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HCIE-R&S Exercise Guide


Chapter 1 RIP Hands-on Exercise Guide...................................................................................... 4
Overview ................................................................................................................................... 4
Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 4
Tasks .......................................................................................................................................... 4
Topology .................................................................................................................................... 5
IP Address Table ........................................................................................................................ 5
Configuration and Verification .................................................................................................. 6
Questions ................................................................................................................................ 14
Configuration List .................................................................................................................... 14
Chapter 2 OSPF Hands-on Exercise Guide ................................................................................ 20
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 20
Objectives................................................................................................................................ 21
Tasks ........................................................................................................................................ 21
Topology .................................................................................................................................. 22
IP Address Table ...................................................................................................................... 22
Configuration and Verification ................................................................................................ 23
Questions ................................................................................................................................ 32
Configuration List .................................................................................................................... 33
Chapter 3 IS-IS Hands-on Exercise Guide ................................................................................. 42
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 42
Objectives................................................................................................................................ 43
Tasks ........................................................................................................................................ 43
Topology .................................................................................................................................. 44
IP Address Table ...................................................................................................................... 44
Configuration and Verification ................................................................................................ 45
Questions ................................................................................................................................ 53
Configuration List .................................................................................................................... 53
Chapter 4 BGP Basics Hands-on Exercise Guide ....................................................................... 62
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 62
Objectives................................................................................................................................ 62
Tasks ........................................................................................................................................ 62
Topology .................................................................................................................................. 63
IP Address Table ...................................................................................................................... 63
Configuration and Verification ................................................................................................ 64
Questions ................................................................................................................................ 70
Configuration List .................................................................................................................... 70
Chapter 5 BGP Advanced Hands-on Exercise Guide ................................................................ 77
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 77
Objectives................................................................................................................................ 78
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Tasks ........................................................................................................................................ 78
Topology .................................................................................................................................. 79
IP Address Table ...................................................................................................................... 79
Configuration and Verification ................................................................................................ 80
Questions ................................................................................................................................ 89
Configuration List .................................................................................................................... 89
Chapter 6 Route Import and Control Hands-on Exercise Guide ........................................... 101
Overview ...............................................................................................................................101
Objectives..............................................................................................................................101
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................101
Topology ................................................................................................................................102
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................102
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................103
Questions ..............................................................................................................................107
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................107
Chapter 7 VLAN Hands-on Exercise Guide ............................................................................. 117
Overview ...............................................................................................................................117
Objectives..............................................................................................................................117
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................117
Topology ................................................................................................................................119
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................119
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................120
Questions ..............................................................................................................................128
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................128
Chapter 8 LAN Layer 2 Technology Hands-on Exercise Guide ............................................. 135
Overview ...............................................................................................................................135
Objectives..............................................................................................................................135
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................135
Topology ................................................................................................................................136
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................136
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................136
Questions ..............................................................................................................................141
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................141
Chapter 9 WAN Layer 2 Technology Hands-on Exercise Guide ............................................. 146
Overview ...............................................................................................................................146
Objectives..............................................................................................................................146
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................146
Topology ................................................................................................................................147
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................147
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................147
Questions ..............................................................................................................................149
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................149
Chapter 10 STP Hands-on Exercise Guide ............................................................................... 155
Overview ...............................................................................................................................155
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Objectives..............................................................................................................................155
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................155
Topology ................................................................................................................................156
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................156
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................157
Questions ..............................................................................................................................161
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................161
Chapter 11 Multicast Hands-on Exercise Guide ...................................................................... 168
Overview ...............................................................................................................................168
Objectives..............................................................................................................................169
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................169
Topology ................................................................................................................................170
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................170
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................171
Questions ..............................................................................................................................175
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................175
Chapter 12 IPv6 Hands-on Exercise Guide .............................................................................. 185
Overview ...............................................................................................................................185
Objectives..............................................................................................................................186
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................186
Topology ................................................................................................................................187
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................187
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................187
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................192
Chapter 13 Hands-on Exercise Guide to Other Features ........................................................ 203
Overview ...............................................................................................................................203
Objectives..............................................................................................................................205
Tasks ......................................................................................................................................205
Topology ................................................................................................................................206
IP Address Table ....................................................................................................................206
Configuration and Verification ..............................................................................................207
Questions ..............................................................................................................................213
Configuration List ..................................................................................................................213

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Chapter 1 RIP Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a simple Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). It
is used on small-scale networks such as campus networks and simple regional networks. It is
not suitable for complex and large networks.
As a distance-vector routing protocol, RIP exchanges routing information through User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets with port 520.
RIP measures the distance from a source to a destination by a metric known as hop
count. In RIP, by default, the hop count from a device to its directly connected network is 0,
and the hop count from a device to a network that is reachable through another device is 1.
That is, the hop count (metric) equals the number of devices along the path from the local
network to the destination network. To restrict the route convergence time, RIP requires that
the hop count be an integer ranging from 0 to 15. A hop count of 16 is defined as infinite.
That is, the destination network or host is unreachable. Due to this restriction, RIP cannot be
used in large networks.
To improve performance and prevent routing loops, RIP supports split horizon and
poison reverse.
As one of the earliest forms of IGP, RIP is designed for small and medium-scale
networks. RIP implementation, configuration, and maintenance are easier than those of OSPF
and IS-IS, and so RIP is widely used on networks.

Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:
Configure RIP.
Learn about application scenarios of route summarization and perform the correct
configuration.
Modify the metrics of routes.
Understand the compatibility of RIPv1 and RIPv2.
Control the advertising and receiving of RIP routes.
Configure advertisement of RIP default routes.
Optimize a RIP network by adjusting parameters including authentication and timers.
Troubleshoot RIP faults on RIP networks.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Run the default RIP version on R1 since R1 is a legacy device, and run RIPv2 on all
other devices. Advertise the interfaces identified in the topology, and avoid advertising
service networks 1.0.0.0/24, 2.0.0.0/24, 5.0.X.0/24, and 6.0.X.0/24 into RIP because
traffic transmitted on these service networks is special.
(2) Import service networks 1.0.0.0/24 and 2.0.0.0/24 into RIP, using the default metric.
Prevent R2 from receiving the RIP packets sent by R1 to ensure security.
(3) Avoid the impact of malicious users connecting to E0/0/1 of R2 on the network, but
enable E0/0/1 to learn current network routes as it may connect to legitimate routers.
(4) Ensure that the metric of routes to service network 1.0.0.0/8 learned on R4 is 4 and
retain the default metric for all other routes. Do not perform the configuration on R4 for
security purposes.
(5) Import only service network segments 6.0.0.0/24 and 6.0.2.0/24 into RIP, and use the
default metric for the imported routes. Use the least number of commands to meet this
requirement.
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(6) Import service network 5.0.X.0/24 into RIP, and summarize routes to improve efficiency.
To prevent routing loops, do not use static routes.
(7) Prevent R5 and R6 from directly exchanging routes for security purposes, but allow
their networks to be reachable by one another.
(8) Enable R4 that connects to the Internet as well as all the other devices to access the
Internet.
(9) Adjust RIP timers on the entire network to speed up RIP convergence. For example, set
the update and aging timers to 20s and 100s respectively, and adjust the garbage-collect
timer according to service requirements.
(10) Configure plain-text authentication on some devices to ensure security, and set the
password to Huawei.

Topology

IP Address Table
Default

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

R1

E0/0/0

192.168.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

E0/0/0

192.168.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

E0/0/1

20.0.0.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

E0/0/0

192.168.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/0

34.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/0

34.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

E0/0/0

192.168.2.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1

40.0.0.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

E0/0/0

192.168.2.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

R2

R3

R4

R5
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R6

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E0/0/0

192.168.2.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

Configuration and Verification


1. Run the default RIP version on R1 since R1 is a legacy device, and run
RIPv2 on all other devices. Advertise the interfaces identified in the topology,
and avoid advertising service networks 1.0.0.0/24, 2.0.0.0/24, 5.0.X.0/24, and
6.0.X.0/24 into RIP because traffic transmitted on these service networks is
special.
Perform basic configuration according to the address table, and then run the display rip
1 interface command to check whether RIP is enabled on related interfaces and whether
interface addresses are configured correctly. The following uses the display of R2 as an
example.
[R2]display rip

1 interface

Interface

IP Address

Eth0/0/1

20.0.0.2

Eth0/0/0

192.168.1.2

State
UP

Protocol

MTU

RIPv2 Multicast

UP

500

RIPv2 Multicast

500

During the configuration, advertise addresses of R2 interface (E0/0/1) and R4 interface


(G0/0/1) in RIP to meet the requirement that interfaces identified in the experimental
topology be advertised.
You can also run the following commands to verify the results:
display ip routing-table
display rip 1 neighbor

2.

Import service networks 1.0.0.0/24 and 2.0.0.0/24 into RIP, using the default
metric. Prevent R2 from receiving the RIP packets sent by R1 to ensure
security.
RIP can enable the function of silent-interface to limit the packet sending from this
interface, also we can use the command "undo rip input/output "under interface. Whats more,
filter-policy can be also used in the situation.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol rip command to
view the RIP routing tables of R1 and R2. The following RIP routing tables show only key
information, while other information is omitted.
[R1]display ip routing-table protocol rip
RIP routing table status : <Active>
Destinations : 4
Destination/Mask

Proto

Routes : 4
Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.2

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.2

Ethernet0/0/0

34.1.1.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

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192.168.2.0/24

RIP

Confidentiality Level

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

[R2]display ip routing-table protocol rip


RIP routing table status : <Active>
Destinations : 2
Destination/Mask
34.1.1.0/24
192.168.2.0/24

Proto
RIP
RIP

Routes : 2
Pre
100
100

Cost
1

Flags NextHop
D

192.168.1.3
192.168.1.3

Interface
Ethernet0/0/0
Ethernet0/0/0

During the configuration, control the routes to be imported to meet the requirement that
only external network routes 1.0.0.0/24 and 2.0.0.0/24 are imported. Therefore, other external
routes must be filtered.
R1 runs the default version, while R2 and R3 run RIPv2. Version compatibility must be
considered. When RIP version is not specified for a Huawei device, the device can receive
both RIPv1 and RIPv2 packets but can send only RIPv1 packets.
To meet the requirement that R2 not receive the RIP packets sent by R1, R1 should
unicast Update packets to R3, but R2 can accept RIPv2 broadcast packets, so R3 must update
by RIPv2 broadcast . When RIP version is not specified for a Huawei device, the device
broadcasts update packets. You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display rip 1 route
display rip 1 database

3.

Avoid the impact of malicious users connecting to E0/0/1 of R2 on the


network, but enable E0/0/1 to learn current network routes as it may connect
to legitimate routers.
After completing this task, run the debugging rip 1 receive Ethernet 0/0/1 command.
The command output is empty.
According to the requirement, R2 interface E0/0/1 has been advertised in RIP. Therefore,
the command output includes RIP information on this interface. How to filter RIP update
packets when E0/0/1 is advertised should be considered.

4.

Ensure that the metric of routes to service network 1.0.0.0/8 learned on R4 is


4 and retain the default metric for all other routes. Do not perform the
configuration on R4 for security purposes.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the IP
routing table of R4. The following IP routing table shows only key information, while other
information is omitted.
[R4]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

1.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

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192.168.1.0/24

RIP

100

Confidentiality Level
1

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

During the configuration, to meet the requirement that the metric of route to 1.0.0.0/8
learned on R4 be 4, ensure that the cost of other RIP routes learned on R4 remains
unchanged.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display rip 1 route

5.

Import only service network segments 6.0.0.0/24 and 6.0.2.0/24 into RIP, and
use the default metric for the imported routes. Use the least number of
commands to meet this requirement.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol rip command to
view the RIP routing table of R4. The following RIP routing table shows only key
information, while other information is omitted.
[R4]display ip routing-table protocol rip
RIP routing table status : <Active>
Destinations : 6
Destination/Mask

Proto

Routes : 6
Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

1.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

6.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.2.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.1.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

The default metric of routes imported in RIP on a Huawei device is 1. Additionally,


ensure that the least number of commands are used.
You can also run the following commands to verify the results:
display acl all
display ip ip-prefix

6.

Import service network 5.0.X.0/24 into RIP, and summarize routes to


improve efficiency. To prevent routing loops, do not use static routes.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the RIP
routing table of R4. The following IP routing table shows only key information, while other
information is omitted.
[R4]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

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Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

1.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

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5.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

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192.168.2.5

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.2.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.1.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

To perform classful route summarization, summarize 5.0.X.0/24 into 5.0.0.0/8.


When a Huawei device performs automatic or manual summarization, the device does
not generate routes pointing to Null0. Therefore, consider how to prevent routing loops after
route summarization is performed.
You can also run the following commands to verify the results:
display ip ip-prefix
display route-policy

7.

Prevent R5 and R6 from directly exchanging routes for security purposes,


but allow their networks to be reachable by one another.
After completing this task, run the display rip 1 neighbor and display ip routing-table
commands to view the neighbors and IP routing tables of R5 and R6, and perform ping tests
between them. Only key information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
[R5]display rip 1 neighbor
--------------------------------------------------------------------IP Address

Interface

Type

Last-Heard-Time

--------------------------------------------------------------------192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

Number of RIP routes

[R6]display rip

RIP

0:0:15

: 2

1 neighbor

--------------------------------------------------------------------IP Address

Interface

Type

Last-Heard-Time

--------------------------------------------------------------------192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

Number of RIP routes

RIP

0:0:6

: 3

[R5]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

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Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

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Interface

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1.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

34.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

192.168.1.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

[R6]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

1.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

5.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

34.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

192.168.1.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.4

Ethernet0/0/0

[R5]ping 6.0.0.1
PING 6.0.0.1: 56

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 6.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=70 ms


Reply from 6.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=70 ms
Reply from 6.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=80 ms
Reply from 6.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=100 ms
Reply from 6.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=80 ms

[R6]ping 5.0.0.1
PING 5.0.0.1: 56

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 5.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=90 ms


Reply from 5.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=60 ms

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Reply from 5.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=80 ms


Reply from 5.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=90 ms
Reply from 5.0.0.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=40 ms

By default, R5 and R6 multicast update packets. That is, R5 and R6 receive update
packets from one another.
When R5 and R6 send RIP update packets only to R4, R4 does not send the update
packets back to R5 or R6 via the inbound interface of the update packets due to the loop
prevention mechanism.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
debugging rip 1

8.

Enable R4 that connects to the Internet as well as all the other devices to
access the Internet.
RIP must combine the static default route to advertise dynamic default route.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the IP
routing tables of R1 and R4. The following IP routing table shows only key information,
while other information is omitted.
[R1]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

0.0.0.0/0

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.2

Ethernet0/0/0

5.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.2.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.2

Ethernet0/0/0

34.1.1.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

40.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

192.168.2.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.1.3

Ethernet0/0/0

[R4]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

0.0.0.0/0

Static

1.0.0.0/8

2015-8-31

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

60

40.0.0.4

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

5.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

192.168.2.5

Ethernet0/0/0

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6.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

6.0.2.0/24

RIP

100

192.168.2.6

Ethernet0/0/0

20.0.0.0/24

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.1.0/24

9.

Confidentiality Level

RIP

100

34.1.1.3

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

Adjust RIP timers on the entire network to speed up RIP convergence. For
example, set the update and aging timers to 20s and 100s respectively, and
adjust the garbage-collect timer according to service requirements.
After completing this task, run the display rip 1 command to view the settings of timers.
The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key information is displayed,
while other information is omitted.
[R1]display rip 1
Public VPN-instance
RIP process : 1
RIP version

: 1

Preference

: 100

Checkzero

: Enabled

Default-cost
Summary

: 0
: Enabled

Host-route

: Enabled

Maximum number of balanced paths : 32


Update time

: 20 sec

Age time : 100 sec

Garbage-collect time : 30 sec

Actually, there is no direct relationship between the update and garbage-collect timers.
However, the test experience tells us that the update timer value should be smaller than the
garbage-collect timer value.

10. Configure plain-text authentication on some devices to ensure security, and


set the password to Huawei.
After completing this task, run the display rip 1 interface command to view the
authentication settings. The following uses the display of R4 as an example.
[R4]display

rip

1 interface verbose

GigabitEthernet0/0/0(34.1.1.4)
State

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: UP

MTU

: 500

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Metricin

: 0

Metricout

: 1

Input
Protocol
Send version

: Enabled

Confidentiality Level

Output : Enabled

: RIPv2 Multicast
: RIPv2 Multicast Packets

Receive version : RIPv2 Multicast and Broadcast Packets


Poison-reverse

: Disabled

Split-Horizon

: Enabled

Authentication type

: Simple

Replay Protection

: Disabled

GigabitEthernet0/0/1(40.0.0.4)
State

: UP

Metricin

: 0

Metricout

: 1

Input
Protocol
Send version

MTU

: Enabled

: 500

Output : Enabled

: RIPv2 Multicast
: RIPv2 Multicast Packets

Receive version : RIPv2 Multicast and Broadcast Packets


Poison-reverse

: Disabled

Split-Horizon

: Enabled

Authentication type

: Simple

Replay Protection

: Disabled

Ethernet0/0/0(192.168.2.4)
State

: UP

Metricin

: 0

Metricout

: 1

Input
Protocol
Send version

2015-8-31

: Enabled

MTU

: 500

Output : Enabled

: RIPv2 Multicast
: RIPv2 Multicast Packets

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Receive version : RIPv2 Multicast and Broadcast Packets


Poison-reverse

: Disabled

Split-Horizon

: Disabled

Authentication type

: Simple

Replay Protection

: Disabled

The authentication password is case-sensitive. R1 runs the Huawei default version,


which does not support authentication. Therefore, pay more attention when performing
configurations on R1, R2, and R3.

Questions
In requirement 2, when version compatibility is not considered, can R2 learn routes to
1.0.0.0/24 based on the existing configuration?
R2 cant receive R3s update about 1.0.0.0/24 even if RIPv1 compatible with RIPv2.
RIP has default rule of split-horizon under interface so the segment network 1.0.0.0 will
never send again from the interface E3/0/0 in R3 unless we disable split-horizon.
In requirement 4, why does 1.0.0.0/8 but not 1.0.0.0/24 exist?
RIP doesnt support VLSM by using RIPv1. RIPv1 processes packets based on the main
class network segment mask or interface address mask so R3 gets 1.0.0.0/8
In requirement 7, does any problem occur when you ping 6.1.1.1 from R5, if so, how to
solve the problem, and why are routes to the peer end learned by R5 and R6?
When R5 tries to ping 6.1.1.1, the request will send to R4, R4 will choose G0/0/1 as
output interface via default route. But the route cant arrive because its not real in this
topology so we need to configure a static route with Null0 as next hop to avoid loop.
Because RIPv2 enable the feature of summary by default so R5 and R6 all get /8 routes.
If we want to get detail routes we just use command of undo summary.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
rip 1

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peer 192.168.1.3
network 192.168.1.0
silent-interface Ethernet0/0/0
timers rip 20 100 30
import-route direct route-policy DIRECT
#
route-policy DIRECT permit node 10
if-match ip-prefix 10
#
ip ip-prefix 10 index 10 permit 1.0.0.0 24
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
interface Ethernet0/0/1
ip address 20.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
undo rip input
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 2.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
rip 1
version 2
network 192.168.1.0

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network 20.0.0.0
timers rip 20 100 30
import-route direct route-policy DIRECT
#
route-policy DIRECT permit node 10
if-match ip-prefix 10
#
ip ip-prefix 10 index 10 permit 2.0.0.0 24
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
rip version 2 broadcast
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 34.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
rip metricout ip-prefix 10 3
#
rip 1
version 2
network 192.168.1.0
network 34.0.0.0
timers rip 20 100 30

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#
ip ip-prefix 10 index 10 permit 1.0.0.0 8
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.2.4 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 34.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 40.0.0.4 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
#
rip 1
default-route originate
version 2
network 192.168.2.0
network 34.0.0.0
network 40.0.0.0
timers rip 20 100 30
#

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ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 GigabitEthernet0/0/1


#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.2.5 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
rip summary-address 5.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 avoid-feedback
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 5.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 5.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2
ip address 5.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack3
ip address 5.0.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
rip 1
version 2
peer 192.168.2.4
network 192.168.2.0

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silent-interface Ethernet0/0/0
timers rip 20 100 30
import-route direct route-policy FILTER
#
route-policy FILTER permit node 10
if-match ip-prefix 10
#
ip ip-prefix 10 index 10 permit 5.0.0.0 22 greater-equal 24 less-equal 24
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 6.0.0.0 0.0.254.255
#
interface Ethernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.2.6 255.255.255.0
rip authentication-mode simple plain Huawei
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 6.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 6.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2

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ip address 6.0.2.1 255.255.255.0


#
interface LoopBack3
ip address 6.0.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
rip 1
version 2
peer 192.168.2.4
network 192.168.2.0
silent-interface Ethernet0/0/0
timers rip 20 100 30
import-route direct route-policy FILTER
#
route-policy FILTER permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
return

Chapter 2 OSPF Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
IETF developed Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), a link state Internal Gateway Protocol
(IGP), as an enhancement to distance-vector routing protocols in the late 1980s.
OSPF version 1 (OSPFv1) was first defined in RFC 113 but was soon replaced by OSPF
version 2 (OSPFv2) defined in RFC 1247. OSPFv2 made great improvements in stability and
functionality, and is used on existing IPv4 networksbut OSPFv3 is mainly used for IPv6
network.
With advantages of fast convergence, no loop, and good scalability, OSPF as a link state
routing protocol is widely applied. A link state routing protocol advertises link state
information. Each router on a network sends its own link state information (including the IP
address and subnet mask of the interface, network type, and link cost) to other routers. After
all routers collect all link state information on the network, they know the entire network
topology and use the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to calculate the shortest paths to all
network segments.
OSPF allows multiple areas on a network. An area is regarded as a logical group, and
each group is identified by a 32 bit area ID. A network segment or a link belongs to only one
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area. That is, you must specific the area to which each OSPF-enabled interface belongs. Area
0 is the OSPF backbone area and is responsible for advertising routing information between
non-backbone areas. There is only one backbone area on an OSPF network.
In a single OSPF area, each router needs to collect link state information from all other
routers. When a large number of routers run OSPF, there is much link state information and
the sizes of link state databases (LSDBs) on routers become large accordingly, increasing
loads on the routers and complicating maintenance and management. To resolve this issue,
OSPF partitions the Autonomous System (AS) into different areas.
Link state information is flooded only within the local area. Routers advertise only the
number of routes among areas, greatly reducing loads on routers. A router that belongs to
different areas is called the Area Border Router (ABR). The ABR is used to transmit
inter-area routing information. The way in which inter-area routing information is transmitted
is similar to the distance-vector algorithm. To prevent loops between areas, ensure that
routing information between non-backbone areas is forwarded through the backbone area.
That is, each non-backbone area is connected to the backbone area, and routers in
non-backbone areas cannot exchange routing information with each other.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure a single OSPF area and multiple OSPF areas.
Configure Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA) areas.
Configure OSPF route filtering.
Configure OSPF route summarization.
Configure OSPF authentication.
Configure OSPF to advertise default routes.
Adjust OSPF timers.
Configure virtual links.
Configure link-state advertisement (LSA) filtering.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Configure multiple OSPF areas. Configure Routing Information Protocol Version 2
(RIPv2) between R3 and R6, and between R4 and R6. Configure Loopback 0 interfaces
on R1, R2, R3, and R4 to advertise routes to Area 0. Configure R5 to advertise routes to
Area 1 and R6s direct-connected interfaces to advertise routes to RIP.
(2) Configure R6 to advertise routes of internal network segments 192.168.10.0/24 and
192.168.20.0/24 to RIP. Configure R5 to import routes of external network segments
172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24 to OSPF.
(3) On R3 and R4, configure OSPF and RIP to import routes from each other, and import
routes of network segments 192.168.10.0/24 and 192.168.20.0/24 to OSPF.
(4) Configure Area 2 as an NSSA area to reduce the number of LSAs (including Type 3 and
Type 5 LSAs) in Area 2.
(5) Perform the configurations only on R3 to ensure that R5 accesses network segment
192.168.10.0/24 through R1 and accesses network segment 192.168.20.0/24 through
R2.
(6) Eliminate existing suboptimal paths on the OSPF network.
(7) Improve robustness of the OSPF network to ensure that the physical link between R1
and R2 is stable.
(8) Optimize the OSPF routing table on R5, reduce the number of LSAs to maintain, and
summarize the two network segments on R5.
(9) Adjust OSPF timers based on the status of the link between R2 and R4.
(10) Configure cipher text authentication in OSPF areas to improve security of the OSPF
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network.

Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4
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Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G0/0/0

10.0.12.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1

10.0.13.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/2

10.0.15.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/1

10.0.12.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/2

10.0.25.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

S1/0/0

10.0.24.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/0

10.0.13.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1

10.0.34.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/2

10.0.36.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/0

10.0.34.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

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G0/0/2

10.0.46.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

S1/0/0

10.0.24.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/0

10.0.15.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1

10.0.25.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/0

10.0.36.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1

10.0.46.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.6.6

255.255.255.255

N/A

R5

R6

Configuration and Verification


1.

Configure multiple OSPF areas. Configure RIPv2 between R3 and R6, and
between R4 and R6. Configure Loopback 0 interfaces on R1, R2, R3, and R4
to advertise routes to Area 0. Configure R5 to advertise routes to Area 1 and
R6s direct-connected interfaces to advertise routes to RIP.
Perform basic configurations according to the IP address table, and then check whether
OSPF neighbor relationships are established, whether devices can receive routes from
Loopback 0 interfaces on other devices, and whether the RIP routing domain is properly
working. The following uses the display of R3 as an example. (The following table lists only
key information, and as such some information is omitted.)
[R3]display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 28
Destination/Mask

Proto

Routes : 29

Pre Cost

Flags

NextHop

Interface

10.0.1.1/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.2.2/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.4.4/32

OSPF

10

50

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.5.5/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.6.6/32

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

10.0.12.0/24

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.15.0/24

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.24.0/24

OSPF

10

50

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

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10.0.25.0/24

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.46.0/24

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

RIP

100

10.0.34.4

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

172.16.10.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

172.16.20.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.10.0/24

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

192.168.20.0/24

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

You can also run the following commands to verify the result:
display ospf peer brief
display ip routing-table protocol ospf
display rip 1 route
display ospf routingdisplay ip routing-table protocol rip

2.

