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Water pollution

Water pollution <a href=Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater ). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into wa- ter bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water . In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological commu- nities . 1 Introduction Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource pol- icy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day. About 90 per- cent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pol- lution in developing countries , developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. For exam- ple, in the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of as- sessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified Pollution in the Lachine Canal , Canada as polluted. The head of China’s national development agency said in 2007 that one quarter the length of China’s seven main rivers were so poisoned the water harmed the skin. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is im- paired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water , or under- goes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes , algae blooms , storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecolog- ical status of water. 2 Categories Although interrelated, surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources. Surface water seeps through the soil and be- comes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pol- lution are generally grouped into two categories based on 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-4" src="pdf-obj-0-4.jpg">

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into wa- ter bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological commu- nities.

1 Introduction

Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource pol- icy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, [1][2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. [2] An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day. [3] About 90 per- cent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. [4] As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. [5] In addition to the acute problems of water pol- lution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. For exam- ple, in the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of as- sessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified

Water pollution <a href=Raw sewage and industrial waste in the New River as it passes from Mexicali to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans , aquifers and groundwater ). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into wa- ter bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water . In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological commu- nities . 1 Introduction Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource pol- icy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day. About 90 per- cent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pol- lution in developing countries , developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. For exam- ple, in the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 44 percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of as- sessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified Pollution in the Lachine Canal , Canada as polluted. The head of China’s national development agency said in 2007 that one quarter the length of China’s seven main rivers were so poisoned the water harmed the skin. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is im- paired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water , or under- goes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes , algae blooms , storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecolog- ical status of water. 2 Categories Although interrelated, surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources. Surface water seeps through the soil and be- comes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pol- lution are generally grouped into two categories based on 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-71" src="pdf-obj-0-71.jpg">

Pollution in the Lachine Canal, Canada

as polluted. [6] The head of China’s national development agency said in 2007 that one quarter the length of China’s seven main rivers were so poisoned the water harmed the skin. [7]

Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is im- paired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or under- goes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecolog- ical status of water.

2 Categories

Although interrelated, surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources. [8] Surface water seeps through the soil and be- comes groundwater. Conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources. Sources of surface water pol- lution are generally grouped into two categories based on

1

2

3 CAUSES

their origin.

  • 2.1 Point sources

2 3 CAUSES their origin. 2.1 Point sources Point source pollution – <a href=Shipyard – Rio de Janeiro . Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch . Examples of sources in this cate- gory include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain . The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforce- ment purposes. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites. 2.2 Non-point sources Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contami- nating surface drainage classified as surface water pollution. By its very na- ture, groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contami- nation from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies, and the distinction of point vs. non-point source may be irrelevant. A spill or ongoing release of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away from a surface water body) may not create point or non-point source pollution but can contaminate the aquifer below, creating a toxic plume . The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model . Analysis of groundwater contamination may fo- cus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology , hydrology , and the nature of the contaminants. Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in storm water from “sheet flow” over an agricultural field or a for- est are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots , roads and highways, called urban runoff , is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface wa- ters, it becomes a point source. 2.3 Groundwater pollution Main article: Groundwater pollution Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also re- ferred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily 3 Causes The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals , pathogens , and physical changes such as elevated temperature and dis- coloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring ( calcium , sodium , iron, manganese , etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen -depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. Many of the chemical substances are toxic . Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or an- imal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH ), electrical conductivity , " id="pdf-obj-1-11" src="pdf-obj-1-11.jpg">

Point source pollution – Shipyard Rio de Janeiro.

Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this cate- gory include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforce- ment purposes. [9] The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites. [10]

  • 2.2 Non-point sources

2 3 CAUSES their origin. 2.1 Point sources Point source pollution – <a href=Shipyard – Rio de Janeiro . Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, such as a pipe or ditch . Examples of sources in this cate- gory include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain . The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforce- ment purposes. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites. 2.2 Non-point sources Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contami- nating surface drainage classified as surface water pollution. By its very na- ture, groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contami- nation from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies, and the distinction of point vs. non-point source may be irrelevant. A spill or ongoing release of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away from a surface water body) may not create point or non-point source pollution but can contaminate the aquifer below, creating a toxic plume . The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model . Analysis of groundwater contamination may fo- cus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology , hydrology , and the nature of the contaminants. Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in storm water from “sheet flow” over an agricultural field or a for- est are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots , roads and highways, called urban runoff , is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface wa- ters, it becomes a point source. 2.3 Groundwater pollution Main article: Groundwater pollution Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also re- ferred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily 3 Causes The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals , pathogens , and physical changes such as elevated temperature and dis- coloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring ( calcium , sodium , iron, manganese , etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen -depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. Many of the chemical substances are toxic . Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or an- imal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH ), electrical conductivity , " id="pdf-obj-1-39" src="pdf-obj-1-39.jpg">

Blue drain and yellow fish symbol used by the UK Environment Agency to raise awareness of the ecological impacts of contami- nating surface drainage

classified as surface water pollution. [8] By its very na- ture, groundwater aquifers are susceptible to contami- nation from sources that may not directly affect surface water bodies, and the distinction of point vs. non-point source may be irrelevant. A spill or ongoing release of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into soil (located away from a surface water body) may not create point or non-point source pollution but can contaminate the aquifer below, creating a toxic plume. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater contamination may fo- cus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants.

Nonpoint source pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. A common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. [11] Nutrient runoff in storm water from “sheet flow” over an agricultural field or a for- est are also cited as examples of NPS pollution.

Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called urban runoff, is sometimes included under the category of NPS pollution. However, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface wa- ters, it becomes a point source.

  • 2.3 Groundwater pollution

Main article: Groundwater pollution

Interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. Consequently, groundwater pollution, also re- ferred to as groundwater contamination, is not as easily

3

Causes

The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical changes such as elevated temperature and dis- coloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, etc.) the concentration is often the key in determining what is a natural component of water and what is a contaminant. High concentrations of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna.

