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Astrophe

NASA AMES Space Settlement Contest


2016

Arpit Kalla, Rayan Sud, Varun Jhunjhunwalla


Class 11
Small Team Category

Index
CHAPTER(I(*(BACKGROUND(
ABBREVIATIONS(USED(

10(

EXECUTIVE(SUMMARY(

13(

SECTION(0:(THE(TRANSMISSION(

15(

SECTION(1:(NAMING(

18(

1.1(SUBMISSION(
1.2(SETTLEMENT(

18!

CHAPTER(II(*(LOCATION(AND(POSITIONING(
SECTION(2:(INITIAL(POSITIONING(

22(

2.1(OPTIONS(FOR(POSITIONING(
2.2(CHOSEN(ORBITAL(POSITION(

22!
31!

SECTION(3:(TRANSPORT(TO(L4(

34(

3.1(AVAILABLE(OPTIONS(
3.2(EARTH(TO(L4(TRANSPORT(
3.3(MOON(TO(L4(TRANSPORT(

34!
39!
43!

SECTION(4:(EXOPLANET(MOVEMENT(STAGE(

44(

4.1(MOTIVATION(
4.2(CHOICE(OF(EXOPLANET(
4.3(PROPULSION(
4.4(CALCULATIONS(

44!
45!
46!
50(

CHAPTER(III(*(STRUCTURE(
SECTION(5:(SHAPE(

57(

5.1(ARTIFICIAL(GRAVITY(
5.2(POPULATION(
5.3(COMPARTMENTALIZATION(

57!
58!
58!

SECTION(6:(ARTIFICIAL(GRAVITY(

59(

6.1(ELECTROMAGNETIC(ARTIFICIAL(GRAVITY(
6.2(CENTRIFUGAL(GRAVITY(

59!
59!

SECTION(7:(MATERIALS(

65(

7.1(STRUCTURAL(INTEGRITY(
7.2(SHIELDING(AND(PROTECTION(
7.3(DIAGRAMS(AND(POSITIONAL(EXPLANATION(

65!
69!
71!

SECTION(8:(MATERIAL(ACQUISITION(

75(

8.1((LUNAR(PRODUCTION(

75!

SECTION(9:(URBAN(PLANNING(

82(

9.1(URBAN(DESIGN(
9.2(TRANSPORTATION(
9.3(INFRASTRUCTURE(

82!
84!
86!

SECTION(10:(CONSTRUCTION(

87(

10.1(ON(EARTH(
10.2(AT(L4(

87!
88!

SECTION(11:(RADIATION(SHIELDING(

90(

11.1(AVAILABLE(ALTERNATIVES(
11.2(PLASMA(SHIELD(

90!
91(

CHAPTER(IV*FUNCTIONAL(SUBSYSTEMS(
SECTION(12:(COMPUTING(

96(

12.1(
12.2(SOFTWARE(
12.3(SPECIALIZED(SYSTEMS(

96!
97!
97!

SECTION(13:(COMMUNICATIONS(

99(

13.1(INITIAL(PHASE(
13.2((EXOPLANET(STAGE(

99!
100!

SECTION(14:(ASTEROID(PROTECTION(

102(

14.1(IMPACT(AVOIDANCE(
14.2(VASIMR((

102!
109!

SECTION(15:(POWER(SUPPLY(SUBSYSTEM(

116(

15.1((AVAILABLE(OPTIONS(
15.2(SUMMARY(
15.3(POWER(SYSTEMS(
15.4(CONSTRUCTION(PHASE(ADDITIONAL(POWER((CP*AP)(

116!
118!
119!
121(

CHAPTER(V(*(LIFE(SUPPORT(SUBSYSTEMS(
SECTION(16:(ATMOSPHERE(SUBSYSTEM(

127(

16.1((TMD(ATMOSPHERIC(REGULATION(SUBSYSTEM((ARS)(
16.2(TMD(ATMOSPHERIC(PURIFICATION(SUBSYSTEM((APS)(
16.3(HUMIDITY(REGULATION(

129!
131!
137!

SECTION(17:(WATER(SUBSYSTEM(

148(

17.1(ACQUISITION(
17.2(STORAGE(
17.3(PIPING(

148!
148!
148!

SECTION(18:(FOOD(SUBSYSTEM(

150(

18.1(NUTRITIONAL(REQUIREMENTS((
18.2(FOOD(PRODUCTION(
18.3(GROWING(
18.4(ROBOTICS(

150!
153!
161!
170!

SECTION(19:(ENVIRONMENTAL(BIOMIMETICS(

172(

19.1(BIOLOGICAL(EFFECT(OF(DAY(AND(NIGHT(ON(HUMANS(
19.2(LIGHTING(
19.3(TEMPERATURE(

172!
172!
173!

SECTION(20:(TEMPERATURE(MODULATION(

174(

20.1(TARGET(TEMPERATURES(
20.2(MECHANISM(
20.3(HEAT(ENERGY(CONVERTER(
20.4(WATER(HEATING(CORE(

175!
175!
182!
183!

SECTION(21:(WASTE(MANAGEMENT(

184(

21.1(FOOD(AND(WATER(WASTE(
21.2(INDUSTRIAL(WASTE(/(E*WASTE(
21.3(RADIOACTIVE(WASTE(
21.4(MEDICAL(WASTE(

184!
185!
185!
185(

CHAPTER(VI(*(SOCIAL(SETUP(
SECTION(22:(LEGAL(STATUS(OF(TMD(

189(

22.1((TREATY(COMPLIANCE(
22.2(APPLICABILITY(OF(LAWS(

189!
192!

SECTION(23:(POPULATION(MODEL(

194(

23.1(GROWTH(MODEL(
23.2(POPULATION(GROWTH(

194!
196!

SECTION(24:(DEMOGRAPHICS(

198(

24.1(SELECTION(PROCEDURE(
24.2(INTERNATIONAL(REPRESENTATION(

198!
201!

SECTION(25:(GOVERNMENT(

237(

25.1(EXECUTIVE(COUNCIL(OF(MINISTERS((ECM)(
25.2(LEGISLATURE(
25.3(JUDICIARY(
25.4(LEGAL(CODE(
25.5(CITIZENSHIP(
25.6(LAW(ENFORCEMENT(
25.7(RELIGION(

237!
240!
240!
242!
243!
243!
244!

SECTION(26:(ECONOMY(

245(

26.1((GOODS(AND(SERVICES(
26.2(PROFESSIONS(
26.3(LEGAL(CONSIDERATIONS(
26.4((3D(PRINTING(
26.5(3D(PRINTING(MECHANISM(

245!
249!
251!
252!
254!

SECTION(27:(EDUCATION(

257(

27.1(STAGES(OF(EDUCATION(
27.2(NEUTRALITY(OF(EDUCATION(

258!
260(

(
6

CHAPTER(VII(*(MISCELLANEOUS(
SECTION(28:(THE(ZERO*G(GAMES((SPACE(OLYMPICS)(

265(

28.1(TEAMS(
28.2(DEGRASSE(STADIUM(AND(ARENA(
28.3(HUBBLE(ARENA(SPECIFICATIONS(
28.5(GRAVITY(
28.6(CHARGE(BASED(ELECTROMAGNETIC(SYSTEM(
28.7(SPORTS(
28.8(GAME(RULES(

266!
266!
269!
269!
270!
271!
275(

CHAPTER(VIII(*(APPENDICES(
SECTION(29:(OTHER(ACTIVITIES(

279(

SECTION(30:(TELESCOPE(

284(

APPENDIX(A:(STABILITY(OF(CHOSEN(POINTS(

287(

APPENDIX(B:(SPACE(SETTLEMENT(TREATY(

291(

APPENDIX(C:(PUBLIC(SURVEY(

293(

APPENDIX(D:(ALIEN(CONTACT(PROTOCOL(

296(

APPENDIX(E:(EMERGENCY(PROCEDURE(AND(MAINTENANCE(

297(

APPENDIX(F:(COST(ESTIMATION(

308(

APPENDIX(G:(THERMAL(CONTROL(SYSTEM(PROGRAM(

311(

APPENDIX(H:(DERIVATION(OF(ROCKET(EQUATION(

314(

REFLECTING(ON(EXPERIENCE(

317(

BIBLIOGRAPHY(

318(

Chapter I Background

Abbreviations Used
TLDR; Too Long, Didnt Read
TMD The Manifest Destiny
ICO Intermediate Circular Orbit
LEO Low Earth Orbit
MEO Middle Earth Orbit
GEO Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit
HEO High Earth Orbit
LLO Low Lunar Orbit
ASO Areostationary Orbit
EML4 Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 4
XMS Exoplanet Movement Stage
UNOOSA United Nations Office For Outer Space Affairs
Ti-BC Titanium Beta-C
CNT Carbon Nanotubes
MCC-1 Marshal Convergent Coating-1
TLI Trans Lunar Injection
DS4G Dual Stage 4 Grid
VASIMR Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket
MPD Rocket Magnetoplasma Dynamic Rocket
LFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor
RITEG Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator
RTG Radioisotope Thermal Generator
SBSP Space Based Solar Power
CP-AP Construction Phase Additional Power
PETE Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission
SCCS Seasonal Condition Change System
RWS Rice Waterfence System
10

SSIB Stationary Section Of The Intermediate Block


OSB Outer Summer Block
CAC Central Atmosphere Control
CHRS Comprehensive Humidity Regulation System
CSA Computing System Alpha
CSB Computing System Beta
CSG Computing System Gamma
CSD Computing System Delta
ARS Atmosphere Regulation System
APS Atmosphere Purification System
CO-ECS Carbon Monoxide Electrochemical Sensor
PNNLCME - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Center For Molecular ElectroCatalysis
CHRU - Central Humidity Regulation Unit
HR Humidity Regulation
HRNs Humidity Regulation Nodes
TMDWN The Manifest Destiny Water Network
CHMS - Comprehensive Humidity Maintenance System
TCS Thermal Control System
TTS Thermal Transfer System
CRG Carbon Radiator Group
OBRG Outer Belt Radiator Group
CCR Carbon Carbon Radiator
OSL Outer Structural Layer
WHC Water Heating Core
RSS Radiation Shielding System
DGS deGrasse Stadium
HubA Hubble Arena
CBES - Charge Based Electromagnetic System
SOG Standard Olympic Games
ZGG Zero-G Games
LGMMA Low Gravity Mixed Martial Arts
11

IAS Impact Avoidance System


MPS Microdebris Protection System
WSPS Whipple Shield Protection System
NEODyS Near Earth Objects Dynamic Site
LINEAR Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research
USSTRATCOM United States Strategic Command
PMDS Primary Major Deflection System
MDC Moonside Dock Craft
ECM Executive Council of Ministers
ST Vote Single Transferable Vote
MJLE Minister of Justice and Law Enforcement
MPC 1962 Model Penal Code
UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights
TMDRSP The Manifest Destiny Residency Space Passports
TMDPD The Manifest Destiny Police Department
BHC Basic Heath Criterion
APC Additional Psychological Criterion
GSC Guiding Supplementary Criterion
GDP Gross Domestic Product
RA Robotic Agriculture
TMDIA The Manifest Destiny Intranet Access
PCD Personal Computing Device
NC11 Nice Classification 2011
PISA Program for International Student Assessment
PCR3BP - Planar Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem
SST16 Space Settlement Treaty 2016
MPZs Material Processing Zones

12

Executive Summary
The Manifest Destiny (known as TMD) is a space settlement designed as part of
the Astrophe project. The aim of the project is to eventually create a space
settlement capable of sustaining a stable population of over 15,000 people within
itself that is, creating a self-sustaining space settlement. In this project, we have
done just that.