Configure R6 to advertise routes of internal network segments


192.168.10.0/24 and 192.168.20.0/24 to RIP. Configure R5 to import routes of
external network segments 172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24 to OSPF.
RIP only supports advertise routes in classful format, but it can be identified in RIPv2
by using VLSM.
Note that only network segments 172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24 on R5 need to be
added.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the
routing table of R1. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
[R1]display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 23

3.

Routes : 23

Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

172.16.10.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.15.5

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

172.16.20.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.15.5

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

On R3 and R4, configure OSPF and RIP to import routes from each other,
and import routes of network segments 192.168.10.0/24 and 192.168.20.0/24
to OSPF.
After completing this task, run the display ospf routing command to view the OSPF
routing table of R3 & R4. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
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[R3]display ospf routing


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.3.3
Routing Tables
Routing for ASEs
Destination

Cost

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

172.16.0.0/16

Type2

10.0.13.1

10.0.5.5

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

202.101.34.4

10.0.4.4

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

202.101.34.4

10.0.4.4

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

Routing for NSSAs


Destination

Cost

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

10.0.34.4

10.0.4.4

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

10.0.34.4

10.0.4.4

AdvRouter

<R4>display ospf routing


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.4.4
Routing Tables
Routing for ASEs
Destination

Cost

Type

Tag

NextHop

172.16.0.0/16

Type2

202.101.34.3

10.0.5.5

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

202.101.34.3

10.0.3.3

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

202.101.34.3

10.0.3.3

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

Routing for NSSAs


Destination

Cost

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

10.0.34.3

10.0.3.3

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

10.0.34.3

10.0.3.3

Only network segments 192.168.10.0/24 and 192.168.20.0/24 need to be added to


OSPF.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the
routing table of R5. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
[R5]display ip routing-

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Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib


------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 27

4.

Routes : 28

Destination/Mas

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags

NextHop

Interface

192.168.10.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.20.0/24

O_ASE

150

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

Configure Area 2 as an NSSA area to reduce the number of LSAs (including


Type 3 and Type 5 LSAs) in Area 2.
Totally Stub and totally NSSA can achieve this.
NSSA achieves this task here, only the owner of the biggest Router-ID ABR can carry
out LSA-7 into LSA-5, but it can be modified by command then more than one ABR can
execute this operation. Because R4s Router-ID is bigger than R3, R4 carries out this
transform by default.
R3 and R4 in Area 2 function as Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs).
Therefore, the task can be completed after Area 2 is configured as an NSSA area.
After completing this task, run the display ospf lsdb command to view the routing table
of R3. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some information is
omitted.)
[R3]display ospf lsdb
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.3.3
Link State Database
Area: 0.0.0.2
Type

LinkState ID

AdvRouter

Age

Len

Sequence

Metric

Router

10.0.3.3

10.0.3.3

162

36

80000005

Router

10.0.4.4

10.0.4.4

159

36

80000005

Network

10.0.34.4

10.0.4.4

159

32

80000002

Sum-Net

0.0.0.0

10.0.3.3

233

28

80000001

Sum-Net

0.0.0.0

10.0.4.4

215

28

80000001

NSSA

0.0.0.0

10.0.3.3

233

36

80000001

NSSA

192.168.10.0

10.0.3.3

233

36

80000001

NSSA

192.168.20.0

10.0.3.3

233

36

80000001

NSSA

0.0.0.0

10.0.4.4

215

36

80000001

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NSSA

192.168.10.0

10.0.4.4

216

36

80000001

NSSA

192.168.20.0

10.0.4.4

216

36

80000001

Perform the configurations only on R3 to ensure that R5 accesses network


segment 192.168.10.0/24 through R1 and accesses network segment
192.168.20.0/24 through R2.
OSPF imports external routes with Type-2 format by default and they keep metric 1 in
the whole process, but the type and metric can be changed. Type-1 is higher than Type-2.
OSPF needs to choice the nearest path to arrive the ASBR as next-hop by using LSA-4 when
receive many same external routes.
Based on the configuration result in the default situation and the requirement for the
configuration only on R3, adjust costs of default routes on R3 to perform the task.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table & display ospf routing
command to view the routing table of R5. (The following table lists only key information,
and as such some information is omitted.)
[R5]display ip routingRoute Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 27
Destination/Mas

Proto

192.168.10.0/24
192.168.20.0/24

Routes : 28
Pre

O_ASE

Cost

150

O_ASE

150

1
1

Flags
D
D

NextHop

Interface

10.0.15.1
10.0.25.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/0
GigabitEthernet0/0/1

<R5>display ospf routing


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.5.5
Routing Tables
Routing for Network
Destination

Cost

10.0.5.5/32

Stub

10.0.15.0/24

Transit

10.0.15.5

10.0.5.5

0.0.0.1

10.0.25.0/24

Transit

10.0.25.5

10.0.5.5

0.0.0.1

10.0.1.1/32

Inter-area 10.0.15.1

10.0.1.1

0.0.0.1

10.0.2.2/32

Inter-area 10.0.25.2

10.0.2.2

0.0.0.1

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Type

NextHop
10.0.5.5

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10.0.5.5

Area
0.0.0.1

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10.0.3.3/32

10.0.4.4/32

1563

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Inter-area 10.0.15.1
Inter-area 10.0.25.2

10.0.1.1
10.0.2.2

0.0.0.1
0.0.0.1

Routing for ASEs


Destination

Cost

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

10.0.15.1

10.0.3.3

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

10.0.25.2

10.0.4.4

Total Nets: 9
Intra Area: 3

Inter Area: 4

ASE: 2

NSSA: 0

<R5>tracert -a 172.16.10.1 192.168.10.1


traceroute to

192.168.10.1(192.168.10.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.15.1 50 ms

10 ms

50 ms

2 10.0.13.3 50 ms

60 ms

90 ms

3 10.0.36.6 140 ms

70 ms

120 ms

<R5>tracert -a 172.16.10.1 192.168.20.1


traceroute to

192.168.20.1(192.168.20.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.25.2 20 ms

20 ms

40 ms

2 10.0.24.4 60 ms

80 ms

70 ms

3 10.0.46.6 120 ms

6.

110 ms

90 ms

Eliminate existing suboptimal paths on the OSPF network.


R2 and R4 are connected through a serial link which bandwidth is much smaller than
that of an Ethernet link. Test loopback 0 as an example so that routes mapping network
segments where loopback 0 interfaces of other devices reside are optimal.
R3s Loopback0 and R4s Loopback0 all stay on Area 0 and inter route better than intra
route, so R4s Loopback0 wants to access R3s Loopback0 must be transferred by R2. Here
must set up a virtual link to connect R3 and R4 and GRE tunnel can be used to finish them
with suitable cost.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the
routing table of R5 and R3. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
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[R5]display ip routing-table protocol ospf


Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------Public routing table : OSPF
Destinations : 15

Routes : 16

OSPF routing table status : <Active>


Destinations : 15

Routes : 16

Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost Flags NextHop

Interface

10.0.1.1/32

OSPF

10

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.2.2/32

OSPF

10

10.0.25.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

10.0.3.3/32

OSPF

10

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.4.4/32

OSPF

10

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

<R3>tracert -a 10.0.3.3 10.0.4.4


traceroute to

10.0.4.4(10.0.4.4), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press CTRL_C to

break
1 202.101.34.4 20 ms

50 ms

40 ms

<R3>display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

7.

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

10.0.0.0/8

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

10.0.1.1/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.2.2/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.3.3/32

Direct

127.0.0.1

LoopBack0

10.0.4.4/32

OSPF

10

202.101.34.4

Tunnel0/0/0

10.0.5.5/32

OSPF

10

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.6.6/32

RIP

100

10.0.36.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

Improve robustness of the OSPF network to ensure that the physical link
between R1 and R2 is stable.
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OSPF rules backbone area cant be divided, Area 0 will be divided into two isolated
areas when the physical link between R1 and R2 has a breakdown.
Virtual-link is a virtual link used to fix a divided backbone area to keep it complete and
resolve discontinuous area; it also can be used as a backup link.
Analyze the result of the physical link disconnection between R1 and R2. Perform OSPF
configurations to improve network robustness based on the analysis result.
After completing this task, run the display ospf vlink command to view the OSPF vlink
of R1. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some information is
omitted.)
<R1>display ospf vlink
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.1.1
Virtual Links
Virtual-link Neighbor-id

-> 10.0.2.2, Neighbor-State: Full

Interface: 10.0.15.1 (GigabitEthernet0/0/2)


Cost: 2

State: P-2-P

Type: Virtual

Transit Area: 0.0.0.1


Timers: Hello 10 , Dead 40 , Retransmit 5 , Transmit Delay 1

8.

Optimize the OSPF routing table on R5, reduce the number of LSAs to
maintain, and summarize the two network segments on R5.
OSPF and ISIS are all link-state protocols so they transfer route by LSA and LSP and
the real route information cant see. But OSPF transfers real routes in flooding LSA-3,
LSA-5 and LSA-7. R1 and R2 all need to filter LSA-3 with filter-policy in area 1.
Know differences between route filtering and LSA filtering. Run proper commands to
perform the task.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view the
routing table of R5. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
[R5]display ip routing-table protocol ospf
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
------------------------------------------------------------------------Public routing table : OSPF
Destinations : 6

Routes : 6

OSPF routing table status : <Active>


Destinations : 6
Destination/Mask
10.0.1.1/32

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Routes : 6

Proto Pre Cost Flags NextHop


OSPF

10

10.0.15.1

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GigabitEthernet0/0/0

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10.0.2.2/32

OSPF

10.0.3.3/32

OSPF

10

OSPF

192.168.10.0/24

O_ASE 150

192.168.20.0/24

10

10.0.4.4/32

Confidentiality Level
D

10

O_ASE 150

10.0.25.2

10.0.15.1
10.0.15.1
10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/1
GigabitEthernet0/0/0
GigabitEthernet0/0/0
GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.15.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

OSPF routing table status : <Inactive>


Destinations : 0

9.

Routes : 0

Adjust OSPF timers based on the status of the link between R2 and R4.
Understand rules for setting up OSPF neighbor relationships and adjust OSPF timers
based on the actual situation.
Serial link is a low-speed line, OSPF keep the default Hello and Dead interval as 10s
and 40s by default.
After completing this task, run the display ospf interface all command to view the
Hello interval of R2. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some
information is omitted.)
<R2>display ospf interface all
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.2.2
Interfaces
Area: 0.0.0.0

(MPLS TE not enabled)

Interface: 10.0.24.2 (Serial0/0/1) --> 10.0.24.4


Cost: 1562

State: P-2-P

Type: P2P

Timers: Hello 60 , Dead 240 , Poll

MTU: 1500

120 , Retransmit 5 , Transmit Delay 1

10. Configure cipher text authentication in OSPF areas to improve security of


the OSPF network.
Configure cipher text authentication in the three OSPF areas and set the key to huawei.
After completing this task, run the display ospf peer GigabitEthernet 0/0/1 command
to view the authentication of R2. (The following table lists only key information, and as such
some information is omitted.)
<R2>display ospf peer GigabitEthernet 0/0/1
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.2.2
Neighbors
Area 0.0.0.0 interface 10.0.12.2(GigabitEthernet0/0/1)'s neighbors
Router ID: 10.0.1.1

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State: Full

Mode:Nbr is

DR: 10.0.12.2

Slave

BDR: 10.0.12.1

Dead timer due in 37

Confidentiality Level
Priority: 1
MTU: 0

sec

Retrans timer interval: 5


Neighbor is up for 00:14:13
Authentication Sequence: [ 95]

Questions
After requirement 6 is met, is requirement 5 still met? If not, analyze the reason and
work out a solution.
When request 6 is met, R5 will refer to LSA-4 to choose the best route to ASBR-R4.
Now, we can compare the OSPF routing-table before and after creating the tunnel0/0/0.
After completing this task, run the display ospf routing command to view the OSPF
routing of R5. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some information
is omitted.)
Tunnel unestablished
<R5>display ospf routing
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.5.5
Routing Tables
Routing for Network
Destination

Cost

10.0.4.4/32

1563

Type

NextHop

Inter-area 10.0.25.2

AdvRouter
10.0.2.2

Area
0.0.0.1

Routing for ASEs


Destination

Cost

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

10.0.15.1

10.0.3.3

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

10.0.25.2

10.0.4.4

Tunnel established
<R5>display ospf routing
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.5.5
Routing Tables
Routing for Network

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Destination
10.0.4.4/32

Cost
3

Type

Confidentiality Level
NextHop

Inter-area 10.0.15.1

AdvRouter

Area

10.0.1.1

0.0.0.1

Routing for ASEs


Destination

Cost

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

192.168.10.0/24

Type2

10.0.15.1

10.0.3.3

192.168.20.0/24

Type2

10.0.15.1

10.0.4.4

Path can be chosen by setting policy-based-route on R5 and modifying output interface


or next hop.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.12.0 0.0.0.255
rule 10 permit source 10.0.13.0 0.0.0.255
rule 15 permit source 10.0.24.0 0.0.0.255
rule 20 permit source 10.0.34.0 0.0.0.255
rule 25 permit source 202.101.34.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.12.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.13.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.15.1 255.255.255.0
#

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interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.1.1
area 0.0.0.0
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.1.1 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.12.1 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.13.1 0.0.0.0
area 0.0.0.1
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
filter route-policy R1 import
network 10.0.15.1 0.0.0.0
vlink-peer 10.0.2.2 md5 1 plain huawei
#
route-policy R1 deny node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy R1 permit node 20
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.12.0 0.0.0.255
rule 10 permit source 10.0.13.0 0.0.0.255

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rule 15 permit source 10.0.24.0 0.0.0.255


rule 20 permit source 10.0.34.0 0.0.0.255
rule 25 permit source 202.101.34.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.24.2 255.255.255.0
ospf timer hello 60
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.12.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.25.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.2.2
area 0.0.0.0
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.2.2 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.12.2 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.24.2 0.0.0.0
area 0.0.0.1
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
filter route-policy R2 import
network 10.0.25.2 0.0.0.0
vlink-peer 10.0.1.1 md5 1 plain huawei

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#
route-policy R2 deny node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy R2 permit node 20
#
user-interface con 0
authentication-mode password
idle-timeout 0 0
user-interface vty 0 4
user-interface vty 16 20
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
acl number 2001
rule 5 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.13.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.34.3 255.255.255.0
#

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interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.36.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ip address 202.101.34.3 255.255.255.0
tunnel-protocol gre
source 10.0.34.3
destination 10.0.34.4
ospf cost 1
ospf network-type broadcast
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.3.3
import-route rip 1 route-policy R2O
area 0.0.0.0
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.3.3 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.13.3 0.0.0.0
network 202.101.34.3 0.0.0.0
area 0.0.0.2
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.34.3 0.0.0.0
nssa no-summary
#
rip 1
version 2
network 10.0.0.0

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import-route ospf 1
#
route-policy R2O permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy R2O permit node 20
if-match acl 2001
apply cost 50
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
rule 10 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.24.4 255.255.255.0
ospf timer hello 60
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.34.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.46.4 255.255.255.0

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#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ip address 202.101.34.4 255.255.255.0
tunnel-protocol gre
source 10.0.34.4
destination 10.0.34.3
ospf cost 1
ospf network-type broadcast
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.4.4
import-route rip 1 route-policy R2O
area 0.0.0.0
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.4.4 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.24.4 0.0.0.0
network 202.101.34.4 0.0.0.0
area 0.0.0.2
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.34.4 0.0.0.0
nssa no-summary
#
rip 1
version 2
network 10.0.0.0
import-route ospf 1
#

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route-policy R2O permit node 10


if-match acl 2000
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
ip local policy-based-route R5
#acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
rule 10 permit source 172.16.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
acl number 3001
rule 5 permit ip source 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 destination 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.2 55
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.15.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.25.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 172.16.10.1 255.255.255.0
#

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interface LoopBack2
ip address 172.16.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.5.5
asbr-summary 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0
import-route direct route-policy D2O
area 0.0.0.1
authentication-mode md5 1 plain huawei
network 10.0.5.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.15.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.25.5 0.0.0.0
#
route-policy D2O permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
policy-based-route R5 permit node 10
if-match acl 3001
apply ip-address next-hop 10.0.25.2
policy-based-route R5 permit node 20
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.36.6 255.255.255.0
#

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interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.46.6 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.6.6 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
rip 1
version 2
network 10.0.0.0
network 192.168.10.0
network 192.168.20.0
#
return

Chapter 3 IS-IS Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a dynamic routing protocol
initially designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for its
Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP).
To support IP routing, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) extended and
modified IS-IS in RFC 1195. This modification enables IS-IS to apply to TCP/IP and OSI
environments. This version of IS-IS is called Integrated IS-IS or Dual IS-IS.
IS-IS is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) that runs within an autonomous system (AS).
IS-IS is a link state protocol and uses the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to calculate
routes. It is similar to OSPF in many aspects.
IS-IS uses a two-level hierarchy in a routing domain to support large-scale routing
networks. A large routing domain is divided into one or more areas. Level-1 routers manage
intra-area routes. Level-2 routers manage inter-area routes.
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The topology of an IS-IS network is similar to the multi-area topology of an OSPF


network. Generally, all devices in the backbone area are Level-2 routers. Non-backbone areas
contain Level-1 routers and connect to the backbone area through Level-1-2 routers. The
backbone area in IS-IS is not a fixed area, that is, the area ID varies.
The networking is one of the differences between IS-IS and OSPF. In OSPF, inter-area
routes must be forwarded through the backbone area, and only routers in the same area use
the SPF algorithm. In IS-IS, both Level-1 and Level-2 routes are calculated using the SPF
algorithm to generate the shortest path tree (SPT).

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure IS-IS.
Use IS-IS in different network environments.
Change the IS-IS cost.
Configure IS-IS authentication modes.
Configure IS-IS route aggregation.
Configure route leaking in different areas.
Configure a router to advertise default routes.

Tasks

(1)
(2)

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

(10)

(11)

The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
Add R1 to area 49.0001, add R2, R3, R4, and R5 to area 49.0002, and add R6 to area
49.0006. Set the system ID of each router to 0000.0000.000X.
Configure IS-IS on interfaces according to the topology. Run IS-IS on E1/0/0 of R6 and
disable E1/0/0 from sending any IS-IS packets to its directly connected network segment.
Enable routers in the IS-IS area to learn addresses of the network segment directly connected
to E1/0/0.
Configure R1 as a Level-2 router, R2 and R3 as Level-1-2 routers, R4 and R5 as Level-1
routers, and interfaces on R6 as Level-2 interfaces.
Run proper commands to configure the names (such as R1, R2, and R3) of the routers
because routers are difficult to maintain when identified using only system IDs.
Ensure that no DIS exists between R4 and R5, and establish a neighbor relationship between
them.
Configure IS-IS to automatically calculate the cost.
Use a proper authentication mode to authenticate LSPs and SNPs in area 49.0002. Set the
authentication password to HUAWEI and authentication type to MD5.
Disable R4 and R5 from sending Hello packets with the padding field to each other to
improve bandwidth usage between them.
Only configure R4 to import directly connected network segment 4.0.X.0/24 to the IS-IS area
and do not summary, configure R1 to import directly connected network segment 1.0.X.0/24
to the IS-IS area, and perform optimal aggregation. Use as few commands as possible.
Disable R2 and R3 from advertising 4.0.0.0/24 and 4.0.2.0/24 to area 49.0001, configure
ACLs and disable routing policies on R2 and R3. Ensure that R4 and R5 can learn the
aggregated network segment 1.0.X.0/24, and disable routing policies on R4 and R5.
Disable R6 from adding aggregated routes generated by R1 to the routing table. Enable R6 to
advertise a default route when routing information for network segment 1.0.X.0/24 exists on
R1.

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Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

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Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

S2/0/0.2

12.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

S2/0/0.3

13.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/0

16.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.1.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

S2/0/0.2

12.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

S2/0/1

24.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.2.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

S2/0/0.3

13.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

S2/0/1

35.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.3.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

S2/0/1

24.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

E1/0/0

45.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.4.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

S2/0/1

35.1.1.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

E1/0/0

45.1.1.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

Loopback 0

10.5.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

G0/0/0

16.1.1.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

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Gateway

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E1/0/0

6.0.0.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.6.6.6

255.255.255.255

N/A

Configuration and Verification


1.

Add R1 to area 49.0001, add R2, R3, R4, and R5 to area 49.0002, and add R6
to area 49.0006. Set the system ID of each router to 0000.0000.000X.
Perform basic configuration according to the "IP Address Table", and then run the
display isis 1 brief command to view brief IS-IS information. The following uses the display
of R1 as an example. The table shows only key information, while other information is
omitted.
[R1]display isis 1 brief
ISIS Protocol Information for ISIS(1)
------------------------------------SystemId: 0000.0000.0001

System Level: L12

Area-Authentication-mode: NULL
Domain-Authentication-mode: NULL
Ipv6 is not enabled
ISIS is in invalid restart status
ISIS is in protocol hot standby state: Real-Time Backup

During the configuration, view and understand the requirements to avoid incorrect
configuration.

2.

Configure IS-IS on interfaces according to the topology. Run IS-IS on E1/0/0


of R6 and disable E1/0/0 from sending any IS-IS packets to its directly
connected network segment. Enable routers in the IS-IS area to learn
addresses of the network segment directly connected to E1/0/0.
After completing this task, run the display isis interface command to view interfaces
that have IS-IS enabled, run the display isis peer command to view IS-IS neighbors, and run
the display ip routing-table protocol isis command to view the IS-IS routing table. The
following uses the display of R1 as an example. The table shows only key information, while
other information is omitted.
[R1]display isis interface
Interface information for ISIS(1)
Interface
GE0/0/0
Loop0

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Id
001
001

IPV4.State
Up

IPV6.State
Down

Up

Down

Huawei Confidential

MTU

Type

DIS

1497 L1/L2 No/No


1500 L1/L2 --

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S2/0/0.2

002

Up

Down

1500 L1/L2 --

S2/0/0.3

003

Up

Down

1500 L1/L2

[R1]display isis peer


Peer information for ISIS(1)
System Id

Interface

Circuit Id

State HoldTime Type

PRI

------------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0006

GE0/0/0

0000.0000.0006.01 Up

8s

L2(L1L2) 64

0000.0000.0002

S2/0/0.2

0000000002

Up

22s

L2

--

0000.0000.0003

S2/0/0.3

0000000001

Up

23s

L2

--

[R1]display ip routing-table protocol isis


Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

6.0.0.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

74

16.1.1.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.2.2.2/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

10.3.3.3/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

10.4.4.4/32

ISIS-L2 15

20

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

10.5.5.5/32

ISIS-L2 15

20

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

10.6.6.6/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

16.1.1.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

24.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

20

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

35.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

20

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

45.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

30

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

ISIS-L2 15

30

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

When IS-IS runs in a frame relay (FR) network, you need to configure FR interfaces as
sub-interfaces that work in P2P mode, otherwise, IS-IS neighbor relationships cannot be
established even if the network type is changed.
IS-IS only support broadcast and P2P network type by default.
In addition, you should understand IS-IS features when configuring IS-IS on E1/0/0 of
R6. IS-IS can disable a certain interface to receive and send data, so the build of the IS-IS
neighbor and transfer of route information can be controlled. You can also run the following
command to verify the results:
display isis lsdb
display isis route
display isis peer
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Configure R1 as a Level-2 router, R2 and R3 as Level-1-2 routers, R4 and R5


as Level-1 routers, and interfaces on R6 as Level-2 interfaces.
After completing this task, run the display isis brief command to view the level at
which a device works. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. The table shows
only key information, while other information is omitted.
[R1]display isis 1 brief
ISIS Protocol Information for ISIS(1)
------------------------------------SystemId: 0000.0000.0001

System Level: L2

Area-Authentication-mode: NULL
Domain-Authentication-mode: NULL
Ipv6 is not enabled
ISIS is in invalid restart status
ISIS is in protocol hot standby state: Real-Time Backup

According to the requirement, interfaces on R6 should be configured as Level-2


interfaces. You cannot run the is-level command to configure R6 as a Level-2 router.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display isis peer

4.

Run proper commands to configure the names (such as R1, R2, and R3) of
the routers because routers are difficult to maintain when identified using
only system IDs.
After completing this task, run the display isis name-table command to view the
mapping between the host name and system ID of local and remote IS-IS routers. The
following uses the display of R1 as an example. The table shows only key information, while
other information is omitted.
[R1]display isis name-table
Name table information for ISIS(1)
System ID

Hostname

Type

------------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0001

R1

DYNAMIC

0000.0000.0002

R2

DYNAMIC

0000.0000.0003

R3

DYNAMIC

0000.0000.0006

R6

DYNAMIC

The host name is delivered to each router running IS-IS through LSPs. Note that the
length of a specified dynamic host name is limited within 64 bits
IS-IS can name the remote device by the command is-name 0001.0001.0001 R1, so
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that it is easy to check the LSDB.


You can also run the following commands to verify the results:
display isis peerdisplay isis lsdb

5.

Ensure that no DIS exists between R4 and R5, and establish a neighbor
relationship between them.
After completing this task, view the network type of connected interfaces on R4 and R5.
The following uses the display of R5 as an example. The table shows only key information,
while other information is omitted.
[R5]display isis interface Ethernet 1/0/0 verbose
Interface information for ISIS(1)
--------------------------------Interface

Id

Eth1/0/0

003

IPV4.State

IPV6.State

Up

Down

Circuit MT State

: Standard

Circuit Parameters

: p2p

MTU

Type

DIS

1497 L1/L2 --

Description

: HUAWEI, AR Series, Ethernet1/0/0 Interface

SNPA Address

: 00e0-fc04-31d5

IP Address

: 45.1.1.5

In a P2P network, a three-way handshake is forcibly performed when an IS-IS neighbor


relationship is established. The three-way handshake ensures that the neighbor relationship is
established successfully and prevents unidirectional communication.
ISIS provides default support for Ethernet and P2P, but here we need to adjust it to
reliable 3-way handshake P2P network.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display isis peer
display isis interface

6.