Oxygen-depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grass) as well as man-made chemicals. Other natural and anthropogenic

substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which blocks light and disrupts plant growth, and clogs the gills of some fish species. [12]

Many of the chemical substances are toxic. Pathogens can produce waterborne diseases in either human or an- imal hosts. [13] Alteration of water’s physical chemistry includes acidity (change in pH), electrical conductivity,

3.2

Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants

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temperature, and eutrophication. Eutrophication is an in- crease in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary pro- ductivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental ef- fects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reduc- tions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations.

  • 3.1 Pathogens

3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants 3 temperature, and <a href=eutrophication . Eutrophication is an in- crease in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary pro- ductivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental ef- fects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reduc- tions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations. 3.1 Pathogens Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities lead- ing to the pollution of water sources Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi , Kenya . cause of disease, are commonly used as a bacterial indica- tor of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters that have caused human health problems include: • Burkholderia pseudomallei Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Norovirus and other viruses • Parasitic worms including the Schistosoma type [14][15] High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems ( septic tanks , p it latrines ) or inade- quately treated sewage discharges. This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treat- ment (more typical in less-developed countries). In de- veloped countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows . Some cities also have combined sewers , which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly man- aged livestock operations. 3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants A manhole cover unable to contain a sanitary sewer overflow . Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens . Although the vast majority of bacteria are ei- ther harmless or beneficial, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. Coliform bacteria , which are not an actual Contaminants may include organic and inorganic sub- stances. Organic water pollutants include: • Detergents " id="pdf-obj-2-19" src="pdf-obj-2-19.jpg">

Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities lead- ing to the pollution of water sources

3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants 3 temperature, and <a href=eutrophication . Eutrophication is an in- crease in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary pro- ductivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental ef- fects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reduc- tions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations. 3.1 Pathogens Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities lead- ing to the pollution of water sources Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi , Kenya . cause of disease, are commonly used as a bacterial indica- tor of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters that have caused human health problems include: • Burkholderia pseudomallei Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Norovirus and other viruses • Parasitic worms including the Schistosoma type [14][15] High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems ( septic tanks , p it latrines ) or inade- quately treated sewage discharges. This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treat- ment (more typical in less-developed countries). In de- veloped countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows . Some cities also have combined sewers , which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly man- aged livestock operations. 3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants A manhole cover unable to contain a sanitary sewer overflow . Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens . Although the vast majority of bacteria are ei- ther harmless or beneficial, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. Coliform bacteria , which are not an actual Contaminants may include organic and inorganic sub- stances. Organic water pollutants include: • Detergents " id="pdf-obj-2-23" src="pdf-obj-2-23.jpg">
3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants 3 temperature, and <a href=eutrophication . Eutrophication is an in- crease in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases in the primary pro- ductivity of the ecosystem. Depending on the degree of eutrophication, subsequent negative environmental ef- fects such as anoxia (oxygen depletion) and severe reduc- tions in water quality may occur, affecting fish and other animal populations. 3.1 Pathogens Poster to teach people in South Asia about human activities lead- ing to the pollution of water sources Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi , Kenya . cause of disease, are commonly used as a bacterial indica- tor of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters that have caused human health problems include: • Burkholderia pseudomallei Cryptosporidium parvum Giardia lamblia Salmonella Norovirus and other viruses • Parasitic worms including the Schistosoma type [14][15] High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems ( septic tanks , p it latrines ) or inade- quately treated sewage discharges. This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treat- ment (more typical in less-developed countries). In de- veloped countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows . Some cities also have combined sewers , which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly man- aged livestock operations. 3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants A manhole cover unable to contain a sanitary sewer overflow . Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens . Although the vast majority of bacteria are ei- ther harmless or beneficial, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. Coliform bacteria , which are not an actual Contaminants may include organic and inorganic sub- stances. Organic water pollutants include: • Detergents " id="pdf-obj-2-25" src="pdf-obj-2-25.jpg">

Fecal sludge collected from pit latrines is dumped into a river at the Korogocho slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

cause of disease, are commonly used as a bacterial indica- tor of water pollution. Other microorganisms sometimes found in surface waters that have caused human health problems include:

[14][15]

High levels of pathogens may result from on-site sanitation systems (septic tanks, pit latrines) or inade- quately treated sewage discharges. [16] This can be caused by a sewage plant designed with less than secondary treat- ment (more typical in less-developed countries). In de- veloped countries, older cities with aging infrastructure may have leaky sewage collection systems (pipes, pumps, valves), which can cause sanitary sewer overflows. Some cities also have combined sewers, which may discharge untreated sewage during rain storms. [17]

Pathogen discharges may also be caused by poorly man- aged livestock operations.

3.2 Organic, inorganic and macroscopic contaminants

A manhole cover unable to contain a sanitary sewer overflow.

Disease-causing microorganisms are referred to as pathogens. Although the vast majority of bacteria are ei- ther harmless or beneficial, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause disease. Coliform bacteria, which are not an actual

Contaminants may include organic and inorganic sub- stances.