TMD will be constructed in space as a worldwide effort, with active participation


from all nations. The ship will be built in the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 4 Orbit
where it will achieve gravitational stability. Construction material will either be
processed on the Moon or will be sent to the Moon by means of a space elevator
and will be specifically selected to ensure structural stability along with mass
shielding and damage protection. From the Moon, materials will be sent to the L4
construction site by means of reusable rockets.

The settlement will contain several power sources, ranging from solar power, to
breeder based nuclear power, to a primary induction based mechanical system
involving settlement-long coils. Artificial gravity will be provided by means of
rotation and the tilted floors will ensure constant gravity throughout the station.

Once built, the settlement will be opened to the first generation of residents, who
have been chosen by means of a complex selection procedure and keeping in
mind the diversity necessary to maintain a healthy and growing population. These
residents will be given all faculties they require and will have to do some basic
daily work. The government overseeing all actions and making decisions will be
semi-socialist and will be given little or no major power to prevent any conflict. The
education received by students will be as holistic as it can be made and residents
will be allowed to participate in the Zero-G Games or Space Olympics.

13

The final destination of the settlement is an exoplanet, 200,000 years away that
resembles Earth and scores 0.84 on the Earth Similarity Index Scale. The
residents will be provided with a self-sustaining environment where atmospheric
and temperature conditions mimic those of the Earth. The food produced is
robotically handled and farmed in an aeroponic setup, in order to provide
nutritionally fulfilling and substantial amounts of food. Livestock will be bread in
similar regions, in setups that ensure maximum utilization of the animals.
Industrial regions around the outer section of the station will contain all general
and specified production units.

In addition to all of this, some other key features of this settlement are the
radiation deflecting systems based on electromagnets, core software systems that
learn over the course of 200,000 years, VASIMR rocket systems present for
external craftwork and many other innovations, which are only possible in an
environment, such space.

14

Section 0: The Transmission


Inspired by Ramanujan, the Wow! Signal, and Orson Scott Card

Rakesh wiped a bead of sweat off his forehead as he carefully re-arranged his
notes, just as it threatened to smudge them. He silently cursed the Director of the
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) for cutting his departments budget
yet again. Now, with no money left for air conditioning, cafeteria food, or new lab
equipment, the best of his colleagues were either looking for or had found work in
one of the hundreds of American or British private research universities.

He frowned to himself. The likes of Stanford and Cambridge had been poaching
Indias top talent for years, and each year the stipend offers got more generous.
But he would never go. Rakesh loved his country, and wanted to inspire
generations of Indians to stay behind to help develop India.

He re-arranged his notes again, walked out of his cramped office, and sat in the
meeting room. He had managed to finally get a meeting with the Director of
Astrophysics, the head of his department. This was not a routine request for
telescope time to be turned down, nor was it a request for a pay raise. This time,
he had some more interesting documents to show Dr. Salil.

Namaskar, Rakesh. Kis baat ke liye itni atyavashyak meeting chahiye thi? (Good
morning, Rakesh. Why did you want this meeting so urgently?)

Sir, I was going over the latest data from AstroSat. Theres something you
absolutely have to see.

Is this a new object youve discovered? Youre supposed to file a report with
ISRO, why do you need to meet me?

15

No, sir, its a lot more interesting than that. You see, there was an unexpected
signal in the radio sensor, a far more precise reading than any star could cause.
This was a targeted transmission.

Nonsense! Let me take a look...

Rakeshs first trip to the United States was not, as he had expected, one of
defeat, after TIFR could ostensibly not afford to hire him anymore. It was the
greatest triumph of his life.

Ever since he had received that one radio signal, he had become the worlds
foremost authority on what was being called The Transmission. There were now
dozens of teams working around the world on the Transmission, decrypting it in
ever possible fashion. Some thought that the message would be in standard
binary, whereas others thought it would be Morse code. A Brazillian team was
working on the assumption that the transmission was a pictogram of some kind.

Rakeshs Transmission team, an elite group of scientists from across the world,
had just finished their decryption algorithm, and were on their way to Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Tennessee. Their mission was to test a decades worth of
code-breaking on the Cray Titan supercomputer.

They sat in a group of the main terminal, waiting as a cartoonish progress bar
approached 100%. The tension was more than palpable. Perhaps one of the
oldest questions in history, the existential crisis to end all existential crises are
we alone in the Universe?

What do we have, if not our humanity? shouted Rakesh, addressing a crowd


almost a million strong. How are we human, if we will not help those who need it?
16

Look into your holy books and your ancestors eyes, into your heart and your soul.
We must help them.

The public campaign over whether or not to send help to the Vortex, as they were
now called, had raged with intensity and passion like never before. Presidents had
fallen and Congress dissolved over the 2016 decision to build the Manifest
Destiny. As mans collective eyesight rose to the heavens every morning,
following the launches to L4, and as every Treasury across the world emptied to
build the gleaming cylinder in the sky, people thronged the streets of every city in
the world to voice their views. The Transmission teams were on crisismanagement, giving speeches and presentations to keep the momentum going.

Finally, it was ready. The culmination of years of work, of dedication and


perseverance. The sum total of what science and engineering had brought
humanity after all these millennia. We were ready to help those who had
requested it in an encoded distress message from light years away.

The ion thrusters kicked in, and the Manifest Destiny, our atonement for the sins
of centuries past, began its journey. A cylinder of titanium and steel, it was
perhaps the most human thing to ever exist.

17

Section 1: Naming

1.1
Submission
The name of this submission is Astrophe1. Astrophe is word created by the
Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows2, to fill the void of a word that did not exist yet. It
means to the feeling of being stuck on Earth.

To the authors of this project, astrophe is our motivation. Astrophe is the driving
force behind our pursuit of math, science, and engineering. Since we each looked
up at the night sky from different corners of India as small children, we shared the
same desire to some day visit the heavens.

This project is our way of dealing with our terrestrial chains. For the first time in
our lives, we found our astrophe to have partially subsided as we designed this
vessel capable of interstellar voyage. This project aims to serve as an inspiration
to all those who wish to get closer to the stars.

1.2
Settlement
The settlement itself is named The Manifest Destiny (TMD). Manifest Destiny
originally represented the belief that the American people were destined to
expand their civilization, to settle land from the East Coast to the West. This was
used to justify war and genocide.3

Almost 200 years later, we hope to have improved from those mistakes. We seek
to represent the Manifest Destiny of all of humanity to spread across the heavens.
18

We have incorporated all that humanity has learned, from the latest scientific
breakthroughs and research, to an egalitarian selection procedure and a fair
economy.

This collaborative space station, inhabited by people of every nation in the world,
represents humanity moving on from the destruction of the past, into a bright
future.

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Chapter II - Location &


Positioning

20

21

Section 2: Initial Positioning


This section aims to discuss various positions and orbits at which the settlement
can be constructed and developed, and to chose one such orbit.

2.1
Options for Positioning
As mentioned in Section 4 Exoplanet Movement Stage, the final purpose of
TMD shall be to colonize an exoplanet. However, during the initial phases of
construction, settlement, and development, TMD must remain in a stable orbit,
reasonably close to the Earth.

The different options for the positioning of TMD are given below.

2.1.1
Geocentric Orbit4

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The geocentric orbit is the orbit followed by bodies, which revolve around the
Earth (such as the moon or other satellites). The Low-Earth orbit, Middle-Earth
orbit, High-Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbits are of this category.

2.1.2
Low-Earth Orbit5
The Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with the maximum altitude of
2,000 kilometers (1250 miles) and minimum altitude of 160 kilometers (100 miles).
The LEO is by far the most commonly used orbit and statistically one of the
safest. The station would be kept above the altitude of 300 kilometers (190 miles)
to prevent being affected by atmospheric drag due to gases in the thermosphere.
The orbital velocity that must be achieved can be easily calculated using the
formula:
!=

!"
!

! - Orbital velocity
!!- Gravitational constant
!!- Mass of the Earth
! - Distance between the center of the Earth and the space station

Assuming the space station is at an altitude of 1500 kilometers above the surface
of the Earth:
!!= 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2
!!= 5.98 x 1024 kg
! = (6.38 x 106 m) + (1.5 x 105 m) = 7.88 x 106 m
!=

!"
!

=!

!.!"!!!"!!! !.!"!!!"!" !
(!.!!!!!"! )

= 7114.598!!/! = !7.115!!"/!

At an altitude of 1500 kilometers, the orbital speed must be 7.115 km/s.


23

The LEO is the cheapest and simplest for space-station placement as it is close to
Earth and we have a lot of prior experience with it. Besides saving money and
smaller communications delays the altitude of the orbit is low (relative to the other
possible orbits), and so resources can be sent in from Earth at any time. This
however goes against the mission, which aims at achieving self-sustainability.

A major problem with the LEO is the great amount of space debris and other
satellites that are already in this orbit. Also, the Moon is relatively far away, and
lunar resources will not be easily extractable. Due to atmospheric drag, the orbit
will eventually decay, unless fuel is wasted in maintaining the orbit.