Configure IS-IS to automatically calculate the cost.


After completing this task, run the display isis cost interface command to view the cost
of each interface. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. The table shows only
key information, while other information is omitted.
[R1]display isis cost interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/0
Interface: GE0/0/0
Level-2 interface cost
Topology base(0):
Link effective cost: 1(A)

enabled by auto cost

IP prefix effective cost:

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cost: 1

Flags: R-Relative cost

enabled by auto cost


A-Absolute cost

By default, the IS-IS link cost is 10.


To enable automatic link cost calculation, the cost style must be Wide or
Wide-Compatible.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display isis interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/0 verbose | include cost

7.

Use a proper authentication mode to authenticate LSPs and SNPs in area


49.0002. Set the authentication password to HUAWEI and authentication
type to MD5.
After completing this task, run the display isis error command to verify whether the
configuration succeeds. The following uses the display of R5 as an example. The table shows
only key information, while other information is omitted.
[R5]display isis error | include Authentication
Statistics of error packets for ISIS(1)
--------------------------------------LSP packet errors:
Bad Authentication

: 0

Bad Auth Count

: 0

Hello packet errors:


Mismatched Max Area Addr: 0

Bad Authentication

: 0

During the configuration, note that there are three IS-IS authentication modes that have
different functions.
Default packet of ISIS has 3 formats: IHHSNPLSP, among which SNP includes
CSNP and PSNP of Level-1 and Level-2. Domain authentication is used to encrypt Level-2
packet ,area authentication is used to encrypt Level-1 packet and interface authentication is
used to encrypt Hello packet.
You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display isis brief

8.

Disable R4 and R5 from sending Hello packets with the padding field to each
other to improve bandwidth usage between them.
Default Hello packet carries huge number of useless padding field, as shown below:

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After completing this task, view detailed information about E1/0/0 on R4 and R5. The
following uses the display of R5 as an example. The table shows only key information, while
other information is omitted.
[R5]display isis interface Ethernet 1/0/0 verbose
Interface information for ISIS(1)
--------------------------------Interface

Id

Eth1/0/0

003

IPV4.State

IPV6.State

Up

Down

Circuit MT State

: Standard

Circuit Parameters

: small-hello

Description

MTU

Type

DIS

1497 L1/L2 --

p2p

: HUAWEI, AR Series, Ethernet1/0/0 Interface

SNPA Address

: 00e0-fc04-31d5

IP Address

: 45.1.1.5

Different types of networks process Hello packets in different ways.

9.

Only configure R4 to import directly connected network segment 4.0.X.0/24


to the IS-IS area and do not summary, configure R1 to import directly
connected network segment 1.0.X.0/24 to the IS-IS area, and perform
optimal aggregation. Use as few commands as possible.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol isis command to
view IS-IS routes. The following uses the display of R6 as an example. The table shows only
key information, while other information is omitted.
[R6]display ip routing-table protocol isis Destination/Mask

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Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

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1.0.0.0/22

ISIS-L2 15

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

4.0.0.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

987

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

4.0.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

987

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

4.0.2.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

987

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

4.0.3.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

987

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

During the configuration, note that only required network segments can be imported to
the IS-IS Area. Do not import irrelevant network segments. During IS-IS route aggregation, a
route to the Null0 interface is not generated by default.

10. Disable R2 and R3 from advertising 4.0.0.0/24 and 4.0.2.0/24 to area 49.0001,
configure ACLs and disable routing policies on R2 and R3. Ensure that R4
and R5 can learn the aggregated network segment 1.0.X.0/24, and disable
routing policies on R4 and R5.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol isis command to
view IS-IS routes. The following table shows information of R1 and R4. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
[R1]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

protocol

Pre

Cost

isis
Flags NextHop

Interface

4.0.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

976

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

4.0.3.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

976

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

6.0.0.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

11

16.1.1.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.2.2.2/32

ISIS-L2 15

488

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

10.3.3.3/32

ISIS-L2 15

488

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

10.4.4.4/32

ISIS-L2 15

976

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

10.5.5.5/32

ISIS-L2 15

976

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

10.6.6.6/32

ISIS-L2 15

16.1.1.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

24.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

976

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

35.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

976

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

45.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

986

12.1.1.2

Serial2/0/0.2

ISIS-L2 15

986

13.1.1.3

Serial2/0/0.3

[R4]display ip routing-table protocol isis


Destination/Mask

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Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

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0.0.0.0/0

ISIS-L1 15

488

24.1.1.2

Serial2/0/1

1.0.0.0/22

ISIS-L1 15

976

24.1.1.2

Serial2/0/1

10.2.2.2/32

ISIS-L1 15

488

24.1.1.2

Serial2/0/1

10.3.3.3/32

ISIS-L1 15

498

45.1.1.5

Ethernet1/0/0

10.5.5.5/32

ISIS-L1 15

10

45.1.1.5

Ethernet1/0/0

12.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L1 15

976

24.1.1.2

Serial2/0/1

13.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L1 15

986

45.1.1.5

Ethernet1/0/0

35.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L1 15

498

45.1.1.5

Ethernet1/0/0

This task requires bidirectional route leaking between Level-1 and Level-2 areas. Filter
routes according to the requirement.

11. Disable R6 from adding aggregated routes generated by R1 to the routing


table. Enable R6 to advertise a default route when routing information for
network segment 1.0.X.0/24 exists on R1.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol isis command to
view IS-IS routes. The following uses the display of R6 as an example. The table shows only
key information, while other information is omitted.
[R6]display ip routing-table protocol isis
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

0.0.0.0/0

ISIS-L2 15

4.0.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

4.0.3.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.1.1.1/32

ISIS-L2 15

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.2.2.2/32

ISIS-L2 15

489

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.3.3.3/32

ISIS-L2 15

489

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.4.4.4/32

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.5.5.5/32

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

12.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

489

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

13.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

489

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

24.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

35.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

977

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

45.1.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

987

16.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

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Questions
In requirement 1, if the interfaces are not FR sub-interfaces or the sub-interface type is
not P2MP, can IS-IS neighbor relationships be established?
Yes, IS-IS support P2P network type, but doesnt support NBMA and P2MP network.
In requirement 2, why do R2 and R3 not use the default routes they advertise?
R4 and R5 will generate default route after receive the LSP-level-1 of ATT bit is set and
they will choose the nearest Level-1-2 router as next hop. R2 and R3 as Level-1-2 routers,
they will ignore this LSP.
In requirement 11, are corresponding LSPs filtered when route filtering is implemented
on R6, and what are the considerations that should be taken for advertising default routes?
Because ISIS and OSPF are Link-state protocol, R6 cant use filter-policy to filter LSP
in inbound direction. The filter-policy will effect in the process of LSP into routing-table, but
cant deny LSP into LSDB.
When advertising routes under a certain condition, it is required detailed routes and the
summary route to avoid the unknown loop. When the edge devices routing table contains the
external route to meet route policy, R4 released a default route to ISIS domain, avoid due to
link failures and other reasons caused the equipment to do not exist already some important
external routing, still advertise default route resulting in routing loop. The routing strategy
here does not affect the introduction of external ISIS routing.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
acl number 2010
rule 5 permit source 1.0.0.0 0.0.252.255
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable
network-entity 49.0001.0000.0000.0001.00
is-name R1
import-route direct route-policy SUMM
default-route-advertise route-policy OTHERROUTE
summary 1.0.0.0 255.255.252.0

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#
interface Serial2/0/0
link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
#
interface Serial2/0/0.2
fr dlci 102
ip address 12.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
fr map ip 12.1.1.2 102 broadcast
isis enable 1
#
interface Serial2/0/0.3
fr dlci 103
ip address 13.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
fr map ip 13.1.1.3 103 broadcast
isis enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 16.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack10
ip address 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack11

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ip address 1.0.1.1 255.255.255.0


#
interface LoopBack12
ip address 1.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack13
ip address 1.0.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
route-policy SUMM permit node 10
if-match ip-prefix SUMM
#
route-policy OTHERROUTE permit node 10
if-match acl 2010
#
ip ip-prefix SUMM index 10 permit 1.0.0.0 22 greater-equal 24 less-equal 24
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 deny source 4.0.0.0 0.0.254.255
rule 10 permit
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable

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network-entity 49.0002.0000.0000.0002.00
is-name R2
import-route isis level-2 into level-1 filter-policy ip-prefix LEAKSUMM
import-route isis level-1 into level-2 filter-policy 2000
area-authentication-mode md5 plain HUAWEI
#
interface Serial2/0/0
link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
#
interface Serial2/0/0.2
fr dlci 201
ip address 12.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
fr map ip 12.1.1.1 201 broadcast
isis enable 1
#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 24.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
ip ip-prefix LEAKSUMM index 10 permit 1.0.0.0 22
#
return

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<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 deny source 4.0.0.0 0.0.254.255
rule 10 permit
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable
network-entity 49.0002.0000.0000.0003.00
is-name R3
import-route isis level-2 into level-1 filter-policy ip-prefix LEAKSUMM
import-route isis level-1 into level-2 filter-policy 2000
area-authentication-mode md5 plain HUAWEI
#
interface Serial2/0/0
link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
#
interface Serial2/0/0.3
fr dlci 301
ip address 13.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
fr map ip 13.1.1.1 301 broadcast
isis enable 1
#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp

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ip address 35.1.1.3 255.255.255.0


isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
ip ip-prefix LEAKSUMM index 10 permit 1.0.0.0 22
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
isis 1
is-level level-1
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable
network-entity 49.0002.0000.0000.0004.00
is-name R4
import-route direct level-1 route-policy SUMM
area-authentication-mode md5 plain HUAWEI
#
interface Ethernet1/0/0
ip address 45.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
isis circuit-type p2p
isis small-hello

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#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 24.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack10
ip address 4.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack11
ip address 4.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack12
ip address 4.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack13
ip address 4.0.3.1 255.255.255.0
#
route-policy SUMM permit node 10
if-match ip-prefix SUMM
#
ip ip-prefix SUMM index 10 permit 4.0.0.0 22 greater-equal 24 less-equal 24
#
return

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<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
isis 1
is-level level-1
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable
network-entity 49.0002.0000.0000.0005.00
is-name R5
area-authentication-mode md5 plain HUAWEI
summary 1.0.0.0 255.255.252.0
#
interface Ethernet1/0/0
ip address 45.1.1.5 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
isis circuit-type p2p
isis small-hello
#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 35.1.1.5 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.5.5.5 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
return

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<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
auto-cost enable
network-entity 49.0006.0000.0000.0006.00
is-name R6
filter-policy ip-prefix FILTERR1SUMM import
#
interface Ethernet1/0/0
ip address 6.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
isis silent
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 16.1.1.6 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
isis circuit-level level-2
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.6.6.6 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
ip ip-prefix FILTERR1SUMM index 5 deny 1.0.0.0 22
ip ip-prefix FILTERR1SUMM index 10 permit 0.0.0.0 0 less-equal 32
#

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return

Chapter 4 BGP Basics Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a dynamic routing protocol used between
Autonomous Systems (ASs). Three earlier BGP versions are BGP-1 defined in RFC 1105,
BGP-2 defined in RFC 1163, and BGP-3 defined in RFC 1267, and the currently used BGP
version is BGP-4 defined in RFC 4271. As an external routing protocol on the Internet,
BGP-4 is widely used among Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
BGP is an EGP. Different from Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) such as Open Shortest
Path First (OSPF) and Routing Information Protocol (RIP), BGP controls route advertisement
and selects optimal routes between ASs rather than discover or calculate routes. BGP uses the
Transport Control Protocol (TCP) with listening port 179 as the transport layer protocol. TCP
ensures high reliability and efficiency when BGP advertises, and improves the capability to
manage, a large number of routes.
BGP supports Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and uses triggered incremental
updates, greatly reducing the bandwidth consumed by route propagation. Therefore, BGP can
be used on the Internet to propagate a large amount of routing information. BGP routes carry
the AS-Path attribute to prevent routing loops between ASs.
BGP provides rich route attributes and uses these attributes to flexibly filter and control
routes.
BGP supports a variety of protocols, including IPv4, IPv6, multicast, and VPNv4, has
good scalability, and applies to network development.
There are two types of BGP peer relationships: Internal BGP (IBGP) and External BGP
(EBGP). BGP routers with the same AS number are IBGP peers, while BGP routers with
different AS numbers are EBGP peers. BGP peer relationships are established on TCP
sessions and must be manually specified.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure IBGP and EBGP peer relationships.
Change the origin and next hop and configure EBGP multi-hop.
Configure BGP authentication.
Configure BGP route summarization.
Filter BGP routes.
Modify the BGP Community attribute.
Configure BGP suppression.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Build the network according to the topology, establish an IBGP peer relationship between R1
and R2 through loopback interfaces, and deploy OSPF. Establish an IBGP peer relationship
between R3 and R4 through physical interfaces, establish an EBGP peer relationship between
R2 and R5 through loopback interfaces using static routes, and establish an EBGP peer
relationship between R1 and R3.
(2) Advertise or import the loopback interface of each device into BGP processes, and enable
loopback interfaces of all the devices to communicate with each other.
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(3) Advertise service network segments of R4 and R5 into BGP, and enable these network
segments to communicate normally.
(4) Optimize BGP routing tables on all the devices so that devices only need to maintain routing
entries of service network segments and network segments where loopback interfaces reside.
(5) Summarize two service network segments 192.168.20.0/24 and 192.168.30.0/24, and suppress
the advertisement of specific routes of service network segment 192.168.30.0/24. The service
network segment 192.168.10.0/24 should be advertised.
(6) Summarize two service network segments 172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24 on R3, and
suppress the advertisement of all the specific routes.
(7) Observe communication between service network segments, and solve the sub-optimal route
problem on the network.
(8) Configure the Community attribute to prevent AS 200 from receiving the routes to service
network segment 192.168.20.0/24.
(9) Assume that service network segment 172.16.10.0/24 is unstable and often interrupted.
Perform the correct configuration to reduce the impact of such interruptions on the entire
network.
(10) Configure authentication between EBGP peers to improve BGP network security.
(11) Change the BGP Keepalive timer to 30 seconds and adjust the BGP Holdtime accordingly on
R2.

Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2
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Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default
Gateway

G 0/0/0

10.0.12.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.134.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.25.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

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R4

R5

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G 0/0/1

10.0.12.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.134.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.134.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.25.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

Configuration and Verification


1.

Build the network according to the topology, establish an IBGP peer


relationship between R1 and R2 through loopback interfaces, and deploy
OSPF. Establish an IBGP peer relationship between R3 and R4 through
physical interfaces, establish an EBGP peer relationship between R2 and R5
through loopback interfaces using static routes, and establish an EBGP peer
relationship between R1 and R3.
Perform basic configuration according to the address table, and then check the
establishment of BGP peer relationships.
After completing this task, run the display bgp peer command to view the BGP peer
status. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key information is
displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp peer
BGP local router ID : 10.0.1.1
Local AS number : 100
Total number of peers : 2

2.

Peers in established state : 2

Peer

AS

MsgRcvd

MsgSent OutQ

Up/Down

State

PrefRcv

10.0.2.2

100

64

69

01:01:52

Established

10.0.134.3

200

66

67

01:02:35

Established

Advertise the loopback interface of each device into BGP processes, and
enable loopback interfaces of all the devices to communicate with each other.
Default BGP compares routers with IGP when advertising routers. To remind, BGP
doesnt set the route as the best route since default route preference is 255 if there are same
routes.
Perform configuration to ensure that all of the devices have BGP routes to the loopback
interfaces of the devices.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.

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<R1>display bgp routing-table


BGP Local router ID is 10.0.1.1
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 14
Network
*>

10.0.1.1/32

* i
*>

MED

0.0.0.0

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2/32

3.

NextHop

0.0.0.0
10.0.2.2

*>

10.0.3.3/32

10.0.134.3

*>

10.0.4.4/32

10.0.134.4

*>i

10.0.5.5/32

10.0.2.2

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn

100

1
0

0
100

?
i

200i

200i

100

Advertise service network segments of R4 and R5 into BGP, and enable these
network segments to communicate normally.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R5 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
[R5]display bgp routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.5.5
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 11
Network

4.

*>

172.16.10.0/24

*>

172.16.20.0/24

NextHop

MED

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn
0
0

100 200i
100 200i

Optimize BGP routing tables on all the devices so that devices only need to
maintain routing entries of service network segments and network segments
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where loopback interfaces reside.


After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.1.1
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 11
Network
*>

10.0.1.1/32

* i
*>

MED

0.0.0.0

10.0.2.2
10.0.2.2/32

5.

NextHop

0.0.0.0
10.0.2.2

*>

10.0.3.3/32

10.0.134.3

*>

10.0.4.4/32

10.0.134.4

*>i

10.0.5.5/32

10.0.2.2

*>

172.16.10.0/24

*>

LocPrf

100

PrefVal Path/Ogn
0

1
0

0
100

i
0

200i

200i

10.0.134.4

200i

172.16.20.0/24

10.0.134.4

200i

*>i

192.168.10.0

10.0.2.2

100

300i

*>i

192.168.20.0

10.0.2.2

100

300i

*>i

192.168.30.0

10.0.2.2

100

300i

100

Summarize two service network segments 192.168.20.0/24 and


192.168.30.0/24, and suppress the advertisement of specific routes of service
network segment 192.168.30.0/24.The service network segment
192.168.10.0/24 should be advertised.
BGP can use aggregate to filter all the detailed routes which can be released via
suppress-policy. Origin-policy can be used to select and advertise summary route, all of
which can be implanted via aggregate command.
Understand BGP route summarization principles, and configure route summarization
using routing policies according to requirements.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R4 as an example. Only key
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information is displayed, while other information is omitted.


<R4>display bgp routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.4.4
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 10
Network
*>i

6.

NextHop

192.168.0.0/16

MED

LocPrf

10.0.134.1

PrefVal Path/Ogn

100

100 300i

*>i

192.168.10.0

10.0.134.1

100

100 300i

*>i

192.168.20.0

10.0.134.1

100

100 300i

Summarize two service network segments 172.16.10.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24


on R3, and suppress the advertisement of all the specific routes.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R5 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R5>display bgp routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.5.5
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 12
Network
*>

7.

172.16.0.0

NextHop

MED

10.0.2.2

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn
0

100 200i

Observe communication between service network segments, and solve the


sub-optimal route problem on the network.
Under a MA and FR environment, BGP will report the real source of the route to its
neighbor if the advertise route and the source route are in the same network.
Since R3 has replaced R4 to aggregate detailed routes, R1 cannot arrive R4 and next hop
must be adjusted to avoid a sub-optimal route.
Check the path along which traffic is transmitted during communication between service
network segments, analyze the physical network topology, and avoid affecting other
requirements during the configuration.
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Configure the Community attribute to prevent AS 200 from receiving the


routes to service network segment 192.168.20.0/24.
Transfer of route can be limited via set the community, including InternetNo-advertise
No-exportNo-export-subconfed, etc.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table community command to
view the BGP Community attribute. The following uses the display of R1 as an example.
Only key information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp routing-table community
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.1.1
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 1

*>i

9.

Network

NextHop

MED

LocPrf

192.168.20.0

10.0.5.5

100

PrefVal Community
0

no-export

Assume that service network segment 172.16.10.0/24 is unstable and often


interrupted. Perform the correct configuration to reduce the impact of such
interruptions on the entire network.
Dampening of BGP can be used to reduce route fluctuation.
Analyze the requirement, add correct configuration, and verify the configuration.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table dampening parameter
command to view the BGP dampening. The following uses the display of R4 as an example.
Only key information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R4>display bgp routing-table dampening parameter
Maximum Suppress Time(in

second) : 3973

Ceiling Value

: 16000

Reuse Value

: 750

HalfLife Time(in

second)

: 900

Suppress-Limit

: 2000

Route-policy

: damp

10. Configure authentication between EBGP peers to improve BGP network


security.
Configure authentication between two EBGP peers, and set the password to huawei.
After completing this task, run the display bgp peer 10.0.5.5 verbose command to view
the BGP peer. The following uses the display of R2 as an example. Only key information is
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displayed, while other information is omitted.


[R2]display bgp peer 10.0.5.5 verbose
BGP Peer is 10.0.5.5,

remote AS 300

Type: EBGP link


BGP version 4, Remote router ID 10.0.5.5
Update-group ID: 0
BGP current state: Established, Up for 00h08m00s
BGP current event: KATimerExpired
BGP last state: OpenConfirm
Authentication type configured: MD5

11. Change the BGP Keepalive timer to 30 seconds and adjust the BGP
Holdtime accordingly on R2.
Learn about the working principles of BGP timers and know how to adjust the timers.
After completing this task, run the display bgp peer 10.0.2.2 verbose command to view
the BGP peer. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key information is
displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp peer 10.0.2.2 verbose
BGP Peer is 10.0.2.2,

remote AS 100

Type: IBGP link


BGP version 4, Remote router ID 10.0.2.2
Update-group ID: 1
BGP current state: Established, Up for 00h03m28s
BGP current event: RecvKeepalive
BGP last state: OpenConfirm
BGP Peer Up count: 1
Received total routes: 6
Received active routes total: 4
Advertised total routes: 5
Port:

Local - 179

Remote - 49184

Configured: Connect-retry Time: 32 sec


Configured: Active Hold Time: 180 sec

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: Active Hold Time: 90 sec

Negotiated: Active Hold Time: 90 sec

Keepalive Time:30 sec

Questions
If the sub-optimal route is found in requirement 7, how many methods are available to
solve this problem? If no such problem occurs, do you know why?
To ensure R3 give priority to aggregate route from R4, R4 must aggregate routes and
restrain detailed routes. Because of the default character of BGP, A true next hop from R3 to
R1 will ensure the generation of a sub-optimal route.
R1 can use route-policy to modify the routers next hop from R3, but output interface
cannot be used since there is only one.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.2.2 0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.12.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.134.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.0.1.1
peer 10.0.2.2 as-number 100

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peer 10.0.2.2 connect-interface LoopBack0


peer 10.0.134.3 as-number 200
peer 10.0.134.3 password simple huawei
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
network 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
import-route ospf 1 route-policy O2B
peer 10.0.2.2 enable
peer 10.0.2.2 next-hop-local
peer 10.0.134.3 enable
peer 10.0.134.3 advertise-community
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.1.1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.1.1 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.12.1 0.0.0.0
#
route-policy O2B permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.5.5 0

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acl number 2001


rule 5 permit source 10.0.1.1 0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.25.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.12.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.0.2.2
timer keepalive 30 hold 90
peer 10.0.1.1 as-number 100
peer 10.0.1.1 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.5.5 as-number 300
peer 10.0.5.5 ebgp-max-hop 2
peer 10.0.5.5 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.5.5 password simple huawei
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
network 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255
import-route static route-policy S2B
import-route ospf 1 route-policy O2B
peer 10.0.1.1 enable
peer 10.0.1.1 advertise-community

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peer 10.0.5.5 enable


#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.2.2
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.2.2 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.12.2 0.0.0.0
#
route-policy S2B permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
route-policy O2B permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
#
ip route-static 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255 10.0.25.5
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.134.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 200
router-id 10.0.3.3
peer 10.0.134.1 as-number 100

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peer 10.0.134.1 password simple huawei


peer 10.0.134.4 as-number 200
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
aggregate 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 detail-suppressed
network 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
peer 10.0.134.1 enable
peer 10.0.134.4 enable
peer 10.0.134.4 next-hop-local
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 172.16.10.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.134.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 172.16.10.1 255.255.255.0
#

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interface LoopBack2
ip address 172.16.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
bgp 200
router-id 10.0.4.4
peer 10.0.134.3 as-number 200
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
dampening route-policy damp
aggregate 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 detail-suppressed
network 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
network 172.16.10.0 255.255.255.0
network 172.16.20.0 255.255.255.0
peer 10.0.134.3 enable
#
route-policy damp permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
acl number 2001
rule 5 permit source 192.168.30.0 0.0.0.255

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#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.25.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack3
ip address 192.168.30.1 255.255.255.0
#
bgp 300
router-id 10.0.5.5
peer 10.0.2.2 as-number 100
peer 10.0.2.2 ebgp-max-hop 2
peer 10.0.2.2 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.2.2 password simple huawei
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
aggregate 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 suppress-policy sup origin-policy ori
network 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
network 192.168.10.0
network 192.168.20.0

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network 192.168.30.0
import-route static
peer 10.0.2.2 enable
peer 10.0.2.2 route-policy comm_r5 export
peer 10.0.2.2 advertise-community
#
route-policy sup permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
#
route-policy ori deny node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy ori permit node 20
#
route-policy comm_r5 permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
apply community no-export
#
route-policy comm_r5 permit node 20
#
ip route-static 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255 10.0.25.2
#
return

Chapter 5 BGP Advanced Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
Multiple routes to the same destination may exist in a BGP routing table. BGP selects
the optimal route from the multiple routes and sends only the optimal route to peers. To select
the optimal route, BGP compares the BGP attributes of the routes according to BGP route
selection rules. BGP attributes are a set of parameters that describe routes.
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BGP attributes are classified into four types:


Well-known mandatory attributes: This type of attribute can be identified by all the
BGP routers and must be carried in Update messages. Without this type of attribute,
errors occur in routing information. For example, the Origin, AS-Path, and
Next_Hop attributes are well-known mandatory attributes.
Well-known discretionary attributes: This type of attribute can be identified by all
the BGP routers and is not necessarily carried in Update messages. Errors do not
occur in routing information even if this type of attribute is not available. For
example, the Local_Pref attribute is a well-known discretionary attribute.
Optional transitive attributes: A BGP router may not recognize this type of attribute,
but it still accepts these attributes and advertises them to other peers. For example,
the Community attribute is an optional transitive attribute.
Optional non-transitive attributes: If a BGP router does not recognize this type of
attribute, it ignores these attributes and does not advertise them to other peers. For
example, the MED attribute is an optional non-transitive attribute.
When there are multiple routes to the same destination, BGP compares the following
attributes in sequence to select the optimal route:
Prefers the route with the largest PrefVal value.
Prefers the route with the highest Local_Pref.
Prefers the manually summarized route, automatically summarized route, route
imported using the network command, route imported using the import-route
command, and route learned from peers in sequence.
Prefers the route with the shortest AS-Path.
Prefers the route with the lowest origin type. IGP is lower than EGP, and EGP is
lower than Incomplete.
Prefers the route with the lowest MED among the routes from the same AS.
Prefers an EBGP route (the preference of an EBGP route is higher than that of an
IBGP route).
Prefers the route with the lowest IGP metric to the BGP next hop.
Prefers the route with the shortest Cluster_List.
Prefers the route advertised by the router with the smallest router ID.
Prefers the route learned from the peer with the lowest IP address.
The PrefVal attribute is a Huawei proprietary attribute and is valid only on the device
where it is configured. If a route does not have the local preference, BGP calculates its local
preference as the default value of 100. When there are multiple equal-cost routes to the same
destination, you can perform load balancing among these routes to load balance traffic.
Equal-cost BGP routes can be generated for traffic load balancing only when the first eight
attributes described in "BGP Route Selection Rules" are the same.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Understand BGP route advertisement rules.
Understand BGP route selection rules.
Explain BGP route reflector functions.
Modify the AS-Path attribute.
Modify the MED attribute.
Modify the Next_Hop attribute.
Configure a BGP route reflector.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of a company. In the topology, R4, R5, R6,
and R7 are routers in the headquarters. R1 and R3 are routers in two different branches. R2 is
a carrier's network device. Different service network segments are defined on R1 and R3.
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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Confidentiality Level

Network segments 192.168.10.0/24 and 172.16.10.0/24 are used by service A, and network
segments 192.168.20.0/24 and 172.16.20.0/24 are used by service B. Leased lines are
deployed between two branches and the headquarters so that service network segments on
devices in two branches can access each other through the carrier's network device or through
the headquarters' devices over leased lines. Deploy the network according to the following
requirements:
Build the network according to the topology, and establish EBGP peer relationships between
devices in different ASs through directly connected interfaces.
Establish IBGP peer relationships between R4 and R5, between R5 and R7, between R7 and
R6, and between R6 and R4 through loopback interfaces. Deploy OSPF as an IGP.
Ensure that all service network segments, and the network segments where loopback
interfaces Loopback 0 of all devices reside, access each other through BGP routes.
Enable traffic of service network segment A to be forwarded by the carrier's network device,
and traffic of service network segment B to be forwarded by leased lines, in order to make full
use of network resources.
Make the network administrator periodically check lines. After the link costs of IGPs are
adjusted, all the traffic that passes through the AS of the headquarters is forwarded along the
path R4->R5->R7->R6.
Forward traffic of service network segment B along the path R4->R6, because this network
segment has a high volume of traffic. Ensure that the optimal route selected by BGP is the
same as the actual forwarding path.
Reconstruct the headquarters' network, retain the existing configuration, and add
configuration to disable R5 and R7 from participating in BGP route selection.