Organic water pollutants include:

4

3 CAUSES

4 3 CAUSES Muddy river polluted by sediment. A garbage collection boom in an urban-area streamAuckland , New Zealand. • Drug pollution involving pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites Macroscopic Pollution in Parks Milwaukee , WI Inorganic water pollutants include: • Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants ) • Ammonia from food processing waste • Chemical waste as industrial by-products • Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water , such as chloroformFood processing waste, which can include oxygen- demanding substances, fats and grease • Insecticides and herbicides , a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compoundsPetroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels ( gasoline , diesel fuel , jet fuels, and fuel oil ) and lubricants (mo- tor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from storm water runoff Volatile organic compounds , such as industrial solvents , from improper storage. • Fertilizers containing nutrients-- nitrates and phosphates which are found in storm water runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use • Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff ) and acid mine drainageSilt ( sediment ) in runoff from construction sites, log- ging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites. Macroscopic pollution – large visible items polluting the water – may be termed “floatables” in an urban storm wa- ter context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as: • Chlorinated solvents , which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids , may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser. • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) • TrichloroethylenePerchlorate • Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products • Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste ) discarded by people on the ground, along with ac- cidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters • Nurdles , small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets • Shipwrecks , large derelict ships. " id="pdf-obj-3-7" src="pdf-obj-3-7.jpg">

Muddy river polluted by sediment.

4 3 CAUSES Muddy river polluted by sediment. A garbage collection boom in an urban-area streamAuckland , New Zealand. • Drug pollution involving pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites Macroscopic Pollution in Parks Milwaukee , WI Inorganic water pollutants include: • Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants ) • Ammonia from food processing waste • Chemical waste as industrial by-products • Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water , such as chloroformFood processing waste, which can include oxygen- demanding substances, fats and grease • Insecticides and herbicides , a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compoundsPetroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels ( gasoline , diesel fuel , jet fuels, and fuel oil ) and lubricants (mo- tor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from storm water runoff Volatile organic compounds , such as industrial solvents , from improper storage. • Fertilizers containing nutrients-- nitrates and phosphates which are found in storm water runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use • Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff ) and acid mine drainageSilt ( sediment ) in runoff from construction sites, log- ging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites. Macroscopic pollution – large visible items polluting the water – may be termed “floatables” in an urban storm wa- ter context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as: • Chlorinated solvents , which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids , may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser. • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) • TrichloroethylenePerchlorate • Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products • Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste ) discarded by people on the ground, along with ac- cidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters • Nurdles , small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets • Shipwrecks , large derelict ships. " id="pdf-obj-3-11" src="pdf-obj-3-11.jpg">

A garbage collection boom in an urban-area stream in Auckland, New Zealand.

4 3 CAUSES Muddy river polluted by sediment. A garbage collection boom in an urban-area streamAuckland , New Zealand. • Drug pollution involving pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites Macroscopic Pollution in Parks Milwaukee , WI Inorganic water pollutants include: • Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants ) • Ammonia from food processing waste • Chemical waste as industrial by-products • Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water , such as chloroformFood processing waste, which can include oxygen- demanding substances, fats and grease • Insecticides and herbicides , a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compoundsPetroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels ( gasoline , diesel fuel , jet fuels, and fuel oil ) and lubricants (mo- tor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from storm water runoff Volatile organic compounds , such as industrial solvents , from improper storage. • Fertilizers containing nutrients-- nitrates and phosphates which are found in storm water runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use • Heavy metals from motor vehicles (via urban storm water runoff ) and acid mine drainageSilt ( sediment ) in runoff from construction sites, log- ging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites. Macroscopic pollution – large visible items polluting the water – may be termed “floatables” in an urban storm wa- ter context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as: • Chlorinated solvents , which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids , may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser. • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) • TrichloroethylenePerchlorate • Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products • Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste ) discarded by people on the ground, along with ac- cidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters • Nurdles , small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets • Shipwrecks , large derelict ships. " id="pdf-obj-3-25" src="pdf-obj-3-25.jpg">

Macroscopic Pollution in Parks Milwaukee, WI

Inorganic water pollutants include:

Acidity caused by industrial discharges (especially sulfur dioxide from power plants)

Ammonia from food processing waste

Chemical waste as industrial by-products

Food processing waste, which can include oxygen- demanding substances, fats and grease

Insecticides and herbicides, a huge range of organohalides and other chemical compounds

Petroleum hydrocarbons, including fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil) and lubricants (mo- tor oil), and fuel combustion byproducts, from storm water runoff [18]

Volatile organic compounds, such as industrial solvents, from improper storage.

Fertilizers containing nutrients--nitrates and phosphateswhich are found in storm water runoff from agriculture, as well as commercial and residential use [18]

Silt (sediment) in runoff from construction sites, log- ging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites.

Macroscopic pollution – large visible items polluting the water – may be termed “floatables” in an urban storm wa- ter context, or marine debris when found on the open seas, and can include such items as:

Chlorinated solvents, which are dense non-aqueous phase liquids, may fall to the bottom of reservoirs, since they don't mix well with water and are denser.

Various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products

Trash or garbage (e.g. paper, plastic, or food waste) discarded by people on the ground, along with ac- cidental or intentional dumping of rubbish, that are washed by rainfall into storm drains and eventually discharged into surface waters

Nurdles, small ubiquitous waterborne plastic pellets

Shipwrecks, large derelict ships.

5

5 The <a href=Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay . 3.3 Thermal pollution Main article: Thermal pollution Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A com- mon cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufactur- ers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen lev- els, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversit y , and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. Urban runoff may also el- evate temperature in surface waters. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. ported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods , then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a cu- mulative concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury ) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT . This is known as bio-magnification, which is occa- sionally used interchangeably with bio-accumulation. A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey 4 Transport and chemical reac- tions of water pollutants See also: Marine pollution Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced one hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models . Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight , for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River , but 100 km (62 mi) south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to the coriolis force . Further south are areas of oxygen de- pletion caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms , caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been re- Large gyres ( vortexes ) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris . The North Pacific Gyre , for example, has col- lected the so-called " Great Pacific Garbage Patch ", which is now estimated to be one hundred times the size of Texas. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemi- cal change, especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry. Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial de- composition reactions, leading to new hazardous chem- icals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride ). Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers . Non-porous " id="pdf-obj-4-5" src="pdf-obj-4-5.jpg">

The Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay.