2.1.3
Medium-Earth Orbit 6
The Middle-Earth orbit (MEO) also known as the Intermediate Circular Orbit (ICO)
is the orbit between the geostationary orbit and the Lower-Earth orbit. This orbit
covers all altitudes between 2000 kilometers (1250 miles) to around 35,000
kilometers (22,000 miles).

This would require the space station to have an orbital velocity of between 6.899
km/s (at 2000 kilometers) and 3.105 km/s (at 35,000 kilometers) as calculated
by the equation for orbital velocity.

Communications systems and navigation satellites mainly use this orbit. The MEO
is not a viable contender, as it shares the disadvantages of LEO, while losing the
advantage of close proximity to Earth.

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2.1.4
Geostationary Orbit7
The geostationary orbit or the geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) is an orbit
whose orbital period (i.e. the time taken for one orbit) is one sidereal day (almost
a normal Earth day). This means that an observer on Earth sees the space station
at the same place, everyday, at the same time.

This orbit can only be achieved at 35,000 kilometers vertically above the equator,

!!"#$%&'! =

6.67!!10!!! 5.98!!10!" !
= !3,103.94!!!/!!
(4.14!!10! )

when the space station moves with an orbital velocity of 3.1 km/s.

A major problem with this orbit, aside from its great distance from Earth, is that
station-keeping costs are high since certain perturbations prevent it from
maintaining its orbit.8

2.1.5
High-Earth Orbit 9
The High-Earth orbit (HEO) is any geocentric orbit above the altitude of 35,000
kilometers (22,000 miles).

The orbital periods are generally greater than a normal Earth day, and as a result
the space station would have an apparent retrograde motion. This would cause
the apparent motion of the space station to be in a direction opposite to that the
Earth.

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Due to lack of prior experience in this orbit and no major benefits of being placed
in this region, the HEO isnt a strong option.

2.1.6
Selenocentric Orbit10
The Selenocentric orbit (from now on referred to as the Lunar Orbit) is the orbit of
a body around the Moon. In particular, we consider the Lower Lunar Orbit (LLO)
as an option for our settlement. This orbit is at an average altitude of below 100
kilometers (62 miles) from the surface of the moon.11

The benefits of a settlement near the moon are close contact to Earth to receive
constant supply of resources, lower initial costs of travel and easily available
mining of 3He (helium-3)12 and other resources on the Moon.

However, this orbit is not a viable option for one main reason gravitational
perturbation. 13
Gravitational perturbation is the deviation in the path of a body in space due to
the gravitational forces of other neighboring bodies. (Zel'Dovich). Though this has
not been a problem for previous missions like the Soviet Luna missions and the
American Apollo missions, TMD will be a long-term settlement rather than a
temporary mission, so the potential impact is quite significant.
High-altitude circular orbits around the Moon are unstable, due to the gravitational
perturbation due to the Earth.14

2.1.7
Earth-Sun Lagrangian Orbit15
The Earth-Sun Lagrangian orbit is based on the existence of points on the orbit of
the Earth around the Sun at which gravitational equilibrium can be maintained.
The Earth-Sun Lagrange points are widely used today and we have enough

26

experience to be able to orbit at one of these points without any unexpected


problems. Transferring from the L1 and L2 orbits to orbits closer to the Earth is
possible to achieve without any major complications.

2.1.8
Areostationary Orbit16
The Areostationary orbit (or the ASO) is a circular synchronous orbit around Mars.

The space station would have a period equal to the average rotational period of
Mars and the orbit would be around 17,000 kilometers (11,000 miles) above the
surface of Mars.

Due to high station-keeping prices, this position is not cost efficient. These high
prices are caused due to the unwanted orbital resonance17 from Mars moons,
especially Phobos.

Industry wouldnt flourish here, as the planet does not have many resources to
offer. There are no traces of helium-3 and the planet shows very few signs of
existing minerals such as copper, niobium, lithium and gold as a result of ancient
volcanic activity.

2.1.9
Venusian Orbit18
The Venusian orbit is the orbit around the second planet from the Sun, Venus.
Venus is more than 250 million kilometers away from Earth. Due to the extremely
high temperature (735 K) of the planet and the absence of a Moon, we rule out the
Venusian orbit as an option.

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2.1.10
Asteroid Belt Orbit19
The asteroid belt (specifically the main belt) is located between Mars and Jupiter.
An orbit in this belt is close to impossible due to the millions of minor planets and
asteroids.

A location close to the asteroid belt however, can be very useful for asteroid
mining.

2.1.11
Jovian Orbit20
Jupiter is almost 600 million kilometers from Earth and is the largest planet in our
Solar System. A possible Jovian orbit is the one followed by the spaceship
Galileo in the late 90s21.
4% of Jupiters atmosphere is helium-3 22and the 67 moons hold basic minerals.
This however, is of little use due to Jupiters immense gravity field. Furthermore,
the radiations given off by Jupiters radiation belts are incredibly high.

2.1.12
Saturnian Orbit23
Saturn is about 1.2 billion kilometers away from Earth, but a sustainable space
station can be set up here with the numerous available resources on Saturn. The
Saturnian atmosphere is 3% helium-324, which can be easily extracted due to the
comparatively lower gravity well.

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The distance from Earth may cause problems during initial setup, or during
emergencies.

2.1.13
Earth-Moon Lagrangian Orbit25
The Earth-Moon Lagrangian orbits are strong candidates. There are 5 such
Lagrangian points on the orbital path of the Moon26 (L1 to L5), at which
gravitational equilibrium can be maintained. Of these points, mathematically and
logically points L4 and L5 are the most useful to us (as discussed later).

In this orbit, we will have a stable path as well as all the benefits of the lunar orbit
such as access to the Moons resources. We will discuss these points in detail in
the follow subsections

2.1.14
Summary
Table 1

Orbit
Low-Earth Orbit

Advantages

Commonly used in

Presence of

space missions

satellites and

Low

space debris

communications

Middle-Earth Orbit

Disadvantages

No resources

delay

available other

Close to Earth

than the ones sent

Stable orbit

from Earth

Low

communications
29

Presence of
communication

delay

and navigation

Stable orbit

satellites

Close to neither
the Earth nor the
Moon

Geostationary Orbit

Same day cycle as

the Earth

Unstable orbit
high stationkeeping costs

Close to neither
the Earth nor the
Moon

High-Earth Orbit

No major

advantages

No experience
with this orbit

Close to neither
the Earth nor the
Moon

Selenocentric Orbit

Close to the Moon

Gravitational
perturbations
high stationkeeping costs

Earth-Sun Lagrangian

Orbit

Previously used

Close to neither

without any major

the Moon nor the

problems

Earth

Transfer of orbits
is relatively easy

Areostationary Orbit

No major

advantages

Orbital resonance
high stationkeeping costs

No resources on
Mars

Venusian Orbit

No major

30

Distance from

advantages

Earth

Lack of resources

High surface
temperature of
Venus

Asteroid Belt Orbit

Resources that

can be mined
Jovian Orbit

Atmosphere rich in

asteroids present

helium-3

67 moons which

Distance from
Earth

can be mined for


minerals

Millions of

Strong
gravitational field

Incredibly high
amounts of
radiation given off

Saturnian Orbit

Atmosphere rich in

helium-3

Stable orbit

Distance from
Earth

Incredibly high setup costs

2.2
Chosen Orbital Position
In the 3-body system of the Earth, Moon, and Sun, 5 points of gravitational
equilibrium are found. At each of these points, an object does not have to apply
any thrust or expend any fuel to maintain its position.

Points L1, L2, and L3, are points of equilibrium, but they are relatively unstable.
Points L4 and L5 are stable points. 27This stability is further discussed in
Appendix A.

31

We have chosen Earth Moon Lagrange point L4 for the positioning of TMD.

(Image Credit: HyperPhysics)

An orbit around L4 has an average radius rL4 = 144,840.96 km.

This large orbital radius around L4 allows for risk-free assembly of TMD, as even
if it is constructed asymmetrically, it will remain in the equipotential orbit.

32

Any object at L4 will be approximately 60o ahead of the Moon, in the orbit of Earth.
The length of the chord gives the distance between L4 and the Moon at any point
from the Moon to L4.
! = 2!!! sin !!
! = 2 363,295!!" 0.5 = !363,295!!"

As detailed in Section 8.1 Lunar Production, TMD extracts several resources


from the Moon during construction. This relative proximity allows fast and easy
transport to and from the Moon.

L4 is also always visible from Earth, allowing for uninterrupted communications.


The relative proximity to Earth also allows for radio transmissions, and media
transmission, as detailed in Section 13 - Communications.

TLDR;

TMD will be built in the Earth-Moon Lagrangian Point 4 or L4 orbit and left to
develop communities for 2 generations, after which it will prepare to leave for an
exoplanet

33

Section 3: Transport to L4
This section aims to discuss the transport system of both materials and humans
to the L4 orbit during construction.

Many items must be transported from Earth to L4 orbit for the construction of
TMD. As in Section 8.1 Lunar Production, many items shall also be
transported from the Moon to L4.

3.1
Available Options

3.1.1
Chemical Rockets
Chemical rockets are usually in two forms solid fuel and liquid fuel rockets. Solid
fuel rockets are simple in structure and operation, and are simple to store with
dense fuel. However, they are subject to easy damage and cracking, and suffer
from low specific impulse. They also cannot be controlled, and burn until they
exhaust their fuel. They are often used as boosters, as part of the first stage of a
rocket.

Liquid fuel rockets are used as later stages of rockets. They consist of a liquid fuel
and an oxidizer, and they can be controlled after being turned on by varying the
amount of oxidizer. They suffer from difficulty of storage, complexity of control,
and low-density fuels that need to be constantly replaced due to boiling off.28

34

Chemical rockets have relatively low specific impulse compared to electric


thrusters, but have thrust orders of magnitude greater. They can be used to thrust
to Low Earth Orbit or to L4.

However, these rockets are very expensive to use, and due to their low specific
impulse, require large amounts of fuel to use.

3.1.2
Electric Propulsion29
Almost all forms of electric propulsion, including VASIMR, ion thrusters, Hall effect
thrusters, and so on, suffer from very low thrust. They cannot be used to thrust to
Low Earth Orbit, and would take a very long time to thrust from Low Earth Orbit to
L4.

