamental physical quantity of energy is a measure of the ability to do work. Energy
can occur in many various forms, for example as heat energy. It is measured in the same units
as physical labor, namely Joules (J) established by law as the basic unit of energy or
(among others) in Kilowatt-hours (kWh) or Watt-seconds (Ws). The conversion is 1 J = 1 Ws.
Work is the energy per unit time, measured in Watts (W) or Joules per second (J/s).
In addition to the following discussion , the SOLAR HANDBOOK from the Ministry of
Economy Baden-Wrttemberg is recommended for more detailed views.

3.2.1 Global Radiation


Our most important primary source of energy is the sun. Its radiation regulates the energy
budget of the atmosphere. The total short-wave radiation falling on a horizontal surface is
termed "global radiation."Global radiation is measured in the units W per m2 or kJ per
minute-cm2, both of which indicate an "energy flux density" or "work density." The
conversions are 1 kJ/min-cm2 = 1.67x105 W/m2 and 41.67 W/m2 = 1 kWh/m2d.
Radiation measurements taken over hours, days, or months are known as "irradiation" or
"energy density" and correspondingly use the units kJ/cm2 or kWh/m2. The conversion is
1 kJ/cm2 = 2.78 kWh/m2.
Global radiation deals with the total radiation from both direct sunlight and diffuse celestial
radiation. This difference is based on the fact that daylight also exists in cases where the sun is
obstructed (e.g. by buildings or by cloudy skies), thus the diffuse components of the sunlight
still exert an effect in the form of celestial radiation.
The importance of celestial radiation, especially for the daytime ambient lighting to be
discussed in Chapter 3.2.4, results from the cloudiness frequently present at northerly
latitudes. This portion of the global radiation actually increases under cloudy skies, but only
when the sky is up to 80% covered.
Since diffuse celestial radiation and direct solar radiation comprise nearly identical
proportions of global radiation in relation to a horizontal surface, an analysis of the energy
budget using only solar radiation would lead to entirely inaccurate values.
Direct sunlight is at its maximum under clear skies. It can be approximated by data for the
duration of sunshine at a location. Directly connected with the sunshine, however, is the

appearance of shadow. (The sundial that relies on shadows to tell time "only keeps track of
the sunny hours.") The considerable patterns of light and shadow resulting from solar
geometry are dealt with in detail in Chapter 3.2.2.
In Stuttgart-Hohenheim the average annual total of global radiation amounts to 402 kJ/cm for
the 30-year period from 1961 to 1990. This corresponds to an average value of 127 W/m or
1,116 kWh/m of annual radiation power.

Figure 3/3 depicts the distribution of average durations of sunshine and the annual energy
supply of the sun on 1 m2 surfaces in the Federal Republic of Germany. The duration of
sunshine here varies between 1,300 and 2,000 annual hours, while the global radiation varies
between 780 and 1,240 kWh/m2. Figure 3/4 shows the mean annual insolation conditions in
Baden-Wuerttemberg.

The values of the global radiation correlate very closely with the duration of sunshine, as
shown in Table 3/1. This shows the average monthly global radiation totals for StuttgartHohenheim. The table also shows the average actual (measured) duration of sunshine in
monthly hours relative to the astronomically possible duration of sunshine. The yearly
variation of actual and astronomically possible durations of sunshine is the subject of Figure
3/5.

Of interest for energy analyses related to spatial heating are the radiation patterns during the
home heating period between September and May. From these, it emerges that the actual
duration of sunshine relative to the astronomically possible duration of sunshine drops greatly
because of cloud cover during the winter months. This factor is represented by the
"probability of sunshine" (compare with Table 3/1).

Month

Global
radiation
(kJ/cm)

Sunshine
duration (h)

Januar

11,1

February

17,0

Possible Sunshine
(h)

Sunshine
probability (%)

64,5

267

24

87,4

282

31

March

31,4

125,0

363

34

April

42,4

156,6

405

39

May

53,4

197,7

468

42

June

56,5

210,6

477

44

July

58,4

236,7

481

49

August

49,6

212,1

437

49

September

37,1

170,1

372

46

October

23,6

130,1

329

40

November

12,3

76,8

270

28

December

8,8

60,0

251

24

401,6

1727,6

4402

39

Jear

Table 3/1: Monthly and yearly totals of global radiation, measured and astronomically
possible duration of sunshine, and the probability of sunshine in Stuttgart-Hohenheim (19611990); Source: Institute for Physics, University of Hohenheim
Figure 3/6 gives an overview of the average annual totals of global radiation in Germany.
Required for applications in the field of solar technology detailed statistics of the global
radiation and also exposure-related evaluation options can be found in the extensive European

Radiation Atlas (European Solar Radiation Atlas, E.S.R.A., 2000). The data are available on
CD-ROM. The Internet also free databases are available, for example under
http://www.satellight.com (The European Database of Daylight and Solar Radiation). Figure
3/6a shows, for example, the spatial distribution of mean duration of sunshine in July in
Central Europe.

3.2.2 Solar geometry


Global radiation has its maximum in the direction of the respective position of the sun. Solar
energy use in its simplest form is thus based on the optimal exposure of those surfaces
foreseen or oriented for use in energy conversion, as well as their freedom from shadow.
Foundations and essential aids for the calculation of radiation include databases and the VDI
3789 Bl DIRECTIVE 2 (1994) and SOLAR WORTH , MINISTRY OF ECONOMY BADEN
WRTTEMBERG (2007).
Exposure

The orientation of surfaces according to direction and angle of inclination leads to various
amounts of absorbed radiation. Daily and yearly variations in the position of the sun must also
be taken into account. (In fact, the noontime solar zenith varies by 47 degrees between the
summer and winter solstices.) Maximum solar radiation thus shifts to more southerly oriented
surfaces during winter because of the lower position of the sun.
A simple aid for the assessment of surface orientation in regards to usage of the annual solar
radiation is depicted in Figure 3/7 from BIASIN and DIETRICH (1992).

This diagram assumes an average annual radiation of 982 kWh/m on a horizontal surface. In
the case of a southerly-oriented surface angled at 30, a maximum annual radiation of 1,055
kWh/m is possible.
In relation to this 100% theoretical maximum value, all other orientations in direction and
angles of incline yield lower potential radiation values. When one considers the case of a
building wall (angle of inclination 90), one can ascertain a comparatively small change for
orientations in the semi-circle from east through south to west in relation to the decreasing
solar elevations in the east and west. That is, the annual solar radiation remains in the area of
60% to 68% of the maximum value. Admittedly, this denotes a much smaller amount of
radiation than in the case of a horizontal surface, which is shown at 93% in the radiation
diagram. Only the exposure area contained by the 93% curve signifies a radiation efficiency
exceeding that of a horizontal surface.
To evaluate passive solar energy through windows , it is necessary to consider the details of
walls of different orientations differentiated: In Figure 3/8 involving also north wall
orientations annual cycles of monthly mean radiation are (divided into diffuse radiation and
direct radiation) exemplified for Stuttgart.

The following are this obvious:


Greater global radiation on nearly cloudless days implies lesser proportions of diffuse
celestial radiation. However, the diffuse radiation is distributed in completely overcast nearly
evenly in all directions with an intensity maximum at the zenith. On average (that is, under
consideration of average cloud conditions), however, the comparable values for the proportion
of diffuse radiation are 50% (south wall) and 95% (north wall).
The proportion of diffuse radiation under average conditions produces a certain equalization
in global radiation at various orientations. The global radiation for east and west walls
amounts on average to 81% of that of the respective south wall. The comparison value for the
ratio north wall to south wall is around 48%.
The energy-related advantage of a southerly orientation comes into play during the heating
season. Above all during the months of November, December, and January, southward-facing
surfaces show considerable deficits in radiation. In relation to the heating season, northern
walls prove significantly less efficient in comparison to the year-round average.
A further point pertains to the southerly orientation of building walls as well as large window
surfaces: The environment of the city with its close proximity of structures produces an
artificial heightening of the horizon at low positions of the sun (mornings and evenings,
especially in winter months), which results in later sunrises and earlier sunsets. Thus there
exists a greater chance of freedom from shading for the southern sky, which provides
additional importance to southward-facing surfaces. An orientation of building windows
exclusively towards the south reduces energy use by about 10%.

Figure 3/9 shows the influence of the main facade"s orientation on the annual heat
requirements for different energy standards. The calculations were made for a building with a
surface-to-volume ratio of 0.93 and a percentage of the window area of 16 %. Buildings
meeting the 2009 Energy Saving Ordinance requirements have only slightly increased heating
requirements when they are not oriented to the south. Buildings with an energy standard
increased by 30 %, however, depend much stronger on the orientation as the percentage of
solar energy in their heat balance is higher.

Shading
Shading signifies a reduction in the astronomically possible sunlight through heightening of
the horizon, e.g. from mountains or surrounding buildings. Primarily in the case of valleys
and northerly-exposed surfaces, but also in areas of dense urban development, restrictions
arise in the duration of sunshine.
Due to shading at low positions of the sun, northerly slopes with inclines up to 10 receive
10% to 30% less global radiation in winter than southerly-oriented faces. Development on
northerly slopes should thus be avoided as much as possible, since these microclimatic
disadvantages can only be insufficiently compensated through other built measures (DUETZ
and MAERTIN, 1982).
Helpful for the planning are calculated solar maps which illustrate these relations. Figure 3/10
shows the direct sun radiation as a annual mean for the area of Stuttgart. The great differences
in radiation in dependence of the different slopes can be seen clearly. In Figure 3/10a the
global radiation is illustrated.

In Figure 3/11 the result of a computer calculation of the solar radiation for a planned
construction area is reproduced (GORETZKI, 2012). Although we here at first glance because
of the favorable exposure ideal conditions would have expected for the passive use of solar
energy , the simulation shows the heating season due to slope shading (due to terrain) partially
reduced by up to 50 % radiation.

With the help of the polar coordinate diagram in Figure 3/12, the astronomically possible
duration of sunshine for a location and its limitations due to horizon heightening and shading
can be calculated from the various sun curves for particular times of the year. The diagram is
strictly valid for the coordinates 49 46" N, 9 11" E, and thus in this form can be used with

sufficient accuracy in the state of Baden-Wrttemberg. At this geographic latitude, the


extreme values of the sun"s position at 12:00 local time (not Central European Time!) are:

64,5 (June 21, Summer Solstice)


17,6 (December 21, Winter Solstice)
The position of the sun for other dates and times can also be read from Figure 3/12.
Solar tracks for other locations and arbitrary dates can be requested at the internet address:
http://www.stadtklima-stuttgart.de/index.php?climate_sun_position
The dashed lines give the time in Central European Time. The concentric circles are supplied
with a scale in degrees for the elevation of the sun. The respective position of the sun is
calculated from the intersection of a crosswise date curve with an upright time curve. At the
intersection, one can read the angle of the solar elevation (concentric circles) as well as the
solar azimuth (direction towards the sun in the sky), the latter of which comes from
connecting the intersection with the middle point of the diagram and reading the resultant
direction from the compass.

If one inserts into such a diagram a picture of the local topography or built environment from
the perspective of a location to be examined, the portion of the solar track not obscured by
heightening of the horizon shows the remaining potential for sunlight. Thereby the shading
produced by existing or planned buildings in the southern part of the hemisphere can be
assessed. This method is described in detail in TONNE (1954) (compare with Chapter 3.2.3).
The picture must be inserted into the diagram in a polar projection, similar to the reflected
image on a mirrored half-sphere at the level of the horizon. The middle point of the diagram
corresponds to the zenith, from which all vertical building lines emanate. The outer circle of
the diagram corresponds to the horizon. Spatial lines running parallel to the horizon and
horizontal building lines are transposed to concentric circles relative to their height.
It must be kept in mind that the roof edge of a long, straight building appears to the viewer at
large side angles to have a smaller angle of height, so that the building picture cuts the
concentric circles in accordance with the variation of the elevation angle.
In the open area the use of an fisheye camera is recommendable. With the knowledge of the
point of the compass it is possible to overlay the taken pictures with the solar tracks of the
polar diagramm. Figure 3/13 shows the result for the center of the market place in Stuttgart.

DIN 5034-1 can be consulted for a better evaluation of insolation conditions. It contains
different criteria for the minimum requirements for the astronomically possible sunshine
duration. According to the current version from July 2011, the possible insolation duration at
an equinox in at least one habitable room should be four hours. If sufficient insolation is also
desired during the winter months, the possible sunshine duration on 17 January should be at
least one hour. The place to measure insolation is the middle of a window at the facade"s
surface. Insolation is given when the sun is over the visible horizon plus at least six degrees
over the true horizon. Steep landscape elevations or high trees count as obstructions. In the
previous version of DIN 5034-1 from October 1999, the one-hour insolation duration on 17
January was the sole criterion. The definition of a sufficiently insolated accommodation was
that at least one habitable room is sufficiently insolated.
In the interest of healthy living, Grandjean and Gilgen (1973) require an insolation duration of
at least three hours on an average winter day (8 February) and an angle of light incidence of at
least 15 degrees to the window surface.
If these minimal requirements for the amount of sunlight cannot be fulfilled through
correspondingly chosen distances between buildings, or where this is not desirable from an

urban design perspective because of the gaps between buildings that would result, sun
exposure for southern facades (realigning the longitudinal axes of buildings predominantly to
an east-west direction) should be ensured by means of reduced building heights. Higher
structural forms should thus be planned on the northern sides of buildings.
Studies of sunlight conditions frequently result from the need to plan and build effective solar
protection to avoid overheating during summer. This takes place at best in the form of roof
projections or balconies, which with the right dimensions provide shielding from solar
radiation in summer without hindering the desired radiation during the winter heating period.
Deciduous trees are equally suited to this task, as these shed their shade-producing leaves (in
contrast to coniferous trees).
3.2.3 Aids for the Study of Sunlight Conditions
Horizontoscope
A simple but very useful aid for the preparation of images showing buildings at an existing
location is the "Horizontoscope" (Figure 3/14) developed by TONNE and produced by the
Institute for Daylight Technology in Stuttgart (www.ift-stuttgart.de), this is no longer
available, but because of its clarity helpful. The Horizontoscope consists of a Plexiglas halfsphere with a level, equally transparent bottom, which can be placed on a diagrammatic disk
as shown in Figure 3/12. At the location to be examined, the device is held horizontally by
means of an integrated compass. When viewed from above, the reflective half-sphere then
shows the building picture in polar projection. In this way the building picture is reflected on

the underlying diagram, allowing an immediate evaluation of the sunlight conditions.

Computer Simulation Programs


These shading diagrams can of course also be produced with appropriate programs when
digital plans are available. The computing model SHADOW has been developed specially for
the assessment of shortwave radiation (sunlight) in a model area. It can be used both for
studies in urban areas and for issues of land climatology or agrarian meteorology, as the
program takes into consideration the topography of the land in addition to the arrangement of
shading objects. For example, with RayMan ( Matzarakis et al. , 2010) in addition to
answering various urban climate issues also Horizontogramme or shadows are calculated and
displayed (see Figure 3/15 and 3/16).

More intricate aids are necessary for the assessment of sunlight conditions in complex builtup areas. For this purpose, GORETZKI (1990, 2012) developed a computer model (GOSOL)
as a basis for energy simulations, which makes possible the assessment of the solar-energy
characteristics of a planning concept as well as its spatial depiction.
The basis is a three-dimensional computer model including buildings, vegetation with
seasonal foliage and topographic conditions.
One of GOSOL"s characteristic features, which shall be expressed by the description
"solar+energetic", is the creation of complete energy balances for every single building or in

the form of sum and average values for the whole development plan area. Thermal heat
balances contain the building"s specific heat losses (depending on the heat insulation
standard, the heating system and the building geometry) as well as interacting passive and
thermal solar gains at a particular orientation or shadowing of the building. Faulty
optimisations can be avoided by balancing the opposing thermal gains and losses in the
variable "heating or primary energy requirement depending on the living space". It is also
possible to determine the photovoltaic potential of solar energy and thus a total energy
balance of the planning area.
Furthermore, the reasons for reduced solar gains or increased heating requirements are
determined for every building within the area under investigation, and this itemised in the
categories:

unfavourable orientation of the building


shadowing from neighbouring buildings
shadowing from vegetation
shadowing from orographic features.

These categories help to define good starting points for a promising optimisation of the solar
energetic planning.
For an evaluation of the quality of living conditions under the aspect of sufficient insolation, it
is also possible to represent the possible sunshine duration on a clear day or the actual
monthly sunshine duration according to DIN standard by displaying the frequency of clouds
in the course of the day as a colour chart or shadow diagram. The percentage of buildings
which do not meet the specified minimum requirements for the insolation duration is also
determined.
All results are displayed in the form of tables and colour charts. For a better surveillance of
the optimisation success, the original version can be compared with the optimised alternative
and displayed as a colour chart for the desired category.
As a result of these calculations, Figure 3/17 shows the solar losses caused by the shadows of
trees. Figure 3/18 shows the solar losses caused by an unfavourable orientation of the

buildings for the same group of adjoining houses.

(siehe (see Figure 3-18a)) shows examples of the possibilities of a more energy-conscious
planning.