  • 3.3 Thermal pollution

Main article: Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A com- mon cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufactur- ers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen lev- els, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. [20][21][22] Urban runoff may also el- evate temperature in surface waters.

Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers.

ported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods, then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a cu- mulative concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT. This is known as bio-magnification, which is occa- sionally used interchangeably with bio-accumulation.

5 The <a href=Brayton Point Power Station in Massachusetts discharges heated water to Mount Hope Bay . 3.3 Thermal pollution Main article: Thermal pollution Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water. A com- mon cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufactur- ers. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen lev- els, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversit y , and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. Urban runoff may also el- evate temperature in surface waters. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers. ported, because toxins climb the food chain after small fish consume copepods , then large fish eat smaller fish, etc. Each successive step up the food chain causes a cu- mulative concentration of pollutants such as heavy metals (e.g. mercury ) and persistent organic pollutants such as DDT . This is known as bio-magnification, which is occa- sionally used interchangeably with bio-accumulation. A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey 4 Transport and chemical reac- tions of water pollutants See also: Marine pollution Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced one hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models . Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight , for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River , but 100 km (62 mi) south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to the coriolis force . Further south are areas of oxygen de- pletion caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms , caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been re- Large gyres ( vortexes ) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris . The North Pacific Gyre , for example, has col- lected the so-called " Great Pacific Garbage Patch ", which is now estimated to be one hundred times the size of Texas. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it. Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation. Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemi- cal change, especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry. Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial de- composition reactions, leading to new hazardous chem- icals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride ). Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers . Non-porous " id="pdf-obj-4-47" src="pdf-obj-4-47.jpg">

A polluted river draining an abandoned copper mine on Anglesey

4

Transport and chemical reac- tions of water pollutants

See also: Marine pollution

Most water pollutants are eventually carried by rivers into the oceans. In some areas of the world the influence can be traced one hundred miles from the mouth by studies using hydrology transport models. Advanced computer models such as SWMM or the DSSAM Model have been used in many locations worldwide to examine the fate of pollutants in aquatic systems. Indicator filter feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for example. The highest toxin loads are not directly at the mouth of the Hudson River, but 100 km (62 mi) south, since several days are required for incorporation into planktonic tissue. The Hudson discharge flows south along the coast due to the coriolis force. Further south are areas of oxygen de- pletion caused by chemicals using up oxygen and by algae blooms, caused by excess nutrients from algal cell death and decomposition. Fish and shellfish kills have been re-

Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. The North Pacific Gyre, for example, has col- lected the so-called "Great Pacific Garbage Patch", which is now estimated to be one hundred times the size of Texas. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollution, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it. [23] Many of these long-lasting pieces wind up in the stomachs of marine birds and animals. This results in obstruction of digestive pathways, which leads to reduced appetite or even starvation.

Many chemicals undergo reactive decay or chemi- cal change, especially over long periods of time in groundwater reservoirs. A noteworthy class of such chemicals is the chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (used in industrial metal degreasing and electronics manufacturing) and tetrachloroethylene used in the dry cleaning industry. Both of these chemicals, which are carcinogens themselves, undergo partial de- composition reactions, leading to new hazardous chem- icals (including dichloroethylene and vinyl chloride).

Groundwater pollution is much more difficult to abate than surface pollution because groundwater can move great distances through unseen aquifers. Non-porous

6

5 MEASUREMENT

aquifers such as clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity; however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants. Groundwater that moves through open fractures and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of karst topography.

There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt-bearing surface runoff, which can in- hibit the penetration of sunlight through the water col- umn, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants.

Sampling for biological testing involves collection of plants and/or animals from the surface water body. De- pending on the type of assessment, the organisms may be identified for biosurveys (population counts) and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected for bioassays to determine toxicity.

  • 5.2 Physical testing

  • 5 Measurement

Common physical tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS))

and turbidity.

6 5 MEASUREMENT aquifers such as <a href=clays partially purify water of bacteria by simple filtration (adsorption and absorption), dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity; however, in some cases, the pollutants merely transform to soil contaminants . Groundwater that moves through open fractures and caverns is not filtered and can be transported as easily as surface water. In fact, this can be aggravated by the human tendency to use natural sinkholes as dumps in areas of karst topography . There are a variety of secondary effects stemming not from the original pollutant, but a derivative condition. An example is silt -bearing surface runoff , which can in- hibit the penetration of sunlight through the water col- umn, hampering photosynthesis in aquatic plants. Sampling for biological testing involves collection of plants and/or animals from the surface water body. De- pending on the type of assessment, the organisms may be identified for biosurveys (population counts) and returned to the water body, or they may be dissected for bioassays to determine toxicity . Further information: Water quality § Sampling and measurement 5.2 Physical testing 5 Measurement Common physical tests of water include temperature, solids concentrations (e.g., total suspended solids (TSS)) and turbidity. Environmental scientists preparing water autosamplers. Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by special- ized analytical tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ , without sampling, such as temperature. Govern- ment agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facil- itate the comparability of results from disparate testing events. 5.1 Sampling Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason “grab” samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals. 5.3 Chemical testing See also: water chemistry analysis and environmental chemistry Water samples may be examined using the principles of analytical chemistry . Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used methods include pH , biochemical oxy- gen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nutrients ( nitrate and phosphorus com- pounds), metals (including copper, zinc , cadmium , lead and mercury ), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocar- bons (TPH), and pesticides . 5.4 Biological testing Main article: Bioindicator Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal, and/or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem . They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present. One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem. For microbial testing of drinking water, Bacteriological water analysis . see " id="pdf-obj-5-52" src="pdf-obj-5-52.jpg">

Environmental scientists preparing water autosamplers.

Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by special- ized analytical tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature. Govern- ment agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facil- itate the comparability of results from disparate testing events. [24]

5.1 Sampling

Sampling of water for physical or chemical testing can be done by several methods, depending on the accuracy needed and the characteristics of the contaminant. Many contamination events are sharply restricted in time, most commonly in association with rain events. For this reason “grab” samples are often inadequate for fully quantifying contaminant levels. Scientists gathering this type of data often employ auto-sampler devices that pump increments of water at either time or discharge intervals.

  • 5.3 Chemical testing

Water samples may be examined using the principles of analytical chemistry. Many published test methods are available for both organic and inorganic compounds. Frequently used methods include pH, biochemical oxy- gen demand (BOD), [25]:102 chemical oxygen demand (COD), [25]:104 nutrients (nitrate and phosphorus com- pounds), metals (including copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury), oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocar- bons (TPH), and pesticides.

  • 5.4 Biological testing

Main article: Bioindicator

Biological testing involves the use of plant, animal, and/or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic ecosystem. They are any biological species or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal what degree of ecosystem or environmental integrity is present. [26] One example of a group of bio-indicators are the copepods and other small water crustaceans that are present in many water bodies. Such organisms can be monitored for changes (biochemical, physiological, or behavioral) that may indicate a problem within their ecosystem.

For

microbial testing

of

drinking water,

see

6.3

Agricultural wastewater treatment

7

  • 6 Control of pollution

Decisions on the type and degree of treatment and control of wastes, and the disposal and use of adequately treated wastewater, must be based on a consideration all the tech- nical factors of each drainage basin, in order to prevent any further contamination or harm to the environment. [27]

  • 6.1 Sewage treatment

6.3 Agricultural wastewater treatment 7 6 Control of pollution Decisions on the type and degree ofwastewater , must be based on a consideration all the tech- nical factors of each drainage basin, in order to prevent any further contamination or harm to the environment. 6.1 Sewage treatment Main article: Sewage treatment In urban areas of developed countries, domestic sewage Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant serving Boston, Mas- sachusetts and vicinity. is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., sec- ondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage. Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens. Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage, including: • utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve storm water management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant • repair and replacement of leaking and malfunction- ing equipment • increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system (often a very expensive option). A household or business not served by a municipal treat- ment plant may have an individual septic tank , which pre- treats the wastewater on site and infiltrates it into the soil. 6.2 Industrial wastewater treatment Main article: Industrial wastewater treatment Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater. sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Indus- tries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pol- lutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other non-conventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these fa- cilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generat- ing large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a pro- cess called pollution prevention. Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: • cooling ponds , man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation , convection , and radiationcooling towers , which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat trans- fercogeneration , a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes. 6.3 Agricultural wastewater treatment Main article: Agricultural wastewater treatment Non point source controls Sediment (loose soil ) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States. Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common tech- niques include contour plowing , crop mulching , crop ro- tation , planting perennial crops and installing riparian [30][31] :pp. 4-95–4-96 Nutrients ( nitrogen and phosphorus ) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer , animal manure , or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop " id="pdf-obj-6-18" src="pdf-obj-6-18.jpg">

Main article: Sewage treatment In urban areas of developed countries, domestic sewage

6.3 Agricultural wastewater treatment 7 6 Control of pollution Decisions on the type and degree ofwastewater , must be based on a consideration all the tech- nical factors of each drainage basin, in order to prevent any further contamination or harm to the environment. 6.1 Sewage treatment Main article: Sewage treatment In urban areas of developed countries, domestic sewage Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant serving Boston, Mas- sachusetts and vicinity. is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., sec- ondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage. Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens. Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage, including: • utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve storm water management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant • repair and replacement of leaking and malfunction- ing equipment • increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system (often a very expensive option). A household or business not served by a municipal treat- ment plant may have an individual septic tank , which pre- treats the wastewater on site and infiltrates it into the soil. 6.2 Industrial wastewater treatment Main article: Industrial wastewater treatment Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater. sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Indus- tries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pol- lutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other non-conventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these fa- cilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generat- ing large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a pro- cess called pollution prevention. Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: • cooling ponds , man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation , convection , and radiationcooling towers , which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat trans- fercogeneration , a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes. 6.3 Agricultural wastewater treatment Main article: Agricultural wastewater treatment Non point source controls Sediment (loose soil ) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States. Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common tech- niques include contour plowing , crop mulching , crop ro- tation , planting perennial crops and installing riparian [30][31] :pp. 4-95–4-96 Nutrients ( nitrogen and phosphorus ) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer , animal manure , or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop " id="pdf-obj-6-24" src="pdf-obj-6-24.jpg">

Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant serving Boston, Mas- sachusetts and vicinity.

is typically treated by centralized sewage treatment plants. Well-designed and operated systems (i.e., sec- ondary treatment or better) can remove 90 percent or more of the pollutant load in sewage. Some plants have additional systems to remove nutrients and pathogens.

Cities with sanitary sewer overflows or combined sewer overflows employ one or more engineering approaches to reduce discharges of untreated sewage, including:

utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve storm water management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant [28]

repair and replacement of leaking and malfunction- ing equipment [17]

increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system (often a very expensive option).

A household or business not served by a municipal treat- ment plant may have an individual septic tank, which pre- treats the wastewater on site and infiltrates it into the soil.

  • 6.2 Industrial wastewater treatment

Main article: Industrial wastewater treatment Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic

Dissolved air flotation system for treating industrial wastewater.

sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Indus- tries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pol- lutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other non-conventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these fa- cilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generat- ing large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems. Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a pro- cess called pollution prevention.

Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with:

cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation

cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat trans- fer

cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes. [29]

  • 6.3 Agricultural wastewater treatment

Non point source controls Sediment (loose soil) washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States. [12] Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common tech- niques include contour plowing, crop mulching, crop ro- tation, planting perennial crops and installing riparian

buers. [30][31]:pp. 4-95–4-96

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are typically applied to farmland as commercial fertilizer, animal manure, or spraying of municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge. Nutrients may also enter runoff from crop

8

6 CONTROL OF POLLUTION

8 6 CONTROL OF POLLUTION <a href=Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa . increasing government regulation. Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grass- land. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facili- tate treatment of animal wastes. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high tem- perature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement. 6.4 Erosion and sediment control from construction sites Silt fence installed on a construction site. residues , irrigation water, wildlife , and atmospheric de- Sediment from construction sites is managed by installa- position . Farmers can develop and implement tion of: nutrient mana g ement plans to reduce excess application of nutrients and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution . To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control ) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality. Feedlot in the United States Point source wastewater treatment Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms , are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to • erosion controls , such as mulching and hydroseeding , and • sediment controls , such as sediment basins and silt fences . Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and con- crete washout is prevented by use of: • spill prevention and control plans, and • specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms. 6.5 Control of urban runoff (storm water) Main article: Urban runoff See also: Green infrastructure Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pol- lutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best manage- ment practices (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions. " id="pdf-obj-7-7" src="pdf-obj-7-7.jpg">

Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa.

increasing government regulation. [33][34] Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grass- land. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facili- tate treatment of animal wastes. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high tem- perature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement.

  • 6.4 Erosion and sediment control from construction sites

8 6 CONTROL OF POLLUTION <a href=Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa . increasing government regulation. Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grass- land. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facili- tate treatment of animal wastes. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high tem- perature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement. 6.4 Erosion and sediment control from construction sites Silt fence installed on a construction site. residues , irrigation water, wildlife , and atmospheric de- Sediment from construction sites is managed by installa- position . Farmers can develop and implement tion of: nutrient mana g ement plans to reduce excess application of nutrients and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution . To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control ) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality. Feedlot in the United States Point source wastewater treatment Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms , are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to • erosion controls , such as mulching and hydroseeding , and • sediment controls , such as sediment basins and silt fences . Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and con- crete washout is prevented by use of: • spill prevention and control plans, and • specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms. 6.5 Control of urban runoff (storm water) Main article: Urban runoff See also: Green infrastructure Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pol- lutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best manage- ment practices (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions. " id="pdf-obj-7-30" src="pdf-obj-7-30.jpg">

Silt fence installed on a construction site.

residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric de-

Sediment from construction sites is managed by installa-

position. [31]:p. 29 Farmers can develop and implement tion of:

nutrient management plans to reduce excess application of nutrients [30][31]:pp. 4-374-38 and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution.

To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality. [32]

8 6 CONTROL OF POLLUTION <a href=Riparian buffer lining a creek in Iowa . increasing government regulation. Animal slurries are usually treated by containment in anaerobic lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grass- land. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facili- tate treatment of animal wastes. Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straw and composted at high tem- perature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil improvement. 6.4 Erosion and sediment control from construction sites Silt fence installed on a construction site. residues , irrigation water, wildlife , and atmospheric de- Sediment from construction sites is managed by installa- position . Farmers can develop and implement tion of: nutrient mana g ement plans to reduce excess application of nutrients and reduce the potential for nutrient pollution . To minimize pesticide impacts, farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control ) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality. Feedlot in the United States Point source wastewater treatment Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms , are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to • erosion controls , such as mulching and hydroseeding , and • sediment controls , such as sediment basins and silt fences . Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and con- crete washout is prevented by use of: • spill prevention and control plans, and • specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms. 6.5 Control of urban runoff (storm water) Main article: Urban runoff See also: Green infrastructure Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pol- lutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best manage- ment practices (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions. " id="pdf-obj-7-68" src="pdf-obj-7-68.jpg">

Feedlot in the United States

Point source wastewater treatment Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms, are called concentrated animal feeding operations or feedlots in the US and are being subject to

erosion

such

as

 

Discharge of toxic chemicals such as motor fuels and con- crete washout is prevented by use of:

spill prevention and control plans, and

specially designed containers (e.g. for concrete washout) and structures such as overflow controls and diversion berms. [36]

  • 6.5 Control of urban runoff (storm water)

Main article: Urban runoff See also: Green infrastructure Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of storm water, as well as reducing pol- lutant discharges. Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, called best manage- ment practices (BMPs) in the U.S., may focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions. [37]

9

9 <a href=Retention basin for controlling urban runoff Pollution prevention practices include low-impact devel- opment techniques, installation of green roofs and im- proved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides). Runoff mitiga- tion systems include infiltration basins , bioretention sys- tems, constructed wetlands , retention basins and similar devices. Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by storm water management facilities that absorb the runoff or di- rect it into groundwater , such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins. Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving [37] :p. 5–58 7 Water pollution by country 8 See also • Environmental impact of pesticides#WaterAquatic toxicologyCultural eutrophicationNutrient pollutionTrophic state index (water quality indicator for lakes) • Watershed CentralStreeter-Phelps equation (water quality modeling tool) • SWAT modelStochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model 9 References [1] Pink, Daniel H. (April 19, 2006). “Investing in Tomor- row’s Liquid Gold” . Yahoo. Archived from the original on April 23, 2006. [2] West, Larry (2006-03-26). “World Water Day: A Billion People Worldwide Lack Safe Drinking Water” . About.com. [3] “An overview of diarrhea, symptoms, diagnosis and the costs of morbidity” (PDF). CHNRI . 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2013. [4] " China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies ". Chinadaily.com.cn. June 7, 2005. [5] Kahn, Joseph; Yardley, Jim (2007-08-26). “As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes” . New York Times . [6] Fact Sheet: 2004 National Water Quality Inventory Re- port to Congress (Report). Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). January 2009. EPA 841-F-08-003. [7] Wachman, Richard (2007-12-09). “Water becomes the new oil as world runs dry” . The Guardian . London. Re- trieved 2015-09-23. [8] United States Geological Survey (USGS), Denver, CO (1998). “Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Re- source.” Circular 1139. [9] United States. Clean Water Act, section 502(14), 33 U.S.C. § 1362 (14). [10] U.S. CWA section 402(p), 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p) [11] Moss, Brian (2008). “Water Pollution by Agriculture” (PDF). Phil. Trans. Royal Society B . 363 : 659–666. doi : 10.1098/rstb.2007.2176 . [12] EPA. “Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff.” Fact Sheet No. EPA-841-F-05-001. March 2005. [13] C. Michael Hogan (2010). “Water pollution.” . Encyclo- pedia of Earth. Topic ed. Mark McGinley; ed. in chief C. Cleveland. National Council on Science and the Envi- ronment, Washington, DC. [14] USGS. Reston, VA. “A Primer on Water Quality.” FS- 027-01. March 2001. [15] Schueler, Thomas R. “Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Concentrations, Sources, & Pathways.” Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. Center for Wa- tershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD. [16] EPA. “Illness Related to Sewage in Water.” Accessed February 20, 2009. Archived April 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . [17] EPA. " Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs.” August 2004. Document No. EPA-833-R- • Storm Water Management Model 04-001. " id="pdf-obj-8-5" src="pdf-obj-8-5.jpg">