Topology

IP Address Table
Device

Interface

R1

G 0/0/0

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IP Address
10.0.14.1

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Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0

Default
Gateway
N/A
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G 0/0/1

10.0.12.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.12.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.23.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.23.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.36.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.45.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.14.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

10.0.46.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.57.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.45.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.36.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.67.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

10.0.46.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.6.6

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.67.7

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.57.7

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

Configuration and Verification


1.

Build the network according to the topology, and establish EBGP peer
relationships between devices in different ASs through directly connected
interfaces.
Perform basic configuration according to the address table, and then check the
establishment of BGP peer relationships.
After completing this task, run the display bgp peer command to view BGP peer
information. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key information is
displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp peer
BGP local router ID : 10.0.1.1
Local AS number : 100
Total number of peers : 2

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MsgRcvd

Confidentiality Level

Peer

AS

MsgSent OutQ

Up/Down

State

PrefRcv

10.0.12.2

100

22

23

00:15:16

Established

10.0.14.4

400

17

22

00:14:24

Established

Establish IBGP peer relationships between R4 and R5, between R5 and R7,
between R7 and R6, and between R6 and R4 through loopback interfaces.
Deploy OSPF as an IGP.
Configuration commands are required when peer relationships are established through
loopback interfaces.
After completing this task, run the display ospf peer brief command to view OSPF peer
information, run the display bgp peer command to view BGP peer information. The
following uses the display of R4 as an example. Only key information is displayed, while
other information is omitted.
[R4]display ospf peer brief
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.4.4
Peer Statistic Information
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Area Id

Interface

Neighbor id

State

0.0.0.0

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.0.5.5

Full

0.0.0.0

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

10.0.6.6

Full

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[R4]display bgp peer


BGP local router ID : 10.0.4.4
Local AS number : 400
Total number of peers : 3
Peer

3.

AS

Peers in established state : 2


MsgRcvd

MsgSent

OutQ

Up/Down

State PrefRcv

10.0.5.5

400

0 00:04:19 Established

10.0.6.6

400

12

13

0 00:03:15 Established

10.0.14.1

100

18

12

0 00:03:47 Established

Ensure that all service network segments, and the network segments where
loopback interfaces Loopback 0 of all devices reside, access each other
through BGP routes.
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After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bg routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.1.1
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 14
Network

MED

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn

*>

10.0.1.1/32

0.0.0.0

*>

10.0.2.2/32

10.0.12.2

200i

*>

10.0.3.3/32

10.0.12.2

200 300i

10.0.14.4

400 300i

*>

10.0.4.4/32

10.0.14.4

400i

*>

10.0.5.5/32

10.0.14.4

400?

*>

10.0.6.6/32

10.0.12.2

200 300 400i

*>

10.0.7.7/32

10.0.14.4

400?

*>

172.16.10.0/24

*
*>

172.16.20.0/24

4.

NextHop

10.0.12.2

200 300i

10.0.14.4

400 300i

10.0.12.2

200 300i

10.0.14.4

400 300i

*>

192.168.10.0

0.0.0.0

*>

192.168.20.0

0.0.0.0

Enable traffic of service network segment A to be forwarded by the carrier's


network device, and traffic of service network segment B to be forwarded by
leased lines, in order to make full use of network resources.
Understand the AS-Path attribute principles and modify the attribute accordingly.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R1>display bgp routing-table

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BGP Local router ID is 10.0.1.1


Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 14
Network
*>

NextHop

172.16.10.0/24

172.16.20.0/24

LocPrf

10.0.12.2

*
*>

MED

PrefVal Path/Ogn
0

200 300i

10.0.14.4

400 300i

10.0.14.4

400 300i

10.0.12.2

200 200 200 300i

<R1>tracert -a 192.168.10.1 172.16.10.1


traceroute to

172.16.10.1(172.16.10.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.12.2 90 ms
2 10.0.23.3 120 ms

50 ms

50 ms

60 ms

50 ms

<R1>tracert -a 192.168.20.1 172.16.20.1


traceroute to

172.16.20.1(172.16.20.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.14.4 40 ms

30 ms

50 ms

2 10.0.46.6 60 ms

80 ms

60 ms

3 10.0.36.3 100 ms

120 ms

80 ms

MED is used to control the channel of inbound traffic from external AS, compare of
MED is limited in only one AS by default, but it can be modified to compare among
different AS. The less MED is, the better. BGP can modify the value of MED.
Understand the MED attribute principles, learn how to configure the attribute, and
modify the attribute accordingly.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R3 as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
<R3>display bgp routing-table

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BGP Local router ID is 10.0.3.3


Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 16
Network
*>

192.168.10.0

*
*>

192.168.20.0

NextHop

MED

10.0.23.2

LocPrf PrefVal Path/Ogn


0

200 100i

10.0.36.6

400 100i

10.0.36.6

400 100i

200 100i

10.0.23.2

200

<R3>tracert -a 172.16.10.1 192.168.10.1


traceroute to

192.168.10.1(192.168.10.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.23.2 10 ms

40 ms

40 ms

2 10.0.12.1 70 ms

60 ms

40 ms

<R3>tracert -a 172.16.20.1 192.168.20.1


traceroute to

192.168.20.1(192.168.20.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.36.6 10 ms

50 ms

30 ms

2 10.0.46.4 80 ms

60 ms

80 ms

3 10.0.14.1 110 ms

5.

80 ms

70 ms

Make the network administrator periodically check lines. After the link costs
of IGPs are adjusted, all the traffic that passes through the AS of the
headquarters is forwarded along the path R4->R5->R7->R6.
Based on the principle of split-horizon among IBGP neighbors, R5 has no access to the
service network segment 172.16.20.0, R7 has no access to the service network segment
192.168.20.0. We can import BGP routes into OSPF so that R5 and R7 can get access under
IGP.
When OSPF imports BGP as external route, the other OSPF routers will choose the
nearest ASBR by default, during which path can be modified by cost of interface, which is
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one by default.
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table command to view
routing-table information. The following uses the display of R4 and R6 as an example. Only
key information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
[R4]display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 21
Destination/Mask
172.16.10.0/24

Proto

Routes : 22
Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

IBGP

255

RD

O_ASE

150

Interface

10.0.6.6

GigabitEthernet0/0/2
172.16.20.0/24

10.0.45.5

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

[R4]display ospf routing


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.4.4
Routing Tables
Routing for ASEs
Destination

Cost

172.16.20.0/24

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

Type2

10.0.46.6

10.0.6.6

[R4]display ospf interface


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.4.4
Interfaces
Area: 0.0.0.0

(MPLS TE not enabled)

IP Address

Type

10.0.45.4

Broadcast

10.0.46.4

Broadcast

2015-8-31

State

Cost

Pri

BDR

10.0.45.5

10.0.45.4

BDR

100

10.0.46.6

10.0.46.4

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DR

BDR

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10.0.4.4

Confidentiality Level

P2P

P-2-P

0.0.0.0

0.0.0.0

[R6]display ospf routing


OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.6.6
Routing Tables
Routing for ASEs
Destination

Cost

192.168.20.0/24

Type

Tag

NextHop

AdvRouter

Type2

10.0.67.7

10.0.4.4

<R1>tracert -a 192.168.20.1 172.16.20.1


traceroute to

172.16.20.1(172.16.20.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break

6.

1 10.0.14.4 30 ms

30 ms

30 ms

2 10.0.45.5 80 ms

70 ms

40 ms

3 10.0.57.7 130 ms

110 ms

70 ms

4 10.0.67.6 100 ms

120 ms

160 ms

5 10.0.36.3 120 ms

210 ms

110 ms

Forward traffic of service network segment B along the path R4->R6,


because this network segment has a high volume of traffic. Ensure that the
optimal route selected by BGP is the same as the actual forwarding path.
IBGP cannot transfer route because of the principle of split-horizon, so we need to use
full mesh topology or router-reflector to realize.
Since the default route preference of BGP is 255 and OSPF is 150, we must decrease the
BGPs route preference to choose path.
Understand BGP route selection rules and route-reflectors, analyze the routing table, and
perform configuration based on routing policies.
After completing this task, run the display bgp routing-table command to view the
BGP routing table. The following uses the display of R6 and R4as an example. Only key
information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
[R4]display bgp routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.0.4.4
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

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i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

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Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 18
Network
*>i

NextHop

172.16.10.0/24

10.0.6.6

* i

10.0.6.6

10.0.14.1

*>i

MED

172.16.20.0/24

* i

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn

100

100

300i

300i

10.0.46.6
10.0.6.6

100 200 300i

100

100

0
0

300i
300i

*>

192.168.10.0

10.0.14.1

100i

*>

192.168.20.0

10.0.14.1

100i

[R4]display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 21
Destination/Mask
172.16.20.0/24

Routes : 21

Proto

IBGP

Pre

100

Cost

Flags NextHop
RD

10.0.46.6

Interface
GigabitEthernet0/0/2

[R6]display bgp routing-table


BGP Local router ID is 10.0.6.6
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 18
Network
*>
*>

2015-8-31

172.16.10.0/24
172.16.20.0/24

NextHop
10.0.36.3

MED
0

10.0.36.3

Huawei Confidential

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn
0
0

300i
300i

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*>i

192.168.10.0

Confidentiality Level

10.0.4.4

* i

10.0.4.4

10.0.36.3

*>i

192.168.20.0

* i

100

100

0
0

100i

10.0.46.4
10.0.4.4

100

100

300 200 100i


0

100i

100i
100i

[R6-ospf-1]display ip routing-table
Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 21
Destination/Mask
192.168.20.0/24

Routes : 21

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

IBGP

100

RD

Interface

10.0.46.4

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

<R1>tracert -a 192.168.20.1 172.16.20.1


traceroute to

172.16.20.1(172.16.20.1), max hops: 30 ,packet length: 40,press

CTRL_C to break
1 10.0.14.4 30 ms

50 ms

60 ms

2 10.0.46.6 30 ms

80 ms

90 ms

3 10.0.36.3 100 ms

7.

70 ms

70 ms

Reconstruct the headquarters' network, retain the existing configuration,


and add configuration to disable R5 and R7 from participating in BGP route
selection.
BGP can use the command peer ignore to suspend the neighbor relationship with other
BGP routers.
BGP establishes neighbors with three-hands mechanism, one side has to initiate TCP
connection. Otherwise, TCP connection will fail.
Peer listen-only command is passive to TCP connection, so both sides must be enabled
at the same time.
After completing this task, run the display bgp peer command on R4 and R6 to view
BGP peer information. Only key information is displayed, while other information is omitted.
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<R4>display bgp peer


BGP local router ID : 10.0.4.4
Local AS number : 400
Total number of peers : 3
Peer

AS

Peers in established state : 2

MsgRcvd

10.0.5.5

400

10.0.6.6

400

65

10.0.14.1

100

253

MsgSent

OutQ

69

206

Up/Down
00:59:43

State

PrefRcv

Idle(Admin)

00:53:18

Established

03:00:59

Established

<R6>display bgp peer


BGP local router ID : 10.0.6.6
Local AS number : 400
Total number of peers : 3
Peer

Peers in established state : 2

AS

MsgRcvd

MsgSent

OutQ

10.0.4.4

400

69

66

10.0.7.7

400

00:54:00

10.0.36.3

300

88

65

00:53:29

Up/Down

State

PrefRcv

00:53:28

Established
Idle
Established

6
0
6

Questions
Why BGP routes to service network segments on the devices in AS 400 have two
routing entries with the same next hop?
Since R5 and R7 in AS400 are both router reflector, they dont modify the next hop adds
when reflecting routers, that is, the router is all the same.
Are there multiple methods to meet requirement 6 and which method is the best one?
Imported from BGP to OSPF can be cancelled, after which BGP will have no need to
modify the router preference, and only the next hop adds is needed to modified, so that the
suboptimal route can b avoided. Comparatively, Cancelling importing BGP to OSPF is better.
What problems occur on the network after requirement 7 is met and why do these
problems occur?
When R5 and R7 are not involved in election, Business B must transfer traffic via
AS200 other than AS200 if the connection between R4 and R6 is broken down.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#

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sysname R1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.14.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.12.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2
ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.0.1.1
peer 10.0.12.2 as-number 200
peer 10.0.14.4 as-number 400
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
network 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
network 192.168.10.0
network 192.168.20.0
peer 10.0.12.2 enable
peer 10.0.14.4 enable

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#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 172.16.20.0 0.0.0.255
acl number 2001
rule 5 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.12.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.23.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 200
router-id 10.0.2.2
peer 10.0.12.1 as-number 100
peer 10.0.12.1 timer keepalive 30 hold 90
peer 10.0.23.3 as-number 300
peer 10.0.23.3 timer keepalive 30 hold 90
#
ipv4-family unicast

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undo synchronization
network 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255
peer 10.0.12.1 enable
peer 10.0.12.1 route-policy AS export
peer 10.0.23.3 enable
peer 10.0.23.3 route-policy MED export
#
route-policy AS permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
apply as-path 200 200 additive
#
route-policy AS permit node 20
#
route-policy MED permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
apply cost 200
#
route-policy MED permit node 20
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.23.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1

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ip address 10.0.36.3 255.255.255.0


#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 172.16.10.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack2
ip address 172.16.20.1 255.255.255.0
#
bgp 300
router-id 10.0.3.3
peer 10.0.23.2 as-number 200
peer 10.0.36.6 as-number 400
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
compare-different-as-med
network 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
network 172.16.10.0 255.255.255.0
network 172.16.20.0 255.255.255.0
peer 10.0.23.2 enable
peer 10.0.36.6 enable
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#

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sysname R4
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.5.5 0
acl number 2001
rule 5 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.45.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.14.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.46.4 255.255.255.0
ospf cost 100
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 400
router-id 10.0.4.4
peer 10.0.5.5 as-number 400
peer 10.0.5.5 ignore
peer 10.0.5.5 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.6.6 as-number 400
peer 10.0.6.6 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.14.1 as-number 100
#

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ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
preference 255 100 255
network 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
import-route ospf 1 route-policy O2B
peer 10.0.5.5 enable
peer 10.0.5.5 next-hop-local
peer 10.0.6.6 enable
peer 10.0.6.6 route-policy local export
peer 10.0.6.6 next-hop-local
peer 10.0.14.1 enable
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.4.4
import-route bgp route-policy B2O
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.4.4 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.45.4 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.46.4 0.0.0.0
#
route-policy O2B permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy local permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
apply ip-address next-hop 10.0.46.4
#
route-policy local permit node 20
#
route-policy B2O permit node 10

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if-match acl 2001


#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.57.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.45.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 400
router-id 10.0.5.5
peer 10.0.4.4 as-number 400
peer 10.0.4.4 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.7.7 as-number 400
peer 10.0.7.7 connect-interface LoopBack0
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
reflector cluster-id 1
network 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
peer 10.0.4.4 enable

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peer 10.0.4.4 reflect-client


peer 10.0.7.7 enable
peer 10.0.7.7 reflect-client
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.5.5
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.5.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.45.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.57.5 0.0.0.0
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 10.0.7.7 0
acl number 2001
rule 5 permit source 172.16.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.36.6 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.67.6 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 10.0.46.6 255.255.255.0

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ospf cost 100


#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.6.6 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 400
router-id 10.0.6.6
peer 10.0.4.4 as-number 400
peer 10.0.4.4 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.7.7 as-number 400
peer 10.0.7.7 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.7.7 listen-only
peer 10.0.36.3 as-number 300
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
preference 255 100 255
network 10.0.6.6 255.255.255.255
import-route ospf 1 route-policy O2B
peer 10.0.4.4 enable
peer 10.0.4.4 next-hop-local
peer 10.0.4.4 route-policy local export
peer 10.0.7.7 enable
peer 10.0.7.7 next-hop-local
peer 10.0.36.3 enable
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.6.6
import-route bgp route-policy B2O
area 0.0.0.0

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network 10.0.6.6 0.0.0.0


network 10.0.46.6 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.67.6 0.0.0.0
#
route-policy O2B permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
#
route-policy B2O permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
#
route-policy local permit node 10
if-match acl 2001
apply ip-address next-hop 10.0.46.6
#
route-policy local permit node 20
#
return

<R7>display current-configuration
#
sysname R7
#
acl number 2000
rule 5 permit source 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.67.7 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1

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ip address 10.0.57.7 255.255.255.0


#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.7.7 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 400
router-id 10.0.7.7
peer 10.0.5.5 as-number 400
peer 10.0.5.5 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.6.6 as-number 400
peer 10.0.6.6 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 10.0.6.6 listen-only
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
reflector cluster-id 2
reflect change-path-attribute
network 10.0.7.7 255.255.255.255
peer 10.0.5.5 enable
peer 10.0.5.5 reflect-client
peer 10.0.6.6 enable
peer 10.0.6.6 route-policy next export
peer 10.0.6.6 reflect-client
#
ospf 1 router-id 10.0.7.7
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.7.7 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.57.7 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.67.7 0.0.0.0

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#
route-policy next permit node 10
if-match acl 2000
apply ip-address next-hop 10.0.7.7
#
route-policy next permit node 20
#
return

Chapter 6 Route Import and Control Hands-on Exercise


Guide
Overview
You can configure route importing to enable protocols to exchange routing information.
Due to ever changing network environments, design defects, or misoperations, routing loops
may occur and sub-optimal routes may be generated. In this situation, network resources are
wasted, and communication failures may even occur. To prevent these problems, add some
matching conditions during route importing and use route policies for route control.
Route policies use different matching conditions and matching modes to select routes
and change route attributes. A route policy may consist of multiple nodes. Each node has the
permit or deny action. A route policy can reference other route selection tools such as ACL
and IP prefix list.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure an ACL and an IP prefix list.
Configure a route policy.
Filter routes in OSPF.
Filter routes in IS-IS.
Configure route importing in different scenarios.
Understand why routing loops occur.
Prevent routing loops.

Tasks
The topology shows the network of a company. OSPF runs in the company's
headquarters, and IS-IS runs in the company's branch. The headquarters and branch have
some service network segments. Network segments 172.16.1.0/24, 172.16.3.0/24,
192.168.1.0/24, and 192.168.3.0/24 are service A network segments, and network segments
172.16.2.0/24, 172.16.4.0/24, 192.168.2.0/24, and 192.168.43.0/24 are service B network
segments. Deploy the network according to the following requirements:
(1) Build an OSPF network for the headquarters and an IS-IS network for the branch according to
the topology. Minimize the number of routing entries to be maintained by the devices in OSPF
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Area 1.
(2) Import IS-IS routes on R1 into OSPF, and import OSPF routes on R2 into IS-IS. Perform
correct commissioning to ensure that service network segments communicate normally.
(3) Deploy bidirectional route importing on R1 and R2 to prevent single-point failures between
the headquarters and branch from resulting in network disconnection. Perform correct
commissioning to ensure that service network segments communicate normally.
(4) Implement load balancing on traffic between the headquarters and branch to ensure that traffic
of service A is forwarded through R1, and traffic of service B is forwarded through R2.
(5) Forward traffic of service A and traffic of service B in OSPF Area 1 of the headquarters using
different links to implement load balancing. Do not use any route policy.

Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4

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Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G 0/0/0

10.0.13.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.14.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.23.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.24.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.13.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.23.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.0.14.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.0.24.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/0

10.0.45.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

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S 1/0/1

10.0.54.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

S 1/0/0

10.0.45.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/1

10.0.54.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.0.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

R5

Configuration and Verification


1.

Build an OSPF network for the headquarters and an IS-IS network for the
branch according to the topology. Minimize the number of routing entries to
be maintained by the devices in OSPF Area 1.
Perform basic configuration according to the IP address table, and then check the
establishment of OSPF and IS-IS neighbor relationships.
<R1>display ospf peer
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.1.1
Neighbors
Area 0.0.0.0 interface 10.0.14.1(GigabitEthernet0/0/1)'s neighbors
Router ID: 10.0.4.4
State: Full

Address: 10.0.14.4

Mode:Nbr is

DR: 10.0.14.1

Master

BDR: 10.0.14.4

Dead timer due in 39

Priority: 1

MTU: 0

sec

Retrans timer interval: 5


Neighbor is up for 03:13:21
Authentication Sequence: [ 0 ]

<R1>display isis peer


Peer information for ISIS(1)
System Id

Interface

Circuit Id

State HoldTime Type

PRI

------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0003

GE0/0/0

0000.0000.0003.01 Up

8s

L1(L1L2) 64

0000.0000.0003

GE0/0/0

0000.0000.0003.01 Up

7s

L2(L1L2) 64

Total Peer(s): 2

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Import IS-IS routes on R1 into OSPF, and import OSPF routes on R2 into
IS-IS. Perform correct commissioning to ensure that service network
segments communicate normally.
Note: ISIS need wide metric to carry tag with route. Pay attention to the external ospf
route imported by R5.
After configuration, we can see that R1 has imported the ISIS route by check the LSDB
on R4 ; also we can see R2 has imported the OSPF route .
<R4>display ospf lsdb
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.0.4.4
AS External Database
Type

LinkState ID

AdvRouter

Age

Len

Sequence

Metric

External

172.16.4.0

10.0.4.4

1558

36

80000001

External

172.16.2.0

10.0.4.4

1558

36

80000001

External

172.16.3.0

10.0.4.4

1558

36

80000001

External

172.16.1.0

10.0.4.4

1558

36

80000001

External

192.168.4.0

10.0.1.1

824

36

80000001

External

192.168.2.0

10.0.1.1

824

36

80000001

External

192.168.3.0

10.0.1.1

824

36

80000001

External

192.168.1.0

10.0.1.1

825

36

80000001

<R3>display isis lsdb level-2


Database information for ISIS(1)
Level-2 Link State Database
LSPID

Seq Num

Checksum

Holdtime

Length

ATT/P/OL

0000.0000.0002.00-00

0x0000001b

0x23f

1024

80

0/0/0

0000.0000.0002.00-01

0x00000002

0x375f

1024

213

0/0/0

<R3>display isis lsdb level-2 0000.0000.0002.00-01 ver


Database information for ISIS(1)
Level-2 Link State Database

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LSPID

Seq Num

0000.0000.0002.00-01
SOURCE

Confidentiality Level
Checksum

0x00000002

Holdtime

0x375f

865

Length
213

ATT/P/OL
0/0/0

0000.0000.0002.00

.
+IP-Extended

172.16.1.0

255.255.255.0

COST: 0

Tag: 200

+IP-Extended

172.16.2.0

255.255.255.0

COST: 0

Tag: 200

+IP-Extended

172.16.3.0

255.255.255.0

COST: 0

Tag: 200

+IP-Extended

172.16.4.0

255.255.255.0

COST: 0

Tag: 200

Total LSP(s): 1
*(In TLV)-Leaking Route, *(By LSPID)-Self LSP, +-Self LSP(Extended),
ATT-Attached, P-Partition, OL-Overload

3.

Deploy bidirectional route importing on R1 and R2 to prevent single-point


failures between the headquarters and branch from resulting in network
disconnection. Perform correct commissioning to ensure that service
network segments communicate normally.
Note: the solution is the same as the before.

4.