3.1.3
Space Fountain
A space fountain is a tall tower from any point on Earth to the geostationary orbit.
A pellet recycling system, rather than tensile strength supports the fountain.30 A
motor shoots up pellets from the bottom of the tower and these pellets are
redirected from the top, back to the bottom. This constant motion keeps the tower
stable.

3.1.4
Lightcraft31
A light craft is a kind of solar sail, which works by laser propulsion. The lightcraft is
hit by a laser beam, which is focused to the point where plasma expands and

35

produces a thrust on the vehicle. This may not be the most efficient option, but it
is being considered.

3.1.5
Space Gun32
A space gun is a non-rocket propulsion technique that involves shooting a
projectile into space using a launcher gun. The gun launches projectiles with a
velocity high enough for them to reach the Low-Earth orbit (LEO) and then an
additional propulsion system is required to reach the L4 orbit or the Moon.

(Source: Wikimedia)

3.1.6
Maglev Space Transport System33

36

The setting up of a transport tube as proposed by StarTram is a highly efficient


option for transporting materials and people to TMD. Carts move along the track
with a superconductor maglev technology that uses magnetic repulsion to move
the cart. More than 200,000 tons can be transported to the LEO or the Moon
every year.

(Source: Wikimedia)

3.1.7
Space Elevator 34
A space elevator would support vehicular transport along a tether, which is
anchored at the equator and ends beyond the geostationary orbit, around 35,000
kilometers (16,000 miles) above Earth.

Climbers will connect to the tether using rollers and can be powered internally
through nuclear reactions or using wireless and solar energy transfer.
Unfortunately, the only materials that can currently be used to create a
sustainable and well functioning tether are prohibitively difficult to manufacture at
a large enough scale.

37

3.1.8
Summary
Method of Transport
Chemical Rocket

Electric rocket

Advantage

Disadvantage

High thrust

Well tested

High specific

impulse

Very expensive

Prohibitively low

impulse
Space Fountain

Can be anchored

thrust

at any point on the


Earth

Low specific

Must constantly be
powered

Will completely fail

No particular high

if there is even a

costing materials

small power cut

required
Lightcraft

Controlled by

ground power

is not advanced

source

enough

No room for

internal error
Space Gun

Laser technology

Saves fuel

Multiple projectiles
can be sent

Can only carry


small payloads

Technology is not
advance enough

repeatedly

G-Force can not


be stabilized for
human travel

Maglev Space Transport

System

long run

Space Elevator

Very cheap in the

Multiple heavy

Very expensive
set-up cost

Magnetic levitation

projectiles can be

technology is not

sent repeatedly

advance enough

Cheap in the long


38

Proposed tether

run

materials are not

The base can be

reliable

mobile and placed


in International

Incredibly long
construction time

waters

3.2
Earth to L4 Transport
This transport shall be carried out in multiple stages. Materials shall be launched
from Earth to Geostationary Orbit, after which they will be launched into a
modified Trans-Lunar Injection orbit, to L4.

3.2.1
Earth to Geostationary Earth Orbit
Due to the significant number of transports that much be launched, a very large
area on Earth shall be specifically allocated as Material Processing Zones
(MPZs), where the materials shall be collected and processed in preparation for
launch. These zones shall be detailed in Section 10 Construction.

TMD shall use a space elevator for this stage. Benzene-derived diamond
nanothreads shall be synthesized35, and an Edwards space elevator36 to Low
Earth Orbit shall be constructed. The specific strength of these nanothreads is 4 x
107 N.m / kg, with a Youngs modulus of around 1200 GPa, well exceeding the
requirements of the Edwards elevator.

[NOTE: Although in the rest of this project, technologies used are implementable
today, in the case of transport, chemical rockets are simply far too expensive and
wasteful to use. Space elevators are the only feasible alternative].
39

The base platform shall be located in international waters. It shall be near the
Equator because the centrifugal force is maximized here, which is the force that
holds the elevator up. Far from the Equator, payloads to be launched would have
much less initial velocity due to Earths rotation.37

The platform shall be in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

40

(Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

According to Edwards, this region is a place devoid of major storms, wind, or


lightning, just north of the doldrums.38

41

The elevator counterweight shall be made up of collected space debris. This


solves two problems in one it shall get rid of space junk in GEO, while providing
counterweight for a space elevator.
As per a JAXA proposal39 from January 2014, an electromagnetic mesh net shall
be launched while attached to the elevator cabling. This net shall use sensors to
detect debris, and attract that debris with an electromagnet. Once is has collected
sufficient mass, the elevator will begin to operate.

The current shall be supplied through the nanothreads, which are conductive.

(Image Credit: JAXA, via ExtremeTech)40

Payloads shall be transported using this elevator to GEO. Each payload shall
have the necessary liquid fuel boosters

42

3.2.2
Geostationary Earth Orbit to L4
Liquid fuel rockets shall be used for this transport. A tripropellant mix of lithium,
hydrogen, and fluorine shall be used41. A Hohmann transfer orbit shall perform
two impulsive burns to perform this transfer.

3.3
Moon to L4 Transport
Using the pre-existing lunar industries (Section 8.1), hydrogen and oxygen shall
be produced. This shall be processed into a Liquid Hydrogen / Liquid Oxygen
(LH2 / LOX) fuel mix. Reusable rockets shall be used. Rockets shall have
software that allows them to:

1) Take off from the Moon


2) Deliver payload to TMD at L4
3) Return to the Moon
4) Perform a vertical soft landing on the surface of the Moon

Landing pads shall be constructed on the Moon to receive these rockets. The
rockets shall be refueled and prepared for the next takeoff.

43

Section 4: Exoplanet Movement Stage


This section aims on discussing the primary goal of the settlement and the
different methods of achieving it.

4.1
Motivation
Because we came out of the cave, and we looked over the hill and we saw fire;
and we crossed the ocean and we pioneered the west, and we took to the sky.
The history of man is hung on a timeline of exploration and this is what's next."
- Sam Seaborn, The West Wind

The primary purpose of TMD is the expansion of humanity into space. A


preliminary form of this goal shall be achieved by the establishment of a
permanent human settlement in space at L4. However, such a settlement is
effectively just in Earths back yard. To truly expand humanity, to protect our
species from world ending disaster, to colonize new worlds, we must go further
out.

Therefore, TMD shall serve to colonize an exoplanet. A major factor that has
prevented colonization of exoplanets until now is that the nearest confirmed
exoplanets are, at best, several light years away. We have never produced a
spacecraft capable of travelling such distances, and even if we had, no human life
is long enough to survive the centuries-long journey at sub-relativistic speeds.

Proposals to have astronauts reproduce on board spacecraft are untenable


because of the lack of genetic diversity with just a few dozen astronauts, as well
as the inability of a small number of people to colonize a new planet.
44

TMD solves these problems in all ways. It shall utilize low-thrust electric
propulsion systems to make its way to a nearby exoplanet. The population of
roughly 15,000 people from every nation is easily diverse enough to prevent
inbreeding problems. Such a large number of people could also conceivably be
the first human colony on another planet.

4.2
Choice of Exoplanet
There are two major factors affecting the choice of exoplanet to colonize
habitability and distance from Earth.

4.2.1
Habitability
The Earth Similarity Index ranks exoplanets by their similarity to Earth. It uses a
formula including mean radius, bulk density, escape velocity, and surface
temperature.42

This formula compares the above properties of the exoplanet to those of Earth,
and weights them to give an Earth Similarity ranking. The top 5 exoplanets are
included below, with Earth as a reference.43

Name

ESI

Distance (ly)

N/A Earth

1.00 0

Kepler-438b

0.88 470

Gliese 667 Cc 0.84 23.6

KOI-3010.01

0.84 1213.4

Kepler-442b

0.83 1291.6

45

4.2.2
Distance from Earth
Although TMD will be fully self-sustaining; an ideal exoplanet for colonization
should be as close to Earth as possible. The longer the mission, the greater the
chances of revolution on TMD, equipment failure, exhaustion of resources, and
other critical failures.

Given these two criteria, it is clear that the best choice of exoplanet is Gliese 667
Cc. It has a very high Earth Similarity Index, and it is just 23.6 light years away.

4.3
Propulsion
TMD will have to travel 2.23 x 1014 kilometers to reach Gliese 667 Cc.

The options for propulsion are given as follows:

4.3.1
Chemical Rockets
Currently the most popular and widespread type of rocket propulsion, chemical
rockets function by causing an exothermic chemical reaction between a fuel and
an oxidizer. For example, rockets may use liquid hydrogen as a fuel and liquid
oxygen as an oxidizer. The reaction products are hot and expand, and the
spacecraft directs the products out of the craft, in the opposite direction of desired
propulsion. The reaction force due to Newtons third law of pushing the products
out backwards propels the craft forwards.
46

The functioning of these rockets can be modeled with Tsiolkovsky rocket


equation, which gives the delta-v or change in velocity ! needed for any rocket,
given its dry mass md (without fuel), full mass mf (with fuel), and fuel exhaust
velocity ve.44

! = !! ln

!!
!!

For short distances, such as Earth to the Moon, chemical rockets suffice.
However, for large distances, they are unfeasible due to their low exhaust
velocities and consequently large fuel requirements, not to mention their
inefficiency.

A trip to the outer Solar System would require a delta-v of approximately 35 km/s.
The exhaust velocity of the best chemical rockets available, a lithium-fluorinehydrogen tripropellant mix45, is 5320 m/s. Using the rocket equation,

!!
35000 ! ! = (5320 ! !) ln
!!
!!
ln
= 6.578947368
!!
!!
= ! !.!"#$%"&'# = 719.781
!!
!!
1
=!
= 0.139%
!!
719.781

Thus, only approximately 0.1% of the mass of a chemical rocket could be


payload. This is unfeasible, and so chemical rockets must be abandoned, at least
as the main propulsion source for a long distance journey.

47

However, due to their high thrust, chemical rockets can be used for emergency
alteration of trajectory.