Study of Shading on Models

If a physical model of planned buildings or developments is constructed for wind tunnel


studies (see Chapter 4.2) or other purposes, this raises the possibility of a shading study by
means of illuminating the model. A strong light source functions as the sun, for which the
geometric relationships relative to the chosen day and hour must correspond to the actual
position of the sun. The resultant shading pictures are then documented photographically and
evaluated.
3.2.4 Daytime Lighting
Lighting Strength
The adequate illumination by daylight of habitable rooms has a lasting positive effect on our
well-being. This applies both to rooms we live and work in. Natural daylight has complex
physical and psychological implications on our organism, raises our productivity at work and
can help to significantly reduce energy costs.
But the appropriate surveillance and realisation of the requirements laid down by a standard
can still be improved. Deficiencies may be a reduced brightness in habitable rooms, a limited
line of sight to the outside and thus a reduced quality of living for the occupants.
The most common reasons for not fulfilling the requirements are the ignorance of the
particular standards and the complexity of the requested verification methods (State Office for
Health and Social Affairs of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 2007).
Daytime lighting in the sense of urban development means the provision of daylight for
buildings and undeveloped surfaces, also in the presence of cloudy skies. In contrast to
sunlight, the issue here is indirect, diffuse daylight. For this purpose a completely clouded sky
is considered to be a light source. The higher the level of the cloud cover, the more it is
lighted by the sun. Diffuse daylight is independent of direction and thus independent from the
orientation of windows.
Lighting strength is the measure of the amount of light falling on a surface. The unit of
measure is the Lux (= 1 Lumen/m).
Out in the open, lighting strength varies according to time of day and year between 0 and
100,000 Lux. (When the sun stands at a 20 elevation, approximately 11,000 Lux are to be
expected as horizontal lighting strength under cloudy skies and with an unobstructed horizon.)
.
Daylight Quotient
At a singular point in a room, the same percentage of total horizontal lighting under cloudy
skies always prevails depending on the size and position of windows, construction of the
room, color of the walls, and furnishing. This constant percentage is termed the daylight
quotient (in percent).
At roughly 10%, the proportion of external reflection makes only a minor contribution to the
lighting strength in the room. An exception to this comes from white exterior surfaces directly
in front of a window. The proportion of interior reflection illuminates in particular the back
half of the room, as long as the room is framed with light-colored surfaces. The proportion of
light from the sky, however, makes by far the greatest contribution to the brightness of the

room.
DIN standard 5034-1 "Daylight in interiors Part 1: General requirements" describes the
objectives and exact requirements for the illumination by daylight. The underlying measure is
the daylight factor.
The brightness in e.g. habitable rooms (and working rooms) from daylight which enters the
windows is sufficient if the daylight factor on a horizontal working plane (measured 0.85 m
above the floor at half room depth and 1 m from the side walls) is at least 0.9 % on average
and at least 0.75 % at the most unfavourable place.
DIN standard 5034-3 "Daylight in interiors Part 3: Calculation" contains the extensive
geometrical correlations and calculation algorithms for determining the daylight factor.
High-reaching windows, skylights, roof lanterns, and shed roofs offer optimal daytime
lighting and corresponding opportunities for electricity savings.
The minimum distances between neighboring buildings as established by building law give
consideration evidently only to the criterion of sufficient daytime lighting. For residential
uses, however, it can be assumed that not merely a sufficient but rather an ideal daytime
lighting should be pursued. The practice and considerations of planning are not only
concerned with the avoidance of unreasonable conditions.
The interchange of bright and shaded streets and plazas produced by the arrangement of
buildings is a significant characteristic of urban design. In addition, buildings are for their part
dependent in different measure upon daytime brightness, which under certain circumstances
requires greater distances between buildings and correspondingly configured building height.
3.3 Air Temperature as Influence on Energy-Conscious Planning
A significant factor (although one not independent of sunshine) for the heating requirements
of a structure is the exterior temperature level at the respective location (GERTH, 1989).
Energy-conserving construction means that thermal location disadvantages are avoided and
that relatively efficient locations within a climatic region described by standardized
characteristic values are the first to be developed, as far as it is possible to decide between
alternatives.
3.3.1 Characteristic Values for Describing Thermal Levels
In the legal guidelines VDI 2067, Section 1 and VDI 3807, Section 1, the significant
characteristic thermal values for the heating requirements of 29 locations in BadenWrttemberg are outlined. In this context, the following definitions of technical concepts
(shortened here) are used. The maximum values occurring in Baden-Wrttemberg supplement
the corresponding definitions.
The potential heating period is established in a pure calendric sense from September 1 to May
31, amounting to nine months in total.
The actual heating period falls within the potential heating period and can only be estimated
on the basis of previous weather patterns. The period is delineated by the first outdoor

temperature reading below 15C (as a five-day average) in autumn and the first reading above
15C in the spring of the following year.
On any given day requiring heating, the daily average of the air temperature lies below 15C.
The number of heating days relates to the months of the heating period as well as the summer
months of June, July, and August. In the city of Trochtelfingen, for example, there are on
average 269.9 heating days during the heating period, compared with 235.7 in Heidelberg.
The average outdoor temperature during the heating period amounts to 3.0C in
Trochtelfingen and 6.3C in Heidelberg.
The day-to-degree ratio for the heating period is the sum of the differences between the
average room temperature of 20C and the daily averages of the air temperature across all
heating days (from September 1 to May 31). Only the heating days falling between the
beginning and end of the heating period are taken into consideration for the day-to-degree
ratio of the heating period. The day-to-degree ratio for the heating period amounts to 4597
Kd/a for Trochtelfingen, 3226 Kd/a for Heidelberg (Kd/a = Kelvin x Day/Year).
Finally, the heating day-degrees (G15) (see Fig. 3/19) is the sum of the differences between
the heating threshold temperature of 15C and the daily averages of outdoor temperatures
across all calendar days with daily average temperatures under 15C. The average quantity of
heating day-degrees (G15,a) amounts to 3425 Kd/a for Trochtelfingen and 2065 Kd/a for
Heidelberg.

These data also demarcate the regional span of climatic characteristic values occurring in
Baden-Wrttemberg. In this, exceeding the heating threshold temperature of 15C (day-todegree ratio and heating day-degrees) and the maximum temperature difference between
inside and outside play significant roles.

The basis for calculating yearly heating needs is primarily the standards booklet DIN 4701,
according to which the standard heating requirements of a building are to be calculated. The
yearly heating use during the heating period can be estimated beforehand according to the
legal guideline VDI 2067. After this, an increase of 1C in the average temperature difference
between outside and inside during the heating period implies a 6% increase in heating energy
usage.
3.3.2 Local Climate Criteria
This section deals with the local influences that often cause substantial deviations in a small
area from the temperature values typical for the climatic region, with the consequence of
unusual energy usage.
Heat Island Effect from Development
Figure 2/2 depicts the factors contributing to the urban heat budget, whose collaborative effect
allows heat islands to form in built-up areas. This heat island effect is quantified in Figure 2/4.
As mentioned previously, these findings are connected with a substantial reduction in heating
energy usage, which can be estimated at 10% to 15% for a large city. This topic of concern is
one of the few advantages that urban development and its associated soil capping can offer
from a climatic perspective.
Decline in Temperature with Height
The laws of physics imply that average air temperature declines with increasing altitude of a
location. On a yearly average this height-dependent temperature decrease amounts to 0.5C
for each 100 m. In summer and spring this amount increases to approximately 0.6C for each
100 m, while it reduces to 0.4C in fall and 0.3C in winter. Figure 3/20 depicts graphically
the relationship between average temperature values and altitude for the various times of year.
It can thus be assumed that locations at higher altitudes above sea level exhibit heightened
heating energy needs due to lower outdoor temperatures. This fact, while accurate in
principle, can be obscured by topographical microclimatic effects.

Cold-Air Collection Areas and Blockage Areas


Land forms such as hollows, depressions, and valleys function as cold-air collection areas
during the night. The cold air that flows together into these areas from the surrounding slopes
and heights on windless, cloudless nights produces lower nightly minimum temperatures,
which are in turn compensated for during the days especially in summer by the
statistically higher average temperatures typical for valleys. Extremely low nightly minimum
temperatures result when cold air flowing into a collection area encounters impediments that
result in a stagnant lake of cold air, also known as a blockage area. These are also those areas
in danger of early and late frosts, in which frost-sensitive flora and fauna are impossible to
maintain or are at least frequently damaged (see Chapter 6.2.4 and Fig. 6/27).
In the interests of energy-conscious planning, cold-air collection areas and cold-air blockage
areas in particular are to be avoided as potential areas for development. The climatic
disadvantages related to these areas can result in an increased heating energy usage of up to
20%.
Frequency of Mist and Fog
Areas with high frequencies of mist and fog are characterized in equal parts by a lowered
temperature level and reduced sunlight during the low-exchange heating period. Usually these
areas are the above-mentioned cold-air collection areas and blockage areas in valleys and
hollows, but they also occur out on flat, open landscapes near bodies of water and humid
areas. The high frequency of ground inversions in temperature highlights the air exchange
deficiencies present in these areas, as explained in Figure 3/21 and 3/22.

Although air temperature normally decreases by about 1C for every 100 m of altitude in the
open atmosphere, an increase in temperature with altitude occurs in the presence of a
temperature inversion, e.g. because of warm air flowing upward into the atmosphere.
Inversions indicate a barrier for vertical air exchange and thus favor the appearance of mist
and fog, especially when they lie directly on the ground surface, called a "ground inversion."
The reasons for the presence of a ground-hugging layer of cold air lie mostly in the exchange
deficiency and strong nightly cooling of the earth"s surface. Areas at risk of ground inversions
are poorly suited for development on the basis of their unfavorable thermal conditions and the
increased heating energy requirements to be expected.

Recommendations
For energy-related reasons, southeast- through southwest-oriented locations at moderate
altitudes with their correspondingly favorable temperatures are best suited for
development in any situation. These locations can be protected against cold air flows coming
from the higher elevations by wooded mountaintops, slopes, and ridges.
To avoid thermally unfavorable situations in location planning, the first recommendation is a
basic evaluation of the topographical situation. The type of previous agricultural land use can
also give signs of thermally unfavorable conditions. The German Weather Service has
produced various climatic maps for Baden-Wrttemberg; their disadvantage, however, is that
they are often at too large of a scale for location planning (JENDRITZKI et al., 1990), such
that detailed assessments in the form of specialized studies are often necessary.
In this context the infrared thermograph presented in Chapter 5.2 proves to be especially
valuable. The climate analysis maps described in Chapter 5.7 take into consideration
questions of heating energy by mapping cold-air collection areas and blockage areas. Areas at
risk from ground inversions as well as areas with higher frequencies of fog and mist are also
identified in these types of maps. Also Bioclimate data, such as in the regional Climate Atlas (
STUTTGART REGION ASSOCIATION, 2008) are valuable documents.

3.4 Wind as Influence on Energy-Conscious Planning


Like all meteorological parameters, the influencing factor of wind is not independent of solar
radiation. Since the wind is able to exert mechanical forces of destructive magnitude and since
its effects include, among others, the blowing, mixing, and transport of foreign substances in
the air, this factor is of particular importance for urban development and the energy industry.
This also pertains to various forms of wind energy usage, both traditional uses and those that
have been perfected for today"s world.
Because of the relevance of the current situation, nevertheless a note about these activities.
The state of Baden-Wrttemberg (Ministry of Environment, Climate and Energy) composed a
windspeed atlas which shows the wind energy potential in Baden-Wrttemberg (see Fig.
3/24).

On 09.05.2012 the state parliament of Baden-Wrttemberg adopted a revised law for regional
planning called Landesplanungsgesetz. The aim is to put more space at wind energy"s
disposal. In the future the regional formations may only state priority areas for the use of wind
energy. Exclusion areas are overruled with the beginning of the year 2013. The communities

can now control the wind energy projects in pursuance the Federal Building Code ( 35 (3) 3.
BauGB).

Assistance and guidelines for the authorities and planning bodies to harmonise acting in this
field exist in terms of the WINDENERGIEERLASS BADEN-WRTTEMBERG (2012).
It contains planning basics and hints and demonstrates the conditions for permitting wind
energy plants.
In connection with energy-conscious planning and building in the sense of this booklet,
however, the topic at hand is not that of wind energy usage, but rather the characteristic ability
of the wind to significantly influence the heating requirements of interior spaces through the
transfer and transport of heat. The wind also defines the air exchange rate of interior spaces
via joints and leakages in exterior building components. In the interests of a comfortable
setting, potentially undesirable airflows can often only be balanced out by the respective users
of an interior space through excessive counter heating, which is why the ENEV (2007) limits
the allowable gaps in and permeability of doors and windows (i.e. limitation of heat loss).

In DIN EN 12831 (Rules for Calculating the Heating Requirements of Buildings), the wind
factor is taken into account through the parameters "location" (normal or open), "area" (strong
or weak winds), and "type of building" (stand-alone or row building).
The average wind speed in Germany ranges from 2 m/s to 7 ms/s. Wind speeds have an
influence on the consumption of heating energy. But: The better the heat insulation and the
tighter the joint sealing (i.e. the better the building"s thermal insulation), the smaller the

influence of wind speed. When extremely wind-exposed places are avoided, the wind has only
little influence on heat loss, especially in the case of new buildings.
The following sections are intended to communicate the information necessary to evaluate a
location with respect to its wind conditions. In the interest of energy-conserving planning, the
goal is a location with as little wind and turbulence as possible.
It must be noted, however, that this aspect often competes with the interests of air pollution
control and with the urban climatic question of optimal aeration. Even in the low-wind region
of southwestern Germany, the argument for overcoming by means of sufficiently ventilated
land surfaces the disadvantages of low air exchange such as air pollution, humidity, and
frequent fog has great importance.
Special attention should therefore be given in the consideration of the energy-related wind
factor to the avoidance of extremely unfavorable (i.e. especially windy) locations and overly
wind-susceptible building forms. Through the evaluation of planning alternatives it should
then be possible to reach compromises with other planning factors when necessary.
3.4.1 Wind Statistics
Wind has the rather unique property that it shows no practical constancy in the quantities that
characterize it; on the contrary, it continuously and swiftly changes velocity and direction.
Wind statistics are drawn from the evaluation of observations and measurements usually
spanning many years. The wind rose gives the percentage frequency of the occurrence of
individual wind directions (from which the wind emanates) according to the points of the
compass. The frequency of the occurrence of zero winds (i.e. "calms") is usually recorded in a
free field in the middle of the diagram. For calculations of energy usage, an evaluation of the
annual distribution of wind direction according to the season is recommended, such as that for
summer and winter shown in Figure 3/26.

Wind velocity is the other primary component of information about average wind conditions.
The wind frequency/strength rose (short form: wind strength rose) depicts the frequency of
occurrences of defined wind velocity ranges for each wind direction. In the case of Figure
3/27 an illustration form is chosen that juxtaposes the directional wind frequencies of two
frequency ranges, namely very weak and very strong wind. The figure shows that the
direction of the most frequent winds (the main wind direction) is identical to the direction of
the strongest winds on average at the measurement location. At the same time, the East wind
direction shows itself to be the typical direction of weak winds, whose frequency is only
slightly less in this lower strength range of the main wind direction.

Table 3/2 gives an overview of the average wind velocities according to month and wind
direction as well as for the yearly average (2.5 m/s at the city of Mannheim). The southwest
wind is the strongest on average (3.6 m/s), while southeast winds only amount to an average
1.7 m/s. Over the course of the year in Mannheim, the months of January (3.2 m/s), March
(3.0 m/s) and December (2.8 m/s) are the months of strongest winds. In Germany at large, the
highest wind velocities are measured in November and the lowest are measured in August and
September (compare with DIN 4710, Meteorological Data for Calculation of Energy Usage).
A wind temperature rose shows the combination of temporal sequences of wind and air
temperature. This answers the question: Which temperatures arise when the wind comes from
a specific direction at a measurement location? Since east winds in summer are associated
with higher air temperatures while east winds in winter mean cold air, uniting the data into an
annual statistic does not make sense. Only the seasonal differentiation shown in Figure 3/28

provides useful information in this regard.

NO

SO

SW

NW

Mittel

January

1,9

2,0

1,9

1,8

3,3

4,3

4,2

3,0

3,1

Februar
y

1,9

2,4

2,6

2,0

2,8

3,7

3,2

2,3

2,5

March

2,1

2,3

2,5

1,8

3,1

4,3

3,7

2,9

3,0

April

2,4

3,0

2,8

1,8

2,7

3,5

3,5

2,9

2,8

May

2,0

2,4

2,8

1,8

2,4

3,0

3,1

2,5

2,4

June

2,0

2,2

2,0

1,5

2,2

3,1

3,3

2,6

2,3

July

2,0

2,0

1,8

1,7

2,2

2,9

3,2

2,4

2,2

August

1,8

2,0

1,8

1,8

2,2

2,8

2,7

2,2

2,1

Sept.

1,6

1,9

1,5

1,4

2,6

3,1

3,2

2,0

2,1

Oct.

1,5

1,5

1,8

1,5

2,7

3,2

3,0

1,7

2,1

Nov.

1,6

2,2

2,1

1,2

3,0

3,9

3,7

2,1

2,7

Dec.

1,6

1,6

1,4

1,5

3,2

4,1

3,9

2,5

2,8

Year

1,9

2,2

2,2

1,7

2,8

3,6

3,4

2,5

2,5

Table 3/2: Average wind velocity in m/s; Mannheim 1976 -1986, Sorce: DIN 4710
3.4.2 Consequences of Wind Statistics
For an energy-conscious planning, two wind directions are of general interest: The main wind
direction in the western wind quadrant is the direction of the most frequent and also the
strongest winds, above all in winter. Easterly winds are not so frequent and are associated
with lower wind velocities. In winter, however, they appear in connection with particularly
low air temperatures. Since westerly-oriented rooms have increased heating requirements
owing to the wind, wind-shielding measures at a minimum the avoidance of expressly
westerly-oriented surfaces exert a favorable effect on heating energy usage. Special
attention should also be paid to easterly-oriented walls with regards to heating insulation and
tightness of wall joints. In both cases a position with adequate shelter from the wind is
recommended.
In areas with high winds, buildings should be placed in a skewed direction relative to the main
wind direction in order to reduce the surface area that comes into direct contact with the wind
and thereby reduce pressure and vacuum forces. A rotation of 45 in the building lengthwise
axis relative to the main wind direction can create leeward areas for buildings lying behind in
the presence a vertically-stepped building arrangement. Relative to the main wind direction,
however, so-called "gap- and nozzle-effects" from the arrangement of buildings i.e.
compressing the wind and thus increasing its velocity must be avoided. If necessary, wind
protection measures, including organic (i.e. trees) measures where possible, must be foreseen
in areas of gaps between buildings (see also Fig. 2/10).

3.4.3 Increase in Wind Velocity with Height


At increasing heights above the ground the wind-braking effects of obstacles near the ground
decrease. As a consequence of decreasing ground friction forces, wind velocity increases with
height (see also Figure 2/9).