Implement load balancing on traffic between the headquarters and branch


to ensure that traffic of service A is forwarded through R1, and traffic of
service B is forwarded through R2.
Note: we can apply cost to specified routes when import route.
<R3>display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

172.16.1.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

110

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

172.16.2.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

110

10.0.23.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

172.16.3.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

110

10.0.13.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

172.16.4.0/24

ISIS-L2 15

110

10.0.23.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

<R4>display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask
192.168.1.0/24

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Proto
O_ASE

Pre
150

Cost

100

Flags NextHop
D

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192.168.2.0/24

O_ASE

150

100

10.0.24.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

192.168.3.0/24

O_ASE

150

100

10.0.14.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

192.168.4.0/24

O_ASE

150

100

10.0.24.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

5.

Forward traffic of service A and traffic of service B in OSPF Area 1 of the


headquarters using different links to implement load balancing. Do not use
any route policy.
Note: Use policy route. In this requirement we need to use interface policy route.
<R4>display traffic policy user-defined
User Defined Traffic Policy Information:
Policy: loadbalance
Classifier: serviceA
Operator: OR
Behavior: SAbeh
Redirect:
Redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.45.5
Classifier: serviceB
Operator: OR
Behavior: SBbeh
Redirect:
Redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.54.5

<R5>display traffic policy user-defined


User Defined Traffic Policy Information:
Policy: loadbalance
Classifier: serviceA
Operator: OR
Behavior: SAbeh
Redirect:

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Redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.45.4


Classifier: serviceB
Operator: OR
Behavior: SBbeh
Redirect:
Redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.54.4

Questions
Which problems will occur on the network after requirement 2 is met and how many
methods are available to solve the problems?
Which problems will occur on the network after requirement 3 is met? Why do these
problems occur? What are the differences between the problems in requirement 2 and
requirement 3?
How many methods are available to meet requirement 4 and how to select a correct
method?
What problem occurs on the network after requirement 5 is met and why do these
problems occur?

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
router id 10.0.1.1
#
acl number 2000
rule 10 permit source 172.16.1.0 0.0.2.0
acl number 2001
rule 10 permit source 172.16.0.0 0.0.6.0
acl number 2010
rule 10 permit source 192.168.1.0 0.0.2.0
acl number 2011
rule 10 permit source 192.168.0.0 0.0.6.0

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#
isis 1
cost-style wide
network-entity 10.0000.0000.0001.00
import-route ospf 1 route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.13.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.14.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1
import-route isis 1 route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF
preference ase route-policy OSPF-PREFERENCE 150
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.1.1 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.14.0 0.0.0.255
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF deny node 10
if-match tag 200
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 20
if-match acl 2010
apply cost 100

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apply tag 100


#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 30
if-match acl 2011
apply cost 500
apply tag 100
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 40
apply tag 100
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS deny node 10
if-match tag 400
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 20
if-match acl 2000
apply cost 100
apply tag 300
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 30
if-match acl 2001
apply cost 500
apply tag 300
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 40
apply tag 300
#
route-policy OSPF-PREFERENCE permit node 10
if-match tag 55
apply preference 12

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#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
acl number 2000
rule 10 permit source 172.16.1.0 0.0.2.0
acl number 2001
rule 10 permit source 172.16.0.0 0.0.6.0
acl number 2010
rule 10 permit source 192.168.1.0 0.0.2.0
acl number 2011
rule 10 permit source 192.168.0.0 0.0.6.0
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
network-entity 10.0000.0000.0002.00
import-route ospf 1 route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.23.2 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.24.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0

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ip address 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.255


#
ospf 1
import-route isis 1 route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF
preference ase route-policy OSPF-PREFERENCE 150
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.2.2 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.24.0 0.0.0.255
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS deny node 10
if-match tag 100
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 20
if-match acl 2000
apply cost 500
apply tag 200
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 30
if-match acl 2001
apply cost 100
apply tag 200
#
route-policy OSPF-TO-ISIS permit node 40
apply tag 200
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF deny node 10
if-match tag 300
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 20

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if-match acl 2010


apply cost 500
apply tag 400
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 30
if-match acl 2011
apply cost 100
apply tag 400
#
route-policy ISIS-TO-OSPF permit node 40
apply tag 400
#
route-policy OSPF-PREFERENCE permit node 10
if-match tag 55
apply preference 12
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
network-entity 10.0000.0000.0003.00
import-route direct route-policy dirin
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.13.3 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1

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#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.23.3 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 sub
ip address 192.168.3.1 255.255.255.0 sub
ip address 192.168.4.1 255.255.255.0 sub
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.3.3 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
route-policy dirin permit node 20
if-match interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
acl number 2000
rule 10 permit source 192.168.1.0 0.0.2.255
acl number 2001
rule 10 permit source 192.168.0.0 0.0.6.255
#

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traffic classifier serviceA operator or


if-match acl 2000
traffic classifier serviceB operator or
if-match acl 2001
#
traffic behavior SAbeh
redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.45.5
traffic behavior SBbeh
redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.54.5
#
traffic policy loadbalance
classifier serviceA behavior SAbeh
classifier serviceB behavior SBbeh
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.45.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.54.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.0.14.4 255.255.255.0
traffic-policy loadbalance inbound
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.0.24.4 255.255.255.0
traffic-policy loadbalance inbound

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#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.4.4 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.4.4 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.14.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.0.24.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.1
network 10.0.45.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.0.54.0 0.0.0.255
nssa no-summary
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
acl number 2000
rule 10 permit source 172.16.1.0 0.0.2.255
acl number 2001
rule 10 permit source 172.16.0.0 0.0.6.255
#
traffic classifier serviceA operator or
if-match acl 2000
traffic classifier serviceB operator or
if-match acl 2001

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#
traffic behavior SAbeh
redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.45.4
traffic behavior SBbeh
redirect ip-nexthop 10.0.54.4
#
traffic policy loadbalance
classifier serviceA behavior SAbeh
classifier serviceB behavior SBbeh
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.45.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.0.54.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0 sub
ip address 172.16.3.1 255.255.255.0 sub
ip address 172.16.4.1 255.255.255.0 sub
traffic-policy loadbalance inbound
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.0.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1

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import-route direct route-policy dirin


area 0.0.0.1
network 10.0.5.5 0.0.0.0
network 10.0.45.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.0.54.0 0.0.0.255
nssa no-summary
#
route-policy dirin permit node 10
if-match interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
apply tag 55
#
return

Chapter 7 VLAN Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
The Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) technology divides a physical LAN into
multiple broadcast domains (VLANs). Hosts within a VLAN can communicate with each
other, whereas hosts in different VLANs cannot communicate with each other. As a result,
broadcast packets are limited into each VLAN.
VLANs can be assigned based on ports, MAC addresses, IP subnets, network protocols,
and policies. Different VLAN packets are encapsulated using 802.1Q, differentiated based on
the tag field, and processed according to port attributes.
There are enhanced features such as VLAN aggregation and MUX VLAN.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Explain VLAN assignment modes.
Configure VLAN aggregation.
Configure MUX VLAN.
Configure inter-VLAN communication.
Configure port isolation.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Create VLANs 12, 13, 24, 112, 103, 212, 312, 334, 305, 401, and 402 on SW1, SW2,
SW3, and SW4.
(2) Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW1 to VLAN 112 and E0/0/3 to VLAN 103.
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(3) Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW2 to VLAN 212.


(4) Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW3 to VLAN 312, E0/0/3 and E0/0/4 to VLAN 334, and
E0/0/5 to VLAN 305.
(5) On SW4, add PC41 with the MAC address of 5489-98CF-447F and IP address of
4.1.1.1 to VLAN 401, and PC42 with the MAC address of 5489-98CF-E17D and IP
address of 4.2.2.2 to VLAN 402.
(6) On SW1, implement Layer 2 isolation and Layer 3 forwarding between VLAN 112 and
VLAN 103. Create VLAN 104 and assign the IP address of 1.0.0.254/24 to VLANIF
104.
(7) On SW2, implement Layer 2 isolation and Layer 3 connectivity between PC21 and
PC22 in VLAN 212. Create VLAN 212 and assign the IP address of 2.0.0.254/24 to
VLANIF 212.
(8) On SW3, enable devices in VLAN 312 and VLAN 334 to communicate with devices in
VLAN 305. Enable isolation between VLAN 312 and VLAN 334, and prevent PC33
and PC34 in VLAN 334 from communicating with one another.
(9) On SW4, implement communication between VLAN 401 and VLAN 402. Assign IP
addresses of 4.1.1.254/24 and 4.2.2.254/24 to VLANIF 401 and VLANIF 402.
(10) Enable PCs in VLAN 312, VLAN 334, and VLAN 305 to exchange information with
VLANIF 305 on SW4.
(11) Create VLANIF interfaces according to the network topology. Configure interface
attributes, and configure interfaces to allow VLANs 12, 13, 24, 112, 103, 212, 312, 334,
305, 401 and 402.
(12) Run RIPv2 and disable RIP summarization on SW1, SW2, SW3, and SW4. Enable SW1
to advertise routes of VLANIF 12, VLANIF 13, and VLANIF 104 to RIPv2. Enable
SW2 to advertise routes of VLANIF 12, VLANIF 24, and VLANIF 202 to RIPv2.
Enable SW3 to advertise routes of VLANIF 13 to RIP, and enable SW4 to advertise
routes of VLANIF 24, VLANIF 305, VLANIF 401, and VLANIF 402 to RIPv2.
Implement communication between the different network segments.

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Topology

IP Address Table
Device

Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

VLANIF 12

12.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 13

13.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 104

1.0.0.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 12

12.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 24

24.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 212

2.0.0.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 13

13.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 24

24.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 305

3.0.0.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 401

4.1.1.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

VLANIF 402

4.2.2.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC11

E0/0/1

1.0.0.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC12

E0/0/1

1.0.0.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC13

E0/0/1

1.0.0.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

SW1

SW2

SW3

SW4

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PC21

E0/0/1

2.0.0.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC22

E0/0/1

2.0.0.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC31

E0/0/1

3.0.0.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC32

E0/0/1

3.0.0.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC33

E0/0/1

3.0.0.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC34

E0/0/1

3.0.0.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC35

E0/0/1

3.0.0.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC41

E0/0/1

4.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

4.1.1.254

PC42

E0/0/1

4.2.2.2

255.255.255.0

4.2.2.254

Configuration and Verification


1.

Create VLANs 12, 13, 24, 112, 103, 212, 312, 334, 305, 401 and 402 on SW1,
SW2, SW3, and SW4.
Configure VLANs and run the display vlan summary command to check the summary
of VLANs. The display on SW1 is used as an example. (The following table lists only key
information, and as such some information is omitted.)
[SW1]display vlan summary
static vlan:
Total 12 static vlan.
1 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334
401 to 402
dynamic vlan:
Total 0 dynamic vlan.
reserved vlan:
Total 0 reserved vlan.

Perform the configuration according to the requirements and prevent configuration


errors.

2.

Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW1 to VLAN 112 and E0/0/3 to VLAN 103.
After this operation is performed, run the display vlan command to check information
about interfaces in VLANs. The display on SW1 is used as an example. (The following table
lists only key information, and as such some information is omitted.)
[SW1]display vlan
VID

Type

Ports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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1

common

UT:Eth0/0/2(U)

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Eth0/0/4(D)

Eth0/0/5(D)

Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/11(U)

Eth0/0/12(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)

12

common

13

common

24

common

103

common

UT:Eth0/0/3(U)

112

common

UT:Eth0/0/1(U)

Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/2(U)

To meet the requirements, use interface-based VLAN assignment.


Run the display vlan vlan id command to verify the result.

3.

Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW2 to VLAN 212.


After this operation is performed, run the display vlan command to check information
about interface-based VLAN assignment. The display on SW2 is used as an example.
[SW2]display vlan
VID

Type

Ports

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

common

12

common

13

common

24

common

103

common

112

common

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Eth0/0/4(D)

Eth0/0/5(D)

Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/11(U)

Eth0/0/12(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)

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212

common

UT:Eth0/0/1(U)

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Eth0/0/2(U)

Run the display vlan vlan id command to verify the result.

4.

Add E0/0/1 and E0/0/2 on SW3 to VLAN 312, E0/0/3 and E0/0/4 to VLAN
334, and E0/0/5 to VLAN 305.
After this operation is performed, run the display vlan command to check information
about VLAN assignment. The display on SW3 is used as an example.
[SW3]display vlan
The total number of vlans is : 12
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------U: Up;

D: Down;

TG: Tagged;

MP: Vlan-mapping;

UT: Untagged;

ST: Vlan-stacking;

#: ProtocolTransparent-vlan;

*: Management-vlan;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------VID

Type

Ports

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

5.

common

UT:Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

Eth0/0/12(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)

12

common

13

common

24

common

103

common

112

common

212

common

305

common

UT:Eth0/0/5(U)

312

common

UT:Eth0/0/1(U)

Eth0/0/2(U)

334

common

UT:Eth0/0/3(U)

Eth0/0/4(U)

On SW4, add PC41 with the MAC address of 5489-98CF-447F and IP


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address of 4.1.1.1 to VLAN 401, and PC42 with the MAC address of
5489-98CF-E17D and IP address of 4.2.2.2 to VLAN 402.
After this operation is performed, run the display policy-vlan all command on SW4 to
check the current policy-based VLAN assignment.
[SW4]display policy-vlan all
-----------------------------------------------------------------------MacAddress

IPAddress

Port

Vlan

Priority

-----------------------------------------------------------------------5489-98cf-447f

4.1.1.1

NA

401

5489-98cf-e17d

4.2.2.2

NA

402

------------------------------------------------------------------------

VLANs can be assigned based on ports, MAC addresses, IP subnets, network protocols,
and policies. Determine the VLAN assignment mode according to the requirements. During
VLAN assignment, pay attention to interface attributes.
Run the display vlan command to verify the result.

6.

On SW1, implement Layer 2 isolation and Layer 3 forwarding between


VLAN 112 and VLAN 103. Create VLAN 104 and assign the IP address of
1.0.0.254/24 to VLANIF 104.
Notewhen we want to forward packet between two separated different vlans, inter-vlan
arp-proxy need to be enabled.
After this operation is performed, run the display sub-vlan or display super-vlan
command on SW4 to check sub-VLANs or super-VLANs.
[SW1]display sub-vlan
VLAN ID

Super-vlan

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------103

104

112

104

[SW1]display super-vlan
VLAN ID

Sub-vlan

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------104

103 112

After the configuration is complete, perform connectivity test for VLAN 112 and VLAN
103.

7.

On SW2, implement Layer 2 isolation and Layer 3 connectivity between


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PC21 and PC22 in VLAN 212. Create VLAN 212 and assign the IP address
of 2.0.0.254/24 to VLANIF 212.
Notewhen we want to forward packet between two separated ports inside one vlan,
inner-vlan arp-proxy need to be enabled.
After this operation is performed, run the display port-isolate command to verify the
configuration.
[SW2]display port-isolate group all
The ports in isolate group 1:
Ethernet0/0/1

Ethernet0/0/2

According to the requirement, isolation between VLANs needs to be configured. After


this operation is performed, check whether PC21 can communicate with PC22.

8.

On SW3, enable devices in VLAN 312 and VLAN 334 to communicate with
devices in VLAN 305. Enable isolation between VLAN 312 and VLAN 334,
implement communication between PC31 and PC32 in VLAN 312, and
prevent PC33 and PC34 in VLAN 334 from communicating with one
another.
After this operation is performed, check the results on SW4.
[SW3]display mux-vlan
Principal Subordinate Type

Interface

----------------------------------------------------------------------------305

principal

305

334

separate

305

312

group

Ethernet0/0/5
Ethernet0/0/3 Ethernet0/0/4
Ethernet0/0/1 Ethernet0/0/2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Run the display vlan command to verify the result.

9.

On SW4, implement communication between VLAN 401 and VLAN 402.


Assign IP addresses of 4.1.1.254/24 and 4.2.2.254/24 to VLANIF 401 and
VLANIF 402.
Note: for a PC to send packet to a destination out of the same network, the gateway
address should be configured on the PC.
After this operation is performed, run the ping command to check connectivity between
VLANs.
[PC41]ping 4.2.2.2
PING 4.2.2.2: 32

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 4.2.2.2: bytes=32 Sequence=1 ttl=127 time=16 ms


Reply from 4.2.2.2: bytes=32 Sequence=2 ttl=127 time=16 ms

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Reply from 4.2.2.2: bytes=32 Sequence=3 ttl=127 time=31 ms


Reply from 4.2.2.2: bytes=32 Sequence=4 ttl=127 time=31 ms
Reply from 4.2.2.2: bytes=32 Sequence=5 ttl=127 time=16 ms
--- 4.2.2.2 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 16/22/31 ms

You can use the router-on-a-stick and VLANIF interface to implement communication
between VLANs.

10. Enable PCs in VLAN 312, VLAN 334, and VLAN 305 to exchange
information with VLANIF 305 on SW4.
After this operation is performed, run the ping command to check connectivity between
VLANs.
[PC31]ping 3.0.0.254
PING 3.0.0.254: 32

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 3.0.0.254: bytes=32 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=63 ms


Reply from 3.0.0.254: bytes=32 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=62 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.254: bytes=32 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=47 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.254: bytes=32 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=47 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.254: bytes=32 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=31 ms
--- 3.0.0.254 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 31/50/63 ms

S4 becomes the gateway of the MUX VLAN to meet this requirement.

11. Create VLANIF interfaces according to the network topology. Configure


interface attributes, and configure the interfaces to allow VLANs 12, 13, 24,
112, 103, 212, 312, 334, 305, 401 and 402.
After this operation is performed, run the display vlan and display ip interface
commands to check information about VLANs and IP addresses. The display on SW1 is used
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as an example. (The following table lists only key information, and as such some information
is omitted.)
[SW1]display vlan
The total number of vlans is : 13
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------U: Up;

D: Down;

TG: Tagged;

MP: Vlan-mapping;

UT: Untagged;

ST: Vlan-stacking;

#: ProtocolTransparent-vlan;

*: Management-vlan;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------VID

Type

Ports

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

common

UT:Eth0/0/4(D)

Eth0/0/5(D)

Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

Eth0/0/12(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)
12

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

13

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

24

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

103

sub

UT:Eth0/0/3(U)

104

super

112

sub

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

UT:Eth0/0/1(U)

Eth0/0/2(U)

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

212

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

305

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

312

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

334

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

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401

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

402

common

TG:Eth0/0/10(U)

Eth0/0/11(U)

[SW1]display ip interface brief


Interface

IP Address/Mask

Physical

Protocol

Vlanif12

12.1.1.1/24

up

up

Vlanif13

13.1.1.1/24

up

up

Vlanif104

1.0.0.254/24

up

up

12. Run RIPv2 and disable RIP summarization on SW1, SW2, SW3, and SW4.
Enable SW1 to advertise routes of VLANIF 12, VLANIF 13, and VLANIF
104 to RIPv2. Enable SW2 to advertise routes of VLANIF 12, VLANIF 24,
and VLANIF 202 to RIPv2. Enable SW3 to advertise routes of VLANIF 13 to
RIP, and enable SW4 to advertise routes of VLANIF 24, VLANIF 305,
VLANIF 401, and VLANIF 402 to RIPv2. Implement communication of
different network segments.
After this operation is performed, run the display ip routing-table command to check
information about routes. The display on SW1 is used as an example. (The following table
lists only key information, and as such some information is omitted.) Once verified, perform
the ping operation.
[SW1]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask

Proto

1.0.0.0/24

Direct

2.0.0.0/24

RIP

3.0.0.0/24

Pre
0

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

1.0.0.254

Vlanif104

100

12.1.1.2

Vlanif12

RIP

100

12.1.1.2

Vlanif12

4.1.1.0/24

RIP

100

12.1.1.2

Vlanif12

4.2.2.0/24

RIP

100

12.1.1.2

Vlanif12

12.1.1.0/24

Direct

12.1.1.1

Vlanif12

13.1.1.0/24

Direct

13.1.1.1

Vlanif13

24.1.1.0/24

RIP

12.1.1.2

Vlanif12

100

[PC11]ping 3.0.0.2
PING 3.0.0.2: 32

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Reply from 3.0.0.2: bytes=32 Sequence=1 ttl=125 time=140 ms


Reply from 3.0.0.2: bytes=32 Sequence=2 ttl=125 time=125 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.2: bytes=32 Sequence=3 ttl=125 time=125 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.2: bytes=32 Sequence=4 ttl=125 time=94 ms
Reply from 3.0.0.2: bytes=32 Sequence=5 ttl=125 time=109 ms
--- 3.0.0.2 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 94/118/140 ms

Questions
Can multiple MAC addresses and IP addresses be associated with one VLAN for
requirement 5?
For requirement 10, why is VLANIF 305 on SW4 used as the gateway? Can an IP
address be configured in the MUX VLAN?

Configuration List
<SW1>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW1
#
vlan batch 12 to 13 24 103 to 104 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
vlan 104
aggregate-vlan
access-vlan 103 112
#
interface Vlanif12
ip address 12.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#

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interface Vlanif13
ip address 13.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif104
ip address 1.0.0.254 255.255.255.0
arp-proxy inter-sub-vlan-proxy enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type access
port default vlan 112
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port link-type access
port default vlan 112
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type access
port default vlan 103
#
interface Ethernet0/0/10
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
interface Ethernet0/0/11
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
rip 1
undo summary

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version 2
network 12.0.0.0
network 13.0.0.0
network 1.0.0.0
#
return

<SW2>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW2
#
vlan batch 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
interface Vlanif12
ip address 12.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif24
ip address 24.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif212
ip address 2.0.0.254 255.255.255.0
arp-proxy inner-sub-vlan-proxy enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type access
port default vlan 212
port-isolate enable group 1
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2

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port link-type access


port default vlan 212
port-isolate enable group 1
#
interface Ethernet0/0/10
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
interface Ethernet0/0/11
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
rip 1
undo summary
version 2
network 12.0.0.0
network 24.0.0.0
network 2.0.0.0
#
return

<SW3>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW3
#
vlan batch 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
vlan 305
mux-vlan

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subordinate separate 334


subordinate group 312
#
interface Vlanif13
ip address 13.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type access
port default vlan 312
port mux-vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port link-type access
port default vlan 312
port mux-vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type access
port default vlan 334
port mux-vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type access
port default vlan 334
port mux-vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/5
port link-type access
port default vlan 305

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port mux-vlan enable


#
interface Ethernet0/0/10
port link-type access
port default vlan 305
port mux-vlan enable
#
interface Ethernet0/0/11
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
rip 1
undo summary
version 2
network 13.0.0.0
#
return

<SW4>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW4
#
vlan batch 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
vlan 401
policy-vlan mac-address 5489-98cf-447f ip 4.1.1.1
vlan 402
policy-vlan mac-address 5489-98cf-e17d ip 4.2.2.2
#

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interface Vlanif24
ip address 24.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif305
ip address 3.0.0.254 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif401
ip address 4.1.1.254 255.255.255.0
#
interface Vlanif402
ip address 4.2.2.254 255.255.255.0
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port hybrid pvid vlan 401
port hybrid untagged vlan 401
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port hybrid pvid vlan 402
port hybrid untagged vlan 402
#
interface Ethernet0/0/10
port link-type access
port default vlan 305
#
interface Ethernet0/0/11
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 12 to 13 24 103 112 212 305 312 334 401 to 402
#
rip 1

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undo summary
version 2
network 24.0.0.0
network 3.0.0.0
network 4.0.0.0
#
return

Chapter 8 LAN Layer 2 Technology Hands-on Exercise


Guide
Overview
LAN Layer 2 technologies include the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Media
Access Control (MAC), Ethernet link aggregation, and Generic Attribute Registration
Protocol (GARP) VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP).
ARP maps IP addresses to MAC addresses. Proxy ARP solves network connectivity
problems. Gratuitous ARP enables a host to send an ARP Request packet using its own IP
address as the destination address.
A MAC address defines the position of a network device. A MAC address consists of 48
bits and is displayed as a 12-digit hexadecimal number. Bits 0 to 23 are assigned by IETF and
other institutions to identify vendors, and bits 24 to 47 are the unique ID assigned by vendors
to identify their network adapters.
Ethernet link aggregation bundles multiple physical links to form a logical link to
increase link bandwidth, improve reliability, and implement load balancing.
Through GARP, GVRP is used to dynamically maintain VLAN attributes on devices.
GVRP propagates VLAN attributes of one device throughout the entire switching network.
GVRP enables network devices to dynamically deliver, register, and propagate VLAN
attributes, thereby reducing workload of the network administrator and ensuring correct
configuration.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure ARP broadcast.
Configure the MAC address table.
Configure link aggregation.
Configure GVRP.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Create VLAN 12 and VLAN 21 on SW1 and SW2, and create VLAN 34 on SW3 and SW4.
(2) On SW2, add E0/0/11 to VLAN 12 and E0/0/12 to VLAN 21; add E0/0/13 on SW3 to VLAN
34; add E0/0/14 on SW4 to VLAN 34.
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(3) Configure static LACP between SW1 and SW2, configure SW1 as the Actor and the link
connected to E0/0/2 as the backup link, and set the timeout interval to 3 seconds.
(4) Configure interconnected interfaces of switches as trunk interfaces and configure them to
allow all VLANs.
(5) Enable GVRP on each switch, SW3 never learn the VLAN information carried by GVRP, and
implement communication between PC3 and PC4.
(6) Implement communication between PC1 and PC2 through R1.
(7) Set the maximum number of MAC addresses learned by E0/0/13 on SW3 to 2, and configure
an interface in error-down state and enable the device to generate alarms when the number of
learned MAC addresses reaches the limit. There is no need to consider MAC address loss
after device restart.

Topology

IP Address Table
Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G0/0/1.1

12.1.1.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

G0/0/1.2

21.1.1.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC1

12.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

12.1.1.254

PC2

21.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

21.1.1.254

PC3

34.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC4

34.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Device

R1

Gateway

Configuration and Verification


1.

Create VLAN 12 and VLAN 21 on SW1 and SW2, and create VLAN 34 on
SW3 and SW4.
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After this operation is performed, run the display vlan summary command to check the
summary of VLANs. The display on SW2 is used as an example.
[SW2]display vlan summary
static vlan:
Total 3 static vlan.
1 12 21
dynamic vlan:
Total 0 dynamic vlan.
reserved vlan:
Total 0 reserved vlan.