4.3.2
Solar sail
A solar sail works by using the momentum of solar radiation. They use mirrors to
reflect photons from the Sun, which causes a small part of the momentum of the
photon to be imparted to the spacecraft. This method of propulsion relies on the
Sun, and is a low thrust form of propulsion. For a journey to an exoplanet well out
of the solar system, this is impractical. 46

However, solar sails can be used initially as a booster, to increase TMDs velocity
out of the solar system. The sails used can be discarded as soon as they are no
longer needed.

4.3.3
Nuclear pulse rockets
Nuclear pulse rockets use controlled nuclear explosions to produce forward thrust.
These rockets are currently illegal due to the Partial Test Ban Treaty. Also, they
are not yet developed enough to be considered seriously.47

4.3.4
Electrical propulsion
Electrically propelled rockets will be the dominant form of propulsion for any long
distance journey. They use some form electrical or magnetic field to propel
charged particles out of a spacecraft at extremely high exhaust velocities. They

48

are very low thrust, but for an extremely long journey, a constant low thrust can
produce a very high velocity.
(Image Credit: NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field)48

There are many possible designs for electrical propulsion. The basic gridded
electrostatic ion thruster is a significant improvement over conventional chemical
rockets, but it suffers from a few flaws. Its principle of function is ionization of inert
propellant with electron beams, and then extraction and acceleration of these ions
out the back of the spacecraft using 2 grids, with one at high potential and the
other a low potential. This design causes a buildup of net negative charge in the
spacecraft due to exit of positive ions. The positive ions exiting would be attracted
back to this negative charge space, cancelling the thrust effect. Thus, a source of
electrons produces a beam to neutralize the ion beam. 49

However, the flow of positive ions can be treated as a continuum of charge,


causing a positive charge buildup between the grids of the accelerator. Also, at
high voltages approaching 5 kV, ions collide with the grids, causing erosion,
limiting the lifetime of the grid. Specific impulse and thrust density are limited due
to these problems.

49

The Dual Stage 4 Grid design from the European Space Agency and Australian
National University avoids this problem by decoupling extraction and
acceleration. It uses one set of 2 grids with a low potential difference to slowly
and safely extract positive ions, before using a second set of 2 grids at a high
potential difference to accelerate the ions out the back of the spacecraft. 50

Alternative designs do exist, such as the Variable Specific Impulse


Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR), Hall effect thrusters, and
Magnetoplasmadynamic rockets. Each of these designs has their own problems,
and they have lower exhaust velocities than the D4SG. Hall effect thrusters
produce beams with high divergence (around 40 degrees)51. VASIMR and MPD
rockets have relatively low exhaust velocities.
The DS4G thruster has been calculated52 to produce a specific impulse of
19,300s, which is equal to approximately 190 km/s exhaust velocity. It can
produce 2.5 N of thrust at 250 kW with Xenon propellant. It would have a 20cm
diameter. Experiments gave similar results53 with exhaust velocities of 210 km/s.

Thus, the DS4G shall be the propulsion of choice for TMDs Exoplanet Movement
Stage.

4.4
Calculations
Using the rocket equation,
! = !! ln

Distance = 2.23 x 1014 kilometers


Mass = 1010 kg
Specific impulse = 19,300 s
50

!!
!!

Exhaust velocity = 210,000 m/s

4.4.1
Stage 1 Lift-off from Earth
TMD will use conventional chemical rockets for this section. A tripropellant mix of
lithium-flourine-hydrogen shall be used. As mentioned before, this has a exhaust
velocity of 5320 m/s. The delta-v for Low Earth Orbit, where TMD shall be
constructed, is 11,190 m/s.

(11,190) = (5320) ln

!!
!!

!!"#$#%
8.2
!!"#
!!"#
12%
!!"#$#%
Assuming the functional mass of TMD to be roughly, including all fuel, 1010 kg, the
fuel for stage 1 has a mass of 1200000000 kg. Thus, the mass going in to stage 2
is 8800000000 kg.

4.4.2
Stage 2 Acceleration to TMDax
40,000 thrusters x 2.5 N/thruster = 100,000 N

With a thrust of 100,000 N and a mass M, travelling through half the distance to
the destination, time = 100,000 years

51

2.23!!10!"
!
2 !
!! ! =
=
!
3155692597470 !

35,332.97 = (210,000) ln

!!
!!

!!"#
1
=
= 84.53%
!!"#$#%
1.183

With an initial mass of 8800000000 kg, the final mass after Stage 2 will be
743864000000 kg.

The distance travelled will be half of the total distance.

4.4.3
Stage 3 Deceleration
This stage shall be nearly identical to Stage 2, except that the thrusters will fire in
the opposite direction, and the final velocity shall be the orbital velocity of Gliese
667 Cc, for direct orbital insertion.

35,332.97 12,421 = 22911.97! = (210,000) ln

!!
!!

!!"#
1
=
= 89.7%
!!"#$#%
1.115

The initial mass of Stage 3 is 743864000000 kg. Therefore the final mass after
Stage 3 shall be 667246008000 kg.

52

4.4.4
Stage 4 Orbital Insertion
The orbital velocity of Gliese 667 Cc can be calculated as follows

!!"#$%&' = !

!"
(6.67!!10!!! ) (3.8!!5.972!!10!" )
=!
!
(1.54!!6.371!!10! )

!!"#$%&' !!12421! ! !
As per Stage 3, TMD shall decelerate into orbital velocity for Gliese 667 Cc.
Colonization shall begin afterwards.

The final mass of TMD will be 667246008000 kg, or roughly 670 million tons. This
is the total mass of all colonists, systems, engines, and support systems.

TLDR;
TMDs primary object is to find another planet for humans to colonize; in this case
we have chosen Gliese 667 Cc, which has an earth similarity index of 0.84 and is
approximately 27 light years away from Earth. The settlement will be electrically
propelled by means of a Dual Stage 4 Grid design ion thruster set-up. We aim to
reach the exoplanet 200,000 years from takeoff.

53

54

Chapter III Structure

55

56

Section 5: Shape
This section aims to discuss and finalize one of the various shapes that could be
used to model TMD.

The shape of the settlement is based on various factors:

5.1
Artificial Gravity
For artificial gravity we require a line of symmetry such that we can uniform gravity
when we rotate the settlement. This limits our choices to a torus, sphere or a
cylinder. Since to reduce the construction cost and maintain earth like gravity at 4
rpm we will be using a radius of about 55m.

Torus

Sphere

Advantage

Disadvantage

Occupies less

Small line of sight and

atmosphere

low population capacity

Moderate population

Fluctuation in artificial

capacity and moderate

gravity as perpendicular

line of sight

distance from axis


decreases

Cylinder

Long line of sight large

Will occupy large amount

population capacity

of atmosphere

Looking into each shape, we chose cylinder for its immediate advantage and
since we are using a small radius we nullify the disadvantages also.

57

5.2
Population
Since our aim is to hold up to 15,000 people our shape should be able easily
house them and the extra visitors who would be coming into the settlement. Thus
we would require a total surface area of about 450,000 metres squared to give 30
m2 to each person. Thus the habitat region which has a radius of 55 metres will
require a height of about 1.5 km (1.302 to be exact).

5.3
Compartmentalization
While compartmentalizing the obvious way was to add various rings to the habitat
cylinder but we wanted to have equal gravity in all. Thus we looked at shapes with
concave surface such that further we go from the centre we get less reaction force
which is nothing but the gravity we feel. But having concave surface like the lens
will increase our height by a great margin but to reduce that we just collapse the
layers to form a disc like structure.

TLDR;
The settlement will be cylindrical in shape and the floors inside will be convex in
order to provide equal gravity throughout the settlement. The settlement will have
a total radius of 200m and height of 1.5 km. The agricultural zone will be
compartmentalized and given 100m of a radius, inside which is a 55.9 m radius
habitation zone.

58

Section 6: Artificial Gravity


6.1
Electromagnetic Artificial Gravity
An option that was taken into consideration while trying to create artificial gravity
was making an electromagnetic artifical gravity system. This would involve all
citizen wearing metallic clothing as a magnet which ran through the entire
settlement kept them grounded with a force proportional to their mass.

This option would not work as liquids and other materials that can not be trapped
in a magnetic coating would not be under the effect of gravity. Furthermore, the
human and plant bodies would face adverse health effects due to increased time
periods of magnetic exposure.

6.2
Centrifugal Gravity

6.2.1
The Working
This question can simply be answered by using centrifugal force to create
pseudo-gravity. For this we require a shape, which is radially symmetrical allowing
us to create uniform gravity as the settlement rotates. The acceleration caused by
rotation is governed using the equation,
! = ! !! !
where ! is the angular velocity of the settlement and r the perpendicular
distance from the axis of rotation and a the linear acceleration.

59

Since we require Earth-like condition for proper functioning of the human body,
the value for acceleration has to be limited to 9.8m/s-2 as with decreasing
acceleration the chance of osteoporosis increases and it also has an adverse
effect on not only human but plant life in the settlement.

Thus the equation is changed to this form,


!! ! =!9.8
If we graph this we get this curve,

The graph shows the variation of the distance with angular velocity.

R (m)

895.47 223.87 99.50

55.97

35.82

24.87

18.27

13.99

11.06

RPM

Table showing the variation in R with different angular velocities54

With increased rpm there is a higher threat of nausea and may also be
inadaptable by humans. Thus lower rpm are favorable. Earth based rotational
60

studies using vertical axis rotation have shown that adaptation can occur within
about 24 hr for angular velocities as great as 6.0 rpm55 Having angular velocity as
4 rpm is ideal as it doesnt pose a threat to the residents and will also allow the
visitors to adapt in a day. This angular velocity also provides a small enough
radius for building the habitable section of the settlement.

We have chosen an angular velocity for the settlement but the problem that with
increasing radius the acceleration produced will increase.

(Variation of acceleration at 4 rpm with changes in the distance from the axis of
rotation)

The acceleration is directly proportional to the distance. Higher g-force on


humans has shown an effect on human sex ratio. It is speculated that higher gforce affects the sperms in men56 Thus if we want to create a settlement to
sustain a large population we have to try to create a uniform pseudo-gravity

61

irrespective of the distance. The solution to this problem lies in our understanding
of what gravity is in a space settlement.

Gravity experienced is simply the reaction force from the floor we stand on. A
good example to understand this is the elevator problem. If the elevator moves
upwards with an acceleration of a, we feel the net acceleration as g+a that being
the acceleration due to the reaction or the normal force acting on us by the floor.
Thus to reduce gravitational acceleration further we go from the center can be
achieved just by reducing the reaction force further we go. A simple way to do this
is to change the inclination of the floor and adding frictional force into this picture.