As such, a higher wind velocity level prevails on mountain peaks, which is also the case for
flat, obstruction-free or "cleared" landscapes with their lowered ground friction forces. Areas
of development at higher altitudes are thus subject to in large measure to wind effects that
consume heat energy. This energy-related disadvantage is increased even more in the case of
skyscrapers, since these are continuously exposed to the zone of higher wind velocities. On
the basis of the especially unfavorable relationship between the heat-transferring exterior
surfaces (A) and the building volume that they enclose (V), a so-called cooling-fin effect is
produced (i.e. in the case of a large A/V relationship). It must be taken into consideration that
skyscrapers as salient obstructions to airflow amplify the turbulence conditions of wind
flow, increasing the air exchange and the amount of heat transmission near the ground as well
as in the vicinity of the skyscrapers themselves.
Recommendations
With regards to building construction, disadvantageous wind effects can be largely avoided
through sufficient heating insulation and dense building joints. In addition, heating energy
loss can be prevented by a correspondingly efficient urban development concept.
The necessity of building concepts that take into consideration protection from wind is largely
a question of the prevalent wind velocities at a location and is thus far greater along coasts
than in landlocked areas. In the case of windy locations on cleared-out landscapes or on hilland mountaintops, however, the following elements of a wind protection concept should be
considered:
Compact building forms that avoid broad surfaces exposed to the main direction of the wind,
and that also support the goal of optimal wind protection in the interior areas (i.e. enclosed by
buildings) of the development,

Structural designs for buildings with an A/V relationship as small as possible for the
entire development (ideal models: sphere and cube),

Placing or use of existing wind protection (e.g. evergreen trees) opposite western and
eastern walls,

Avoidance or reduction of tunnel-like gaps and passages.

In probably wind loaded large-scale projects is a study of the development model in the wind
tunnel (Chapter. 4.2) or by flow simulation (Chapter. 4.3)makes sense.

4. Methods of Information Acquisition for Planning (Measurements,


Wind Tunnels, Numerical Modelling)

4.1 Measurements

Stationary measurement and observation networks, such as the synoptic climatology network
of the German Weather Service or the German federal states" Measurement Network for Air
Monitoring, were devised for purposes other than urban climatology and urban planning. In
order to examine small-scale compositions and variations in climate or air conditions,
specialized measurement and recording methods must therefore be developed.
As far as possible, measurement stations within existing networks should be utilized, since as
a rule long-term data from these stations are already available, while the periods of
measurement for special studies are usually limited. Thus it is possible to adapt temporary
measurements to existing series of long-term measurements.
The German Meteorological Service (DWD) runs 170 full-time climate stations, which are
complemented by more than 2,500 secondary climate and precipitation stations. These and
almost 1,500 other phenological observation points as well as weather radar, aerological
stations and measuring stations for radiation and ozone form the basis for the collection of all
kinds of meteorological data. This density of weather stations makes the DWD one of the
most reliable meteorological services in Europe.
Existing measurement networks on the Lnder level are also available for air measuring
stations. Baden-Wrttemberg runs 36 fully automatic stations (2014); among them are 26
stations in urban areas, 2 in rural areas and 8 traffic stations. Their data is collected and
analysed by the State Institute for Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation
Baden-Wrttemberg (LUBW) in Karlsruhe (see Figure 4/1).

The Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has its own monitoring network with stations in e.g.
Rottenburg and at the Schauinsland mountain near Freiburg.

4.1.1 Stationary Measurements

A pronounced topography, like in many parts of Southern Germany for example, favours local
climatic differences, which, in turn, require a relatively dense measurement network for the
main climate elements like air temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed and
precipitation. The period in which data is collected should be at least one year in order to
determine seasonal differences. The measurement periods for orientation measurements, like
that of cold-air flows, may be shorter.
Depending on the context, it is possible to carry out additional air pollutant measurements.
This applies mainly to strongly traffic-related air pollutants, like nitrogen dioxide and
particulate matter, while ozone as a rather large-scale issue plays no immediate role in urban
planning. In order to turn punctual data into more comprehensive information, numerical
methods are used to describe the flow and dispersion situation depending on the topographic
and other conditions (see also Chapter 4.3).

4.1.2 Measurements with mobile measurement devices

In order to account for the high spatial and temporal variation of urban climatic parameters,
additional ambulatory measurements can be helpful. They can be carried out from the air, in a
vehicle, on a bike or afoot. The equipment of integrated climate and air measurement vehicles
is similar to that of measuring stations, i.e. that they simultaneously collect all major
meteorological variables and air pollutants (Fig. 4/3). Remoter and more isolated places may
require an all-terrain vehicle. Navigation systems help to reach pre-defined measuring points
most accurately.

Depending on the assigned task, measurement periods at one place can vary significantly. It is
essential to consider at least the time needed to set the individual measurement devices and to
exclude interferences from one"s own vehicle. For a representative local sampling, other
requirements might need to be considered. Simultaneous measurements at different places
demand several measuring vehicles; otherwise (e.g. for grid measurements) one vehicle is
sufficient. The temporal representativeness necessary for a comparison can be achieved in the
long run by varying the starting times and starting points so that, in the course of one year, the

same measuring point is served for example at different times of the day, of the week and of
the year. It is advisable, however, to synchronise the data with a continuously collecting
measuring station within the area under investigation.
Figure 4/4 shows the result of temperature measurement sequences in the area of a large city
park and its surroundings in Stuttgart (KNAPP, 1998). One can recognize the lower air
temperatures in the park and its immediate vicinity. A deep penetration of cool air is only
visible where the relief supports a cold air flow.

Location-based data can also be obtained through remote sensing procedures (e.g. IR thermal
scans) from aircraft or satellites. Since these are usually taken at only a few points in time (see
also Chapter 5.2), their representative accuracy must first be proven.
4.1.3 Tracer Experiments
In order to measure air movements and air transport routes, it is possible to enrich the air with
a tracer and follow and measure its motion. The simplest method uses smoke canisters. The
smoke, typically colored, mixes with the flowing air and is transported so that e.g. it can be

photographically documented and evaluated. Smoke canisters are usually employed to mark
cold air flows, since these move relatively slowly and exhibit only minor vertical mixing.
Figure 4/5 and Figure 4/5a illustrates the visualisation of a cold-air flow through a smoke
bomb.

A more elaborate method includes the use of tracer gases, like sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
The tracer is here released at a selected point and its concentration is then determined at many
other points along the presumed flow route (Figure 4/6) by taking air samples at regular time
intervals. The concentration of the samples is later determined in a laboratory. Tracer gases
should be anthropogenic, chemically stable (inert), non-poisonous and identifiable with
standard methods.

4.1.4 Vertical Soundings

The study of the spatial dimension of climatic processes also demands the consideration of the
"third dimension" and thus the measurement of vertical structures in the urban atmosphere.
For this purpose, traditional measurements with the help of balloon-carried, free-flying radio
probes or anchored balloon flights (Figure 4/6a) can be employed. SODAR and LIDAR are
ground-based measurement procedures with the option of continuous vertical sounding (Fig.
4/6b). These project sound waves (SOnar-RaDAR) or laser light waves (LIght-RaDAR) into
the atmosphere, and the reflected returns are measured (via the Doppler Effect). With this,
wind direction and velocity can be measured in individual increments of altitude between
about 20 m and 600 m. The RADAR-procedure is typically used for altitudes above 600 m.

4.2 Wind Tunnel


4.2.1 Overview
The requirements for the identification and illustration of environmental impacts in the field
of urban land use planning have continuously increased, not least because of changes within
the Federal Building Code (BauGB). For one thing, this might be due to people"s growing
consciousness for environmental issues, for another it is the settlement becoming denser and
denser in Germany , which forces conflictual uses closer together.
Increased requirements have sometimes led to costlier and more time-consuming examination
methods, especially when material losses or damages are at stake. One of these methods is the
use of a wind tunnel in the planning stage.
The following issues can principally be analysed and quantified in a wind tunnel:

a modification of the large-scale aeration within the planning area and its surrounding

a modification of the small-scale dispersion of pollutants or smells due to buildings

a modification of the wind comfort due to intended building projects

Wind tunnel experiments also help to illustrate flow and dispersion patterns in a more
descriptive way for the use in committees or other decision-taking bodies.

Typical fields of application are:

the prevention of disturbing wind flows around tower blocks

the effect of squares and roads on the aeration of urban areas

the reduction of snowdrifts at roads or the migration from heaps

the positioning of external air inlets for air conditioning systems

the propagation of smells from commercial enterprises, landfills and factory farms

the dispersion of emissions in the case of disturbances

The size of the area under investigation ranges from some metres (local wind comfort) to
several kilometres (aeration of urban areas), depending on the topic.
Criteria for the assessment of wind comfort refer to either the average hourly value of the
wind speed (Table 4/1) or the gust wind speed (Table 4/2). In the VDI is in progress Directive 3787, Part 4 " methods to describe strong and weak winds in built-up areas and their
evaluation " is an attempt to formulate a unified assessment methodology.

Wind velocity (m/s)

Effect

to approx. 1.5

calm, no noticeable air flow

approx. 1.6 - approx. 3.3

in the face perceptible air flow

approx. 3.4 - approx. 5.4

wind moves light flags

approx. 5.5 - approx. 7.9

paper flies up, hair-style is destroyed

approx. 8.0 - approx. 10.7

wind force at the body clearly noticeably

approx. 10.8 - approx. 13.8

to use umbrellas with trouble

approx. 13.9 - approx. 17.1

difficulties when going

Table 4/1: Connection between wind velocity and wind effect upon humans (from STIEMER,
1977)

Gust wind velocity

< 6 m/s
> 6 m/s

> 6 m/s
> 15 m/s

> 8 m/s

> 10 m/s

> 13 m/s

> 13 m/s

> 18 m/s

Table 4/2: Criteria for evaluating the wind conditions for a specific object, Source:
LOHMEYER et al., 1992
4.2.2 Operation and Investigation Methods

For urban climate studies in wind tunnels it is necessary to produce a wind profile
corresponding to the natural conditions. In the wind tunnel this is produced when the air
current, at first homogenous and low in turbulence when entering through the intake, is passed
by so-called eddy generators and rough surface areas (see Fig. 4/7 and Fig. 4/7a). The eddy
generators block the lower cross-section of flow more than the upper and thereby form the

profile of a typical boundary layer before the shearing turbulence produced by the roughness
of the ground can intrude into the airflow (Fig. 4/8). This is why boundary layer wind tunnels
must have a minimum length proportional to the usable test track.

Since the theory of wind tunnel modeling cannot be dealt with in greater detail in the context
of this booklet, the professional literature should be referred to (e.g. PLATE, 1982;

SCHATZMANN et al., 1986). In studies of airflow mechanics it is important that the


corresponding model guidelines (i.e. similarity criteria) are fulfilled so that the transferability
of the results to the natural conditions can be established. This is the case when the distances
in the model have a constant ratio to the distances in nature, and the flowing boundary layer
and properties of the obstacles are "similar" to the natural conditions. The actual size of the
model depends on the individual wind tunnel and the subject. A frequent size is a diameter of
2 metres and more. Figure 4/9a shows the model of an urban area in a wind tunnel; Figure
4/9b the wind tunnel model of two projected tower blocks within an existing development.

The advantage of wind tunnel studies over on-site measurements is the possibility to rapidly
record and measure both the current state and drafts (including alternatives). The creation of
an adequate physical model, however, can take some time. Another advantage of wind tunnel
studies over model calculations is the high spatial and especially temporal resolution. The
outlines of buildings cause no problems and even round shapes (like cupolas) can be faithfully
reproduced. It is also possible to record transient flow and dispersion processes, like
fluctuations of the wind direction, wind speed and concentrations, by generating time series
(THEURER, 2012).
Different measuring methods are used depending on the question or on the desired accuracy
of the results; what is often required is purely qualitative information. Generally, the
following examination methods are used.
4.2.2.1 Visualization of flows and pollutant dispersion by smoke

Smoke is blown into the boundary layer through special inlets to visualise the flow. Special
changes in the flow, e.g. wake eddies, can so be distinguished (Figure. 4/10a and Figure
4/10b).

Smoke can also be blown through potential pollutant sources (like a chimney) in order to
visualise the dispersion of the pollutants. The dispersion of the smoke within the area under
investigation as well as its dilution are visualised and can be photographed or videotaped.

Quantitative conclusions on the concentrations are not possible however. But the method can
be very useful for a general illustration of this kind of problem.

4.2.2.2 Wind Velocity Measurements

Changes in the wind field, such as those that can be caused by buildings, can be studied in
simple form through sand erosion measurements. In these, the physical model is sprinkled
with sand and the erosion is registered under various strengths of wind velocity blown at the
model. From this, data are collected about the areas in the vicinity of a building where the
wind velocity decreases or increases (Figure. 4/11).

For an exact determination of flow velocities and their rapid temporal changes, hot-wire or
laser Doppler anemometers (LDA) are used for example. As hot-wire anemometers are rather
small in size, they can be easily placed in a model (Fig. 4/12, left side). Laser Doppler
anemometers allow for a non-contact operation (Fig. 4/12, right side). Both systems are
characterised by short reaction times, which qualifies them for generating speed time series in
the wind tunnel.

4.2.2.3 Measurement of Concentration Distribution in Dispersal


Experiments

For a quantitative determination of air pollutants in the wind tunnel, tracer gases like CO2,
sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) or HC are used to simulate pollutant sources. Samples are taken at
the desired immission measuring points and analysed in order to determine the concentrations
depending on other parameters like wind direction and wind speed. Analytical equipment like
the fast FID (using HC as tracer) allows for a high temporal resolution of the concentrations
(Figure 4/13).

Generally, boundary layer wind tunnels can only simulate neutral thermal stratifications of the
atmosphere. This restriction especially concerns the examination of nocturnal cold-air flows.
4.2.3 Locations of Wind Tunnels

Various facilities operate wind tunnels which are suitable for urban climate studies.
(Table 4/3)

Location
D-38106
Technische Universitt
Braunschweig Institut
fr Stahlbau
Beethovenstrae 51
(sekretariat@is.tubraunschweig.de)
D-30167
Universitt Hannover
Institut fr Mechanik
Appelstrae 11

Character

Speed range

Dimensions

barrier

0 - 25 m/s

1,40 m x 1,25 m x
1,25 m

D-44801
Ruhr-Universitt Bochum
Arbeitsgruppe Aerodynamik u. Strmungsmechanik im Baumwesen
(aib@ruhr-uni-bochum.de)

barrier

D-52146
Ruscheweyth Consult
GmbH Wrselen
Schumanstrae 29
(info@ruscheweyh.de)

barrier

D-52074
RWTH Aachen Institut
fr Stahlbau
Seffenter Weg 200

barrier

0 - 35 m/s

2,50 m x 1,70 m x
2,50 m

D-62074
Institut fr
Industrieaerodynamik
Aachen
Welkenrather Str. 120

barrier

23 m/s

2,70 m x 1,50
m x 2,50 m

D-75217
Wacker Ingenieure
Birkenfeld

barrier

1,85 m x 2,50
m

barrier

2,00 m x 1,00
m

D-76128
Karlsruher Institut fr
Technologie KIT, Institut
fr Hydromechanik,
Labor fr Gebude- und
Umweltaerodynamik
Kaiserstr. 12
A-1040
TU Wien Institut fr
Strmungsmechanik
und Wrmebertragung
(helmut.sockel@tuwien
.ac.at)

barrier
Gttingen
Design

0 - 30 m/s

1,70 m x 1,70
m x1,60 m

1,00 m x 1,60
m

0 - 20 m/s
0 - 45 m/s
0 - 25 m/s

1,50 m x 1,50
m
1,05 m x 0,72
m

D-70569
Universitt Stuttgart
Institut fr Aero- und
Gasdynamik
Pfaffenwaldring 21

Laminar wind tunnel


Model wind tunnel
Gusts wind tunnel

D-67374
Ingenieurbro Theurer Hanhofen Dr. Wolfgang
Theurer
An den Gewerbewiesen
16
D-20146
University of Hamburg Meteorological Institute
EWTL Environmental
Wind Tunnel Laboratory

Re = 500 000
to 5 x 106
Re = 30 000 to
400 000
0-17 m/s

2,00 m x 1,40
m

barrier

barrier

0 - 10 m/s

1,50 m x 1,00
m x 4,00 m

Bundesstrasse 55
frank.harms@zmaw.de

Table 4/3: Locations of wind tunnels


Since the listed wind tunnels vary widely in size, the type of air circulation, the adjustable
wind velocities, the type of boundary layers, the friction parameters, the measurement
techniques, and the typical areas of application, it is recommended that experts be employed
to assist with wind tunnel studies. The above list is given with no claim to its
comprehensiveness.
4.3 Numerical Modelling of Flow and Transport Processes

Numerical models are based on the mathematical solution of several dependent (and/or
independent) differential equations. These equation systems are usually based on physical
models, which had been simplified according to the question. As the equations describing the
physical urban climate processes are largely known, numerical models for many urban
climate issues have already been developed so far.
Many of these models can be used (in a user-friendly package) on powerful workstations and
produce significant results in a relatively short time. Experience with the application in
specific cases and with the parametrisation of models is always required however. What is
also frequently required as input data is a huge amount of metrological data from the area
under investigation. In a specific planning case, it is therefore recommended to consult a
competent office for expert opinion.

An overview of models and model applications can be found on the Internet at


http://www.met.fu-berlin.de/~dmg/promet/30_12/3_Gross.pdf, concerning modeling of
traffic-related air pollution and the Guide of the State Institute for Environment,
Measurements and conservation Baden-Wrttemberg under http://www.lubw.badenwuerttemberg.de/
While measurements inevitably only serve analytical purposes, numerical models can also be
used to calculate and present the effects of urban planning designs and future situations
(similar to wind tunnel simulations). However, the application of a model delivers only
limited spatial resolutions and the representation of reality is incomplete or requires input data
from measurements in the particular investigation area. Furthermore, the modelled results
should ideally be verified by measurements.
Wind tunnel models are used when a detailed analysis of the investigation area e.g. on flow
dynamics, the dispersion of pollutants or the clarification of human-biometeorological
problems is required or when questions on the wind load and wind comfort need to be solved.
What is unfavourable here are the restricted possibilities to study weak-wind flows, different
atmospheric stratifications, moisture fields and temporal variations of meteorological
parameters (s. a. Chapter 4.2.2.3 and VDI- guideline 3783 Page 12).
The spatial resolution of mesoscale models ranges from some decametres to several
kilometres. Some calculation grids can spread at the borders for a better focus on a smaller
area under investigation in consideration of the surroundings. The available prognostic
models ( e.g. FITNAH and METRAS) can be applied to the most diverse urban development
and spatial planning issues, like the modelling of wind fields or of cold air drainages and the
dispersion of air pollutants. Microscale models (e.g. ABC or MISKAM) are used for minutescale issues with a resolution of up to about one metre. (s.a. VDI-guideline 3782 Page 1,3,5,7
and 3783 Page 6 to 10,13,14)
Besides sophisticated physical models, there is also a statistical approach (e.g. complex
interpolation) to calculate and represent comprehensive information on individual climatic
elements from punctual measurements. Geographic information systems (GIS) and the
calculation algorithms they contain play an important role in this context. Sometimes even
complex models can be integrated into a GIS or connected via appropriate interfaces. A better
integration helps to optimise working processes, e.g. concerning data handling, the provision
of basic data, the administration of variations and especially modelled results which must be
carried forward regularly due to changing conditions. Through a synopsis, a GIS allows for
the integration of further subjects (e.g. soil function, nature conservation) in the area under
investigation. WebGIS functions are principally available as well. A planning management
system or decision support instrument for the weighting process could thus be created on this
basis, i.e. that both the planning and the simulation of environmental impacts could be
completed within the GIS. Planners and decision makers can directly visualise the impacts of
a plan or its variation. When planning is further advanced, a publication via Internet for public

display for example would be possible.