2.

On SW2, add E0/0/11 to VLAN 12 and E0/0/12 to VLAN 21; add E0/0/13 on
SW3 to VLAN 34; add E0/0/14 on SW4 to VLAN 34.
After this operation is performed, run the display vlan command to check information
about interfaces and VLANs. The display on SW2 is used as an example. (The following
table lists only key information, and as such some information is omitted.)
[SW2]display vlan
The total number of vlans is : 3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------U: Up;

D: Down;

TG: Tagged;

MP: Vlan-mapping;

UT: Untagged;

ST: Vlan-stacking;

#: ProtocolTransparent-vlan;

*: Management-vlan;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------VID

Type

Ports

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

12

common

common

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UT:Eth0/0/1(U)

Eth0/0/2(U)

Eth0/0/3(U)

Eth0/0/4(U)

Eth0/0/5(D)

Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/10(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)

UT:Eth0/0/11(U)

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21

3.

common

Confidentiality Level

UT:Eth0/0/12(U)

Configure static LACP between SW1 and SW2, configure SW1 as the Actor
and the link connected to E0/0/2 as the backup link, and set the timeout
interval to 3 seconds.
After this operation is performed, run the display eth-trunk command to check link
aggregation information. The display on SW1 is used as an example.
[SW1]display eth-trunk 12
Eth-Trunk12's state information is:
Local:
LAG ID: 12

WorkingMode: STATIC

Preempt Delay: Disabled

Hash arithmetic: According to SIP-XOR-DIP

System Priority: 0

System ID: 4c1f-cc3f-01c3

Least Active-linknumber: 1
Operate status: up

Max Active-linknumber: 1
Number Of Up Port In Trunk: 1

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ActorPortName

Status

PortType PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState Weight

Ethernet0/0/1

Selected 1000TG

32768

3217

11111100

Ethernet0/0/2

Unselect 1000TG

65535

3217

11100000

Partner:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ActorPortName

SysPri

SystemID

PortPri PortNo PortKey PortState

Ethernet0/0/1

32768

4c1f-cc3b-8582

32768

3217

11111100

Ethernet0/0/2

32768

4c1f-cc3b-8582

32768

3217

11110000

When configuring link aggregation, notice that the LACP timeout interval can use fast
and slow modes.
Run the display interface eth-trunk and display trunkfwdtbl eth-trunk commands to
verify the result:

4.

Configure interconnected interfaces of switches as trunk interfaces and


configure them to allow all VLANs.
After this operation is performed, run the display vlan command to check VLAN
information of SW2.
[SW2]display vlan

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The total number of vlans is : 3


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------U: Up;

D: Down;

TG: Tagged;

MP: Vlan-mapping;

UT: Untagged;

ST: Vlan-stacking;

#: ProtocolTransparent-vlan;

*: Management-vlan;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------VID

Type

Ports

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

common

UT:Eth0/0/3(U)

Eth0/0/4(U)

Eth0/0/5(D)

Eth0/0/6(D)

Eth0/0/7(D)

Eth0/0/8(D)

Eth0/0/9(D)

Eth0/0/10(D)

Eth0/0/13(D)

Eth0/0/14(D)

Eth0/0/15(D)

Eth0/0/16(D)

Eth0/0/17(D)

Eth0/0/18(D)

Eth0/0/19(D)

Eth0/0/20(D)

Eth0/0/21(D)

Eth0/0/22(D)

GE0/0/1(D)

GE0/0/2(D)

Eth0/0/4(U)

Eth-Trunk12(U)

Eth0/0/4(U)

Eth-Trunk12(U)

Eth-Trunk12(U)
12

common

UT:Eth0/0/11(U)
TG:Eth0/0/3(U)

21

common

UT:Eth0/0/12(U)
TG:Eth0/0/3(U)

5.

Enable GVRP on each switch, SW3 never learn the vlan information carried
by GVRP, and implement communication between PC3 and PC4.
After this operation is performed, run the display gvrp statistics command to check
GVRP statistics about SW3.
[SW3]display gvrp statistics
GVRP statistics on port Ethernet0/0/3
GVRP status

: Enabled

GVRP registrations failed

: 46

GVRP last PDU origin

: 4c1f-cc3b-8582

GVRP registration type

: Fixed

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[PC4]ping 34.1.1.3
PING 34.1.1.3: 32

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 34.1.1.3: bytes=32 Sequence=1 ttl=128 time=79 ms


Reply from 34.1.1.3: bytes=32 Sequence=2 ttl=128 time=62 ms
Reply from 34.1.1.3: bytes=32 Sequence=3 ttl=128 time=63 ms
Reply from 34.1.1.3: bytes=32 Sequence=4 ttl=128 time=62 ms
Reply from 34.1.1.3: bytes=32 Sequence=5 ttl=128 time=31 ms
--- 34.1.1.3 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 31/59/79 ms

Notice that GVRP provides three registration modes. GVRP provides different
functions in different modes. Configure a registration mode according to the requirements.
Run the following command to verify the result:
display gvrp status

6.

Implement communication between PC1 and PC2 through R1.


After this operation is performed, perform the ping operation on PC1.
[PC1]ping 21.1.1.1
PING 21.1.1.1: 32

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 21.1.1.1: bytes=32 Sequence=1 ttl=127 time=109 ms


Reply from 21.1.1.1: bytes=32 Sequence=2 ttl=127 time=94 ms
Reply from 21.1.1.1: bytes=32 Sequence=3 ttl=127 time=109 ms
Reply from 21.1.1.1: bytes=32 Sequence=4 ttl=127 time=94 ms
Reply from 21.1.1.1: bytes=32 Sequence=5 ttl=127 time=78 ms
--- 21.1.1.1 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 79/96/109 ms

You can use the router-on-a-stick and VLANIF interface to implement communication
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between VLANs. Select a technique according to the requirements.

7.

Set the maximum number of MAC addresses learned by E0/0/13 on SW3 to


2, and configure an interface in error-down state and enable the device to
generate alarms when the number of learned MAC addresses reaches the
limit. There is no need to consider MAC address loss after device restart.
After this operation is performed, perform the ping operation on PC3.
[SW3]display mac-address security vlan 34
MAC address table of slot 0:
------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Address

VLAN/
VSI/SI

PEVLAN CEVLAN Port

Type

LSP/LSR-ID

MAC-Tunnel

------------------------------------------------------------------------------5489-98cf-3447 34

Eth0/0/13

security

------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total matching items on slot 0 displayed = 1

The port security function changes MAC addresses learned on an interface into secure
dynamic MAC addresses and sticky MAC addresses. There are differences between secure
dynamic MAC addresses and sticky MAC addresses in terms of aging and MAC address loss
after device restart.

Questions
How are packets forwarded when the router-on-a-stick method is used?

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1.1
dot1q termination vid 12
ip address 12.1.1.254 255.255.255.0

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arp broadcast enable


#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1.2
dot1q termination vid 21
ip address 21.1.1.254 255.255.255.0
arp broadcast enable
#
return

<SW1>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW1
#
vlan batch 12 21
#
gvrp
#
lacp priority 0
#
interface Eth-Trunk12
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
mode lacp-static
lacp timeout fast
max active-linknumber 1
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
eth-trunk 12

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#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
eth-trunk 12
lacp priority 65535
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
#
return

<SW2>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW2
#
vlan batch 12 21
#
gvrp
#
interface Eth-Trunk12
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
mode lacp-static
lacp timeout fast
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
eth-trunk 12
#

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interface Ethernet0/0/2
eth-trunk 12
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/11
port link-type access
port default vlan 12
#
interface Ethernet0/0/12
port link-type access
port default vlan 21
#
return

<SW3>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW3
#
vlan batch 34
#

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gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
gvrp
gvrp registration fixed
#
interface Ethernet0/0/13
port link-type access
port default vlan 34
port-security enable
port-security protect-action shutdown
port-security max-mac-num 2
#
return

<SW4>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW4
#
vlan batch 34
#
gvrp
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
gvrp

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#
interface Ethernet0/0/14
port link-type access
port default vlan 34
#
return

Chapter 9 WAN Layer 2 Technology Hands-on Exercise


Guide
Overview
This document introduces Wide Area Network (WAN) Layer 2 technologies, including
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Multilink PPP (MP), PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE), and Frame
Relay (FR).
PPP is used at the data link layer for point-to-point data transmission over full-duplex
synchronous and asynchronous links. It consists of the Link Control Protocol (LCP),
Network Control Protocol (NCP), Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP),
and Password Authentication Protocol (PAP).
MP binds multiple PPP links to increase link bandwidth. MP fragments the packets
whose length is greater than the minimum packet length and then sends the fragments to the
peer device over multiple PPP links in the MP-Group. After receiving these fragments, the
peer device assembles these packets and then sends them to the network layer. MP can be
implemented by using virtual template (VT) interfaces or MP-Group interfaces.
PPPoE is a network protocol that encapsulates PPP frames into Ethernet frames. PPPoE
enables multiple hosts on an Ethernet to connect to a broadband remote access server
(BRAS), implementing access control and charging on a per-host basis.
FR is a statistical multiplexing protocol that is applicable to charge burst traffic. In
addition, FR can also dynamically allocate network resources.

Objectives

Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:


Configure MP.
Configure PPPoE.
Configure FR.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Bind PPP links between R1 and R4, and disable the MP-Group mode. For details
about the interface name and IP address, see the "IP Address Table".
(2) Configure R1 as the PPPoE server and R5 as the PPPoE client. Enable the PPPoE
server to allocate the IP address 15.1.1.5 to the PPPoE client. Configure the PPPoE
server to authenticate the PPPoE client using PAP, with the user name R5 and
password HUAWEI.
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(3) Disable InARP on FR links between R1 and R2 and between R1 and R3. R1 and
R2 can communicate over the network segment 12.1.1.0/24, while R1 and R3 can
communicate over the network segment 23.1.1.0/24. Sub-interfaces cannot be
created.
(4) Run Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) on R1, R2, R3, and R4,
set the area to 47.0000, the system ID to 0000.0000.000X, and the IS-IS level to
Level-2, implementing interworking between addresses in the "IP Address Table".

Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4

Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

VT12

12.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

VT13

13.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

VT14

14.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

VT15

15.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.1.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

VT12

12.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.2.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

VT13

13.1.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.3.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

VT14

14.1.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

10.4.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

Gateway

Configuration and Verification


1.

Bind PPP links between R1 and R4, and disable the MP-Group mode. For
details about the interface name and IP address, see the "IP Address Table."
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After completing this task, run the display ppp mp command to view the MP binding
information. The following uses the display of R1 as an example. The table shows only key
information, while other information is omitted.
[R1]display ppp mp
Template is Virtual-Template14
Bundle 22645b08be91, 2 members, slot 0, Master link is Virtual-Template14:0
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned,
sequence 0/0 rcvd/sent
The bundled sub channels are:
Serial2/0/0
Serial2/0/1

MP can be implemented by using MP-Group interfaces or VT interfaces.


You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display interface virtual-template

2.

Configure R1 as the PPPoE server and R5 as the PPPoE client. Enable the
PPPoE server to allocate the IP address 15.1.1.5 to the PPPoE client.
Configure the PPPoE server to authenticate the PPPoE client using PAP,
with the user name R5 and password HUAWEI.
After completing this task, run the display pppoe-server session/display ip interface
brief command to view information about the PPPoE server and IP address of the client. The
following table shows information of R1 and R5. The table shows only key information,
while other information is omitted.
[R1]display pppoe-server session
SID Intf
1

Virtual-Template15:0

all

State OIntf
UP

GE0/0/0

RemMAC

LocMAC

00e0.fc03.b392 00e0.fc03.ab7f

[R5]display ip interface brief


Interface

IP Address/Mask

Dialer15

15.1.1.5/32

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

unassigned

Physical
up
up

Protocol
up(s)
down

You can also run the following command to verify the results:
display pppoe-client session

3.

Disable InARP on FR links between R1 and R2 and between R1 and R3. R1


and R2 can communicate over the network segment 12.1.1.0/24, while R1
and R3 can communicate over the network segment 23.1.1.0/24.
Sub-interfaces cannot be created.
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After completing this task, run the display fr map-info command to view FR address
mapping information. The following table shows information on R1.
[R1]display fr map-info
Map Statistics for interface Serial1/0/0 (DTE)
DLCI = 102, PPP over FR Virtual-Template12, Serial1/0/0
create time = 2013/09/18 19:22:33, status = ACTIVE
encapsulation = ietf, vlink = 0
DLCI = 103, PPP over FR Virtual-Template13, Serial1/0/0
create time = 2013/09/18 19:22:41, status = ACTIVE
encapsulation = ietf, vlink = 0

FR links can transmit multiple types of packets, such as IP packets and PPP packets. As
sub-interfaces cannot be created, another method should be used to meet the requirement in
this task.

4.

Run IS-IS on R1, R2, R3, and R4, set the area to 47.0000, the system ID to
0000.0000.000X, and the IS-IS level to Level-2, implementing interworking
between addresses in the "IP Address Table".
After completing this task, run the display ip routing-table protocol isis command to
view IS-IS routing information on R1.
[R1]display ip routing-table protocol isis
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

10.2.2.2/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

12.1.1.2

Virtual-Template12

10.3.3.3/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

13.1.1.3

Virtual-Template13

10.4.4.4/32

ISIS-L2 15

10

14.1.1.4

Virtual-Template14

IS-IS does not apply to FR links. To enable IS-IS on FR links, you need to configure
sub-interfaces or PPP over FR (PPPoFR).

Questions
What are the characteristics of VT interfaces?

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#

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aaa
authentication-scheme default
authorization-scheme default
accounting-scheme default
domain default
domain default_admin
local-user r5 password cipher %$%$wgCcG9i@%B0!z/SzyC&,S2fp%$%$
local-user r5 service-type ppp
local-user admin password cipher %$%$K8m.Nt84DZ}e#<0`8bmE3Uw}%$%$
local-user admin service-type http
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0000.0000.0000.0001.00
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
fr map ppp interface Virtual-Template12 102
fr map ppp interface Virtual-Template13 103
#
interface Serial2/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ppp mp Virtual-Template 14
#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ppp mp Virtual-Template 14
#

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interface Virtual-Template12
ip address 12.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface Virtual-Template13
ip address 13.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface Virtual-Template14
ip address 14.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface Virtual-Template15
ppp authentication-mode pap
remote address 15.1.1.5
ip address 15.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
pppoe-server bind Virtual-Template 15
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2

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#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0000.0000.0000.0002.00
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
fr map ppp interface Virtual-Template12 201
#
interface Virtual-Template12
ip address 12.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0000.0000.0000.0003.00
#
interface Serial1/0/0

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link-protocol fr
undo fr inarp
fr map ppp interface Virtual-Template13 301
#
interface Virtual-Template13
ip address 13.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0000.0000.0000.0004.00
#
interface Serial2/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ppp mp Virtual-Template 14
#
interface Serial2/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ppp mp Virtual-Template 14

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#
interface Virtual-Template14
ip address 14.1.1.4 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
firewall zone Local
priority 15
#
interface Dialer15
link-protocol ppp
ppp pap local-user R5 password cipher %$%$>*9p9daA=1eVjFUnm!D9,Q[3%$%$
ip address ppp-negotiate
dialer user R5
dialer bundle 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
pppoe-client dial-bundle-number 1
#
return

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Chapter 10 STP Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
STP prevents loops at the data link layer. It uses BPDUs to transmit STP information,
calculate a loop-free tree network topology and block a specified port. When a network fault
occurs, STP can detect the fault and use another path to transmit data. STP exchanges BPDUs
to select the root switch; each non-root-switch selects the root port to communicate with the
root switch; the designated port is selected on each network segment to forward data to the
root switch; the remaining ports, that is, ports not selected as the root and designated ports,
are blocked.
STP can prevent loops, but there are disadvantages. STP does not differentiate port
statuses and roles in a fine-granular manner. It defines five ports statuses and has slow
convergence. For users, there are no differences between ports in Listening, Learning, and
Blocking states. Ports in Listening, Learning, and Blocking states do not forward traffic.
RSTP is an extension based on STP, and when compared to STP has two additional port roles.
RSTP defines four port rules: root port, designated port, alternate port, and backup port.
RSTP defines the port status based on whether the port forwards user traffic and learns MAC
addresses. If a port neither forwards user traffic nor learns MAC addresses, the port is in
Discarding state. If a port does not forward user traffic but learns MAC addresses, the port is
in Learning state. If a port forwards user traffic and learns MAC addresses, the port is in
Forwarding state. RSTP uses the Proposal/Agreement mechanism, fast switching of the root
port, and edge port to implement fast convergence.
RSTP, an enhancement to STP, implements fast convergence of the network topology.
There is a defect for both RSTP and STP: All VLANs on a LAN use one spanning tree, and
VLAN-based load balancing cannot be performed. Once a link is blocked, it will no longer
transmit traffic, wasting bandwidth and causing the failure in forwarding certain VLAN
packets. MSTP can be used to address this issue.
MSTP divides a switching network into multiple regions, each of which has multiple
spanning trees that are independent of one another. Each region is called MST region and
each spanning tree is called an MSTI. An MSTI can contain multiple VLANs. Binding
multiple VLANs to one MSTI reduces communication costs and resource usage. The
topology of each MSTI is calculated independently, and traffic can be balanced among
MSTIs.

Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:
Perform basic configurations of STP, RSTP, and MSTP.
Configure MSTIs.
Configure multiple MST regions.
Configure protection functions.
Configure BPDU filtering.
Explain election principles of STP, RSTP, and MSTP.

Tasks
The following topology shows the Layer 2 network of a company. SW1 and SW2 are
core switches. Deploy the network according to the following requirements:
(1) Configure the latest spanning tree protocol on the four switches, configure VLAN 10 and
VLAN 20 for service A, configure VLAN 30 and VLAN 40 for service B, and configure
management VLANs 50 and 60. Configure the four switches to allow the preceding VLANs.
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Service A, Service B and management VLANs calculate the path separately.


(2) Optimize the network to implement load balancing. Ensure that different topologies are used
for services A and B:ServiceA use SW1 as root, Service B use SW2 as root, when the root
switch in any topology fails, the new root switch should be the core device (SW1, SW2 works
as the core device, SW3, SW4 works as the access device.)
(3) The spanning tree region configuration on SW1, SW2, and SW3 are different from that on
SW4 due to configuration errors or other causes. Ensure that SW4 can access VLANs on
other switches through SW1 user the link with even number.
(4) Use port priority to Configure SW1 and SW2 to use different links to transmit services A and
B, implementing redundancy.
(5) Ensure that SW3 and SW4 will never be the root switch of the network.
(6) Configure the ports eth0/0/7 of SW2 operate in Forwarding state when faulty links recover,
and provide solutions if there are risks to devices such as rogue switches connected to user
ports.
(7) To save the CPU resources, configure the two core switches to respond the TC-BPDU twice
during one hello interval.
(8) To reduce the convergence time of MSTP, configure the link between switches as
point-to-point.

Topology

IP Address Table
Default

Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

PC1

G 0/0/7

10.0.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC2

G 0/0/7

10.0.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

PC3

G 0/0/7

20.0.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

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Configuration and Verification


1.

Configure the latest spanning tree protocol on the four switches, configure
VLAN 10 and VLAN 20 for service A, configure VLAN 30 and VLAN 40 for
service B, and configure management VLANs 50 and 60. Configure the four
switches to allow the preceding VLANs. Service A, Service B and
management VLANs calculate the path separately.
Note: Latest STP means MSTP, configure links as trunk links, and configure the links to
allow all VLANs. Need to use multi-instance.
[SW1] display stp region-configuration
Oper configuration
Format selector
Region name

:0
:1

Revision level
Instance

2.

:0

VLANs Mapped

1 to 9, 11 to 19, 21 to 29, 31 to 39, 41 to 4094

10, 20

30, 40

Optimize the network to implement load balancing. Ensure that different


topologies are used for services A and B:ServiceA use SW1 as root, Service B
use SW2 as root, when the root switch in any topology fails, the new root
switch should be the core device (SW1, SW2 works as the core device, SW3,
SW4 works as the access device.)
Note: Configure multiple MSTIs and adjust the root switch in different MSTIs.

3.

The spanning tree region configuration on SW1, SW2, and SW3 are different
from that on SW4 due to configuration errors or other causes. Ensure that
SW4 can access VLANs on other switches through SW1 user the link with
even number.
Note: Configure multiple MST regions. Use port priority to choose the blocking link.
[SW4]display stp region-configuration
Oper configuration
Format selector
Region name
Revision level

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Instance

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VLANs Mapped

1 to 9, 11 to 19, 21 to 29, 31 to 39, 41 to 4094

10, 20

30, 40

<SW4>display stp brief


MSTID

4.

Port

Role

STP State

Protection

Ethernet0/0/3

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/4

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/5

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/6

ROOT

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/7

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/3

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/4

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/5

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/6

MAST

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/3

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/4

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/5

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/6

MAST

FORWARDING

NONE

Use port priority to Configure SW1 and SW2 to use different links to
transmit services A and B, implementing redundancy.
After the configuration is performed, different services are transmitted using different links.
[SW1]dis stp brief
MSTID

Port

Role

STP State

Protection

Ethernet0/0/1

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/2

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/1

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

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1

Ethernet0/0/2

Ethernet0/0/1

Ethernet0/0/2

Confidentiality Level
DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

ALTE
ROOT

DISCARDING
FORWARDING

NONE
NONE

5.

Ensure that SW3 and SW4 will never be the root switch of the network.
Note: Adjust the configuration and consider using root protection.
[SW1]dis stp brief
MSTID

6.

Port

Role

STP State

Protection

Ethernet0/0/1

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/2

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/3

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/4

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/5

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/6

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/1

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/2

DESI

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/3

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/4

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/5

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/6

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/1

ALTE

DISCARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/2

ROOT

FORWARDING

NONE

Ethernet0/0/3

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/4

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/5

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Ethernet0/0/6

DESI

FORWARDING

ROOT

Configure the ports eth0/0/7 of SW2 operate in Forwarding state when faulty
links recover, and provide solutions if there are risks to devices such as rogue
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switches connected to user ports.


Note: Use the edge port and consider how to prevent risks caused by the edge port.
[SW2]display stp interface Ethernet 0/0/7
-------[CIST Global Info][Mode MSTP]------CIST Bridge

:32768.4c1f-ccfa-13b8

CIST RootPortId

:128.3

BPDU-Protection

:Enabled

TC or TCN received

:634

----[Port7(Ethernet0/0/7)][FORWARDING]---Port Protocol

:Enabled

..
Port Edged

:Config=enabled / Active=enabled

BPDU-Protection

:Enabled

Point-to-point

:Config=auto / Active=true

7.

To save the CPU resources, configure the two core switches to respond the
TC-BPDU twice during one hello interval.
Note: Enable TC-BPDU protection and Adjust parameters on switches.

8.

To reduce the convergence time of MSTP, configure the link between


switches as point-to-point.
After configuration, we can see the following information on the switch.
[SW4]display stp interface Ethernet 0/0/1
-------[CIST Global Info][Mode MSTP]------
----[Port1(Ethernet0/0/1)][FORWARDING]---Port Protocol

:Enabled

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Point-to-point

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:Config=ForceTrue

Questions
For requirement 9, why p2p link can accelerate the convergence of STP?
When traffic in VLAN 10/20/30/40/50/60 on SW4 needs to be transmitted in VLANs on
core switches, can the link between SW2 and SW4 be used?

Configuration List
<SW1>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW1
#
vlan batch 10 20 30 40 50 60
#
stp instance 0 root primary
stp instance 1 root primary
stp instance 2 root secondary
stp tc-protection
stp tc-protection threshold 2
#
stp region-configuration
region-name 1
instance 1 vlan 10 20
instance 2 vlan 30 40
active region-configuration
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true

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#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/5
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/6
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true

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stp instance 0 port priority 16


#
return

<SW2>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW2
#
vlan batch 10 20 30 40 50 60
#
stp instance 0 root secondary
stp instance 1 root secondary
stp instance 2 root primary
stp bpdu-protection
stp tc-protection
stp tc-protection threshold 2
#
stp region-configuration
region-name 1
instance 1 vlan 10 20
instance 2 vlan 30 40
active region-configuration
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2

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port link-type trunk


port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
stp instance 2 port priority 16
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/5
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/6
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp root-protection
stp point-to-point force-true
#

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interface Ethernet0/0/7
port link-type access
port default vlan 50
stp edged-port enable
#
return

<SW3>display

current-configuration

#
sysname SW3
#
vlan batch 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
#
stp region-configuration
region-name 1
instance 1 vlan 10 20
instance 2 vlan 30 40
active region-configuration
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type trunk
undo port trunk allow-pass vlan 1
port trunk allow-pass vlan 70
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port link-type trunk
undo port trunk allow-pass vlan 1
port trunk allow-pass vlan 70

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stp point-to-point force-true


#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/5
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/6
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
return

<SW4>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW4
#
vlan batch 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

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#
stp region-configuration
region-name 2
instance 1 vlan 10 20
instance 2 vlan 30 40
active region-configuration
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type trunk
undo port trunk allow-pass vlan 1
port trunk allow-pass vlan 70
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/2
port link-type trunk
undo port trunk allow-pass vlan 1
port trunk allow-pass vlan 70
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/3
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/4
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#

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interface Ethernet0/0/5
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
interface Ethernet0/0/6
port link-type trunk
port trunk allow-pass vlan 2 to 4094
stp point-to-point force-true
#
return

Chapter 11 Multicast Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
As the Internet is developing rapidly, increasing data, voice, and video streams are
transmitted on networks. Emerging services, such as e-commerce, teleconferencing, online
auction, video on demand (VoD), and distance education are becoming more and more
popular. These services often use the multipoint-to-multipoint transmission model and
require high information security, paid service, and high bandwidth. The IP protocol supports
three transmission modes: IP unicast, IP broadcast, and IP multicast.
A multicast packet uses a multicast address as the destination address, which identifies a
multicast group. A multicast source sends only one copy of packets to a multicast address.
The multicast routing protocol running on the network establishes a multicast distribution
tree from the multicast source to all members of the multicast group. Multicast data packets
are replicated to all group members. Hosts can join a group to receive data sent to the group.
In multicast transmission mode, a data flow is transmitted to a group of users along the
multicast distribution tree. Each link transmits only one copy of multicast data packets.
Compared with the unicast mode, the multicast mode reduces loads on servers and CPUs of
network devices. The increase in the number of users will not significantly increase network
loads. Multicast packets can be transmitted across different network segments and will not be
sent to users who do not need the packets. Compared with the broadcast mode, the multicast
mode can transmit data over a long distance. In addition, data is transmitted only to network
segments with receivers, ensuring information security. In a summary, the multicast mode has
advantages over the unicast and broadcast modes in the multipoint-to-multipoint transmission
model.
A multicast group is identified by an IP multicast address. It represents a collection of
systems but not a specific host. If a host joins a multicast group, it means that the host wants
to receive packets destined for the IP multicast address. Multicast addresses are class D IP
addresses in the range of 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. IP addresses 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255
are reserved as permanent group addresses by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA). In this address range, 224.0.0.0 is not allocated, and the other addresses are used by
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routing protocols for topology discovery and maintenance.

Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:
Understand multicast application scenarios and working mechanisms.
Configure multicast sources.
Configure IGMP.
Configure PIM-DM.
Configure PIM-SM.
Configure static and dynamic RP.
Understand the RPF working mechanism.
Configure static multicast routes.

Tasks

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)

The following topology shows the network of Company A. The network runs the OSPF
protocol. Routers R2, R3, R4, and R5 work in area 0. Routers R1, R2, and R3 in area 1 form
a frame relay (FR) network and adopt a hub-spoke structure. Do not change the default
network type or the link costs unless you are required to. R6/R7 locate in area 2. Ensure that
reachable routes are available among the network devices. The company needs to deploy the
multicast service on the network. There are three multicast sources on the network. Source 1
and Source 3 connect to R1. Source 2 needs to send multicast data to PC2 in group 239.2.2.2
using the PIM-SM mode. PC3-1 and PC3-2 need to join group 239.3.3.3. Multicast data
should be transmitted without a rendezvous point tree (RPT). The link between R5 and R7
and the link between R4 and R6 need to transmit a large amount of multicast data, so PIM
cannot be enabled on the two links. Deploy the network according to the following
requirements:
Make R4 and R5 the RPs and ensure that the RP address is 45.45.45.45 on all multicast
devices. The RPs must be determined through dynamic RP election. Make R2 the bootstrap
router (BSR) and use IP address of loopback 0 (20.1.1.2) as the BSR address. Ensure that
20.1.1.2 is in area 1.
R2 is the designated router (DR) on the Ethernet network. For Source 1 (10.1.1.1) connecting
to R1, receiver is PC1. PC1 runs IGMPv2, when R7 receive membership report message, just
join multicast group 239.1.1.1 from S1.
The two RPs implement load balancing and back each other up. The RPs run the Multicast
Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP), and only Source-Active (SA) messages with the
(70.0.0.7, 239.2.2.2) mapping are allowed between the RPs.
Ensure that Source 2 will not receive multicast data packets from other multicast sources.
Ensure that the multicast stream sent from Source 2 (70.0.0.7) to the downstream receiver
PC2 is forwarded along the best path.
When the IGMP querier on the Ethernet network in area 0 fails, a new querier must be
available as fast as possible.

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Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4

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Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G 0/0/0

10.1.1.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.3.3.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/0

1.1.123.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

192.168.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/0

1.1.123.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

20.1.1.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/2

192.168.1.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/0

1.1.123.3

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/0

1.1.45.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 1/0/0

1.1.46.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

192.168.1.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

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G 0/0/1

1.1.47.4

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 1

45.45.45.45

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

1.1.45.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

1.1.56.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

192.168.1.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 1/0/0

1.1.57.5

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 1

45.45.45.45

255.255.255.255

N/A

G1/0/0

1.1.46.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

1.1.56.6

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/0

60.0.1.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

60.0.2.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

1.1.47.7

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 1/0/0

1.1.57.7

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

70.0.0.254

255.255.255.0

N/A

Source 1

E 0/0/1

10.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

10.1.1.254

Source 2

E 0/0/1

70.0.0.7

255.255.255.0

70.0.0.254

Source 3

E 0/0/1

10.3.3.3

255.255.255.0

10.3.3.254

PC 1

E 0/0/1

70.0.0.1

255.255.255.0

70.0.0.254

PC 2

E 0/0/1

60.0.1.1

255.255.255.0

60.0.1.254

PC 3-1

E 0/0/1

60.0.2.1

255.255.255.0

60.0.2.254

PC 3-2

E 0/0/1

192.168.1.10

255.255.255.0

192.168.1.2

R5

R6

SW1

Configuration and Verification


1.

Make R4 and R5 the RPs and ensure that the RP address is 45.45.45.45 on all
multicast devices. The RPs must be determined through dynamic RP election.
Make R2 the bootstrap router (BSR) and use the IP address of loopback 0
(20.1.1.2) as the BSR address. Ensure that 20.1.1.2 is in area 1.
Bootstrap messages sent from the BSR must be spread throughout the network. Ensure
that all multicast devices, especially R3can receive Bootstrap messages.
<R3>dis pim rp
VPN-Instance: public net
PIM-SM BSR RP Number:1
Group/MaskLen: 224.0.0.0/4
RP: 45.45.45.45
Priority: 0

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Uptime: 00:00:13
Expires: 00:02:17

2.

R2 is the DR on the Ethernet network. For Source 1 (10.1.1.1) connecting to


R1, receivers is PC1. PC1 runs IGMPv2, when R7 receive membership
report message, just join multicast group 239.1.1.1 from S1.
Note that if SSM and SSM mapping are used and Join messages with the (S, G)
mapping are transmitted in the FR network, the downstream receiver may receive the first
multicast data packets but fail to receive the subsequent multicast data packets.
[R2]display pim interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/2
VPN-Instance: public net
Interface

State NbrCnt HelloInt

GE0/0/2

up

30

DR-Pri

100

DR-Address

192.168.1.2

(local)

<R7>display igmp ssm-mapping group


IGMP SSM-Mapping conversion table of VPN-Instance: public net
Total 1 entry

1 entry matched

00001. (10.1.1.1, 239.1.1.1/32)


Total 1 entry matched

3.

The two RPs implement load balancing and back each other up. The RPs
run MSDP, and only SA messages with the (70.0.0.7, 239.2.2.2) mapping are
allowed between the RPs.
You need to configure MSDP on the RPs. As the anycast-RP mode is used, pay
attention to MSDP peer authentication. Configure SA filtering between the MSDP peers to
allow only the specified (S, G) mapping.
[R5]display msdp brief
MSDP Peer Brief Information of VPN-Instance: public net
Configured
1

Up
1

Peer's Address
1.1.45.4

4.

Listen

State

Up

Connect
0

Up/Down time
00:01:26

Shutdown
0

AS
?

Down

SA Count
0

Reset Count
0

Ensure that Source 2 will not receive multicast data packets from other
multicast sources.
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SW1 connects to Source 2 and receiver PC1. PC1 needs to receive multicast data from
Source 1. To prevent Source 2 from receiving multicast data packets from other multicast
sources, configure IGMP snooping.
[Sw1]dis igmp-snooping configuration
IGMP Snooping Configuration for VLAN 1
igmp-snooping enable

5.

Ensure that the multicast stream sent from Source 2 (70.0.0.7) to the
downstream receiver PC2 is forwarded along the best path.
R4 is the RP for the source and R5 is the RP for the receiver. Configure an MSDP
session and enable switchover between the two RPs. There are equal paths from S2 (70.0.0.7)
on R7 to R6. But PIM is not enabled on the link between R7 and R5, R4 and R6. Be sure
RPT and SPT can be established successfully.
[R5]dis multicast rpf-info 70.0.0.0
VPN-Instance: public net
RPF information about source: 70.0.0.0
RPF interface: GigabitEthernet0/0/0, RPF neighbor: 1.1.45.4
Referenced route/mask: 70.0.0.0/24
Referenced route type: mstatic
Route selection rule: preference-preferred
Load splitting rule: disable

<R5>display pim routing-table


VPN-Instance: public net
Total 1 (*, G) entry; 1 (S, G) entry

(*, 239.2.2.2)
RP: 45.45.45.45 (local)
Protocol: pim-sm, Flag: WC
UpTime: 00:13:10
Upstream interface: Register
Upstream neighbor: NULL
RPF prime neighbor: NULL

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Downstream interface(s) information:


Total number of downstreams: 1
1: GigabitEthernet0/0/1
Protocol: pim-sm, UpTime: 00:13:10, Expires: 00:03:20

(70.0.0.7, 239.2.2.2)
RP: 45.45.45.45 (local)
Protocol: pim-sm, Flag: SPT 2MSDP ACT
UpTime: 00:03:08
Upstream interface: GigabitEthernet0/0/0
Upstream neighbor: 1.1.45.4
RPF prime neighbor: 1.1.45.4
Downstream interface(s) information:
Total number of downstreams: 1
1: GigabitEthernet0/0/1
Protocol: pim-sm, UpTime: 00:03:08, Expires: 00:03:22

6.

When the IGMP querier on the Ethernet network in area 0 fails, a new
querier must be available as fast as possible.
There is a receiver on the backbone network. R2 has the smallest IP address on the backbone
network and should be elected as the querier. If the querier fails, R3 should act as the querier.
However, the default querier re-election interval is a long time. To enable R3 to preempt as
the new querier as fast as possible, you can change the Other Querier Present Timer value.
[R4]display igmp interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/2
Interface information of VPN-Instance: public net
GigabitEthernet0/0/2(192.168.1.4):
IGMP is enabled
Current IGMP version is 2
IGMP state: up
IGMP group policy: none
IGMP limit: -

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Value of query interval for IGMP (negotiated): Value of query interval for IGMP (configured): 20 s
Value of other querier timeout for IGMP: 51 s
Value of maximum query response time for IGMP: 10 s
Querier for IGMP: 192.168.1.2
Total 1 IGMP Group reported

Questions
When use anycast to implement load balance between RPs, what will happen and how
to resolve the problem?

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol fr
ip address 1.1.123.1 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.1.1.254 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.3.3.254 255.255.255.0
pim sm

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#
ospf 1
peer 1.1.123.2
peer 1.1.123.3
area 0.0.0.1
network 1.1.123.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.3.3.0 0.0.0.255
network 10.5.5.0 0.0.0.255
#
pim
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol fr
ip address 1.1.123.2 255.255.255.0
pim sm
ospf dr-priority 0
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
#

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interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
pim hello-option dr-priority 100
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp version 3
igmp timer query 20
igmp timer other-querier-present 60
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 20.1.1.2 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
ospf 1
peer 1.1.123.1
area 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.1
network 1.1.123.0 0.0.0.255
network 20.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
pim
c-bsr LoopBack0
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3

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#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol fr
ip address 1.1.123.3 255.255.255.0
pim sm
ospf dr-priority 0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.0
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp version 3
igmp timer query 20
igmp timer other-querier-present 60
#
ospf 1
peer 1.1.123.1
area 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.1
network 1.1.123.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip rpf-route-static 20.1.1.2 32 1.1.123.1
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration

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#
sysname R4
#
multicast routing-enable
#
acl number 3001
rule 5 permit ip source 70.0.0.7 0 destination 239.2.2.2 0
rule 10 deny ip
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 1.1.45.4 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 1.1.47.4 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.0
pim hello-option dr-priority 20
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp version 3
igmp timer query 20
igmp timer other-querier-present 60
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0
ip address 1.1.46.4 255.255.255.0
#

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interface LoopBack1
ip address 45.45.45.45 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 1.1.45.0 0.0.0.255
network 45.45.45.45 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.2
network 1.1.46.0 0.0.0.255
network 1.1.47.0 0.0.0.255
#
pim
c-rp LoopBack1
#
pim
c-rp LoopBack1
anycast-rp 45.45.45.45
local-address 1.1.45.4
peer 1.1.45.5
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
multicast routing-enable

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#
acl number 3001
rule 5 permit ip source 70.0.0.7 0 destination 239.2.2.2 0
rule 10 deny ip
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 1.1.45.5 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 1.1.56.5 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp version 3
igmp timer query 20
igmp timer other-querier-present 60
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0
ip address 1.1.57.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack1
ip address 45.45.45.45 255.255.255.255
pim sm
#
ospf 1

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area 0.0.0.0
network 1.1.45.0 0.0.0.255
network 45.45.45.45 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.2
network 1.1.56.0 0.0.0.255
network 1.1.57.0 0.0.0.255
#
pim
c-rp LoopBack1
#
pim
c-rp LoopBack1
anycast-rp 45.45.45.45
local-address 1.1.45.5
peer 1.1.45.4
#
ip rpf-route-static 70.0.0.0 24 1.1.45.4
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
multicast routing-enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 60.0.1.254 255.255.255.0

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pim sm
igmp enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 1.1.56.6 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 60.0.2.254 255.255.255.0
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp version 3
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0
ip address 1.1.46.6 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.2
network 1.1.46.0 0.0.0.255
network 1.1.56.0 0.0.0.255
network 60.0.1.0 0.0.0.255
network 60.0.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
return

<R7>display current-configuration
#
sysname R7
#

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multicast routing-enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 1.1.47.7 255.255.255.0
pim sm
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 70.0.0.254 255.255.255.0
pim sm
igmp enable
igmp ssm-mapping enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet1/0/0
ip address 1.1.57.7 255.255.255.0
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.2
network 1.1.47.0 0.0.0.255
network 1.1.57.0 0.0.0.255
network 70.0.0.0 0.0.0.255
#
igmp
ssm-mapping 239.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.1
#
pim
#
return

<Sw1>display current-configuration

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#
sysname Sw1
#
igmp-snooping enable
#
vlan 1
igmp-snooping enable
#
return

Chapter 12 IPv6 Hands-on Exercise Guide


Overview
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation IP protocol designed by the
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an upgraded version of the current Internet
Protocol Version 4 (IPv4).
Compared with IPv4, IPv6 has the following advantages:
1. Huge address space: An IPv6 address is 128 bits long. The 128-bit address structure
increases the number of possible addresses by 2 96 times.
2. Flexible IP packet header: IPv6 uses a series of extension headers of fixed formats
to replace the options fields of variable lengths in the IPv4 header.
3. Simple IPv6 packet header format: An IPv6 packet header carries only eight fields.
The simplified packet header facilitates packet forwarding and improves
throughput.
4. Enhanced security: IPv6 supports identity authentication and data encryption.
5. Support for more service types.
6. Continuous protocol evolution: IPv6 adds support for new functions and caters for
future technology development requirements.
Due to the large scale of the Internet and large number of IPv4 users and terminals,
transition from IPv4 to IPv6 cannot be completed in a short time. In addition, enterprises and
users become increasingly dependent on the Internet in their daily work and cannot tolerate
service disruption brought by the transition. Therefore, IPv4 needs to gradually transit to
IPv6 so that users can experience the advantages brought by IPv6 while still be able to
communicate with IPv4 users. Smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is a key factor
determining IPv6 success.
Many solutions have been proposed in the industry for smooth migration from IPv4 to
IPv6. IETF organized the research team NGTrans focused on IPv4-to-IPv6 transition. The
team has drafted several transition solutions and tried to standardize them. The transition
solutions mainly cover the following technologies:
1. Dual-stack technology
2. Tunneling technology (including manual tunneling and automatic tunneling
technologies)
3. Tunnel proxy
4. NAT-PAT
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Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to master the method to:
Use stateless IPv6 address auto configuration.
Configure OSPFv3.
Configure IS-ISv6.
Configure BGPv4+.
Configure BGPv4+ to advertise default routes.
Configure BGPv4+ routing policy.
Configure a manual tunnel and an automatic tunnel (6to4).

Tasks

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

(6)

(7)
(8)

(9)

The following figure shows the IPv6 network topology. Deploy the network according
to the following requirements:
Run OSPFv3 among R1, R2, and R3, and set the area ID of the three routers to 0 and router
IDs of R1, R2, and R3 to 10.1.1.1, 10.2.2.2, and 10.3.3.3 respectively.
Run IS-ISv6 among R4, R5, and R6, set the area ID of the three routers to 49.0001, and
ensure that the three routers are all Level-2 routers.
Run OSPFv2 on the IPv4 network between R2 and R4 and set the area ID of the two routers
to 0, include loopback interfaces.
Set up an IS-ISv4 neighbor relationship between R6 and R7 (an IPv4 network is deployed
between R6 and R7) and set the area ID of the two routers to 49.0001.
Set up full-mesh IBGP4+ IPv6 neighbor relationships among R1, R2, and R3, set the AS
number of the three routers to 100, and configure R2 to advertise default routes to AS100. Set
up an IBGP4+ IPv6 neighbor relationship between R4 and R5 and set the AS number of the
two routers to 200.
Set up an GRE manual tunnel between R2 and R4 with the tunnel address
2001:db8:24::/64 ,Set up an EBGP IPv6 neighbor relationship between R2 and R4 using IPv6
addresses, and configure R2 to advertise the route 2001:db8:100:00 of AS100 to AS200.
Import IS-ISv6 routes to BGP on R4 and R5. Ensure that all IPv6 networks that connect to
AS100 and AS200 can communicate with each other.
Configure users connected to GE0/0/1 of R7 to automatically obtain IPv6 addresses, DNS(R1)
information in state auto configuration mode. In this example, R8 is used to simulate an IPv6
terminal.
Establish a 6to4 tunnel between R6 and R7. Ensure R7 can ping the IPv6 networks inside
AS200.

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Topology

IPv4 network
Autoconfiguration

IPv4 network

IP Address Table
Device
R1
R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

R7

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G 0/0/1
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
G 0/0/2
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
S 4/0/0
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
G 0/0/1
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
S 4/0/0
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
G 0/0/1
G 0/0/2
Loopback 0
G 0/0/0
G 0/0/1
Loopback 0

2001:db8:100::1
10.1.1.1
192.168.24.2
2001:db8:100::2
10.2.2.2
2001:db8:100::3
192.168.35.3
10.3.3.3
192.168.24.4
2002:0A06:0606:46::4
10.4.4.4
2002:0A06:0606:56::5
192.168.35.5
10.5.5.5
2002:0A06:0606:46::6
2002:0A06:0606:56::6
192.168.67.6
10.6.6.6
192.168.67.7
2002:0A07:0707::7
10.7.7.7

64
32
24
64
32
64
24
32
24
64
32
64
24
32
64
64
24
32
24
64
32

Default
Gateway
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

Configuration and Verification


1.

Run OSPFv3 among R1, R2, and R3, and set the area ID of the three routers
to 0 and router IDs of R1, R2, and R3 to 10.1.1.1, 10.2.2.2, and 10.3.3.3
respectively.
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Perform basic configurations according to the address table, and then run the display
ospfv3 peer command to check information about OSPF neighbor relationships and routes
on network segments where the loopback interfaces 0 reside.
<R1>display ospfv3 peer
OSPFv3 Process (1)
OSPFv3 Area (0.0.0.0)
Neighbor ID

2.

Pri

State

Dead Time Interface

Instance ID

10.2.2.2

Full/Backup

00:00:40

GE0/0/1

10.3.3.3

Full/DROther

00:00:31

GE0/0/1

Run IS-ISv6 among R4, R5, and R6, set the area ID of the three routers to
49.0001, and ensure that the three routers are all Level-2 routers.
After completing this task, check information about IS-IS neighbor relationships.
[R6]display isis 1 peer
Peer information for ISIS(1)
System Id

Interface

Circuit Id

State HoldTime Type

PRI

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0004

GE0/0/0

0000.0000.0004.01 Up

8s

L2

64

0000.0000.0005

GE0/0/1

0000.0000.0006.02 Up

30s

L2

64

Total Peer(s): 2

3.

Run OSPFv2 on the IPv4 network between R2 and R4 and set the area ID of
the two routers to 0, include loopback interfaces.
After completing this task, check information about the OSPF neighbor relationship.
[R2]display ospf peer brief
OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.2.2.2
Peer Statistic Information
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Area Id

Interface

Neighbor id

0.0.0.0

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.4.4.4

State
Full

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.

Set up an IS-ISv4 neighbor relationship between R6 and R7 (an IPv4


network is deployed between R6 and R7) and set the area ID of the two
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routers to 49.0001.
After completing this task, check information about the IS-IS neighbor relationship.
<R7>display isis peer
Peer information for ISIS(1)
System Id

Interface

Circuit Id

State HoldTime Type

PRI

------------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0006

GE0/0/0

0000.0000.0006.03 Up

8s

L2

64

Total Peer(s): 1

5.

Set up full-mesh IBGP4+ IPv6 neighbor relationships among R1, R2, and R3,
set the AS number of the three routers to 100, and configure R2 to advertise
default routes to AS100. Set up an IBGP4+ IPv6 neighbor relationship
between R4 and R5 and set the AS number of the two routers to 200.
Configure R2 to advertise default routes to AS100.
[R1]display bgp ipv6 peer
BGP local router ID : 10.1.1.1
Local AS number : 100
Total number of peers : 2
Peer

AS

Peers in established state : 2

MsgRcvd

MsgSent

OutQ

Up/Down

State PrefRcv

2001:DB8:100::2

100

00:00:24

Established

2001:DB8:100::3

100

00:00:19

Established

<R1>display bgp ipv6 routing-table


BGP Local router ID is 10.1.1.1
Status codes: * - valid, > - best, d - damped,
h - history,

i - internal, s - suppressed, S - Stale

Origin : i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete


Total Number of Routes: 1
*>i Network
NextHop
MED

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: ::

PrefixLen

: 2001:DB8:100::2
: 0

LocPrf
PrefVal

Huawei Confidential

: 0
: 100

: 0

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Label

Confidentiality Level

Path/Ogn

: i

<R4>display bgp ipv6 peer


BGP local router ID : 10.4.4.4
Local AS number : 200
Total number of peers : 1
Peer

AS

Peers in established state : 1

MsgRcvd

MsgSent

OutQ

Up/Down

State PrefRcv

2002:A06:606:56::5
4

6.

200

00:00:16

Established

Set up an GRE manual tunnel between R2 and R4 with the tunnel address
2001:db8:24::/64.Set up an EBGP IPv6 neighbor relationship between R2
and R4 using IPv6 addresses, and configure R2 to advertise the route
2001:db8:100:00 of AS100 to AS200.
After completing this task, check route learning information.
<R4>display bgp ipv6 routing-table
BGP Local router ID is 10.4.4.4
*>

Network

: 2001:DB8:100::

NextHop
MED

: 2001:DB8:24::2
: 0

Label

PrefixLen : 64
LocPrf
PrefVal

: 0

Path/Ogn

: 100

<R5>display bgp ipv6 routing-table


*>i

Network
NextHop
MED

PrefixLen : 64

: 2002:A06:606:46::4
: 0

Label
Path/Ogn

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: 2001:DB8:100::

LocPrf
refVal

: 100

: 0

:
: 100

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Import IS-ISv6 routes to BGP on R4 and R5. Ensure that all IPv6 networks
that connect to AS100 and AS200 can communicate with each other.
Run the import-route command on R4 and R5 to import IS-IS routes to BGP and
enable communication between AS100 and AS200. Since BGP+ does not run on R6, R6 does
not know the forwarding path of the data packets. It is recommended that you configure IS-IS
on R4 to advertise default IPv6 routes.
[R5]ping ipv6 -c 1 2001:db8:100::1
PING 2001:db8:100::1 : 56

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 2001:DB8:100::1


bytes=56 Sequence=1 hop limit=61

time = 60 ms

--- 2001:db8:100::1 ping statistics --1 packet(s) transmitted


1 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 60/60/60 ms

8.

Configure users connected to GE0/0/1 of R7 to automatically obtain IPv6


addresses and DNS (R1) information in state auto configuration mode. In
this example, R8 is used to simulate an IPv6 terminal.
It is required that DHCP be deployed together with NDP state auto configuration.
<R8>display dhcpv6 client
GigabitEthernet0/0/0 is in stateful DHCPv6 client mode.
State is BOUND.
Preferred server DUID
Reachable via address

: 0003000100E0FC2902A2
: FE80::2E0:FCFF:FE29:2A3

IA NA IA ID 0x00000031 T1 43200 T2 69120


Obtained
Renews

: 2015-05-20 09:20:14
: 2015-05-20 21:20:14

Rebinds

: 2015-05-21 04:32:14

Address

: 2002:A07:707::100

Lifetime valid 172800 seconds, preferred 86400 seconds


Expires at 2015-05-22 09:20:14(171706 seconds left)

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DNS server

9.

Confidentiality Level

: 2001:DB8:100::1

Establish a 6to4 tunnel between R6 and R7. Ensure R7 can ping the IPv6
networks inside AS200.
R2 and R4 communicate through a GRE tunnel, and R6 and R7 communicate through a
6to4 tunnel.

