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GATE

(Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission):


a PET/SPECT general-purpose simulation platform
G.Santin (ESA-ESTEC & Trieste University)
D.Strul, C.Morel (Lausanne University)
(for the OpenGATE Collaboration)

8th Topical Seminar on Innovative


Particle and Radiation Detectors
21 - 24 October 2002
Siena, Italy

Siena

21 Oct 2002

Imaging in Nuclear Medicine

GATE

Anatomical imaging

X-rays, MRI scanners, CAT, ultrasound

Detailed info about the tissue structure and composition

Functional imaging

In vivo physiologic analysis

Spatial distribution (and evolution!) of radio nuclides in the body


(pharmacokinetics, metabolism)
We see the organ during its activity

Quantitative analysis (concentrations)

PET:
Biological molecules tagged with radioactive isotopes with short
life-time (15OT1/2~2 min, 11C20 min)
Resolution down to a few mm3

G.Santin

SPECT:
Longer decay times (99mTc6 h, 123I13 h , 133Xe5 d)
no need for accelerator facilities

Poorer sensitivity (and resolution)

Multimodality
Due to low resolution recently often associated to other
modalities of scanning (MRI, CT)

21 Oct 2002

Siena

Simulations in Nuclear Medicine

Wide range of applications

GATE

scanner design, image reconstruction, scatter correction, protocol


optimization,

Analytical computations

Since a couple of decades: accurate Monte Carlo simulations are widely


used in parallel to analytical computations or experimental studies for a
large range of PET and SPECT applications
PETsim, SimSET, EIDOLON, SIMIND, SimSPECT, SORTEO, MCMATV, PETEGS,

G.Santin

Non exaustive list

Computation time
Is still a concern
( see later)

21 Oct 2002

Siena

Two approaches

Dedicated simulation programs (PETsim, SimSET, Eidolon, )


Simple geometry, limited number of requirements
Fast development

GATE

Optimized on application
Limits in the physics description
Maintenance, upgrades?

GATE

General purpose simulation codes (Geant4, EGS4, MCNP)


Wide community of developers and users

G.Santin

code and physics validation


documentation and support
Complexity
Speed

21 Oct 2002

Siena

GATE

Based on Geant4
Physics description

GATE

Long term availability


Upgrades, documentation & support
Object Oriented Analysis & Design

Extensions to build a simulation platform for PET/SPECT


Ease of use for non C++ programmers
scripting almost everywhere, geometry included

Typical Nuclear Medicine options included

G.Santin

material database, sources, readout,

AND MORE !
Time management
Movements

21 Oct 2002

3 different layers

Developer level

GATE

Siena

How it works

Framework and application classes


C++ programming

User level

G.Santin

Application classes

Simulation parameters

User Interface

Geometry
Sources

Framework

Scripting only

Geant4

21 Oct 2002

GATE

Siena

GATE detailed structure

Source
scripting
Geometry
scripting

I/O choice
scripting

Specific source
type
Specific I/O

Specific
analysis
Specific
volume

G.Santin

Analysis
scripting

Timing
scripting

Time
mgr

Specific
source

Analysis mgr

Source mgr
I/O mgr
Geometry mgr
Geant4

User
Interface

21 Oct 2002

Siena

world

Geometry scripting
Source

GATE

Body

Head

Scanner
Rsector
Crystal

G.Santin

LSO

BGO

D.Strul
Uni Lausanne

PET

Siena

21 Oct 2002

Geometry examples

GATE

SPECT

G.Santin

S. Staelens, Univ. Ghent

Collimator detail

21 Oct 2002

Multiple sources

Controlled by source manager

Inserted via scripting

Complex geometries: customized GPS

15

O and 11C

7000

Optimized decay

Customized G4 Radioactive Decay Module (RDM)

PET-specific sources

6000
5000
counts

Siena

GATE

Source
management

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

G.Santin

An example:

Dual isotope scan

Simulation for independent time frames

10

15

20

25

time (min)

0-2 and 14-16 min

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21 Oct 2002

Siena

GATE
G.Santin

Timing

Simulation time

A clock models the passing of time


during experiments

The user defines the experiment


timing

Time-dependent objects

Updated when time changes

Allows programming of movement,


tracer kinetics...

0s

20s

40s

60s

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21 Oct 2002

Siena

Sensitive volumes and digitisation

GATE

Hits

Digis

Energy
response

G.Santin

Centroid
readout

Threshold
Electronics

Pre-programmed components

Spatial
response

Sensitive detectors
Trajectory analyser

Digitizer

Linear signal processing chain


Modular: set-up via scripting

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21 Oct 2002

Siena

Data output

Pluggable output modules


Multiple parallel output channels ROOT, ASCII

GATE

Include features for real-time display

G.Santin

GATE

Output management
ASCII
ROOT

Binary format

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21 Oct 2002

Siena

Validation

GATE

IASA gamma camera

G.Santin

D. Lazaro, LPC-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand

Several SPECT/gamma camera projects

Clermont-Ferrand

Ghent

PET validation work to start soon

Lausanne, .

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21 Oct 2002

Toward parallel computation

Siena

Input
file

GATE

Data
base
file

Input file exploding

Data
base
file

GATE
on the
Grid

Output
result file

Output file merging

GridGATE
output
file

D. Lazaro, LPC-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand

G.Santin

Computation speed is essential

Simple geometry
But: voxels, huge number of events,

Projects

LAN parallelisation
Implementation on DATAGRID (W.I.P.)

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21 Oct 2002

Siena

GATE

OpenGATE collaboration

G.Santin

Shared development

Optimal use of manpower and skills

Long-term maintenance and support

Coordination of efforts

Multiple development axes: tool implementation, validation,

Current composition

10 groups

Fields: SPECT, PET, PET

Application: design, validation

All members contribute

According to their interests and know-how

On a best-effort basis

Coordination

A spokesman

Steering committee (one delegate/member)

Technical meetings

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21 Oct 2002

On-going project
Develop a versatile simulation platform for
PET/SPECT

Siena

Summary

Build a shared-development collaboration

GATE

Development and validation work on their way

G.Santin

The End

For more info


http://www-iphe.unil.ch/~PET/research/gate/

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