Basic data on topography, buildings or small-scale data for land use are ideally also available
within a GIS. On the one hand, it can so be easily used for the model application; on the other
all GIS functions are available for data analysis and visualisation.
This allows to deduce contour maps as well as the height and direction of terrain slopes or
surface curvatures from the data. Perspective views created from the data are particularly
useful here as both the direction and the angle of the view (altitude) can be selected. Figure
4/14 and Figure 4/15 shows application examples.

Through ATKIS, a nationally standardised project by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der


Vermessungsverwaltungen der Lnder (Working Committee of the Surveying Authorities of
the States of the Federal Republic of Germany; ADV), Baden-Wrttemberg"s land surveying
office provides among others digital Orthophotos (DOP), as digital landscape model (DLM)
and a digital terrain model (DTM). The DTM holds highly accurate height information
independent of the scale (Figure 4/16). It consists of more than 35 billion topographic points,
which are aligned in a regular grid. The corresponding three-dimensional coordinates were
captured with a laser scan system from a plane and then further processed.

Test data can be downloaded at:


http://www.lv-bw.de/lvshop2/produktinfo/testdatencd_rom/rubrik/daten/Testdaten.html
Following you will find the description of some popular model applications:
4.3.1 The Wind Field Model DIWIMO

Knowledge of the wind field near the ground is important for many relevant environmental
questions. Valleys, crests, and other orthographic characteristics as well as land use influence
the wind field near the ground. One possibility for quantitatively computing the influence of
orthography at individual points is offered by diagnostic wind field modeling, e.g. with the
model DIWIMO (SCHAEDLER, LOHMEYER, 1996).
The model can be used among other things for the following questions:

Preparation of wind fields for dispersal models

Estimation of the influence of planned development (landfills, dumps,


expansion of built-up areas) on the wind field

Transfer of wind statistics to locations with no existing wind measurements

Production of synthetic wind statistics

Production of ground wind maps (e.g. for wind energy use)

Figure 4/17 reproduces an example of the result of a calculation with the model
DIWIMO. One can recognize where the large-scale airflow near the ground is
substantially altered in areas with sharp relief. This reflects on the one hand the
change in wind velocity easily recognizable from the airflow shown coming from
the northwest in the central-city area of Stuttgart and the Neckar Valley and on
the other hand the change in wind direction. Thus even southwesterly wind
directions arise in the Nesenbach Valley flowing into the city "cauldron" of
Stuttgart

The example shown was generated with a scale of 250 m. In selected cases, e.g.

in smaller areas, measurements should be made on a smaller scale. The


calculation of various wind flow directions, insofar as the directional distribution
of the large-scale wind flow is known, also permits the creation of synthetic
windroses (Figure 4/18).

Since 2003, the wind field of Stuttgart online calculated every half hour and
published on the Internet. (http://www.stadtklima-stuttgart.de/index.php?
climate_wind_field).(http://www.stadtklima-stuttgart.de/index.php?
climate_wind_field).
For the whole country in the 500 m grid determined wind roses are on the side of
the LUBW available. These are calculated using a mesoscale model. (see Chapter
4.3.7).

4.3.2 The Cold-Air Flow Model KALM and KLAM 21

The model KALM (SCHAEDLER, LOHMEYER 1996) is a cold-air flow model. It calculates
the time-elapsed progression of cold air flows when provided with temporally-constant coldair production rates. The horizontal wind velocity and the volume of cold-air flow are
calculated along with the density of the cold air layer.
Through the coupling of wind fields calculated by KALM with dispersal models, e.g. LASAT
(JANICKE, 1996; VDI guidline 3945 page 3, 2000), pollutant dispersal in cold-air flows can
also be calculated.
Figure 4/19 shows examples of the KALM model for the flow-density volume of cold air in
the city area of Stuttgart.

The cold air flow-density volume is the amount of cold air in m that flows per second
through a 1-m wide strip spanning the vertical distance between the earth"s surface and the
top boundary of the cold air layer. Its unit is m/ms. In pronounced cold-air systems, the

runoff amount to several million cubic meters per hour, with thicknesses up to several
decametres. Higher-lying areas and the upper sections of valleys are known as primary
sources of cold-air production, while the middle and lower sections of valleys as well as lowlying areas are cold-air collection and blockage areas. Since the latter areas are often densely
settled, they can exert a "cold-air negating" effect via the warming and flow obstruction
associated with their structures.
The German Meteorological Service (DWD) also offers a cold-air discharge model (KLAM
21). KLAM 21 is a two-dimensional mathematico-physical simulation model for the
calculation of cold-air flows and accumulations in orographically structured terrain. It has
proven itself in numerous official expert opinions on urban, regional and federal planning
issues (www.dwd.de).
Figure 4/20 and Figure 4/21 show a sample calculation.

4.3.3 The Model STREET for Estimating Traffic-Produced Pollution

On the basis of the model MISKAM (see Chapter 4.3.6), the screening model STREET
(PFEIFER et al., 1996; VDI 3782, Section 8, www.kttumwelt.com ) was developed for the
Environmental Ministry of Baden-Wrttemberg for simple estimations of emissions produced
by traffic. Annual average values and 98-percentiles of pollutants are calculated from traffic
densities, the reference year of vehicle production, the type of driving, the category of road,
the type of existing pollution, and the meteorological parameters of wind direction and
average wind velocity. The specific flow and dispersal conditions of the road categories under
consideration were simulated in detail with MISKAM and provided as basis data.
The model can also be used for street crossings and mergings. The road categories give equal
consideration to built and unbuilt areas.
The screening model is especially for issues of compliance with limits on the 39th BImSchV
applied. STREET 5.10 (2004) runs under Windows. Figure 4/21a shows an example.

4.3.4 The Model MLuS-02 for Calculating Pollutant Dispersal


on Roads Without Dense Peripheral Development

The model MLuS-02 (Merkblatt ber Luftverunreinigungen an Strassen Handbook for Air
Pollution on Roads; Version 6.0 Edition 2005) was produced by the Research Institute for
Roads and Traffic in Cologne. The model allows the estimation of average annual pollution
and short-term pollution (98-percentile) produced by traffic. In the "General Road Building
Memorandum No. 30/1992" the Federal Minister for Transportation recommended the
model"s use for federal highways. In its Administrative Regulations (GABL 2002, No. 14,
p.817) the Transportation Ministry of Baden-Wrttemberg also signed on to this decree.
Accordingly, the MLuS-02 is to be used for federal highways, state roads, and municipal
connecting roads.The MLuS-02 allows the numerical estimation of airborne gas pollution on
roads without or with loose peripheral development (Figure 4/22).

The model is not valid for the calculation of pollution in street canyons or in the middle of
dense development. Likewise the model is not supposed to be used on strongly differentiated
terrain.
Since the model only deals with calculated estimates of air pollution on roads, cases with
special values (e.g. exceeding the threshold values) require a detailed specialized appraisal.
The bases for the computations are the distance-dependent concentration ratios depicted in
Figure 4/23.

MLuS-02 (Edition 2005) can be used for:


Traffic counts above 5,000 vehicles/day
Velocities above 50 km/h
Trough depths and dam heights under 15 m
Lengthwise street inclination less than 6%
Two or more lanes
Gaps within the frontage development > 50%
Distances between the buildings and the edge of the lane > 2 building heights
Building width < 2 building heights

Distances from the road up to 200 m


With the decrease in concentrations as distance increases, it is apparent that these decreases
are less pronounced for nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons relative to other pollutant
components. In the case of NO2 this can be traced back to the special air chemistry involved
in the conversion of NO to NO2.Furthermore now also the computation of the influence of
noise protection walls and barriers as well as of tunnel portals and crossings is possible.
4.3.5 The Model PROKAS for Calculating Air Pollution on Roads

The model PROKAS (BOESINGER, 1996; VDI 3782, Section 8) calculates air pollution
along roads on the basis of a Gaussian dispersal model for individual sections of road and
road networks. For the calculation of emissions on roads with dense peripheral development,
an integrated building model is employed that uses results based on calculations with
MISKAM (see Chapter 4.3.6) as well as results from wind tunnel studies and field
experiments.
The emissions densities for individual sections of road are essentially determined by the
traffic volumes, the type of driving, the reference year, and the time-elapsed emissions curves
of the emissions factors (see Chapter 2.8.1).
In addition, the use of PROKAS requires representative dispersal class statistics with data
about the wind velocity, wind direction, and dispersal class distribution.
Comprehensive immission calculations
Figure 4/24 show comprehensive immission calculations for nitrogen dioxide (analysis and
prognosis), created through a combination of the PROKAS and LASAT models and the
KLAM cold air model. Besides road traffic, the other pollutant source groups (domestic fire,
business and industry) were also considered as emissions.

The simulation software LASAT (JANICKE, 1996; VDI-Richtlinie 3945 Bl.3, 2000)
calculates the distribution of pollutants by simulating the transport and the turbulent diffusion
of a group of representative parts in a stochastic process (Lagrange-Simulation). The
information about the wind is fed by three-dimensional windfields. LASAT offers the
possibility to regard the terrain and its influence.
More information on comprehensive calculations are available at:
http://www.stadtklima-stuttgart.de/index.php?luft_flaechenbelastung_stgt

4.3.6 The Micro-Scale Model MISKAM

MISKAM (EICHHORN, 1996; VDI 3782 Page 8) is one of the most sophisticated microscale
models. It is a three-dimensional flow and dispersion model for the small-scale prognosis of
wind distribution and immission concentrations from the level of roads up to whole city
districts. MISKAM allows for the explicit handling of buildings and even dense roadside
development so that characteristic air flows in the vicinity of buildings can be simulated.

Pollutant sources as point or line sources can be randomly distributed within the model area.
MISKAM is used for small-scale processes with an extension of up to several hundred metres
and therefore qualifies particularly for road and urban planning. A corresponding Windows
version WinMISKAM is also available. Figure 4/25 to Figure 4/28 give calculation examples.

Figure 4/25 depicts the flow field at the prevailing wind direction (southwest). The wind
blows in the longitudinal direction of the roads, which causes only light canalisation effects
and clearly illustrates the building"s impact.
Figure 4/26 shows the underlying building model and Figure 4/27 the nitrogen oxide
immissions calculated on the basis of the local wind statistics, i.e. that the flow fields at
different inflow conditions as well as their weighting according to their frequency of
occurrence are included.

Figure 4/28 was created by means of a GIS (geographic information system) through the
intersection of two MISKAM result files (reference case planning case).

4.3.7 Mesoscale Terrain Climatic Models

Mesoscale models give only a strongly parameterised representation of development


structures (e.g. on porosity like in FITNAH; GROSS, 1991). Microscale models, in contrast,
present details of the individual buildings and allow for an examination of processes at
individual buildings or even parts of buildings. Mesoscale models are mainly used for the
description of regional wind conditions caused by the topographic and thermal situation. The
generated wind field can then be used to calculate the dispersion. For the representation of
topographic processes changing in the course of the day, it is inevitable to run the prognostic
models over a particular simulation period, in this case mostly 24 hours and more. This allows
for a numerical simulation of the various physical properties of the structures comprised in the
model and their impacts on the mesoclimate. Examples for mesoscale models in the field of
topographic and urban climatology are: FITNAH (GROSS, 1991) and METRAS
(SCHLNZEN, 1998, 1990).
Under the authority of the Landesanstalt fr Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz BadenWrttemberg (LUBW) the working group METCON Umweltmeteorologische
Beratung/Ingenieurbro Rau" calculated synthetic wind statistics in a 500-m-resolution for
Baden-Wrttemberg by using METRAS-PC. The wind statistics are designed for problems in
the field of immission protection (TA Luft) but a usage in ohter applications (e.g. urban
planning) is possible. The LUBW offers the wind statistics under:
http://udo.lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de/public/
4.3.8 The Urban Climate Models RayMan , ENVI-met and MUKLIMO_3

The free software of the RayMan model (see chapter 3.2.3), which was developed at the
Meteorological Institute of the University of Freiburg (MATZARAKIS et al., 2000;
MATZARAKIS u. MAYER, 2000) and the software is freely available (http://www.mif.unifreiburg.de/rayman) can be used for the creation of bio-climate maps or similar map
presentations as well as for the human-biometeorological evaluation of planning-related
changes in the microclimatic conditions.
RayMan"s core is the simulation of short and long-wave radiation flows according to VDI
guideline 3789 Page 1 (VDI, 1994). What is required here is information on the date, time and
geographical position of the investigated location as well as on air temperature, humidity,
cloud coverage and atmospheric opacity. The albedo of the surrounding surfaces and their
solid angle proportions must also be given.
The microscale ENVI-met model allows for the numerical consideration of urban structures
as a complex of effects with particular reference to small-scale designing, like the greening of
roads, particular building structures or different sealing materials. The calculation model
provides a large number of different parameters as simulation results, like the flow field,
temperature or turbulence distribution, and thus permits to consider the complex physical
processes and their interaction in terms of the microclimate.
The microscale MUKLIMO_3 model extends the original MUKLIMO model from two to

three dimensions. It resolves built-up areas to detail and, as a grid point model, permits to
resolve characteristic atmospheric processes over a period of several hours. Even larger areas
with unresolved development can be modelled. The basic MUKLIMO_3 version serves
especially for the examination of air flow conditions and the dispersion of pollutants in a local
area. With this PC running version it goes without the thermodynamic modules and allows for
a graphic control of the model configuration and a representation of the results.

5. Climatic and Air Hygiene Maps as Aids for Planning and Zoning
(Example: Climate Atlas Federation Region Stuttgart)

5.1 Introduction

In the context of the ongoing discussion about new residential and commercial development,
fundamental studies of climate and air are gaining increasing importance for producing
qualified land-use planning in densely-settled areas. Since planning-related statements refer to
specific areas, the use of maps as an informational basis is recommended. Maps in this
context are a very significant tool for the planner, and are also a meaningful method of
communicating information for politicians and the interested public. As such, spatially-related
cartographic representations are necessary for attaining climatic and air-hygienic goals.
The production of such maps requires the technically-measured collection of individual
parameters with map-scale representation as well as calculated simulation with statistical
regression models (GERTH, 1986) or macro-scale models (see Chapter 4.3.7).
The more meaningful and convincing is the representation of climatic and air-hygienic
phenomena, the greater is the chance they will be adequately addressed in the planning
process.

A climate atlas was developed for the territory of the former neighbourhood association
(NACHBARSCHAFTSVERBAND STUTTGART, 1992) in 1992 already. The studies were
later extended and expanded to cover the territory of the Verband Region Stuttgart
(VERBAND REGION STUTTGART, 2008). Data acquisition and processing were realised
with the help of a geographic information system (GIS). This also allows for further analysis
steps through special GIS integrated model software, like the calculation of wind fields or
cold air drainages as well as the intersection of different climate data.
In connection with the collection of basic data in 2005, three infrared flights over the whole
investigation area were undertaken. Furthermore, the German Meteorological Service (DWD)
carried out an extensive one-year ground measurement programme (covering temperature,
humidity and wind) and used statistical methods to draw up areal representations of different
climatic elements. Information on the air quality was included from emission inventories,
immission inventories for Greater Stuttgart and air measuring stations within the regional
measuring network. Maps from the Climate Atlas Baden-Wrttemberg, LUBW (2006) were
also integrated. The results were summarised in analysis maps with a scale of 1:20,000 (which
is the scale also used in land-use plans). The next step was to create evaluated maps with
planning-relevant indications on the climate and air quality.
The goal of the planning recommendations is first and foremost to motivate the planner
towards a stronger consideration of climatic criteria (BECKRGE, 1990, FEDERATION
REGION STUTTGART, 2008). As such, a planning project should incorporate the standards
of the "Planning Recommendations" map.

If a clear climatic compatibility is not prescribed, planners and politicians must objectively
weigh environmental compatibility with other concerns. In principle, this weighing can have
the consequences that the planning is not pursued further, that the climatic and air-hygienic
concerns are ignored, or that the planning is modified to avoid negative climatic and airhygienic effects as far as possible. In this last case, detailed appraisals are usually necessary.
Especially climate maps and maps with hints for urban planning offer a wide range of data for
usage in the regional/land use planning (FNP). The digital climate atlas 2008 is also drafted
on the assessment of the effects of land use planning on the environment. It contains a
consistant data record for all communities. The climate data are available, the climate atlas
points out climatic issues but there are deepened investigations necessary for an assessment.
Besides the KLIMAATLAS BADEN-WRTTEMBERG (Climate Atlas BadenWrttemberg), further climate atlases are available for Baden-Wrttemberg, e.g. for the
regions of Lake Constance-Upper Swabia and Southern Upper Rhine. And the transnational
climate atlas Klimaatlas Oberrhein Mitte-Sd Atlas Climatique du Foss Rhnan Mridional
was developed for France , Switzerland and German in 1996 already
5.2 Infrared Thermography

Infrared thermography provides one with a picture of the momentary temperature distribution
on the earth"s surface at high powers of resolution, impossible to obtain with any stationary
measurement network. From an airplane, the landscape is scanned line by line with the
measuring photometer (with a ground resolution of about 10 m by 10 m at an altitude of 3,000
m).
The vivid expressions that infrared thermography produces are not unproblematic in every
respect, since individual IR-heat images do not communicate definite findings on the
multilayered problem of climate. The measured surface temperatures are above all not
identical with the local air temperatures.
Nevertheless, infrared thermography provides indications of variations in temperature
structures (e.g. heat islands, cold-air collection areas, cold-air drainage areas) caused by
human settlement in an urban area. The execution of at least two flyovers (evening and
morning) makes possible the generation of information about the cooling behavior of
individual areas (Fig. 5/2, Fig. 5/2a, Fig. 5/3 and Fig. 5/3a). In addition, indications can be
obtained regarding climatically preferential areas and local climate facts such as local air
exchange processes, cold air blockage, and conflicts with existing uses. Strategies can also be
developed for more in-depth measurements on the ground.