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
ipv6
#
router id 10.1.1.1
#
ospfv3 1
router-id 10.1.1.1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:100::1/64
ospfv3 1 area 0.0.0.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.1.1.1
undo default ipv4-unicast
peer 2001:DB8:100::2 as-number 100

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peer 2001:DB8:100::3 as-number 100


#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
#
ipv6-family unicast
undo synchronization
peer 2001:DB8:100::2 enable
peer 2001:DB8:100::3 enable
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
ipv6
#
router id 10.2.2.2
#
ospfv3 1
router-id 10.2.2.2
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.24.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:100::2/64

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ospfv3 1 area 0.0.0.0


#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:24::2/64
tunnel-protocol gre
source 10.2.2.2
destination 10.4.4.4
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.2.2.2
peer 2001:DB8:24::4 as-number 200
peer 2001:DB8:100::1 as-number 100
peer 2001:DB8:100::3 as-number 100
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
#
ipv6-family unicast
undo synchronization
network 2001:DB8:100:: 64
peer 2001:DB8:24::4 enable
peer 2001:DB8:100::1 enable
peer 2001:DB8:100::1 default-route-advertise
peer 2001:DB8:100::3 enable
peer 2001:DB8:100::3 default-route-advertise

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#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.2.2.2 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.24.0 0.0.0.255
#
ipv6 route-static :: 0 NULL0
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
ipv6
#
router id 10.3.3.3
#
ospfv3 1
router-id 10.3.3.3
#
interface Serial4/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 192.168.35.3 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:100::3/64
ospfv3 1 area 0.0.0.0

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#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 100
router-id 10.3.3.3
undo default ipv4-unicast
peer 2001:DB8:100::1 as-number 100
peer 2001:DB8:100::2 as-number 100
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
#
ipv6-family unicast
undo synchronization
peer 2001:DB8:100::1 enable
peer 2001:DB8:100::2 enable
#
return

<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
ipv6
#
router id 10.4.4.4
#
isis 1

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is-level level-2
cost-style wide
network-entity 49.0001.0000.0000.0004.00
#
ipv6 enable topology standard
ipv6 default-route-advertise always
#
firewall zone Local
priority 15
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.24.4 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A06:606:46::4/64
isis ipv6 enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2001:DB8:24::4/64
tunnel-protocol gre
source 10.4.4.4
destination 10.2.2.2
#
bgp 200

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router-id 10.4.4.4
undo default ipv4-unicast
peer 2001:DB8:24::2 as-number 100
peer 2002:A06:606:56::5 as-number 200
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
#
ipv6-family unicast
undo synchronization
import-route isis 1
peer 2001:DB8:24::2 enable
peer 2002:A06:606:56::5 enable
peer 2002:A06:606:56::5 next-hop-local
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 10.4.4.4 0.0.0.0
network 192.168.24.0 0.0.0.255
#
return

<R5>display current-configuration
#
sysname R5
#
ipv6
#
router id 10.5.5.5

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#
isis 1
is-level level-2
cost-style wide
network-entity 49.0001.0000.0000.0005.00
#
ipv6 enable topology standard
#
interface Serial4/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 192.168.35.5 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A06:606:56::5/64
isis ipv6 enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.5.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 200
router-id 10.5.5.5
undo default ipv4-unicast
peer 2002:A06:606:46::4 as-number 200
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
#
ipv6-family unicast

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undo synchronization
import-route isis 1
peer 2002:A06:606:46::4 enable
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
ipv6
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
cost-style wide
network-entity 49.0001.0000.0000.0006.00
#
ipv6 enable topology standard
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A06:606:46::6/64
isis ipv6 enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A06:606:56::6/64
isis ipv6 enable 1
#

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interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 192.168.67.6 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.6.6.6 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A06:606::6/64
tunnel-protocol ipv6-ipv4 6to4
source GigabitEthernet0/0/2
#
ipv6 route-static 2001:DB8:700:: 64 2002:A07:707::7
ipv6 route-static 2002:: 16 Tunnel0/0/0
#
return

<R7>display current-configuration
#
sysname R7
#
ipv6
#
dhcp enable
#
dhcpv6 pool HCIE
address prefix 2002:A07:707::/64

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dns-server 2001:DB8:100::1
#
isis 1
cost-style wide
is-level level-2
network-entity 49.0001.0000.0000.0007.00
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 192.168.67.7 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A07:707::7/64
undo ipv6 nd ra halt
ipv6 nd autoconfig other-flag
dhcpv6 server HCIE
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 10.7.7.7 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
interface Tunnel0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address 2002:A07:707:67::7/64
tunnel-protocol ipv6-ipv4 6to4
source LoopBack 0
#
ipv6 route-static :: 0 2002:A06:606::6

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ipv6 route-static 2002:: 16 Tunnel0/0/0


#
return

<R8>display current-configuration
#
sysname PC
#
ipv6
#
dns resolve
#
dhcp enable
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ipv6 enable
ipv6 address auto link-local
ipv6 address auto dhcp
#
return

Chapter 13 Hands-on Exercise Guide to Other Features


Overview
MPLS
The Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) protocol can be used to deploy an IP
network with low cost. Similar to ATM technology, MPLS uses labels to implement fast
packet forwarding. BGP/MPLS VPN is a technique that implements VPN on MPLS networks
by using the MP-BGP protocol. On a BGP/MPLS VPN, network devices are classified into
Provider Edge (PE), Provider (P), and Customer Edge (CE). P devices are internally located
on the Service Provider's (SP) network and only run IGP and MPLS. PE devices are the edge
devices on the SP's network, and connect to the CE. PE devices run MP-BGP, and VPN
instances for users are configured on PE devices. In addition, PE devices need to run IGP and
MPLS. CE devices are the edge devices connected to customer devices. They connect
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customer devices to PE devices. The only requirement on CE devices is that the CE devices
must be able to communicate with PE devices.
The BGP protocol can maintain only a single routing table, so it cannot serve the
customers with overlapping addresses or separate data of different users. To address this
problem, MP-BGP is used on the BGP/MPLS VPN. MP-BGP uses VPNv4 address family to
differentiate the network-layer protocols of different customers and uses VPN instances to
separate the routes and traffic of different customers.
SNMP
To cope with fast growing network services, a large number of network devices need to
be deployed. In most situations, there is a long distance between these network devices and
the center equipment room where the network administrator stays. It is very difficult for a
network administrator to detect, locate and rectify the fault in real time if the devices do not
report the fault. This lowers maintenance efficiency and increases maintenance workload.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is introduced to address this problem. Based
on the concept of "network manages network", SNMP effectively manages network devices
in batches. In addition, by using the SNMP protocol, the network management system can
manage the devices of different vendors.
BFD
A network device must be able to detect a communication fault between adjacent
devices quickly so that the network administrator can rectify the fault and prevent service
interruption. In practice, hardware detection is used to detect link faults. For example,
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) alarms are used to report link faults. However, not all
media can provide the hardware detection mechanism. Applications use the Hello mechanism
of the upper-layer protocol to detect faults. The detection duration is more than 1 second,
which is intolerable for some applications. If no routing protocols are deployed on a
small-scale Layer 3 network, the Hello mechanism cannot be used. Bidirectional Forwarding
Detection (BFD) provides a fast fault detection mechanism that is independent of media and
protocols.
NTP
As network topologies become increasingly complex, clock synchronization becomes
more important for devices on the entire network. If a system clock is manually modified by
network administrators, the workload is heavy and the modification is error-prone, which
affects clock precision. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is formulated for clock
synchronization between devices on a network. NTP is an application-layer protocol in the
TCP/IP protocol suite. It synchronizes time among a set of distributed time servers and
clients. NTP is implemented based on IP and UDP, and transmits data through UDP. The port
number of NTP is 123.
NQA
Network Quality Analysis (NQA) is located at the link layer, and covers the network,
transport, and application layers. It is independent of the bottom-layer hardware. NQA
monitors network quality indicators in real time, and effectively diagnoses and locates
network faults.
QoS
On traditional IP networks, each network device handles all packets in an
undifferentiated manner and follows the First In First Out (FIFO) rule to transmit packets.
The devices try their best to transmit packets to the destination (Best-Effort). This Best-Effort
mode, however, does not ensure performance such as delay and reliability. Along with the
emergence of new applications on IP networks, new requirements are raised for the Quality
of Service (QoS) of IP networks. For example, voice over IP (VoIP) and video services are
delay-sensitive. A long delay in packet transmission is intolerable by customers (for which
email and FTP services are considered delay-insensitive). To support different services such
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as voice, video, and data services, the network is required to distinguish different service
types before providing corresponding QoS. The Best-Effort mode cannot distinguish between
different service types on the network, and so it cannot provide differentiated QoS. The
Best-Effort mode therefore cannot meet the requirements of applications. QoS is introduced
to address this problem. QoS can control network traffic, avoid and manage network
congestion, and reduce packet loss. In addition, QoS provides dedicated bandwidth for
specific users and differentiated quality for different services.

Objectives
Upon completion of this exercise guide, you will be able to:
Explain what BGP MPLS VPN is.
Configure LDP.
Configure MP-BGP.
Configure SNMP.
Configure BFD.
Configure QoS.
Configure NQA.
Configure NTP.

Tasks
The following topology shows the network of Company A. Deploy the network
according to the following requirements:
(1) Run OSPF and LDP on AR1, AR2, and AR3. Configure area 0 between AR1 and
AR2, and area 2 between AR2 and AR3. To reduce the number of routing entries in
area 0, configure OSPF route aggregation on AR2 to summarize R3s loopback
address.
(2) A backup router AR4 has been added to the SP's network. The links between AR1
and AR4, between AR3 and AR4 are low-speed links, and run IS-IS. Ensure that
the traffic is preferentially transmitted through AR1-AR2-AR3 and uses
AR1-AR4-AR3 as the backup link.
(3) Connect the customer devices AR5 and AR6 to the SP's network as VPN1 to
implement mutual access, and configure static routes between the CE and PE
devices.
(4) With the growth of services, the customer leases lines from other SPs. The
customer prefers MPLS VPN. If the link between AR1 and AR6 or between AR3
and AR5 fails, ensure that the traffic can be switched to the link between R5 and
R6. Static routes are still used on the customer's network.
(5) With the further growth of company's services, the CE devices on the headquarters
network need to be dual homed to PE devices and run BGP. Tear down the original
backup link. Ensure that the traffic is preferentially transmitted through
AR6-AR1-AR3-AR5, and uses AR6-AR4-AR3-AR5 as the backup path. Configure
only on router AR6. Static routes are still used between AR3 and AR5.
(6) Add a new NMS to the VPN and ensure the connectivity between the NMS and
other network devices. Configure LSW3 in the NMS as the NTP server and other
devices as NTP clients; LSW2 use network 11.1.5.0/24 to connect to PE.
(7) Run SNMPv2 on network devices; public as RO community, private as RW
community.
(8) Configure NQA on the link between AR5 and AR6. Ensure that AR5 and AR6 can
send traps to the NMS server when three consecutive ICMP packets are dropped.
The address of NMS is 11.1.5.254.
(9) Configure traffic classifiers on AR6s interface Ge0/0/1, Mark traffic of http/telnet
as DSCP AF41 and set the CAR for other traffic. Ensure the bandwidth of other
traffic under 2M.
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Topology

IP Address Table
Device

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

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Default

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

G 0/0/0

10.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

11.1.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/1

10.2.1.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

1.1.1.1

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

10.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.1.2.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

2.2.2.2

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/1

10.1.2.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/2

11.1.2.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/1

10.2.2.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

3.3.3.3

255.255.255.255

N/A

S 1/0/0

10.2.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

S 1/0/1

10.2.2.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

4.4.4.4

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

11.1.2.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

Loopback 0

5.5.5.5

255.255.255.255

N/A

G 0/0/0

11.1.1.2

255.255.255.0

N/A

G 0/0/1

11.1.3.1

255.255.255.0

N/A

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Loopback 0

6.6.6.6

255.255.255.255

N/A

Configuration and Verification


1.

Run OSPF and LDP on AR1, AR2, and AR3. Configure area 0 between AR1
and AR2, and area 2 between AR2 and AR3. To reduce the number of
routing entries in area 0, configure OSPF route aggregation on AR2 to
summarize R3s loopback address.
The Loopback interface address of AR3 is in the routing table on AR1, but does not use
the 32-bit mask. Therefore, LDP cannot distribute labels. Add static routes.
[R1]display ip routing-table
Destination/Mask Proto
1.1.1.1/32

Direct

2.2.2.2/32

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

127.0.0.1

LoopBack0

OSPF

10

10.1.1.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

3.3.3.0/24

OSPF

10

10.1.1.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

3.3.3.3/32

Static

60

RD

10.1.1.2

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.1.1.0/24

Direct

10.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.1.1.1/32

Direct

127.0.0.

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10.1.1.255/32

Direct

127.0.0.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

10

10.1.1.2

10.1.2.0/24

OSPF

GigabitEthernet0/0/0

[R1]display mpls lsp


------------------------------------------------------------------------------LSP Information: LDP LSP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------FEC

2.

In/Out Label

In/Out IF

1.1.1.1/32

3/NULL

-/-

2.2.2.2/32

NULL/3

-/GE0/0/0

2.2.2.2/32

1024/3

-/GE0/0/0

3.3.3.3/32

NULL/1025

-/GE0/0/0

3.3.3.3/32

1025/1025

-/GE0/0/0

Vrf Name

A backup router AR4 has been added to the SP's network. The links between
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AR1 and AR4, between AR3 and AR4 are low-speed links, and run IS-IS.
Ensure that the traffic is preferentially transmitted through AR1-AR2-AR3
and uses AR1-AR4-AR3 as the backup link.
The static routes are configured for the path AR1-AR2-AR3 and IS-IS is configured on
the path AR1-AR4-AR3. IS-IS advertises the specific routes. IS-IS has a higher priority than
static routes and so traffic is transmitted to AR4. To meet the task requirements, change the
priority of static routes to be lower than the IS-IS priority.
<R4>dis isis peer
Peer information for ISIS(1)
System Id

Interface

Circuit Id

State HoldTime Type

PRI

------------------------------------------------------------------------------0000.0000.0001

S1/0/0

0000000002

Up

24s

L2

--

0000.0000.0003

S1/0/1

0000000001

Up

26s

L2

--

Total Peer(s): 2

3.

Connect the customer devices AR5 and AR6 to the SP's network as VPN1 to
implement mutual access, and configure static routes between the CE and
PE devices.
After configuration, we can see the route information of VPN1, and CE routers can ping
each other.
<R3>display ip routing-table vpn-instance VPN1
Routing Tables: VPN1
Destination/Mask

Proto

Pre

Cost

Flags NextHop

Interface

5.5.5.5/32

Static

60

RD

11.1.2.2

6.6.6.6/32

IBGP

255

RD

1.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

11.1.1.0/24

IBGP

255

RD

1.1.1.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/1

11.1.2.0/24

Direct

11.1.2.1

11.1.3.0/24

IBGP

255

RD

1.1.1.1

255.255.255.255/32

Direct

127.0.0.1

GigabitEthernet0/0/2

GigabitEthernet0/0/2
GigabitEthernet0/0/1
InLoopBack0

[R5]ping -a 5.5.5.5 6.6.6.6


PING 6.6.6.6: 56

data bytes, press CTRL_C to break

Reply from 6.6.6.6: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=252 time=30 ms

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Reply from 6.6.6.6: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=252 time=30 ms


Reply from 6.6.6.6: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=252 time=30 ms
Reply from 6.6.6.6: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=252 time=30 ms
Reply from 6.6.6.6: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=252 time=40 ms
--- 6.6.6.6 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 30/32/40 ms

4.

With the growth of services, the customer leases lines from other SPs. The
customer prefers MPLS VPN. If the link between AR1 and AR6 or between
AR3 and AR5 fails, ensure that the traffic can be switched to the link
between R5 and R6. Static routes are still used on the customer's network.

Configure a static route on the backup link between R5 and R6 and reduce the priority
of the static route. Create a BFD session between the ISP interfaces of R5 and R6 and
associate the BFD session with the static route. When the BFD session is down, the static
route should be deleted.R5 and R6 use 11.2.1.x/24 to connect together.
[R5]display bfd session all
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Local Remote

PeerIpAddr

State

Type

InterfaceName

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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8192

8192

11.1.1.2

Confidentiality Level
Up

S_AUTO_PEER

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total UP/DOWN Session Number : 1/0

5.

With the further growth of company's services, the CE devices on the


headquarters network need to be dual homed to PE devices and run BGP.
Tear down the original backup link. Ensure that the traffic is preferentially
transmitted through AR6-AR1-AR3-AR5, and uses AR6-AR4-AR3-AR5 as
the backup path. Configure only on router AR6.Static routes are still used
between AR3 and AR5.

Add R4 to MPLS VPN. Set up an MP-IBGP peer relationship between R4 and


R3.Establish BGP connection between R6 and PEs. Use network address 11.1.4.0/24 between
R4 and R6, the Headquarter use AS number as 65001.
[R6]display bgp routing-table
Network
*>

5.5.5.5/32

NextHop

MED

LocPrf

11.1.1.1

PrefVal Path/Ogn

200

11.1.4.1

0
0

100?
100?

*>

6.6.6.6/32

0.0.0.0

*>

11.1.1.0/24

0.0.0.0

*>

11.1.2.0/24

11.1.1.1

100?

*
*>

200

11.1.4.1
11.1.3.0/24

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0

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*>

11.1.4.0/24

Confidentiality Level

0.0.0.0

<R3>display bgp vpnv4 vpn-instance VPN1 routing-table


VPN-Instance VPN1, Router ID 10.1.2.2:
Total Number of Routes: 11
Network

NextHop

LocPrf

PrefVal Path/Ogn

*>

5.5.5.5/32

0.0.0.0

*>i

6.6.6.6/32

1.1.1.1

100

65001i

4.4.4.4

200

100

65001i

1.1.1.1

100

65001i

4.4.4.4

200

100

65001i

* i
*>i

11.1.1.0/24

* i

*>

11.1.2.0/24

0.0.0.0

*>

11.1.2.1/32

0.0.0.0

*>i

11.1.3.0/24

1.1.1.1

100

65001i

4.4.4.4

200

100

65001i

1.1.1.1

100

65001i

4.4.4.4

200

100

65001i

* i
*>i

11.1.4.0/24

* i

6.

MED

Add a new NMS to the VPN and ensure the connectivity between the NMS
and other network devices. Configure LSW3 in the NMS as the NTP server
and other devices as NTP clients. LSW2 use network 11.1.5.0/24 to connect to
PE.
Add SW2 to the VPN and configure NTP.
[R5]display ntp-service status
clock status: synchronized
clock stratum: 3
reference clock ID: 11.1.5.2
nominal frequency: 100.0000 Hz
actual frequency: 100.0000 Hz
clock precision: 2^16
clock offset: -28799419.5995 ms

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root delay: 109.89 ms


root dispersion: 0.77 ms
peer dispersion: 0.24 ms
reference time: 15:52:20.935 UTC May 18 2015(D9048934.EF648C71)

7.

Run SNMPv2 on network devices. Use string public as RO community,


private as RW community.
Configure SNMP on the routers inside VPN1.

8.

Configure NQA on the link between AR5 and AR6. Ensure that AR5 and
AR6 can send traps to the NMS server when three consecutive ICMP packets
are dropped. The address of NMS is 11.1.5.254.
Configure NQA. Configure appropriate NQA test instances.
[R6]dis nqa results
NQA entry(admin, R5R6) :testflag is active ,testtype is icmp
1 . Test 5 result

The test is finished

Send operation times: 2

Receive response times: 2

Completion:no result

RTD OverThresholds number: 0

Attempts number:1

Drop operation number:0

Disconnect operation number:0

Operation timeout number:0

System busy operation number:0

Connection fail number:0

Operation sequence errors number:0

RTT Status errors number:0

Destination ip address:5.5.5.5
Min/Max/Average Completion Time: 20/30/25
Sum/Square-Sum

Completion Time: 50/1300

Last Good Probe Time: 2015-05-18 16:58:57.4


Lost packet ratio: 0 %

9.

Configure traffic classifiers on AR6s interface Ge0/0/1, Mark traffic of


http/telnet as DSCP AF41 and set the CAR for other traffic. Ensure the
bandwidth of other traffic under 2M.
Configure class-based QoS.

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Questions
To implement step 2, which methods can be used? Why?

Configuration List
<R1>display current-configuration
#
sysname R1
#
ip vpn-instance VPN1
ipv4-family
route-distinguisher 100:1
vpn-target 100:1 export-extcommunity
vpn-target 100:1 import-extcommunity
#
mpls lsr-id 1.1.1.1
mpls
#
mpls ldp
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0001.0000.0000.0001.00
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.2.1.1 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
mpls
mpls ldp

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#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip binding vpn-instance VPN1
ip address 11.1.5.1 255.255.255.0
trust dscp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip binding vpn-instance VPN1
ip address 11.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
trust dscp
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
bgp 100
peer 3.3.3.3 as-number 100
peer 3.3.3.3 connect-interface LoopBack0
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
undo peer 3.3.3.3 enable
#
ipv4-family vpnv4

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policy vpn-target
peer 3.3.3.3 enable
#
ipv4-family vpn-instance VPN1
import-route direct
peer 11.1.1.2 as-number 65001
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 1.1.1.1 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.2 preference 14
#
return

<R2>display current-configuration
#
sysname R2
#
mpls lsr-id 2.2.2.2
mpls
#
mpls ldp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
mpls
mpls ldp

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#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.0
network 2.2.2.2 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
area 0.0.0.1
abr-summary 3.3.3.0 255.255.255.0
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
return

<R3>display current-configuration
#
sysname R3
#
ip vpn-instance VPN1
ipv4-family
route-distinguisher 100:1
vpn-target 100:1 export-extcommunity
vpn-target 100:1 import-extcommunity
#

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mpls lsr-id 3.3.3.3


mpls
#
mpls ldp
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0001.0000.0000.0003.00
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip binding vpn-instance VPN1
ip address 11.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 3.3.3.3 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#

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bgp 100
peer 1.1.1.1 as-number 100
peer 1.1.1.1 connect-interface LoopBack0
peer 4.4.4.4 as-number 100
peer 4.4.4.4 connect-interface LoopBack0
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
undo peer 1.1.1.1 enable
undo peer 4.4.4.4 enable
#
ipv4-family vpnv4
policy vpn-target
peer 1.1.1.1 enable
peer 4.4.4.4 enable
#
ipv4-family vpn-instance VPN1
import-route direct
import-route static
#
ospf 1
area 0.0.0.1
network 3.3.3.3 0.0.0.0
network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
#
ip route-static vpn-instance VPN1 5.5.5.5 255.255.255.255 11.1.2.2
#
return

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<R4>display current-configuration
#
sysname R4
#
ip vpn-instance VPN1
ipv4-family
route-distinguisher 100:1
vpn-target 100:1 export-extcommunity
vpn-target 100:1 import-extcommunity
#
mpls lsr-id 4.4.4.4
mpls
#
mpls ldp
#
isis 1
is-level level-2
network-entity 47.0001.0000.0000.0004.00
#
interface Serial1/0/0
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.2.1.4 255.255.255.0
isis enable 1
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface Serial1/0/1
link-protocol ppp
ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0

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isis enable 1
mpls
mpls ldp
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip binding vpn-instance VPN1
ip address 11.1.4.1 255.255.255.0
trust dscp
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 4.4.4.4 255.255.255.255
isis enable 1
#
bgp 100
peer 3.3.3.3 as-number 100
peer 3.3.3.3 connect-interface LoopBack0
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
undo peer 3.3.3.3 enable
#
ipv4-family vpnv4
policy vpn-target
peer 3.3.3.3 enable
#
ipv4-family vpn-instance VPN1
peer 11.1.4.2 as-number 65001
#
return

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<R5>display

Confidentiality Level

current-configuration

#
sysname R5
#
snmp-agent local-engineid 800007DB03000000000000
snmp-agent community read %$%$myajH5!e}TA{{B(PGDg',.Vy%$%$
snmp-agent community write %$%$1\z;+o/>^)PB+`/Y\,\,,.Vy%$%$
snmp-agent sys-info version v2c
snmp-agent
#
ntp-service unicast-server 11.1.5.2
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 11.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 5.5.5.5 255.255.255.255
#
ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 11.1.2.1
#
return

<R6>display current-configuration
#
sysname R6
#
snmp-agent local-engineid 800007DB03000000000000
snmp-agent community read %$%$y>=d@L0sHJu!w)XjJSO>,"/t%$%$

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snmp-agent community write %$%$Y~~T6i`k&K\A0=RU0U7A,"/t%$%$


snmp-agent sys-info version v2c
snmp-agent target-host trap-hostname NMS address 11.1.5.254 udp-port 162 trap-pa
ramsname TRAPWORD
snmp-agent target-host trap-paramsname TRAPWORD v2c securityname Huawei
snmp-agent trap enable
snmp-agent
#
ntp-service unicast-server 11.1.5.2
#
acl number 3001
rule 10 permit tcp source-port eq www destination-port eq www
rule 20 permit tcp destination-port eq www
rule 30 permit tcp source-port eq telnet
rule 40 permit tcp destination-port eq telnet
#
traffic classifier httptelnet operator or
if-match acl 3001
traffic classifier OTHER operator or
if-match any
#
traffic behavior httptelnet
remark dscp af41
traffic behavior OTHER
car cir 2000 cbs 376000 pbs 626000 green pass yellow pass red discard
#
traffic policy POL6
classifier httptelnet behavior httptelnet
#

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interface GigabitEthernet0/0/0
ip address 11.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/1
ip address 11.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
traffic-policy POL6 inbound
#
interface GigabitEthernet0/0/2
ip address 11.1.4.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface LoopBack0
ip address 6.6.6.6 255.255.255.255
#
bgp 65001
peer 11.1.1.1 as-number 100
peer 11.1.4.1 as-number 100
#
ipv4-family unicast
undo synchronization
network 6.6.6.6 255.255.255.255
network 11.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
network 11.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
network 11.1.4.0 255.255.255.0
peer 11.1.1.1 enable
peer 11.1.1.1 route-policy setpref import
peer 11.1.4.1 enable
peer 11.1.4.1 route-policy setmet export
#
route-policy setpref permit node 10

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apply local-preference 200


#
route-policy setmet permit node 10
apply cost 200
#
nqa test-instance admin R5R6
test-type icmp
destination-address ipv4 5.5.5.5
test-failtimes 3
send-trap testfailure
frequency 5
timeout 1
start now
#
return

<LSW1>display current-configuration
#
sysname LSW1
#
ntp-service unicast-server 11.1.5.2
#
interface Vlanif1
ip address 11.1.3.2 255.255.255.0
#
ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 11.1.3.1
#
snmp-agent
snmp-agent local-engineid 800007DB034C1FCC8032F5

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snmp-agent community read
snmp-agent community write

Confidentiality Level

public
private

snmp-agent sys-info version v2c v3


#
return

<SW2>display current-configuration
#
sysname SW2
#
ntp-service refclock-master 2
#
interface Vlanif1
ip address 11.1.5.2 255.255.255.0
#
interface MEth0/0/1
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
port link-type access
#
ip route-static 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 11.1.5.1
#
snmp-agent
snmp-agent local-engineid 800007DB034C1FCCF266EE
snmp-agent community read
snmp-agent community write

public
private

snmp-agent sys-info version v2c v3


#
return

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