Pollution prevention practices include low-impact devel- opment techniques, installation of green roofs and im- proved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides). [38] Runoff mitiga- tion systems include infiltration basins, bioretention sys- tems, constructed wetlands, retention basins and similar devices. [39][40]

Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by storm water management facilities that absorb the runoff or di- rect it into groundwater, such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins. Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving

stream. [37]:p. 5–58

  • 7 Water pollution by country

  • 8 See also

Trophic state index (water quality indicator for lakes)

Streeter-Phelps equation (water quality modeling tool)

9 References

[1] Pink, Daniel H. (April 19, 2006). “Investing in Tomor- row’s Liquid Gold”. Yahoo. Archived from the original on April 23, 2006.

[3] “An overview of diarrhea, symptoms, diagnosis and the costs of morbidity” (PDF). CHNRI. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2013.

[4]

[5] Kahn, Joseph; Yardley, Jim (2007-08-26). “As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes”. New York Times.

[6] Fact Sheet: 2004 National Water Quality Inventory Re- port to Congress (Report). Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). January

2009.

EPA 841-F-08-003.

[7] Wachman, Richard (2007-12-09). “Water becomes the new oil as world runs dry”. The Guardian. London. Re- trieved 2015-09-23.

[8] United States Geological Survey (USGS), Denver, CO (1998). “Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Re- source.” Circular 1139.

[9] United States. Clean Water Act, section 502(14), 33 U.S.C. § 1362 (14).

[10] U.S. CWA section 402(p), 33 U.S.C. § 1342(p) [11] Moss, Brian (2008). “Water Pollution by Agriculture” (PDF). Phil. Trans. Royal Society B. 363: 659–666.

[12] EPA. “Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff.” Fact Sheet No. EPA-841-F-05-001. March

2005.

[13] C. Michael Hogan (2010). “Water pollution.”. Encyclo- pedia of Earth. Topic ed. Mark McGinley; ed. in chief C. Cleveland. National Council on Science and the Envi- ronment, Washington, DC.

[14] USGS. Reston, VA. “A Primer on Water Quality.” FS- 027-01. March 2001.

[15] Schueler, Thomas R. “Microbes and Urban Watersheds:

Concentrations, Sources, & Pathways.” Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. Center for Wa- tershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.

[16] EPA. “Illness Related to Sewage in Water.” Accessed February 20, 2009. Archived April 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.

[17]

EPA. "Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs.” August 2004. Document No. EPA-833-R-

10

10 EXTERNAL LINKS

[18] G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Ef- fects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Sci- entists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. Chapter 2.

[19] Schueler, Thomas R. “Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California.” Reprinted in The Practice of Water- shed Protection. 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.

[20] Goel, P.K. (2006). Water Pollution - Causes, Effects and Control. New Delhi: New Age International. p. 179. ISBN 978-81-224-1839-2.

[21]

Kennish, Michael J. (1992). Ecology of Estuaries: Anthro- pogenic Effects. Marine Science Series. Boca Raton, FL:

CRC Press. pp. 415–17. ISBN 978-0-8493-8041-9.

[22]

Laws, Edward A. (2000). Aquatic Pollution: An Introduc- tory Text. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 430. ISBN

[23] Zaikab, Gwyneth Dickey (2011-03-28).

“Ma-

rine microbes digest plastic”. Nature. Macmillan.

[24] For example, see Baird, Rodger B.; Clesceri, Leonore S.; Eaton, Andrew D.; et al., eds. (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (22nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. ISBN 978-0875530130. (subscription required (help)).

[34] Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Des Moines, IA. “Animal Feeding Operations in Iowa.” Accessed March 5, 2009.

[35]

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation.

[36] Concrete Washout (Report). Stormwater Best Manage- ment Practice. EPA. February 2012. EPA 833-F-11-006.

[37] “Ch. 5: Description and Performance of Storm Water Best Management Practices”. Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices (Re- port). EPA. August 1999. EPA-821-R-99-012.

[38] “Low Impact Development and Other Green Design Strategies”. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Sys-

tem. EPA. 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-02-

19.

[39] California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. “Municipal BMP Handbook.” 2003.

[40] New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. “New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual.” April 2004.

  • 10 External links

[25] Newton, David (2008). Chemistry of the Environment. Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-7747-9.

Overview Information

[26] Karr,

James

R.

(1981).

“Assessment of

biotic

integrity

using

fish

communities”.

Fisheries.

6:

21–27.