Such conclusions require, however, a realistic conception of the interaction of meteorological


parameters in the air layer near the ground, knowledge of the local land conditions, and
additional meteorological information.
The specified temperature color scale in an infrared picture corresponds to psychologicallyperceived criteria (red = warm, blue = cold). Darker surfaces are open areas with low
vegetation; strongly-cooling surfaces are depicted in black. Noticeable as warm examples are
both waters and inner-city areas with their respective street structures.
5.3 Meteorological Base Maps

Over the course of one year a temporary measurement network (12 stations at various
altitudes and in areas with various land uses) was installed by the German Weather Service in
the territory of the Stuttgart Regional Federation, with the goal of recording the temperature,
humidity, and wind conditions in the study area. Surface-covering maps for the climatic
elements (annual average air temperature, average daily minimum and maximum air
temperature, number of days with equivalent temperature > 49C, annual average wind
velocity, and frequency of low wind) were developed from the measured data with the help of
a statistical process based upon altitude and land use and derived parameters such as days
with heat stress.
Figure 5/4 shows the distribution of the average annual air temperature, and Figure 5/4a the
middle annual maximum. One recognizes clearly, the differences in the temperature, resulting

in from the altitude of the area, in addition, the warmer more closely cultivated areas.

From the distribution of the mean daily minimum air temperature Figure 5/4b shows that
high-altitude areas are characterized by low minimum temperatures. Lower-altitude areas
exhibit generally higher minimum temperatures and are marked in violet. In the lower-lying
areas, narrow and relatively strongly-cut valleys and depressions are also noticeable in blue
color tones, since the pooling of cold air there leads to lower minimum temperatures.

In the Figure 5/5 the middle annual wind velocity is represented. Altogether the region is
wind-weakly with middle annual wind velocities partially under 1 m/s in the cultivated
structures. Only in the altitudes in the south somewhat higher wind velocities arise.

One of the wind measurements derived and important for urban planning is the size of
ventilation (Figure 5/5a).

5.4 Cold Air Generation and Outflow, Wind Field Calculations

The digital climate atlas of the region of Stuttgart was not only spatially extended but took up
new technical and content-related aspects. Region-wide calculations of the thickness (Figure
5/6) and drainage of cold air (Figure 5/6a) were carried out on the basis of the digital surface
model and infrared thermography. As areas producing cold air and cold air catchment areas
during inversion weather conditions bring about fresh air supply during the night, they have a
substantial function for the aeration of settlement areas. The digital climate atlas also provides
detailed information on the wind conditions. Synthetic wind field calculations (Figure 5/6b)
also allow for an evaluation of small-scale wind conditions in the region. As the wind
(characterised by wind speed and wind direction) determines the dispersion of air pollutants,
it plays a major role for air quality. The knowledge of the aeration situation within settled
areas gained from the factors wind and cold air is an important assessment foundation for
spatial planning on both the regional and the municipal level.

5.5 Air-Hygienic Maps

Data for air pollution in and around the Stuttgart study area are present in the emissions
registers. produced by the State of Baden-Wrttemberg (see Figure 5/7a).

The Atlas also includes maps derived with high air pollution potential , calculated from the
emissions and ventilation situation (see Figure 5/7).

5.6 Forecasting the Effects of Climate Change:


Mean Annual Temperature and Bioclimate

What is studied in more detail besides the climatic situation is the changes arising from global
climate change. The prognosis examines the change of the average annual temperature and the
resulting implications for the bioclimate. The climate prognoses by the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) expect a global temperature increase of about 1.4 to 5.8 K in
this century.
The temperatures in turn have a strong influence on the bioclimate. Bioclimate means the
entity of all atmospheric influences on human beings. Factors like heat, cold and air humidity
strongly influence people"s well-being, working capacity and health. For one thing, the
climate atlas shows the actual situation as for heat and cold stress on the basis of long-term
measurements. What we can see is an expected area of about 5 % with more than 30 days
with heat stress resulting from high perceived temperatures in this region. Numerous
epidemiological studies prove that the adaptability of sensitive people will then be
overstrained more quickly especially in the case of a predisposition for cardiovascular and

respiratory diseases. This may lead to an increasing number of fatalities.


With regard to the temperature increase due to the global climate change, we try to look
further ahead and go beyond the current situation. This is realised through a prognosis based
on the assumption that the number of days with heat stress will double in the case of climate
warming. The result is that large parts of Greater Stuttgart (57 % of its territory) would have
to expect more than 30 days with heat stress, i.e. that a significantly higher percentage of
people would be exposed to heavy heat pollution during the summer. The legend to the
bioclimate maps reveals a range of 2.5 to 35 days.
The maps compare the actual situation (Figure 5/8a) determined by the German
Meteorological Service with the prognosis expecting a temperature increase of 2 K (Figure
5/8b).

The prognosis shows that this will be a big challenge for regional planning. What plays a
major role in this context is the preservation of climatic compensation areas on which fresh
and cold air is produced and the guaranteeing of sufficient aeration.
The impact of climate change is set to affect almost all areas of life. To prognosticate the
impact and affectedness for different regions, vulnarability studies are carried out. These
studies contain e.g. forecast maps showing risk of storm damage, eligibility of tree species or
the vulnerablility of the population (see Figure 5/9).

Within a model-like project is stated for the region of Stuttgart an above-average affectedness
by the impact of climate change. This climate impact contains frequently flooding,
displacement of thermosensitive plants, hazard of erosion and not least a higher heat exposure
of people.
Therefore the formation Region Stuttgart encourages specific measures which are weighty
relevant on a regional level, e.g. saving climate-relevant unused space. More information is
available in terms of the final report Vulnerabilitt in der Region Stuttgart (to obtain from
http://www.region-stuttgart.org). In future climate analyses and dedicated maps should outline
vulnerablities persuant the expected future situation.
5.7 Climate Analysis Map

A significant component of the study mentioned above was the production of climate analysis
maps depicting the local-climatic conditions in this region as a cartographic overview (Figure
5/10 and Figure 5/11). The significant bases for this are the data material described above,
topographic maps, city maps, land use plans, and aerial photographs.

The classification of climatope and cold-air collection areas is not parcel-specific. Tolerances
can range up to 100 m, since both the contextual definition of borders relative transient areas
and the accuracy of drawing due to the working material used must be taken into account.
Technically-detailed appraisals are necessary for more precise results. The signatures and
symbols used in the maps correspond largely to the VDI Guideline 3787, Section 1., which is
required by 2013.
Climatopes
Climatopes describe geographic areas with similar microclimatic characteristics. These are
distinguished primarily by the daily thermal variation, the vertical roughness (wind field
disruption), the topographical situation or exposure, and above all by the type of material land
use. The level of emissions is included as an additional criterion for special climatopes. Since
the microclimatic characteristics of built-up areas are determined significantly by the material
land use and especially by the type of development, the climatopes are named after the
dominant land-use type or building use.
Water Climatope
The water climatope (especially for large bodies of water) has a compensating thermal
influence relative to its surroundings due to low-intensity daily and yearly variations; in
summer, the air temperatures during the day are lower and at night higher than in surrounding
areas. The water climatope is characterized by high levels of air humidity and wind.
Open Land Climatope

The open land climatope (Figure 5/12) exhibits extreme daily and annual variations in
temperature and humidity in addition to very small changes in wind flow. Thus an intensive
production of fresh and cold air is associated with this climatope. This applies in particular to
expansive areas of meadow and arable land as well as to open fields with very few trees.

Forest Climatope
The forest climatope (Figure 5/13) is characterized by strongly-dampened daily and annual
variations in temperature and humidity. While relatively low temperatures and higher air
humidity prevail underneath the canopy because of shading and evaporation during the day,
relatively mild temperatures are present during the night. In addition, the leaf canopy works as
a filter against air pollution, so that the forest climatope functions as a regenerative zone for
the air and as a recreational space for people.

Greenbelt Climatope
Green spaces such as parks in developed areas (Figure 5/14) work to balance their built-up
and usually overheated surroundings via their relatively extreme daily variations in
temperature and humidity and the associated production of cold, fresh air. Larger green spaces
can serve as ventilation corridors. Green spaces with thick tree cover in developed areas use
their shading to create cool balancing areas with high air humidity relative to the warmed
surroundings.

Garden City Climatope


The garden city climatope (Figure 5/15) includes built areas with open one- to three-story
development and rich green spaces. All climatic elements are only slightly altered relative to
the open space climatope, although a noticeable nightly cooling occurs and regional winds are
not significantly impeded.

City Periphery Climatope


The city periphery climatope (Figure 5/16) is defined by dense detached buildings,
rowhouses, or development that incorporates green spaces and takes up entire blocks, all of
which can reach up to three stories in height. The climatope can also be characterized by
freestanding buildings of a maximum of five stories surrounded by green spaces. Nightly
cooling is strongly limited and significantly dependent upon the surroundings. Local wind and
cold air flows are hindered, while regional winds are strongly impeded.

City Climatope
Multiple-story enclosed development with small proportions of green space and freestanding
skyscrapers characterize the city climatope (Figure 5/17). Strong heating during the day
contrasts with very little cooling at night. Through this process, there arises a heat-island
effect with low air humidity relative to the surroundings. The dense and tall development
influences the regional and super-regional wind systems to a substantial extent, so that air
exchange is limited and a high aggregate level of air pollution is present. In street canyons,
both high air and noise pollution and gust-like wind turbulence are found.

Core City Climatope


Dense and tall central-city development (Figure 5/18) with very little green space leads to
strong heating during the day and the production of a clear heat island effect with lower-thanaverage humidity during the night. The massive built environment together with the resultant
heat island produces a significant influence on regional and super-regional winds. An
altogether high level of air pollution is present. In street canyons, gust-like wind turbulence
arises along with high levels of air and noise pollution.

Commercial Climatope
The commercial climatope ()Figure 5/19 corresponds largely to the climatope of dense
development; that is: Heat island effect, low air humidity, and substantial wind field
disruption. In addition, expanded access roads and parking lots as well as heightened
emissions are present. Intensive cooling is visible in the nightly heat image, in part at the roof
level of large buildings (especially those with sheet metal roofs), while the streets and parking
lots surrounded by buildings remain warm.

Industry Climatope
The industry climatope is comparable with the city and core city climatopes, but also exhibits
large transportation-related surfaces and significantly higher emissions (including land uses
that require special permission under emissions law). A significant heat island forms during
both day and night because of extensive sealed surfaces, although the roofs of buildings cool
off partially. The air masses near the ground are warmed, dry, and enriched with pollutants.
The massive building forms and the warming near the ground significantly alter the wind
field.
Railroad Climatope
The railroad climatope is characterized by intensive warming during the day and quick
cooling during the night; however, surface temperatures are higher than in the open land. The
train tracks are open to the wind because of their sparse covering and often serve as air
induction passages or air exchange surfaces in built-up areas. Railroads are considered to be a
climatope only in the presence of widths greater than 50 m; that is, only in the case of multitrack railroad lines.
Cold Air Areas and Characteristics of the Relief Structure
The ventilation of built areas with cold air flow has a significant function, especially during
low-exchange weather conditions. Areas for cold air production and collection, which provide
the nightly fresh-air supply, are therefore characterized distinctively in the climatic map. Also
depicted are cold air blockage areas, narrow sections of valleys, winds descending from

slopes, mountain and valley winds, and air induction passages for regional winds, along with
data for air pollution.
Pollution from Traffic Emissions
Main traffic thoroughfares are divided into three groups on the basis of their average daily
traffic counts, and are depicted differentially via the widths of the corresponding map lines.
Pictograms
Pictograms are used to characterize areas with heightened home heating or traffic emissions,
intensely-emitting enterprises, and high particulate and heat emissions in the respective
climatopes. Further pictograms make reference to local idiosyncrasies of importance for the
land areas in concern.
The pictogram Immissions Pollution emphasizes locations with high levels of air pollution in
areas at risk of ground inversion effects. These are usually cold air collection areas that cool
strongly at night and that exhibit high air pollution values because of nearby pollutant
emitters.
Ground/Valley Fog arises frequently in valleys and in areas at risk of ground inversion
effects. The designation for elevated Inversion refers to expanded and dominant heat islands
in built-up areas. The relatively high surface temperatures and the associated turbulence do
not create ground inversions (cf. Figure 3/20 in Chapter 3.3.2); rather, the lower boundary of
the inversions lies several decameters above the ground.
The variation of the windfield give a hint to buildings with more than 10 stories or especial
hills (dumps) where the wind is changed.
The wind rose depicts the percentage distribution of the average annual frequency of wind
direction at a given measurement location.
The Air Pollution Windrose combines the windrose described above with immissions
measurements and gives the average measured pollution concentration under the influence of
the respective wind directions.
5.8 Maps with Recommendations for Planning

A map with recommendations for planning (Figure 5/20 and Figure 5/21) contains an
integrated assessment of the material represented in the climate analysis map as it relates to
concerns relevant in planning. The symbols give recommendations as to the sensitivity of
certain land areas to changes in land use, from which climatically-grounded conditions and
measures can be derived in the context of planning and zoning.

The recommendations for planning primarily relate to structural changes of land use. For
example, a change in the composition of vegetation exerts fewer climatic effects than largescale soil capping measures and the erection of structures.

The planning recommendations are not specific to the level of individual parcels, and
tolerances can range up to 100 m.
More detailed questions in connection with site plans must be dealt with through special
appraisals when necessary, especially in areas of high climatic and air-hygienic sensitivity.
In addition to local characteristics, the following principles form the basis for the planning
recommendations:
Areas of vegetation have an important effect on the local climate, since on the one hand they
cause the nightly fresh/cold-air production and on the other they exert a balancing thermal
effect when they feature a high proportion of trees. Green spaces in the city and nearby areas
exert a positive influence on their immediate vicinity in a microclimatic sense; vegetation on
the border of developments also contributes to air exchange. Larger, connected green spaces
represent the climatic and air-hygienic potential for regeneration. Particularly in the present
spatial context of the built-up area, such green spaces are very important for air exchange. As
far as possible, therefore, open spaces should not be converted to development from a climatic
perspective.
Development in valleys can also be judged as generally negative, since the movement of cold,
fresh air takes place in valleys under weak wind conditions and since valleys serve as air
delivery corridors for stronger regional winds.
Hillsides in extended built-up areas, should remain undeveloped, especially when
development exists in valleys, since intensive cold- and fresh-air transport occurs here
(however, development on southern hillsides is desirable from an energy conservation
perspective (see also Chapter 3)). The same is valid for gullies and ridges along these
hillsides.
Saddle-like topographies on the backside of mountains serve as air induction corridors and
should not be developed.
The climatic and air-hygienic perspective recommends encircling development with as much
green space as possible as well as crisscrossing it with green corridors oriented to topographic
features (e.g. ventilation passages; air induction corridors) and thus support air exchange.
Urban sprawl from numerous developments strewn across the landscape as well as the
emergence of disruptive belts of built-up areas, e.g. through the convergence of neighboring
communities, are to be avoided. Urban development must be accompanied by close, large
fresh- and cold-air production areas and ventilation corridors.
The development of commercial and industrial enterprises should ensure that the residential
areas in the immediate vicinity do not suffer from heightened emissions resulting from the
local wind patterns.

More detailed descriptions of the individual symbols on the map "Recommendations for
Planning" are given below.
OPEN SPACES
Open Spaces with Important Climatic Activity: Direct relation to built-up areas such as
green spaces in the city or those that lie upwind from a mountain/valley wind system;
undeveloped valleys, ridges, and gaps in terrain; large, connected open spaces near denselysettled areas. These open spaces exhibit a high sensitivity to changes in land use; that is, uses
involving construction and soil capping lead to precarious impairments of climate. The same
is valid for measures that hinder air exchange.
Open Spaces with Less Important Climatic Activity: No direct contact with developed
areas or only minor cold-air production (e.g. rocky or fallow lands); less sensitivity to changes
in land use. Large-scale development, as long as it does not substantially obstruct the regional
air exchange, is possible.
Climatically-important local characteristics such as ridges, depressions, brooks, etc., however,
are to be taken into consideration during planning. To obtain as small of an impairment on the
climate as possible, the preservation of green spaces and corridors, roof and facade greening,
the lowest possible building heights, and building orientations open to the wind are
recommended.
Open Spaces with Minor Climatic Activity: Lesser influence on developed areas; lying at a
distance from development; relatively unimportant for cold- and fresh-air production.
Changes in land use are associated with only minor disturbances to climate. This includes, for
example, hilltops and large-scale, well-ventilated areas with relatively level topography at a
distance from any development.
Development such as skyscrapers or large-scale commercial enterprises is possible in these
areas from a climatic perspective. It should be ensured, however, that the ventilation
conditions remain unaltered relative to the main wind direction. The existing level of
emissions is also to be taken into consideration, so that no sensitive land uses will be planned
in the vicinity of enterprises and heavily-trafficked thoroughfares.
DEVELOPED AREAS
Developed Areas with Functions of Minor Climatic Relevance: Developed areas without high
thermal or air-hygienic burdens that do not significantly impact neighboring areas of
settlement.
No noteworthy climatic or air-hygienic sensitivity relative to intensifications of land use or
expanded development is assigned to these areas (e.g. developed, well-ventilated hilltops).

Care must be taken so that existing ventilation conditions remain intact and that additional
emissions do not bring about negative effects on other developed areas. Roof and faade
greening and the preservation of green spaces can prevent thermal problems.
Developed Areas with Functions of Climatic Relevance: Thinly-developed settlements with
green spaces, which cool noticeably during the night and are relatively open to the wind; wellventilated dense areas of development (e.g. hilltops). These areas produce neither intensive
thermal or air-hygienic problems nor impediments of air exchange, and they generally exhibit
low climatic and air-hygienic sensitivity to changes in land use.
This includes, for example, infill development and the closure of gaps in buildings, whereby
the amount of developed land in the entire area is to remain constant.
Planning should attempt to keep soil capping measures in these areas to a minimum. They can
be equalized by the creation of green spaces as well as roof and faade greening.
Developed Areas with Functions of Significant Climatic Relevance: Loosely-developed,
strongly-greened areas with low building heights on the periphery of communities with nearly
undisturbed air exchange; hillsides with development at their feet (although these hillsides
also contribute to cold air production); areas with singular freestanding skyscrapers and green
spaces; densely-developed areas whose climatic and air-hygienic footprint is not exceedingly
high.
The designated areas exhibit a substantial climatic and air-hygienic sensitivity relative to
changes in land use.
Further development and soil capping measures lead to negative effects on the climatic
situation. Instead, an enlargement of the proportion of green space and the securing or
expansion of ventilation spaces is recommended for these areas.
Developed Areas with Climatic and Air-Hygienic Disadvantages: Densely-developed areas
that have strong climatic and air-hygienic problems; including those developed areas whose
air exchange is considerably hindered by buildings. These areas require restructuring under
urban climatic criteria (increasing the proportion of green space; minimizing the amount of
soil capping; minimizing the level of emissions, especially traffic emissions; creation or
expansion of greened ventilation corridors; removal or relocation of disruptive buildings
where necessary).
Roads with High Air and Noise Pollution: Main traffic thoroughfares with a traffic count of
more than 15,000 vehicles per day. The resultant high levels of air and noise pollution must be
taken into consideration in planning.
Sensitive land uses such as residential areas, recreational areas, and agricultural lands should

be planned only at sufficient distances from roads or with adequate protection measures.
(Important: An immissions prognosis is required! (see also Chapter 4.2 and Chapter 4.3)).