If the inclination of the floor is then the equation for acceleration of 9.8m/s2 at 4
rpm changes to,
64! ! ! sin !
9.8 =
3600

62

This graph shows the variation of in degrees w.r.t to r starting from r = 55.9.
Thus if we incline the floors with respect to this with, we can achieve 9.8m/s2
acceleration on each floor. Thus if we keep our habitable zone ie the place where
all humans live at a distance of 55.9 meters from the centre and the agricultural
zone after it and the last ring contains the industries and power generation we can
have built a structure with uniform gravity. The reason this is proposed is because
the human involvement in power generation and industries will be minimal in
comparison to the involvement in the habitable zone. Also we keep the
agricultural section next as plants too require gravity as humans and they cant
bear large g-forces.

" Habitation Zone

" Agricultural Zone " Industrial Zone

63

"Docks

Cross Sectional View of the Space Settlement with different angled floors to
maintain uniform gravity

TLDR;

The settlement will contain a habitation zone that is approximately 56


meters from the center of the settlement (of total radius 200 m). The
station will rotate at 4 RPM and in order to provide equal an equal
acceleration due to gravity of 9.8 m/s2 throughout the settlement,
floors will be gradually sloped.

64

Section 7: Materials
The aim of this section is to discuss and select the materials appropriate for
building the entire settlement; primarily the outer structural layer.

When dealing with the choice of materials needed for the construction of TMD, we
make decisions based of two main factors:

7.1
Structural integrity
This refers to the durability and strength of the materials that will be used, keeping
in mind the high strain and constant temperature changes they will face. This is
the most important factor and will be part of the outermost and innermost layers of
TMD structure.

7.1.1
Options
We will consider 4 main materials, which can be used for the construction of the
outermost and innermost layers, which will provide structural integrity (further
referred to as the structural layer).

a. Carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes are essentially allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical


structure.

65

In terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus (The force that is needed to
stretch/compress a material sample), carbon nanotubes are the strongest
and stiffest material available.

The nanotubes are good thermal conductors along the tube with 9 times the
conductivity of copper57 (around 3500 W m-1 K-1) and insulators laterally
along the tube axis. They have constant physical properties up to
temperatures as high as 2800C.

Production can take place on the moon through arc or laser based
production.58
b. Titanium59

Titanium is another material, which can provide a strong structural layer to


TMD.
With thermal conductivity of 21.9 W m-1 K-1 60, it is stable to high
temperatures and will not be affected majorly by constant temperature
changes upto 430C, after which it begins losing strength.
Titanium can be mined on the moon, as the ore is available in very large
quantities on the near side of the moon. 61
c. Titanium Beta-C62

Titanium Beta-C (Ti-Beta-C) is an alloy of titanium with small quantities of


aluminum, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, and zirconium.
Typically easy to melt, this alloy can be used between insulation layers to
provide a strong structural layer. It weighs less than and has a greater tensile
strength than raw titanium.
This alloy has a very complex structure and production process so will have
to be imported from Earth and cannot be produced on the Moon. This is a
major downside to using the Beta-C.
66

d. 6AL-4V Titanium

6AL-4V Titanium is an alloy with 90% titanium and other parts of aluminum
(~6%) and Vanadium (~4%).63
Along with its high tensile strength this alloy has a relatively low density,
which helps minimize the mass that will have to be transported64.
All three constituting elements are found on the Moon and production can be
set up on the near side of the Moon. 65

7.1.2
Summary
Table 4
Material

Carbon

Tensile

Youngs

Strength

Modulus

63 GPa

0.94 TPa

Density
2 g cm-3

Nanotubes

Cost on

Lunar

Earth

Production

$600 per

Arc and laser

gram

based
production

Titanium

234 MPa

0.116 TPa

4.5 g cm-3

$6.6 per

Can be mined

gram

on the near
side of the
Moon

Titanium

1400 MPa

0.104 TPa

4.4 g cm-3

Beta-C

$10 per

Cannot be

gram

independently
produced on
the Moon

6AL-4V

1050 MPa

0.112 TPa

4.4 g cm-3

Titanium

$18 per

Fairly simple

gram

process
which can be
set-up on the
near side of

67

the Moon

7.1.3
Choice
TMDs structural layer will be made using carbon nanotubes and the 6AL-4V
Titanium alloy.
The carbon nanotubes used will be armchair single walled nanotubes66. These will
provide twice the tensile strength of simple nanotubes at 126.2 GPa, without
changing any other major properties.67 68 69
These will form the entire external support framework of TMD by covering up the
initial mesh and forming the initial (innermost) structural layer. 70
Since the cost of importing nanotubes at $600 per gram71 and additional costs for
transport will be too high, production for carbon nanotubes will be set-up on the
Moon before the first two quarters of TMD are sent into orbit.

The 6AL-4V alloy will be used as the final structural layer of TMD and will be the
part of the structural layer furthest from the inside of the space station.

Additionally an aluminum oxynitride glass mesh with a tensile strength of 1.7GPa


72

will be present at intervals in the overall layering to act as a shock absorber.

68

7.2
Shielding and Protection
Although the electromagnetic radiation shielding system (Section 11 Radiation
Shielding) of TMD will deal with most kinds of radiations, gamma rays can not be
deflected easily, and the materials chosen for the middle layers must be selected
with this in mind.
With a maximum radiation exposure to the residents of 40 rad per person per
year, TMD will be prepared to deal with shielding close to 50 rad per person per
year.73
Additionally thermal stability, chemical resistance and heat insulation will be
required and we will need more layers to fill in the central gap.

7.2.1
Choice74
Heat insulation will be provided through two layers of silicone rubber75, which is
extremely light as well as the best choice of material to form an insulating layer.

Polyurethane foam will be poured in situ to add an additional insulation layer and
provide TMD with a temporary radiation absorption system. The supporting
structural layer will absorb any secondary radiation.

TMD will make use of an insulating paint-like material called Marshal Convergent
Coating-1 (MCC-1)76 77, which is a tried and tested insulator, previously used on
the STS-17 shuttle. The powder which is used to form the pain contains ceramic
microspheres, which when dried create a very effective heat reflecting coating.
The MCC-1 will be applied on all corrosion resistant surfaces of the outer middle
and final structural layer.
The AkzoNobel Aerospace Coatings 64C1-2-A78 will not be used as it has not yet
been tested at altitudes above the thermosphere.
69

Between each sub-middle layer will be a thin layer of silicone based sealant gel
that will fill up any cracks in the structural and middle layers, and an alloy of tin
present within the initial mesh to provide additional radiation shielding. The
sealant gel will additionally prevent the transfer of heat through conduction
through the layers of the settlement.

Material

Use

Silicone rubber

Insulation and shock absorption

Polyurethane foam

Insulation and shock absorption

MCC-1 Insulating paint

Insulation and chemical resistance

Sealant gel

Self repair and conduction resistant

Tin alloy

Radiation shielding

Asteroids or other space debris will normally be deflected by the asteroid


deflection system but incase of any high-speed contact, the strong outer structural
layer of the titanium alloy and the inner mesh shock absorption will remain
unharmed.

Lastly the adhesive used to join all these layers must be flexible and effective in
complete vacuum and at extremes of temperature.
We rule out all cyanoacrylates as their bonds get brittle and break with excessive
twisting.79
Therefore we will use an epoxy to act as a structural material matrix, which can be
reinforced with additional carbon fiber or boron based alloys. This should not be
confused with the Supreme 10AOHT-LO adhesive80, which will be used internally.

70

7.3
Diagrams and Positional Explanation
The above diagram shows what the complete layering of TMDs cover will look
like.

The volume of each layer can be calculated as follows


! = !!( 100 + !!"#$%&&

eg: MCC-1 Paint Layer 1


V = !! 20.01

1500 = !1,886,841!!!

The materials will be layered as follows.

71

10000)(1500)

Table 6
Layer

Thickness

Volume (m3)

MCC-1 Insulating

0.1 meter

107185

6AL-4V Titanium

3 meter

3171721

MCC-1 Insulating

0.3 meter

312507

Silicone Rubber

1.2 meter

1241546

Sealant Gel

0.1 meter

102001

Aluminum

0.8 meter

819404

Sealant Gel

0.1 meter

102001

Polyurethane

1 meter

1014830

Sealant Gel

0.1 meter

100965

Aluminum

0.8 meter

804325

Sealant Gel

0.1 meter

100116

Silicone Rubber

1.2 meter

1194046

Sealant Gel

0.08 meter

79121

Paint

Paint

Oxynitride Glass
Mesh

Foam

Oxynitride Glass
Mesh

72

Polyurethane

1 meter

983918

0.8 meter

780349

3 meter

2872588

0.1 meter

1886841

Foam
Aluminum
Oxynitride Glass
Mesh
Carbon
Nanotubes
MCC-1 Insulating
Paint

73

TLDR;

The outmost layer of TMD will be made of 6AL-4V Titanium, while the framework
of the entire settlement will be made out of carbon nanotubes. The layers forming
the middle layers of the outer wall of the structure have been selected to deflect
radiation, insulate and shield the settlement. The entire outer covering of the
settlement will be approximately 13 m thick and will allow pipelines and wiring to
pass through.

74

Section 8: Material Acquisition


The aim of this section is to discuss and establish methods of acquiring the
minerals and elements required for the construction and for the proper functioning
of the settlement.

8.1
Lunar Production

8.1.1
Need for Lunar Production
The cost of launching heavy materials from Earth is very high due to Earths large
mass, and consequently, its strong gravity well. The maximum capacity of the
most powerful rocket currently available, the Saturn V rocket, is roughly 48,000 kg
to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) Orbit.81 Even the cancelled Ares V rocket could only
take roughly 70,000 kg to TLI Orbit.82
A rough estimate for the mass of TMD places it around 1010 kg or greater. Even if
futuristic technology allows rockets to have even greater payloads, to the order of
magnitude 105, launching the entire mass of TMD to space would require 105
launches. This is highly inefficient and costly.

The gravity of the Moon is roughly 16th of the gravity of Earth, so launching the
materials to construct TMD off of the Moon is cheaper and easier than launching
them from Earth.