“Troubled Waters” - video from “Strange Days on Planet Earth” by National Geographic & PBS (US)

“Issues: Water” – Guides, news and reports from US Natural Resources Defense Council

[27] Di Luzio, Frank C. (January 1967). “Water Pollution Control: An American Must”. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation). Water Environment Federation. 39 (1): 1–7. JSTOR 25035710.

[28] “Case Study: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania”. Green Infras- tructure Case Studies (Report). EPA. August 2010. pp. 49–51. EPA-841-F-10-004.

[29] Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation In- dustry (Report). EPA. September 1997. p. 24. EPA/310-

R-97-007.

[30] U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Washington, DC. “National Conservation Practice Stan- dards.” National Handbook of Conservation Practices. Accessed 2015-10-02.

Analytical Tools and Other Specialized Resources

EUGRIS – portal for Soil and Water Management in Europe

Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS) - EPA guide for identifying pol- lution problems; stressor identification

Ecotoxicology and Models - Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science & Technology

[32] “Integrated Pest Management Principles”. Pest Control and Pesticide Safety for Consumers. EPA. 2015.

[33] “Animal Feeding Operations”. National Pollutant Dis- charge Elimination System. EPA. 2016.

11

  • 11 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

11.1

Text

Water pollution Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollution?oldid=737311734 Contributors: Bryan Derksen, Fubar Obfusco, William Avery, Anthere, Fred Bauder, Ixfd64, Mdebets, Ahoerstemeier, Ronz, Docu, William M. 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12

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Stephanehadadik, Javert, Tinkerbell26, Cjd614, Dj7amood, Nick240, Pokaded, Pinethicket, Mykaylababy, Elockid, Waterpollution, Glenn- science, FILWISE, Tom.Reding, A8UDI, Akhileshvarma1996, SpaceFlight89, Tanzania, Merlion444, Rockyron, Bsece010, Retired user 0001, Soundthebugle, ItsZippy, Pickachu32, Jonkerz, Lotje, Sumone10154, Vrenator, Extra999, TheGrimReaper NS, Zain7789, Jeffrd10, Dtierney786, Mattps3, Diannaa, Mttcmbs, Asimepd, Reach Out to the Truth, Minimac, Srirangaram, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Onel5969, The Utahraptor, RjwilmsiBot, MMS2013, Valentin Zahrnt, BjörnBergman, NerdyScienceDude, People19947475, Xscreamxitxoutx, Dea- gle AP, Nyxaus, EmausBot, Orphan Wiki, WikitanvirBot, Immunize, Gfoley4, Look2See1, Super48paul, Ibbn, Yt95, RA0808, Rename- dUser01302013, Solarra, Superman1111, Tommy2010, Armagecotto, Wikipelli, Dcirovic, K6ka, Shivankvishnoi, Ssjdemonfox, 15turnsm, BurtAlert, John Cline, Daonguyen95, Fæ, Josve05a, Shuipzv3, Den jen yas, Sabarna, Adamsapple4, Alpha Quadrant (alt), Hazard-SJ, Faris knight, Confession0791, FinalRapture, OnePt618, Sohamjava, Wagino 20100516, GeorgeBarnick, EmilyL123, Haha2014, IGeMiNix, L Kensington, Donner60, OisinisiO, Matthewrbowker, Peter Karlsen, 28bot, Sterling Scott, Petrb, ClueBot NG, Cwmhiraeth, Jsvcycling, CocuBot, Satellizer, Bped1985, Jarkeld.alt, Benmace, Gardner.rw1, KJD2011, Jes029, TrueBlueWolverine, Christdk, Go Phightins!, Widr, Geofferybard, I am the best7, Kwdt2, Anupmehra, Helpful Pixie Bot, Iste Praetor, Nestik, HMSSolent, DBigXray, Mihir.kabani, Krenair, Hz.tiang, Cyberpower678, MusikAnimal, Emilio21, Sahar Dua, Rm1271, SuperEel22, Joydeep, ReDigit, Shellfishbiologist, Amberstarr05, Ttttttttttrrrrrrrrrrhhhhhhhhhh, RGloucester, Chip123456, GEGranato, 9k8a5r0a2n35559, BattyBot, Several Pending, Mharichandra, Mis- zatomic, Cimorcus, Teammm, Pratyya Ghosh, Jackjimmy12345, Winedrinker12345, Cyberbot II, Warlord DX, 2Flows, Rocroyal320, BuzyBody, Dexbot, Austinman1234, Lugia2453, Frosty, Corinne, Echo1gjadm, Me, Myself, and I are Here, Epicgenius, Amaryllis- Gardener, Iztwoz, DavidLeighEllis, CensoredScribe, Babitaarora, Stub Mandrel, The Herald, FDMS4, Jianhui67, Jackmcbarn, Blades- multi, Param Mudgal, Pangurban22, Sunilpujee, Prem dhotre, Ethically Yours, Omar Khalid123456, Ryan115, GreciaD.IFCP, Horseless Headman, AKS.9955, Jechma, Paintbrushes, Salil puranik, Cassandra Truth, Smart Girl 13, Vanished user 9j34rnfjemnrjnasj4, Utsavb- har, Adithya2310, Rockstar yogesh, EvMsmile, Chakshu ggg, Quran Watts, Saisugash123, Avi the awesome, Tanvimj, Nona noor, Argi 12345, Asmir Mesic, Ron5950, 2012dk, YoloMan192, Evil6013, Dancemobs, Banumathi vasudevan, Sandy5594123, JMWt, Bee Dubz, Abdl7meed, GreenC bot and Anonymous: 1916

11.2 Images

File:Aegopodium_podagraria1_ies.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Aegopodium_podagraria1_ies. jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Frank Vincentz

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File:Confined-animal-feeding-operation.jpg

Source:

Confined-animal-feeding-operation.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7 Office, Kansas City, KS. “What is a CAFO?" Original artist: Original uploader was SlimVirgin at en.wikipedia

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