6. Recommendations for Planning

A climate-friendly urban land use planning requires the systematic practical implementation
of the knowledge on interactions between various factors. The implementation is limited to
the legal instruments laid down in the Federal Building Code and restricted to the particular
designated area, including the representations of the land-use plan, the legally binding
designations of the development plan, the project completion plan and the agreements of the
urban development contract. Not binding but helpful strategic instruments are framework
plans, which allow to consider and develop climatically connected areas, or the deliberate
consideration of existing building areas, which are fallow land or assigned to a different use
for other reasons.
As there is no designation which, on its own, could guarantee a healthy urban climate, it is
essential that the sum of representations and designations accounts for the climatic
requirements. What needs to be considered, however, is the principle laid down in 9 (1) of
the Federal Building Code, claiming that all designations need to be based on urban
development requirements.
The following goals for climate-friendly spatial planning should be pursued:

Improvement of habitat conditions with regard to comfort/bioclimate

Improved aeration of settlement areas

Increase of fresh air supply through local wind systems

Reduced emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases

Determination and appropriate evaluation of existing and expected


pollution

Appropriate reaction to pollution situations through adaptation of use


concepts

Especially the improvement of habitat conditions and the increase of fresh air
supply gain more and more importance through the looming climate change
impacts, e.g. with regard to the formation of heat islands in densely developed
areas and possible countermeasures.
(CITY of STUTTGART (2010), Booklet 3/2010 and KAPP, REUTER (2011))
Since the development of the urban climate as described in Chapter 2 is based
predominantly on the transformation of green space and vegetation into the built

city, a focus of climate-sensitive urban planning lies in the preservation and


reclaiming of natural vegetation.
6.1 Preservation and Acquisition of Green Space

6.1.1 Landscape and Open-Space Control Plan

"Have reverence for the plants; by them everything lives!"


(Saying above the entrance to the Botanical Garden in Berlin)
As GROSSMAN (1989) explained, this should not only be the saying for the Botanical
Garden, but should also guide our interaction with the plant kingdom in daily life.
The trend of continually growing displacement of green space as a result of overdevelopment
and proliferation of the built environment, especially in areas of dense population (in spite of
decreasing overall population!), must be combated by means of nature protection and
landscape preservation (MUERB, 1992). Along these lines the Nature Protection Law of
Baden-Wrttemberg demands that both the open and the developed landscape, as a basis for
life and as a realm for human recreation, be protected, cared for, structured, and developed so
that the efficiency of ecosystems and the usability of natural resources (earth, water, air,
climate, animal and plant life) are lastingly secured.
The purpose of landscape and open space plans is to realise the goals of nature conservation
and landscape management within the field of urban land use planning. They cover an
inventory of the natural conditions and the use requirements of the particular area. The natural
conditions which shall be analysed are e.g. climate and air quality including an ecological
evaluation of the identified conditions and use conflicts. To this effect, 1 section 3 of the
amended Federal Nature Conservation Act from 29 July 2009 lays down that: "In order to
permanently safeguard the performance and functioning of the natural balance, the following
actions are to be taken: ... no. 4) the air and the climate are also to be protected via measures
of nature conservation and landscape management; this shall apply especially with regard to
areas with favourable air quality or climatic effects, such as areas in which fresh or cold air
develop, or pathways for air exchange; establishment of sustainable energy supply systems,
especially via increasing use of renewable energies, is to have special priority."
The elements contained in the landscape plan are incorporated into the land use plan.
Depictions in the landscape plan or open-space control plan are, as far as necessary and
suitable, transferred to site plans and made legally binding through corresponding regulations.
For this, the following regulatory options taken from 9 (1) of the Federal Building Law
come into consideration:
No. 10 Properties (and their uses) to be kept free of development,

No. 15 Public and private green spaces such as parks, continuous


allotments, sport and recreation facilities, tents, pools, cemeteries,
No. 18 a) Agricultural property and b) Forests,
No. 20 Property or measures for the protection, care, and development of
earth, nature, and landscape
No. 25 (a) Planting of trees, bushes, and other plants, and b) Preservation of plants, trees,
bushes, and water
In the context of interference/balancing regulations for nature protection, the new 9 (1 a) of
the Federal Building Law (BauGB) establishes the regulatory possibility for equalizing
measures or quantities of property in the sense of 1 a (3) of the BauGB. These can be
established either directly on the properties where the natural or landscape interference is to
be expected or at other locations, whether in the remaining application area of the site plan or
in another site plan.
In the context of land use planning, the new 5 (2 a) of the BauGB allows those areas
designated for equalization in the sense of 1 a (3) of the BauGB to be assigned to those
areas where interference in nature or landscape is expected.
The system of integrated landscape planning includes the landscape plan and open-space
control plan (on the level of zoning), the elements of the landscape master program (on the
level of the Baden-Wrttemberg state development plan) and the landscape master plan (on
the level of regional planning). Different manifestations of climate correspond to this scale as
it refers to spatial planning. Elements for "green" planning that is also sensitive to local
climate can be included at each of these levels, linking up to the implementation of an
individual site plan (cf. Chapter 6.2.3).

6.1.2 Benchmarks for Describing "Green" Uses

A quantification of the climatic effects of green areas in urban planning has already been
made as far as possible on the basis of secure knowledge in Chapter 2. This will also play
a role in the following recommendations for planning.
Various attempts have been made along the lines of green planning to quantitatively describe
the vegetation potential of a land area. In this process, the non-uniformity of conceivable
vegetation forms (e.g. grass, forest, potato fields, cornfields) must be considered from a
climatic perspective
(Figure 6/2). In addition, it must be remembered that a living plant continuously changes: It
germinates, grows, has rest and vegetation periods, loses its leaves or keeps them for many
years, ages, and finally dies (GROSSMAN, 1989).

VANTAGENS E
DESVANTAGENS DOS
DIVERSOS TIPOS DE

Various models assume that the ratio of vegetation to surface area of a property should be
expressed through a standard defined "plant-quantity number." In this context the "green
volume number (GVZ)" and the "surface function number (BFZ)" were introduced by POHL
et al. (1984).
The example of the "phyto measurement number (PMZ)" according to SCHERER (1973) (see
GROSSMAN, 1989) allows the principle of the plant-quantity calculation (phyto measures) to
be read in the form of a defined hierarchy (Table 6/1a).

Open ground

0,5

Lawn

1,0

Meadow

1,5

Shrub to 1 m height

2,0

Small wood to 1 m height

3,0

Hedge to 2 m height

4,0

Needle wood to 3 m height

4,5

Leaves wood to 3 m height

5,0

Needle wood 3 m to 5 m height

6,0

Leaves wood 3 m to 5 m height

7,0

Coniferous trees to 10 m height

8,0

Deciduous trees to 10 m height

9,0

Coniferous trees over 10 m height

11,0

Deciduous trees over 10 m height

14,0

Table 6/1a: Phytomass numbers for various forms of vegetation

VANTAGENS E
DESVANTAGENS DOS
DIVERSOS TIPOS DE

The allocation of "phyto measures" per square meter of undeveloped property area to the
specified vegetation forms should concurrently describe their efficiency relative to various
bio-ecologic components, including dust filtration effect, evaporation, wind protection, and
shade provision.

From an urban climatic perspective it should be noted that no absolute measurement value can
be conceived. The various specified properties cannot be considered valid when detached
from a concrete local situation and a specific problem definition. For example, grass areas
(with a PMZ of only 0.5) that cool off strongly during the night exhibit a significantly large
local climatic use as components of cold-air production areas (cf. Chapter 6.2.2). On the
contrary, the forest (which itself should be protected), being a hindrance to airflow, has the
disadvantageous property of restricting ventilation. This "disadvantage" however, is exactly
the factor that produces the dust filtration effect of the forest. In the case of a lee-producing
planting (cf. Chapter 3.4.2) or in the example of a "corked obstacle" as in Figure 6/17 the
attainment of both desired and unintentional effects points out the difficult handling of overall
climatic pros and cons. Similarly, also perceived advantages or disadvantages of street trees in
this context to see location-based (see also Chapter 6.3.3 Plantations as pollution control).
6.1.3 Avoidance of Soil Capping by Green Spaces and Water

The urban climatic consequences of soil capping have already been described in Chapter 2.
The degree of soil capping (Figure 6/3) within a development is defined by the proportion of
property area that has been built over. Relevant structural data include:

Buildings

Other built structures and edifices in the sense of 14 of the BauNVO

Garages, parking lots, and traffic-oriented surfaces with waterimpenetrable linings.

The 1990 Federal Building Use Ordinance (BauNVO) specifies maximum values
for the proportion of capped area in a developed property and thus influences a
significant parameter of the urban climate.
Detailed information about limits on soil capping is found in BUNZEL (1992) and
RISCH (2005), continue the EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2012) has issued guidelines
to limit soil sealing.
A large number of smaller green spaces with their sum effect can contribute to a
reduction in the thermal burden or the heat-island effect, as long as these green
spaces are closely networked and exhibit a sensible arrangement from the
perspective of the urban realm (e.g. corresponding with main ventilation
corridors).
The planting of trees and shrubs along streets leads to a reduction of ambient
heating (especially in built-up areas) and thus serves to balance out overheated
city structures. Large-crown trees and their corresponding shade create
comfortably-shaded spaces. On the other hand, plantings can lead to a reduction
in wind velocity and thus reduce the removal of pollutants. Outside of built-up
areas, forests and strips of planting create (under some circumstances)
hindrances for cold air flow (cf. Chapter 6.2.2).
A measurable long-distance climatic effect is created only by very expansive
green spaces of sizes at least 50 hectares. The effect of smaller green spaces,
meanwhile, is based on the "placeholder effect" of displacing other land uses
unfavorable to the urban climate.
Table 6/1b provides an overview of global investigated parks.

Size
(rounded)
in ha

PCI max
in K

Range
in m

trees

2,5
(15:00)

50

Saito et al.
1990

grass, tree
edge,
partially

5,0
(night)
Messfahrt

200 to
300

SpronkenSmith
& Oke 1998

Location

Park

Design

Kumamoto
(Kyushu)

Kengung
Shinto Shrine

Vancouver

Trafalgar
Park

Source

irrigated
18

Berlin

Stadtpark
Steglitz

1,0
(evening)

80 to
140

von
Stlpnagel
1987

30

Mainz

Stadtpark

2,0
(morning)

< 300

Naumann
1981

44

Stuttgart

Schlossgarten

1,3
(annual
mean)
3,8
(day mean)

200

Knapp 1998

80

Kopenhagen

Falledparken

grass and
trees

2,1
(21:00)

100

Ellasson &
Up-manis
2000

125

Berlin

Kleingrten
Priesterweg

garden

5,4
(evening)

250

von
Stlpnagel
1987

156

Gteborg

Slottskogen

3,3
(18:00)
station

250

Ellasson &
Up-manis
2000

212

Berlin

Tiergarten

forest/ grass

4,3
(evening)

200 to
300

von
Stlpnagel
1987

mix (trees,
grass, no
irrigation)

4,0
(dry season)
1,0
(rainy
season)

2000

Jauregui
1990

525

Mexico-City Chapulte-pec

Table 6/1b: Overview of the size, location , maximum cooling effect (PCI max),
range of urban parks (compilation of Kuttler (2010) after Bongardt (2006))
Legal Bases:
The regulatory possibilities named in Section 6.1.1 come into question here, as

their validity depends considerably on the need of urban development to fulfill


greening functions. The establishment according to 9 (1) 3 BauGB of minimum
sizes of property to be developed can work against an undesirable densification
of the built environment and soil capping.
A clause for the preservation of trees, shrubs, and water can be established in a
site plan for existing bodies of water and their plant cover ( 9 (1) 25.(b) BauGB).
Bodies of water can be depicted according to 5 (2) 7. BauGB in a land use plan
or confirmed according to 9 (1) 16. BauGB in a site plan.
In a site plan it can also be established that parking lots and garages outside of
coverable property areas can only be constructed underneath the surface ( 9 (1)
4 BauGB and 12 (4) BauNVO) or that they may not be constructed on noncoverable property areas ( 23 (5) BauNVO).
According to 19 (4) BauNVO, surfaces for parking lots and garages (including
underground garages) inclusive of their access roads are taken into account in
the determination of the permissible surface area. The BauNVO makes a limited
provision for possible exceptions for these types of structures. The municipality
will have to deal with the question of regulations deviating from this standard in
individual site plan processes, on the one hand to leave as much uncapped
surface area as possible, and on the other to preserve through concentrated
building and parking connected open spaces that are especially important for the
urban climate.
According to 74 (1) 3. of the State Building Ordinance (LBO), it is possible to
establish localized construction specifications for the design and usage of unbuilt
surfaces on developed property. According to this, further specifications for the
greening of construction sites and for parking areas can be reached. Rulings
according to 74 LBO can be decided upon together with the site plan.

6.1.4 Roof Greening

In addition to larger and smaller green spaces in the city, roof greening can also reduce urban
climatic deficits in relation to humidity and the thermal milieu (DEUTSCHER
DACHGRTNERVERBAND, 2011). There are also advantages to roof greening from the
perspective of building design. Roofs in cities and towns offer reserves of surfaces, largely
unused up until the present day, that can be employed for the creation of green spaces (Figure
6/5, Figure 6/5a and Figure 6/5b). While residential, office, and industrial buildings present
themselves for greening in built-up areas, garages and auxiliary buildings located in more
rural areas typically exhibit flat or low-angle (up to 15 degrees) roofs.

On these kinds of roofs it is almost always possible to install multiform vegetation at


comparatively small expense.
Although these roofs are not always actively useable, e.g. as greened seating spaces, greened
roofs in contrast with monotonous gravel, bitumen, or sheet metal surfaces can continually

improve the climate, filter pollutants, and save heating energy.


A measurable long-distance effect cannot be attributed to greened roof surfaces; however, the
effect of many small individual roofs in a city does add up significantly.
Climatic Effects
The positive thermal effects from roof greening are found predominantly in the reduction of
temperature extremes throughout the year (KOLB, 1989). Figure 6/6 shows an example of the
temperature characteristics of various construction materials for roof surfaces on a summer
day with intense sunlight.

While gravel roofs and black bitumen pasteboard heat up to between 50C and 80C, the
maximum temperatures on greened roofs amount to roughly 20C to 25C.
On clear winter nights the temperature of non-greened roofs can sink as low as -20C. The
annual fluctuation in temperature thus amounts to about 100 degrees. Greened roofs cool in
winter only to slightly below 0C, so that the annual fluctuation amounts to only 30 degrees.
In summer a large part of the sunlight that a green roof receives is converted to evaporate
water (cf. Chapter 2.4). The evaporation of 1 liter of water at normal air pressure requires
2,250 kJ without a rise in temperature. The same amount of energy, however, can heat 100 m3
of air by 18 degrees Celsius. Green roofs are altogether an effective measure for the protection

of underlying spaces against summer heat. In winter, the vegetation and the roof substrate
reduces the amount of escaping heat and thus increases the heat insulation of the building
below.

Effects on Water Resources


All open areas of vegetation are capable of storing surface water. According to the type of
vegetation, water from precipitation is retained for various durations in the upper layers and
then flows out, minus the amount lost in evaporation and transpiration. Table 6/2 below shows
the proportion of rainwater that is carried off by drainage (i.e. discharge factors).
80% to 100% of the precipitation on standard roofs is carried off by drainage, whereas the
amount is only 30% on green roofs. The remainder is released back into the air via
evaporation and thus contributes decisively to reducing the lack of humidity in the city that
results from soil capping. A further advantage of roof greening is the delayed release of
precipitation water, which substantially relieves the city drainage system and reduces the
danger of flooding (RNGELER, 1998).
The updated version of DIN 1986-100 "Drainage systems on private ground Specifications
in relation to DIN EN 752 and DIN EN 12056" from May 2008 contains all recent
requirements and approaches in the field of rainwater drainage. Thus it constitutes a compact
set of regulations for the planning and installation of drainage systems in Germany with all
major specifications for the practical use.