75

8.1.2
Lunar Production Of Water, Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide
This section details a procedure, which produces 3 products water, oxygen,
and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is produced through isolation of protons and
electrons in cosmic radiation, and water is produced through reduction of ilmenite
present in the lunar regolith. The water is electrolyzed, and the resultant oxygen is
converted to carbon through a series of nuclear reactions. Carbon dioxide is then
produced.

8.1.2.1
Collection

8.1.2.1.1
Hydrogen

Cosmic radiation incident on the surface of the Moon are approximately 90%
protons and 1% electrons.83

Hydrogen can be formed from cosmic radiation incident on the lunar surface. Two
separate Penning traps or other ion traps, one configured to trap electrons and
the other configured to trap protons, could be built on the Moon. The traps would
isolate electrons and protons from cosmic radiation and slow them down to the
lowest possible velocity.

8.1.2.1.2
Ilmenite

The lunar regolith contains a variable amount of ilmenite (FeTiO3), upto 25% of
Moon rock in some basalts.84. Ilmenite yields 8-10% oxygen by mass, which
76

results in approximately 2% of oxygen by mass in Moon rock.

The ilmenite can be extracted using mining equipment transported to the Moon
from Earth.

8.1.2.2
Synthesis

The protons and electrons collected in 6.1.1 can be recombined to produce


electrically neutral hydrogen atoms and molecules.
! + !!

! !!!

Equation 1

The hydrogen produced in Eq. 1 reduces the extracted ilmenite from 6.1.2 in the
following reaction85

!"#$!! + !!

!"#!!

!" + !"!! + !! !

Equation 2

The water formed in Eq. 2 is used for the following purposes:

80% water is stored, to be sent to TMD (product 1)


20% water is electrolyzed

2!! !!

!"!#$%&#&$'

2!! + !!

Equation 3

The hydrogen produced is to be recycled back to Eq. 2 for accelerating the


77

reaction

0.2% of the oxygen is to be converted to carbon.

Of the remaining oxygen, 99.996% of it is sent to TMD (product 2). The


remaining 0.004% reacted with the carbon produced to form CO2.

The oxygen from Eq. 3 to be converted to carbon is exposed to cosmic radiation,


containing protons, which will react to form unstable Nitrogen-13.86

! + !"!!

!.!!!!"#

! !"!! + ! !!!"

Equation 4
N13 decays to Carbon-13 naturally with a half-life of 9.97 minutes.87

This Carbon 13 is burned in oxygen to produce Carbon 13 dioxide.

Thus, carbon dioxide (product 3) produced is shipped back to TMD for plant
growth.

8.1.3
Other Substances Needed
The following elements are needed for various processes aboard TMD.

8.1.3.1
Aluminium
The lunar highlands contain anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8)88. At a pressure of 14.5 kbar
and 700 C,89 anorthite breaks down as follows:

3 CaAl2Si2O <==> Ca3Al2Si3O12 + 2 Al2SiO5 + SiO2


78

The resultant minerals are further broken down. Aluminium is produced by


smelting of Ca3Al2Si3O12 and Al2SiO5.

8.1.3.2
Iron

Elemental iron is produced from Equation 2, by reduction of ilmenite. The ilmenite


processing facilities store and refine the iron formed.

8.1.3.3
Titanium
Titanium dioxide is formed by processing of ilmenite. As proposed by Sekimoto90,
instead of going through the expensive process of producing pure aluminum and
then the expensive process of alloying titanium with the below metals, a direct
alloying can be done.

Hydrogen plasma is produced using microwaves with hydrogen gas, which is then
used as a catalyst with titanium dioxide and the desired materials for alloying, in
the needed ratio. This mixture will then be heated to produce the desired alloy.

8.1.3.4
Vanadium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Zirconium

These metals are needed for alloying with titanium. They shall be shipped from
Earth.

8.1.3.5
Carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes shall be produced on the moon using water-assisted catalytic


79

chemical vapour decomposition.91

8.1.3.6
Plastic

Plastics shall be produced as bioplastics. Faecal matter, after treatment, shall be


processed by addition of bacteria, as per a proposal by Micromidas92.

8.1.3.7
Silicon

Silicon shall be produced by reduction of silicon dioxide from anorthite breakdown.

8.1.3.8
Soot

Soot (used in the Asteroid Avoidance - Primary Major Deflection System Low)
shall be produced through controlled combustion of crop trimmings from the
agricultural section, as well as combustion of miscellaneous organic matter.

8.1.3.9
Polyester, Rayon, Nylon, Cotton

These fibres shall be transported from Earth. Earth farms shall launch stocks of
compressed fibres.

8.1.3.10
Rare earth minerals

These materials shall be transported from Earth.


Materials needed93: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium,

80

samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium,


ytterbium, lutetium, and scandium.

8.1.3.11
Boron Arsenide94

This material is needed for thermal regulation of TMD. It shall be transported from
Earth during construction.

TLDR;

Launching materials for construction and general use to TMD is cheaper when
produced on the Moon rather than on Earth. Hydrogen, carbon dioxide and water
are produced by means of isolating protons and electrons and reactions with lunar
regolith. Aluminum, iron and titanium are extracted from the Moon. Vanadium,
chromium, molybdenum and zirconium will be shipped to the station from Earth.
Carbon nanotubes will be set-up to be produced on the Moon under the chemical
vapor decomposition process. Plastics, silicon and soot will also be produced on
Moon-based industries. Polyester, rayon, nylon and cotton will be compressed
and sent from Earth along will several rare-earth minerals and boron arsenide.

81

Section 9: Urban Planning


9.1
Urban design
Since we are designing a city in space from scratch we can omit the errors made
by the cities on Earth. Our aim for the design of the settlement is to allow it to be
sustainable and expandable. Thus we have looked the ancient practice of town
planning of the Indus Valley and have amalgamated it with the Principles of Urban
Planning formed by the International Congress of Modern Architecture and the
requirements for the LEEDS Certification.
Firstly, we start with the very basic model of our settlement:
!

The land is featureless plain and all land parcels are identical and there are
no local public good or bad.

The land is based on the rectangular Indus valley design with


perpendicular streets.

The city has one central point that is the business region and all jobs are
located there

There is a dense transport system and the only transportation happen from
the work area to residential

This our basic model and to this we will add various other aspects important to life
like recreational spots, markets, schools etc. We will consider our currency as
energy required and will place different area of residence, jobs as to minimize the
energy and trade it off with time.

We define some variables, A (c, s, r) is the availability function with c representing


availability of consumer goods and s the size of the land i.e. the plot size of house
and r is the distance from the household to the market/ business are. Household
is allowed to use E amount of energy per unit time which is spent on consumer
goods, land, travel. Thus the amount of energy required i.e. the Utility function is
given by,
82

!(!, !, !) = ! ! ! ! !(!)!
Where C(r) represent the consumption of energy at a distance r and T(r)
represents the transport cost for distance r and also the time taken. We plan on to
maximize this function for the best utilization of the limited space on the space
settlement. This is the basic model of residential choice for our settlement.

Unfortunately, this has a flaw that might recreate a problem of the Earth. There is
a chance of economic disparity as these models include E i.e. the energy
available to be spent per person, thus if some people have a higher E than others
they will be able to get more land or a much more desired residence than other.
But we can counter this by making it a function based on age of residence on the
settlement with a certain cap to its value. This will also help in the aim for
expansion of the system as with every year of residence people will be allowed to
expand their land to a certain level also this will allow them to move further away
from the area near the business region and allow the youth to move nearer to it
and thus help create a productive community. Also this will help in deciding to put
recreational sites on the outer regions more accessible to the older community
again increasing the productivity of the system. Also through having a threshold
system we can prevent the problem of constant movement with age.

Lets see an example, if we assume at t = 0 the first generation starts living in the
settlement. They start from living around the business system. After t=1 the next
generation is ready for being part of the workforce but this population is more as
the maximum case could be that each of the first generation gives birth to two kids
thus effectively doubling the workforce but with an increase in the force there is a
decrease also ie the previous generation retires. Thus now the value of their
energy consumption increases and thus the older population tends to move away
from the busy life of business and the younger generation moves to live around
the business region.

This is beneficial for older generation as the moved to bigger settlements and also
to a more relaxed lifestyle whereas the younger generation moves closer to the
83

central region thus reducing their transportation cost effectively increases their
energy consumption limit. This continues for t= 2 generation after which the death
of the oldest generation occurs and thus this cycle repeats.

95

9.2
Transportation
A major part of the settlement energy consumption would be a transportation and
thus we require to optimize and gain maximum efficiency while creating an
environment for no congestion and maintains protocol.

The different types of vehicle will be:


!

Public Bus Pod

Elevator

Emergency Pods

9.2.1
Public Bus Pod
To expand the concept of equality no household will be allowed to own a personal
vehicle but have to use the public transport system. Instead of personal vehicles
they will have limited number of loop pods which connect to the main Bus pod.
This system will be very similar to the Hyperloop concept by Elon Musk. There will
be a few high speed Bus pods which will travel across all parts of the habitable
part of the settlement.

They will be injected with loop pods by the residence. This will help reduce the
energy required to stop the Bus at every stop.

All of these pods will be self-driving and work on pre-programmed routes such
that we remove the possibility of human error. We will be using Dijkstras
84

Algorithm to find the shortest path to move from point A to B. Also we will take in
factor that some places are of a higher importance and also more frequently
travelled to than others and thus the bus pods routes and frequency will be
optimized. (Appendix //whatever letter is not take)

9.2.2
Elevator
The elevator will connect different rings of the settlement together. Since the
shape of the settlement is a disc, the elevator will run from the inner ring of the
habitable zone to outer rings of the agricultural, industrial and the docking region.

The elevators will be placed in the centre of the town as implementing an elevator
is expensive and thus only one should be made. Also it will be easily accessible
due to its central position thus allowing anyone who is an engineer checking the
robots in the agricultural zone or residents who enthusiast of travel to go to the
docking area.

The mechanism for the elevator is simple and with a pulley and a shaft with a pod.
It will be capable of transporting 100 people at once and thus could be used as
evacuation in dire situations.

9.2.3
Emergency Pods
These pods will be mobile medical facilities and will get the highest priority to
travel. They will also be self-controlled but they will be allowed to break road
protocols in an emergency. They will be capable to attend more than one patient
at a time can only be called by the residents if a medication is required which is
not available in their medical facility available at their residence.