Type of the surface

Runoff coefficient

1) Waterproof surfaces
Roof surfaces/concrete surfaces/ramps

1,0

Compacted surfaces with joint sealing/bituminous


surfaces (asphalt)/paving with cast grout

1,0

Gravel roofs

0,5

Green roof surfaces for intensive/extensive


planting with a minimum system thickness of 10
cm

0,3

Green roof surfaces for extensive planting with a


maximum system thickness of 10 cm

0,5

2) Partially permeable and weakly


discharging surfaces
Concrete paving/paving stones laid in sand or
cinder

0,7

Paved surfaces, with a joint portion > 15 %, e.g. 10


0,6
cm x 10 cm and smaller
Water-bound surfaces

0,5

Playgrounds with partial pavement

0,3

Sports grounds with drainage (synthetic surfaces,


artificial turf)

0,6

Sports grounds with drainage (cinder fields)

0,4

Sports grounds with drainage (grass fields)

0,3

3) Water-permeable surfaces without or only


negligible water drainage
Parks and vegetation areas, gravel and cinder soil,
loose gravel, also with partial pavement

0,0

Garden paths with water-bound surface

0,0

Driveways with grass pavers

0,0

Table 6/2: Runoff coefficients of different surfaces, DIN 1986-100 (2008)


Sewer fees can also be fixed on the basis of these values, with graded categories depending on
the relief impacts for the urban drainage system. Such measures of indirect funding of existing
buildings can be complemented by direct subsidies (e.g. support programme for green roofs).
Thorough analyses and scientific proofs for the efficiency of green roofs in regard to ecology,
building physics and urban development suggest that the measure should be more strongly
recommended. The German Association of Roof Gardeners ( Deutscher Dachgrtnerverband )

provides a brochure on this topic and further information on the Internet


(http://www.dachgaertnerverband.de).
Legal Bases
According to 74 (3) 2. of the State Building Ordinance (LBO), municipalities enact a statue
for the entire municipal area or a portion thereof requiring that facilities for retaining
precipitation water must be constructed in order to relieve drainage systems, avoid danger of
flooding, and preserve water resources. Even though aspects of water efficiency are of
primary concern here, measures of this type also work against soil capping and its
disadvantageous climatic consequences.
Roof greening can be established as legally binding in a site plan. The roof form (flat roof) is
based on 74 LBO and the greening on 9 (1) 25 BauGB, which empowers the municipality
to require planting on parts of built facilities.
As with every other regulation, this can only be implemented after fair consideration of all
affected interests ( 1 (6) BauGB). To be considered, for example, are fire protection,
humidity and corrosion protection, and the costs of the planting inclusive of potentially higher
construction costs resulting from the additional burden on the roof. These must be
incorporated in the reasoning for the site plan.
Following are examples for these types of regulations:
"Greened flat roof; the roof surfaces are to be planted and maintained with a dirt layer of at
least 40 cm. Exceptions can be made for light fixtures, glass sections, and terraces, if these
serve the building"s purpose of use and are subordinated ( 9 (1) 25. BauGB)."
or:
"Flat roofs (0 to 15 degrees inclination) are to be planted over a proportion of at least 60% of
the roof surface with the exception of surfaces for technical roof systems with a substrate
layer of at least 8 cm of grasses, soil-covering plants, and wild herbs, and are to be so
maintained ( 9 (1) 25. BauGB). Exceptions for solar energy facilities can be allowed."
Regulations for roof greening can also be issued as localized construction specifications
according to 74 (1) 1. LBO.
The regulatory possibilities for defining the purposes, placement, and design of roof surfaces
and facilities according to the design specifications of the LBO also support the goal of
erecting solar energy apparatuses (in the form of collectors or photovoltaic devices) when
these are intended for long-term effective use (BUNZEL et al., 1997).
Conflicts between the use of solar energy and roof greening are not expected as the roof

inclination for the solar use is steeper than that for the greening.
The combination of a greened flat/pitched roof and a roof-mounted photovoltaic plant,
however, could actually be advantageous: As the efficiency of solar cells depends on the
temperature and can be decreased by the strong midday heat in summer, the strategic placing
of a photovoltaic plant could cool down the roof and thus increase the power output.
But the scientific proof for this correlation is yet to be delivered. What needs to be ensured is
the water supply and sufficient light/insolation for the plants below the modules. The demands
for vegetation below photovoltaic modules should be changed from full-sun to all-purpose
plants. The total number of species on photovoltaic roofs will rise through the growing
number of possible locations. This makes tending inevitable, e.g. the quick removal of plants
which grow too high. Figure 6/7 shows a successful example of a green roof installed on a
solar plant in Dresden.

6.1.5 Faade Greening

The greening of faades does not result exclusively for reasons of climate and building design
but also from reasons of aesthetics. For example, a faade overgrown with wild vines reflects
the individual seasons in the changing colors of its leaves (Figure. 6/8).

Climbing plants are best suited for faade greening. These are to be distinguished between
those that grow by clinging (e.g. ivy, climbing hydrangea), by twining (e.g. honeysuckle,

hops), by sending out tendrils (e.g. clematis, grapevines), and those that require artificial
support (e.g. climbing rose, blackberry vines). The advantage of climbing plants is that the
use of a small horizontal ground surface can yield a large amount of biomass. Table 6/3 gives
an overview of multi-year climbing plants and their characteristics. The professional
association "Bauwerksbegrnung e.V."
(www.fbb.de/fassadenbegruenung/pflanzenlisten/pflanzen-bodengebundene-begruenung) or
at GUNKEL (2004) are also found extensive recommendations and choices according to
various criteria.

Climatic Effects

Faade greening exhibits the following positive attributes:

Improvement of heat insulation via an air cushion between the building


and its surroundings

Decrease in heat loss via wind braking

Decrease in heat loss via changes in radiation (i.e. sunlight) conditions

Transformation of wind energy to heat

Cooling effect via evaporation as well as absorption and reflection of


sunshine by leaves

Production of humidity via evaporation

Protection of the faade from strong temperatures, UV rays, and hard rains

Studies such as those carried out by KIESSL and RATH (1989) have produced the
following results (Figure 6/10):

Radiation burden from the sun:


A faade fully covered by greening is protected from intense solar radiation in
summer and can reflect or absorb in its leaf cover between 40% and 80% of the
received radiation, depending on the amount and type of greening. If it is so
desired that solar radiation reaches the outer wall in winter (cf. Chapter 3),

climbing plants that lose their leaves in winter must be used (e.g. wild
grapevines, Figute 6/8).
Wind conditions:
The leaf cover of a green faade changes substantially the airflow conditions on
the outer surface of the building. A dense greening produces a calm air cushion
next to the outer wall, where the average wind velocity rests below 0.5 m/s.
Surface temperatures:
The leaf cover changes the balance of radiation at the outer wall. The
corresponding air cushion and evaporation also produce a change in the thermal
conditions. On sunny summer days the daily temperature amplitude of a greened
wall is reduced by up to 30 degrees Celsius in comparison with a non-greened
wall. In winter the surface temperature of a wall covered with evergreen plants
stays about 2 degrees higher than a non-greened wall. On average, surface
temperatures in summer are 1 to 2 degrees lower for greened walls, depending
on the orientation of the wall.
Heat loss:
A faade with a fully-developed, dense growth of evergreen plants exhibits a
reduction in heat loss of roughly 6%. This underscores the critical point that a
green faade contributes to heating insulation but does not replace an optimal
structural insulation!
Air humidity inside the greening:
Changes in air humidity from greening are as a rule less than may be generally
expected. Air humidity is between 2% and 8% lower in winter and between 4%
and 20% higher in summer versus a non-greened wall.
Hard rains:
Green faades represent an effective protection against hard rains. A fullydeveloped leaf cover reduces the load of driving rain on an exterior wall to zero.
In general it is to be noted that faade greening improves the microclimatic
conditions around a building itself; however, no long-distance effects are to be
expected.
Problems are also frequently mentioned in connection with faade greening,
especially building humidity and wall damage. In response, the above-mentioned
studies found no disadvantageous effect of humidity, but rather spoke of a
humidity protection effect on building components via the protection against rain
provided by the green cover. Damages from greening are as a rule not to be

expected in the presence of intact brickwork and plaster. To what extent a


problem can arise for tall buildings from the large biomass required to cover its
exterior (i.e. weight on the faade) has not yet been conclusively researched.
More information about the various possibilities of outfitting buildings with
modern growing techniques, offers the "Handbook Bauwerksbegrnung "
(KHLER, ANSEL et al., 2012).
Legal Bases
The controlled greening of building facades has a so far neglected significance for
the sustainable, ecological and socio-economic development of towns and cities.
But this also entails problems with regard to spatial planning, road traffic and
liability legislation and requires regulations concerning the sovereign designation
and administrative agreement on the greening of facades (Chilla, T., 2002).
Faade greening can be established as legally binding in a site plan in the same
manner as roof greening and under the same conditions (cf. Chapter 6.1.4).
Example for this type of regulation:
"A third of the faade surface is to be greened. Technically founded exceptions
can be allowed ( 9 (1) 25 BauGB)."
The option of decreeing localized (i.e. related to building law) construction
specifications for the exterior design of structural features according to 74 (1)
LBO remains unchanged.
6.2 Securing the Local Air Exchange

Surfaces with strong nightly cooling (dependent upon the type of soil, plant growth, and
extent of built uses) or with large "relief energy" (dependent upon slope inclination, slope
form, and surface layout) contribute to the production of local thermally-induced wind
systems. In connection with the local air exchange, the topographical conditions do not
merely exert a passive effect on wind flow through braking, diversion, or canalization. Much
more so, under low-wind weather conditions they take a substantially more active role.
Therefore it is proper to speak of "climatic surfaces" in view of their associated balancing
effects on climate and ecology.
The term "climatically active surfaces" refers to both the thermal and the topographical
requirements of the local air exchange and thus refers to the entire system of cold air
production areas and fresh air corridors. The resultant air exchange processes are based on the
typically nightly temperature differentials between neighboring areas. According to the spatial
size, these are termed as "cold air flows", "slope winds", or "mountain winds." "Corridor
winds" are also referred to where they occur at the edge of large cities (KUTTLER, 1993) (cf.
Chapter 4.3.2).

6.2.1 Cold Air Production

Proportional to their size, green open spaces that is, meadows, fields, fallow land, and
cultivated areas with low vegetation cover produce 10 to 12 m3 of cold air per square meter
per hour as a result of their nightly cooling. When the cold air does not flow elsewhere, this
raises the upper boundary of the cold air layer by 0.2 m per minute. Thus a cold air layer 12
meters thick can arise in the span of an hour. The high cold-air productivity of green open
space is connected with the characteristic that cold air flowing away from these areas is only
slightly constrained by flow hindrances.
Forest areas likewise function as nightly cold air producers. A forest will cool a larger volume
of air than an equivalent area of open space; however, the air does not reach the low
temperatures of the open space. The upper surface of the canopy in a deciduous or evergreen
forest shields the forest floor from the atmosphere, so that the central layer of the forest is
neither as strongly heated during the day nor cools as much during the night as the layer of air
above an open area. This balancing effect on the daily variation of air temperature allows
forests near urban areas to produce cold air during the day as well for the benefit of the
developed area. Forest areas on northern and eastern slopes, which are subject to lesser sun
exposure, are especially favorable for daily cooling.
Legal Bases
The graphical and regulatory options discussed in Chapter 6.1.1 come into consideration here
in principle. The establishment of areas for agriculture or forests must make sure that landand forest-related economic interests are dealt with. Areas in construction sites to be kept free
of development, as a rule, can only be established for reasons of urban planning. These
include the layout of the local and landscape images, the securing of views on slopes, and the
requirements of sufficient ventilation. The concretely-established land use on these areas is
then directed towards the respective urban development purpose.
6.2.2 Fresh Air Supply

When cold-air production areas lie in or near the catchment areas of valleys and vales leading
to developed areas, natural paths for the supply of fresh cold air are thereby provided, since
cooler air continually flows towards lower topographical areas. The intensity of flow depends
upon the size of the catchment area, the angle of slope inclination, the width of the valley, and
the degree of freedom from obstruction. Cleaner fresh air can only be supplied by local air
flows when the environment (in the form of the surrounding area and larger parks in cities) is
intact and not excessively burdened by pollution.
Potential hindrances for cold air flow include: Narrowed sections of valleys, dams, noise
protection barriers or walls, rows of trees perpendicular to valley alignment, and blockages
from larger buildings or entirely enclosed urban structures. Cold air stalls when it encounters
hindrances; its temperature drops strongly and air exchange is reduced in the area in front of
and behind the hindrance (leading to danger of early or late frost or strengthened fog

production). It is mostly the emanation of heat above built-up areas that leads to a reduction in
the range and effect of cold air flow.
Also to be considered under this aspect are sections of road that run in the direction of cold air
flow, even when they can be favored as hindrance-free corridors for air exchange near the
ground. In the case of roads perpendicular to valley alignment, the thermal behavior of the
narrow strip of road plays a subordinated role, whereby the hindrance effect of relief-altering
measures (e.g. road dams and noise protection edifices) dominates.
Cross-municipal planning must take care that regional cold-air production areas can fulfill
their special function. This includes the restriction of development on open areas and, where
necessary, artificial foresting.
As long as slopes angled towards a city are already forested or foreseen for forestation, a
sufficiently large surface in each case is to be kept open between the edge of the forest and the
built-up area in order to ensure the daytime flow of especially valuable cold air out from the
forest.
Valleys and other gorge-like features important for the supply of fresh air are to be maintained
as fresh-air corridors and should be kept free of development to a particularly large extent.
Perpendicular-standing buildings in lower valley areas represent a substantial hindrance.
Large changes of elevation in the lengthwise profile of a valley are also to be avoided. Groups
and rows of trees perpendicular to valley alignment are likewise obstructive for air exchange
near the ground. As far as necessary in individual cases, a hindrance of the cold air flow can
be overcome by thinning or clearing these trees. If necessary, a desired change in air flow
direction can be accomplish by foresting in the shape of a cork at a different location. Urban
structures should not intrude into valleys.
Legal Bases
The reservation of fresh air corridors can be secured through corresponding land use
depictions and regulations in zoning codes and plans (e.g. as green spaces, sport and
recreation facilities, or areas for agriculture). The establishment of minimum sizes for
building lots ( 9 (1) 3. BauGB) along the lines of Chapter 6.1.3 can also support the
ventilation of an area.
In the explanatory report accompanying a land use plan ( 5 (5) BauGB) or in the basis for a
site plan ( 9 (8) BauGB), the local climatic importance of the affected areas to provision of
fresh air for developed locales is particularly to be addressed.

6.2.3 Green Corridors

In addition to the importance of green spaces for reserving fresh air corridors, their function
as dividing elements in the developed landscape must be given special consideration. The
effectiveness and expansiveness of green spaces go hand in hand. Sufficient proportions of
green space have a climate-regulating function. In general, the provision of meadows with a
thin cover of trees and shrubs is especially favorable.
Green belts are particularly suited for the separation of residential areas from emitting
industrial and commercial areas as well as heavily-trafficked roads. They function as spacers,
aid air exchange, and dilute air pollution (cf. Chapter 6.3.3). In addition, similar to a filter
they hold back powdery pollutants. Green breaks do not only represent a dividing element of
urban design, they also signify interruptions in the heat islands characteristic to built-up areas,
which supports small-scale air exchange processes between the city sections they divide and
between areas with differing temperatures.
Legal Bases
From an urban climate perspective, the realization of a sensible arrangement of built and
unbuilt (green) spaces requires a coordinated interlinking of landscape plans / land-use plans
and open-space control plans / site plans (cf. Chapter 6.1.1). Climatic and air-hygiene maps
represent as described in Chapter 5 an indispensable technical basis in this regard.

6.2.4 Advantageous Forms of Development

Arrangement of Urban Bodies


In order for air to flow into and ventilate a city even under weak wind conditions, urban areas
should not exhibit too large of a used surface area or building density. Development along the
city periphery must not create a blocking belt of structures; it should rather be structured in a
loose, open form.
Hillside Development
For cities in valley and basin topographies, the type and extent of hillside development is of
great importance for the urban climate. Development along hillsides should, when impossible
to avoid entirely, take place with a measurably low amount of land use, preserving
proportionally large unbuilt surfaces and with large distances kept between the individual
buildings. Linear development parallel to the hillside creates a substantial hindrance for slope
winds. More favorable is linear development vertically down the hillside; although
admittedly, this hinders winds running parallel to the slope. Ventilation corridors oriented
vertically down the hillside should be kept absolutely open, whereby connected open spaces
are to be preferred over spacing areas strewn about and often sealed. Fundamentally, hillside
development should remain low and not exceed the height of natural hindrances (e.g. tree
heights) in order to ensure favorable flow conditions near the ground. Especially on flatter
slopes, point-like development with large green and open spaces helps good ventilation and
cold-air production.
Southern slopes are especially attractive for residences. As can be seen in Figure 6/27,
development on southerly hillsides is advantageous for energy-saving reasons. In such a
planning decision, however, the topographic and climatic aspects referenced above should not
be ignored. The development concept resulting from an energy-conscious planning should as
a rule not conflict with the interests of the local climate. An example is the decision that
narrow valleys, hollows, and cold-air lakes are unfavorable for development under any
conditions.

Skyscrapers
With a massing of skyscrapers or buildings that tower substantially above their surroundings,
the local wind conditions are altered so that the free wind flow is reduced by increased
eddying (that is, increase in the vertical wind component at the expense of horizontal wind
velocity). From this, a reduction in the wind ventilation of an urban area can result in spite of
increased local ventilation or wind turbulence. An extensive higher zone of urban
development also has the disadvantageous effect that chimney exhausts of existing buildings
are no longer released into the open wind and thus the local air pollution increases despite an
unchanged pollution rate. The vertical dimensions of every development should therefore be

adapted to the conditions of their surroundings. The planning of skyscrapers requires great
care in order to avoid aerodynamically undesired side effects and uncomfortable windy areas.
Model studies in wind tunnels (cf. Chapter 4.2) have proven themselves useful in this respect.
In the Chapter 3.4.3 you can find hints to the unfavorable nature in energie consumption
because they reach zones with higher wind speed and the malfunction ratio between surface
and volume.
Legal Bases
For securing a healthy urban climate, site plans especially in areas important for the
ventilation of a city should contain comprehensive regulations. Site plans should, when they
establish areas for construction, fulfill the requirements of 30 (1) BauGB in every case. The
measure of building use is to be established by the floor-area ratio (FAR) and the height of the
built facilities (HbA) ( 16 (3) BauNVO). Coverable property areas are to be thoroughly
verified. Larger options for the ordering of buildings that, along with a corresponding
establishment of the development borders, can make the entire property coverable, must not
be introduced to climatically critical zones. Regulations for the placement of buildings and
structures as well as for the (usually variable) building methods ( 9 (1) 2. BauGB) will
typically be necessary. In order to secure a defined spacing in development, the minimum size
of building lots can also be regulated ( (1) 3. BauGB).
These tools of planning law can also be employed in the interests of a compact building
method with optimized spacing, layout, and equipping of buildings, thereby saving energy.
Larger areas that are suited (because of location, soil quality and extent) to agricultural use
and that should be kept free of development can be reserved as surfaces for agriculture ( 9
(1) 18.(a) BauGB). If they are not suited accordingly but a reservation is nevertheless
considered advantageous, their establishment as green spaces ( 9 (1) 15. BauGB) or as
surfaces to be kept free of development and other uses (e.g. allotments) can be considered.
Parking lots, garages, and their access roads on properties can also be regulated ( 9 (1) 4.
BauGB). If necessary, their declaration as communal resource ( 9 (1) 22. BauGB) can be
enacted. For construction sites or portions thereof that are declared as communal parking lots
or garages, the allowance of parking lots and garages on individual properties are to be
excluded ( 12 (6) BauNVO). As far as necessary, plantings are to be installed (both in the
building area and on traffic surfaces, green spaces, etc.) ( 9 (1) 25 BauGB).

6.3 Measures for Air Pollution Control

A significant improvement of the urban climate can be achieved by reducing emissions and
thus the pollution of the air. Traffic planning and energy supply strategies on the municipal
level are particular suitable to influence the emission of pollutants. What plays another

important role is the condition and provision of municipal buildings, also in their function as a
role model for private building owners.
At the other end of the causal chain of "emission (release) transmission (dispersal)
immission (effect or influence)", a proper planning reaction to recognized and accurately
evaluated immissions situations can reduce the extent of their effects.
The third pillar of planning-related air pollution controls relates to the link between emissions
and immissions: The temporal and spatial variation in air pollution for a given pollution
source depends upon the meteorological conditions that influence dispersal. To what extent
the built environment exerts an influence here is dealt with in Chapter2. The consideration
of dispersal climatology is not only necessary in relation to proper choices of location for
industrial development, but also for other emitting land uses such as garbage incinerators,
trash dumps, water purification plants, and for the construction of new roads. Special location
decisions are essential for facilities particularly sensitive to immissions (e.g. hospitals,
swimming pools, recreational areas, elderly homes).
Planning law and pollution control law exhibit numerous idiosyncrasies and complications
that must be considered in urban planning. Thus it is inconceivable that regulations for
immissions control in a site plan could completely replace the standardized requirements of
pollution protection law.
6.3.1 Industrial and Commercial Areas

Pollution Control Law and Building Law


On the basis of the responsible party principle anchored in federal pollution protection law,
the individual emitting facility is the focus of measures for air pollution control, the most
significant element of which is the pollution permitting process.
In relation to the permissible level of pollution in the area affected by a facility seeking a
permit, the "Technical Guideline for Air Pollution Control" (the first general administrative
specification under federal pollution control law, also known as "TA Luft") makes concrete
requirements for consideration of the surrounding area, but from an urban development
perspective does not distinguish between levels of required protection for areas affected by
pollutant immissions. In contrast to noise protection practices, the immission (threshold)
values in TA Luft are thus equally valid for all types of construction sites in accordance with
1 (2) BauNVO.
The compatibility of an emitting facility with its surrounding area results solely from the
validity of the permitting process under building law, in accordance with the Federal Building
Use Ordinance (BauNVO) and the corresponding regulations of the site plan.
An area"s level of justified protection is measured by what is allowable in that area under

planning law. To that extent, the existing classification of types of construction sites in 2
to 10 of the BauNVO also contain a progressive ranking of immissions controls
corresponding to the respective land use of a site. This relates to the sensitivity of the
allowable land uses to both emissions and immissions.
According to 15 (3) BauNVO, the permissibility of facilities in construction sites should
be evaluated on more than just the process guidelines of the Federal Pollution Control Law
(BImSchG) and the ordinances developed from it. Rather, it is noted that facilities requiring a
permit under pollution control law can also be located outside of industrial areas, depending
on the individual case. The typical view assumes that 4 of the BImSchG allows permitrequiring facilities (typically manufacturing or other productive enterprises) without
restriction only in industrial areas, whereas commercial areas and mixed-use areas are to be
reserved for facilities not requiring permits.
Of particular note is the option foreseen under 1 (4) BauNVO of dividing a construction
site according to the types of permissible uses as well as the type of enterprises and facilities
and their particular requirements and characteristics. This option of division can be employed
to prevent the locating of air-polluting enterprises in special locations (e.g. in air exchange
corridors or transient areas to other uses important for the urban climate), even in an industrial
area. This corresponds to recognized principles of urban planning that fundamentally forbid
the creation of new problem situations in the planning of new development.

Heating system

Pollutants CO2
SO2
NOx
CO
Staub
g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh

Fuel oil - Low temperature boiler

371

750

266

215

34

Natural gas - Low temperature boiler

295

179

234

166

10

Natural gas - Condensing boiler

252

154

200

145

Electric heating, 100 % coal-based electricity

1075

1056

525

246

26

Electric heating, 85 % coal-based electricity

968

980

494

232

27

Electronic heat pump Air, 100 % coal

342

347

178

115

12

Electronic heat pump Ground, 100 % coal

288

294

152

104

11

Electronic heat pump Water, 100 % coal

270

277

144

101

11

Natural gas CHP, small

-97

-82

400

383

12

Biogas CHP, small

-411

855

1365

1183

166

Wood pellet firings

83

847

1020

2709

317

Solar panels + wood heating system

30

469

269

15901

196

Wood heating, firewood

15

401

272

14120

276

Stove, firewood

24

335

142

12130

298

weather conditions the highest levels of pollutant concentration arise in the presence of weak
or no winds (east through southeast wind directions). Average annual dispersal calculations
therefore show a maximum level of proximate immissions primarily northwesterly from a
pollutant emitter. The old rule of urban development concerning the main wind direction thus
with the noted restriction remains valid.
6.3.2 Home Heating
An important factor for the reduction of emissions on behalf of air pollution control and
climate protection is the type of energy supply and of the selected fuels.
Table 6/4 gives a summary of the specific pollutant emissions of various heating systems used
in the field of domestic heating and small businesses. Natural gas turns out to be the
"cleanest" fuel with regard to conventional pollutants. In the climate protection sector, it is
only topped in what is carbon dioxide emissions by wood heating systems, which, however,
are characterised by high pollutant emissions. A good alternative by the current state of
scientific knowledge are natural gas mini-CHPs. Thanks to the conversion/modernisation of
heating systems, air quality in German towns and cities, especially in the new Lnder, could
be fundamentally improved through the decrease of the sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and
dust particle concentrations. Carbon dioxide emissions must now be significantly reduced
through the maximisation of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources.

Emissions reduction
9 (1) 23. BauGB offers a regulatory option for direct emissions reduction in site plans:
Areas can be established in a site plan in which the use of defined air-polluting substances can
be limited or forbidden in order to protect against harmful environmental effects in the sense
of the BImSchG.
This regulation, known as a "burning prohibition" for fossil fuels (especially coal), requires a
reasoned urban development interest in the securing of spatial usage qualities at less-thandangerous pollution limits. For example, the limiting or elimination of light heating oil may
not result from its sulfur content. It must also be shown that the forbidden or restricted fuels
substantially contaminate the air.
The establishment of a burning prohibition presupposes, as does every other regulation, its
own necessity in the sense of planning law. Incidentally, climatic and topographic
characteristics (e.g. the existence of fresh-air corridors) can provide a sufficient reason for a
burning prohibition.
In view of the possible limitation on the use of air-polluting fuels, the air-hygienic equal
weighting of natural gas and heating oil can be created by a corresponding textual regulation
in a site plan. This can establish values for limiting the emission of pollutants that, if
necessary, can also be reached via measures for reducing heating energy needs (modern
heating systems or strengthened insulation for outer walls). These regulations in their entirety
thus define the "limited use."
Energy efficiency ( production , use, and construction ) and renewable energy
After the revision through the Act on the Promotion of Climate Protection ( Gesetz zur
Frderung des Klimaschutzes , see Chapter 1), 9 (1) no. 23 b) of the Federal Building Code
provides the opportunity to designate areas in which, at the installation of buildings or other
construction works, particular building or other technical measures are obligatory as for the
production, use or storage of electricity, heat or cold from renewable energy sources or
combined heat and power systems. As to the options provided by the Renewable Energy Heat
Act ( Erneuerbare-Energien-Wrmegesetz , EEWrmeG 2008), the question arises whether it
would be justified in urban development terms to designate a particular form of renewable
energies. In individual cases, there certainly exist justified reasons to do so, especially as the
Climate Protection amendment disconfirms the previous practice justifying designations only
with regard to locally confined features.
The urban development contract as a legal instrument according to 11 of the Federal
Building Code also provides extended regulation options with regard to energetic issues, in
analogy to the designation options. Besides technical regulations on the decentral and central
production, distribution, use and storage of electricity, heat or cold from renewable energy
sources or combined heat and power systems, it is thus possible to formulate requirements
(even beyond the Energy Saving Ordinance from 2009) on the energetic quality of buildings.
As before, the designation of areas required for supply facilities and lines is carried out on the
basis of 9 (1) nos. 12 and 13 of the Federal Building Code.
Renewable Heat Law in Baden-Wuerttemberg

Energy efficiency ( production , use, and construction ) and renewable energy


After the revision through the Act on the Promotion of Climate Protection ( Gesetz zur
Frderung des Klimaschutzes , see Chapter 1), 9 (1) no. 23 b) of the Federal Building Code
provides the opportunity to designate areas in which, at the installation of buildings or other
construction works, particular building or other technical measures are obligatory as for the
production, use or storage of electricity, heat or cold from renewable energy sources or
combined heat and power systems. As to the options provided by the Renewable Energy Heat
Act ( Erneuerbare-Energien-Wrmegesetz , EEWrmeG 2008), the question arises whether it
would be justified in urban development terms to designate a particular form of renewable
energies. In individual cases, there certainly exist justified reasons to do so, especially as the
Climate Protection amendment disconfirms the previous practice justifying designations only
with regard to locally confined features.
The urban development contract as a legal instrument according to 11 of the Federal
Building Code also provides extended regulation options with regard to energetic issues, in
analogy to the designation options. Besides technical regulations on the decentral and central
production, distribution, use and storage of electricity, heat or cold from renewable energy
sources or combined heat and power systems, it is thus possible to formulate requirements
(even beyond the Energy Saving Ordinance from 2009) on the energetic quality of buildings.
As before, the designation of areas required for supply facilities and lines is carried out on the
basis of 9 (1) nos. 12 and 13 of the Federal Building Code.
Renewable Heat Law in Baden-Wuerttemberg
After the new law in Baden-Wuerttemberg, (in vigor 1.1.2008) must the heat supply with new
buildings (starting from 1 April 2008) to at least 20 percent over renewable energies such as
solar power, terrestrial heat and heat pumps or biomass be generated. This can be mostly
already achieved by means of a solarthermal plant on the roof.
For existing buildings starting from 2010 a portion of regenerativ energies of ten percent is
prescribed, which must be fulfilled whenever it comes for the change of the heating system.
As a substitute the obligation can be fulfilled by an improved energetic insulation. The goal is
to reduce the output from greenhouse gases. Also other ways like Power-heat-coupling to
reduce greenhouse gases are accredited.
6.3.3 Traffic

Traffic Planning
Traffic planning measures such as the exclusion of through traffic from residential areas,
bypass roads to relieve encumbered thoroughfares, speed limits, and support of public transit
or of the bicycle and pedestrian traffic all contribute to the reduction of air pollution.
The connection between speed limits and emissions produced by vehicles is dealt with in
Chapter 2.8.2.
Figure 6/31 emphasizes the criteria for traffic-calmed urban zones; namely, the bundled
functioning of primary streets with bordering, shielding buildings and subterranean parking

enclosures.

Since limitations of building use are to be expected in the vicinity of heavily-trafficked roads,
the planning or the corresponding site plan establishment of roads with traffic counts higher
than 10,000 vehicles/hour requires a report on the exhaust immissions level for the areas near
the road. The tools available for immissions prognoses are explained in Chapter 4.3.3 to 4.3.6.
Evaluation of Exhaust Immissions Levels
For the evaluation of calculated pollution levels on roads and their nearby areas, the previous
pollution levels as well as the intended uses in the vicinity of the road are important. In the
case of a planning situation in an existing central-city traffic network, one may come to a
different evaluation than in the case of a planning situation for a new residential area and
roads for instance in the course of a future local bypass.
Especially in the case of a new planning of residential areas, the precautionary values set by
the WHO should be used for an evaluation (cf. Chapter 2.9). What needs to be considered at
any rate during the weighting of the authorisation of residential uses which are to be
preserved or developed especially in special residential areas and welcome in core areas to
revitalise the city are the limit values defined within the 39th Federal Immission Control
Ordinance with regard to the required planning measures.
In practice, a graded way of proceeding has often proved itself, i.e. that the exceeding of
precautionary values leads to a planning reaction (a marking within the legally binding landuse plan plus an individual measure). Exceeded immission limit values from the 39th Federal
Immission Control Ordinance (Ordinance on air quality standards and emission maximums)
can still flow into the weighting process as serious air quality results in the context of
development planning. This means that limit value exceedances in a planning area are
possible in well-founded cases. But this must entail a presentation of possible measures to
improve the situation (also outside the planning area). A decision in favour of a future
residential use may be doubted under these conditions as the exceedance of limit values
generally questions healthy living conditions in these areas for reasons of health protection.
Apart from that, clean air/action plans must always be established when limit values
according to the 39th Federal Immission Control Ordinance are exceeded.

Immissions-Reducing Influences
The pollutant concentrations caused by traffic typically decrease strongly with increasing
distance from a road. This reduction is also the case (with conditions) for nitrogen dioxide.
Since the noise pollution from a road also decreases with distance, sensitive uses (e.g.
residential, recreation, etc.) should be secured with corresponding protective distances so that
both the noise protection requirements and the immissions criteria from the 39th BImSchG
are maintained as minimum requirements.
In street canyons with buildings lining the road, there is no possibility for protective distances.
Immissions protection mechanisms such as noise protection barriers and walls as well as
dense plantings are quite effective remedies against exhaust pollution. Enclosed peripheral
development produces a substantial reduction in pollution on the side of the buildings facing
away from the street as well as in the area behind the buildings. As a rule, lower pollution
levels are also present near the upper floors of peripheral buildings compared with the lower.
Vegetation as a means of immission control
The reduction of pollutants through trees and bushes results from the plants" mechanical filter
effect (gravity separation), which is particularly effective for powdery or droplet pollutants, as
well as from a modification of the wind field. Figure 6/32 depicts the recommended
combination of deciduous trees and conifers.

However, recent studies show that, on sunny days with high temperatures, biogenic isoprene
constitutes an important ozone precursor substance in urban areas. As stable high-pressure
weather situations in summer must be expected more frequently in future due to the effects of
global climate change, tree types which emit no isoprene should be preferred for new or
replacement plantings.
The influence of plantings on the improvement of the immissions situation with pollutants on
roads thereby distinguishes itself from the possibility of reducing sound levels with vegetation

along roads (STAEDTEBAULICHE LAERMFIBEL, 2013).


Legal Bases (Pollution Control)
According to 9 (1) 24. BauGB, a site plan can establish "protected areas to be kept free of
development, areas for special facilities and precautions for protection from harmful
environmental effects in the sense of the Federal Pollution Control Law, as well as for
protection from such effects, or for avoidance or reduction of such effects from built and other
technical precautions."
According to 9 (5) 1. BauGB, areas should be denoted in a site plan whose development
would require special built precautions against external effects.
Example of a regulation in accordance with 9 (1) 24. BauGB:
"In the areas denoted with IM", recreation areas for residences are only allowed if they are
ventilated exclusively from the side of the building facing away from the street."
Another example regulation:
"MK3: Core area in accordance with 7 BauNVO; residences are permitted above the fourth
floor ( 7 (2) 7. BauNVO)."
Notation:
If conflict management regarding design in individual planning processes can be carried out,
it can be possible to denote areas whose development would require precautions against
traffic noise and vehicle exhaust emissions in accordance with 9 (5) BauGB.
6.4 Planning-Related Urban Climate Studies

Air-hygienic and meteorological studies can provide significant support to solutions to


planning problems. Meteorological measurements as well as the other study methods
introduced in Chapter 4 require appropriate operational timeframes. Thus a series of
stationary climatic measurements should include each meteorological season, thereby
comprising at least one year. Beyond that, there is also the time needed for evaluating the
results. Various time requirements come into consideration for other methods, such as the time
for model construction (wind tunnel), waiting for suitable weather conditions (tracer gas
studies; ambulatory measurements), the obtaining of permission for access to the study area or
for setting up measurement instruments, as well as the preparation of useable maps or
databases for model calculations.
To avoid urban planning delays due to outstanding expert opinions, the necessity of planningrelated studies should be determined as early as possible. If basic data on the local climate
was systematically collected in time, processing timeframes can usually be reduced
significantly. A further big advantage is that climate and air quality maps provide information

on site-related restrictions and thus on the climatic relevance of the project even in the run-up
to planning. Many cities have already carried out urban climate studies. These studies become
inevitable also in the context of climate change adaptation strategies (see Chapter 2.11.3).
Generally, only very small local changes of the climate arise from building measures. When
considered separately, the change caused by a specific measure is close to detection limit and
falls within the natural spatial and temporal fluctuation range of climatic parameters. The
reference to the total climatic effect on existing buildings does not admit to the irrelevance of
planning but constitutes a perfectly appropriate argument with regard to the real features of
urban climate. Small-scale climatic changes as a result of a change of use are only relevant for
spatial planning when they can be used for the evaluation, like a "favourable" or
"unfavourable" note.
As there is no universally valid evaluation of climate, it can often be hard to judge whether a
particular planning project will have negative climatic impacts or not. As practice shows,
expert opinions are often required for very specific issues, like profit cuts at frost-sensitive
specialised crops from stagnant cold air. Another frequent reason for neighbourhood
complaints is the depreciation of a property due to interferences from the neighbourhood or
the "theft" of light, air and sun. The following meteorological disciplines can contribute their
expert opinion to find a settlement for disputes:

Human biometeorology (for questions of thermal stress, pedestrian


disturbances through draughtiness, cooling strains, air pollution)

Agricultural meteorology (for cultivation conditions for specialised crops)

Technical climatology (for questions of technical safety, wind and snow


loads, forma-tion of black ice, frequency of fogs, dimensioning of sewer
systems and rainwater catchment basins, heating requirements, the best
location for power supply installa-tions, the use of alternative renewable
energies)

Immissions climatology (for questions of the dispersion of pollutants and


its technical evaluation)

The implementation of the "Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)" in Germany as


required by the EU introduced a new way of handling environmental and thus climatic
concerns in urban land use planning. As a consequence, the SEA was integrated into the
Federal Building Code (as what is called "Environmental Impact Assessment", EIA) through
the European Law Adaptation Act for the Construction Sector on 24 June 2004 (it came into
effect on 20 July 2004, Federal Law Gazette I p. 1359). This legal regulation lays down the
necessity to draw up an individual environmental report for regional planning projects,
connected with the corresponding studies if required.
Climate protection and climate adaptation are further enhanced through the amendments and
regulations added to the Federal Building Code through the Act on the Promotion of Climate
Protection in Town and Municipal Development ( Gesetz zur Frderung des Klimaschutzes