85

9.3
Infrastructure
The style of houses will be similar to our ancestors living during the Indus valley
civilization.

Every household will have three floors and will look fairly similar other than the
colour the residents choose. The three floors help increase the floor area of the
house but reduce the area occupied from the settlement. The total floor area will
be about 1500 square feet thus about 130 metre squared. Since it is three floored
the area occupied will be about 45 meters squared with a personal garden

Assuming an average family holds up to 4 members we will require 5000 houses


that 225000 meter squared area.

Now assuming half the population work we would require offices. Thus 4 storied
offices will be built and together will occupy 20000 square metres from the total
floor area of the settlement.

The rest of the space will be occupied by recreational and educational areas like
schools, university, parks, cinema and other open spaces.

86

Section 10: Construction


The aim of this section is to explain the construction procedure of TMD.

10.1
On Earth
The construction phase of TMD will involve sending multiple missions of raw
materials to the L4 orbit in bulk.

87

The materials sent in the first phase will be made on earth and will incorporate
methods of geometric optimization and constructive origami, where the framework
of the station can be compressed and set to open up on reaching the orbit.

Construction on Earth will take place under the supervision of the NASA team.

10.2
At L4
The real construction of the settlement will take place at the L4 orbit, where the
Stage I Shipment pieces will fit into together to form the outer framework of the
station. The pieces will be designed to fit into each other, but to ensure complete
stability, the use of nuts and bolts and wielding is encouraged.

10.2.1
Nuts and Bolts
The nuts and bolt connections will be done during the initial fitting of the
settlement pieces. These will be arranged in opposite fitting pairs in order to
maximize the stability of the structure.

10.2.2
Welding
The fitted pieces will be further strengthened by a technique known as cold
welding96. Here the two metals of the structures would be smoothed and then
pressed to be welded in a solid-state action.

88

TLDR;

The framework of the entire settlement will be sent from Earth in opposing paired
eights for each of the 3 major sections. These framework parts will be
geometrically optimized to allow maximum shipping space when sent from Earth.
The constructive origami will allow the parts of the framework to open up on
reaching the L4 increasing the total surface area by upto 40%97 98. Part will be
built to ensure structural fit and will be re-enforced by nuts and bolds and cold
welding.

89

Section 11: Radiation Shielding


This section aims on covering the working radiation shielding system of the
settlement. This system is essential to creating a habitable place for healthy
human life.

Any object in space is subject to radiation of multiple forms, including protons,


electrons, and high-energy cosmic radiation. The radiation incident on people on
a space settlement would far exceed current safety guidelines for maximum
radiation exposure, so protection mechanisms are needed.

11.1
Available Alternatives

11.1.1
Mass Shielding

This method of shielding involves layering of materials to block radiation by


collision. It requires very large masses for reliable shielding, but is necessary to
block gamma rays, which cannot be blocked by other means.

However, interactions between the mass and the radiation cause the creation of
secondary radiation.

90

11.1.2
Electrostatic Shielding
This method involves the maintenance of a positive charge on the external
surface of the station, to repel protons and positive nuclei. However, the presence
of free electrons in space, which would be attracted to the positively charged
surface, would neutralize the charge, requiring a current source to maintain the
charge.99

11.1.3
Magnetic Shielding

This method involves the production of a superconducting long wire encircling the
space station, with a current passing through it to generate a magnetic field. This
magnetic field causes charged particles that enter to deflect.100

However, the apparatus required for this is very heavy, and requires a large
amount of power.101

11.2
Plasma Shield
As proposed by Levy and French102 , a combination of an electrostatic and
magnetic technique shall be used.

A magnetic field shall surround TMD for deflection of all charged particles. Ions
will build up ahead of it, in its direction of motion, creating an electric field, which
deflects other charged particles away. This process generates plasma composed
of pre-existing radiation in space.103
91

TMD will use polyurethane foam and tin alloy to protect against radiation.
Additionally, the thick layers involved in the construction of TMD shall block some
amounts of gamma radiation. A plasma shield shall surround TMD, which will
prevent heavy radiation from reaching the mass layer, avoiding the creation of
secondary radiation. This mass shield is also best for low energy particles,
according to Landis.104

TLDR;
TMD will be well protected from any form of radiation with a strong plasma shield
system in addition to its and heavy tin based mass shielding structure.

92

93

Chapter IV Functional
Subsystems

94

95

Section 12: Computing


TMD will have one central database where all the information will be uploaded.
Each resident will have access to this database. But to create and regulate this
database lots of structure will be needed to be created both hardware and
software wise.

12.1
Hardware
We will be using a quantum computer at the core. This will also have quantum
memory which uses photons instead of electrons. Thus making the entire system
faster. Also by using qubits instead of the conventional bits we will be able to
reduce the number steps to compute a problem by a large factor.

Quantum computing exploits the fact that electrons can be in a state of


superposition that is a quantum state of spin where one doesnt know what its
spin is unless you explicitly observe. Also quantum computing relies on
entanglement which nothing but similar to pairing of electrons such that both have
opposite spin. Thus by using these principles we can create qubits which not only
have 1 or 0 state but a state of superposition. Thus effectively giving us more
computational power that the conventional binary set up105.

Quantum computers require near absolute zero temperature thus having a central
database using quantum computing is possible but not every personal computer
can be quantum.

For personal computer we will have haptic display and laser input devices such
that we can minimize the e waste due to replacement of devices. These haptic
devices will have just require an update in software and no hardware change will
96

be required thus minimizing e waste. Also laser keyboards can be personalized by


just changing the settings and thus no change in hardware will be required

12.2
Software
The main core data about the support system of the system can only be accessed
by the Executive Council of Ministers (ECM) And to make any change in the
working of the core data will require access of another 4 members.

But for other types of data no such restriction will be there and anyone can
connect to it using the internet system. All science papers will be fully accessible.
The mainframe will also have an Artificial Intelligence which will take care of the
life support systems and will configure them to the ideal settings. The AI can be
overridden by the administrative heads to remove the possibility of AI revolting.

12.3
Specialized Systems
12.3.1
Computing System Alpha
This system shall contain the Central Humidity Regulation Unit (CHRU). It shall
be networked to all capacitive hygrometers across TMD. Periodically, a CMH shall
be used to remotely recalibrate all C hygrometers.

This system shall be responsible for continuous monitoring and adjustment, if


necessary, of humidity.

97

12.3.2
Computing System Beta

This system shall run the TMD Atmospheric Regulation Subsystem (ARS). It will
maintain atmospheric gas levels.

12.3.3
Computing System Gamma

This system shall run the TMD Atmospheric Purification Subsystem (APS), which
is responsible for directing the removal of excessively high concentrations of
gases.

12.3.4
Computing System Delta
This system contains a Communications Hub, which will contain the requisite
hotlines and radio equipment for transmission of data.

98

Section 13: Communications


13.1
Initial Phase
VM is initially positioned at L4, and its distance from Earth remains approximately
360,000 km at all times. Radio waves, travelling at the speed of light c, can be
transmitted between L4 and satellites on Earth from VMs Communications Hub
on Computing System Delta.

!=

! =!

!
!

363,295!!"
= 1.21!!
299,792,458! ! !

This means that the average latency of a radio signal between Earth and VM is
roughly 1.12 seconds. Such latency would allow for data transfers of any kinds,
but would slightly impair live telephone or video conversations. However, the
inhabitants of VM will have the majority of their friends and family on VM itself,
and so such an inconvenience would not be a significant problem.

13.1.1
Communications System Alpha
Direct Hotline to UN Secretary General

99

As mentioned in Government Legal Status of VM, as part of treaty


compliance, upon receiving a distress signal from a space vehicle, VM must
contact the UN Secretary General.

13.1.2
Communications System Beta
Direct Hotline to all Heads of State

As mentioned in Government Legal Status of VM, as part of treaty


compliance, upon receiving a distress signal from a space vehicle, VM must
contact the Head of State of the State of registry of a space faring vehicle.

13.2
Exoplanet Stage
Due to the inverse square law of light, describing the drop off in intensity with
radial distance from a source of light, the intensity of any radio signal from Earth
to Gliese 667 Cc would be unreadably weak. Also, interference due to other
celestial bodies will prevent direct communication.

Additionally, we do not wish to engage in Messaging to Extraterrestrial Life


(METI), as this could endanger our species.106 Therefore, using quantum methods
of information transfer would encrypt the data.

Thus, for the approximately 200,000 years of travel, communication to Earth will
occur through superdense coding.

A laser communication at extremely high power shall be setup on Earth as well as


on TMD. These lasers will have low latency as they travel at the speed of light, but
100

very low throughput of information. Thus the actual communication shall happen
through entangled quantum particles.
Using superdense coding107 and entanglement, we can send n qubits via
entangled photons from Earth to TMD and back, which can each be read into 2n
classical bits.

13.2.1
SATCOM Grid Path (Rejected Option)
To keep contact with the people on Earth and future spacecrafts we considered
leaving sort of a trail of satellites behind us as we moved towards the exoplanet.
This idea was discarded for three reasons:

1. The satellites would fall into orbits around certain bodies, causing
disconnected network paths.
2. The number of satellites that would have to be released over 200,000
years would be close to impossible to produce.
3. Releasing satellites from the ship would cause a loss in momentum of
TMD, as they would have to be shot out the back, which would increase the
time and fuel requirements to reach the exoplanet.

Over extended periods of time would affect the angular velocity of the craft
and as a result, affect the gravity on the craft.

101

Section 14: Asteroid Protection


This section aims to discuss the asteroid avoidance and protection system of
TMD, while going over the ideal impact avoidance methods.

14.1
Impact Avoidance
TMD will share the L4 orbit with millions of man-made108 as well as natural
particles of space debris109 . At speeds approaching 30,000 km/h110 , particles as
small as a few micrometers can cause severe damage.111

The Impact Avoidance System (IAS) will be divided into 4 sections, which each
deal with particles of different sizes and compositions.

14.1.1
Microdebris Protection System (MPS)
The MPS is just another name for the outer 6AL-4V Titanium layer of TMD. Small
particles like paint specks will cause a close to zero damage to the outer structural
layer combined with the shock absorbance support112 of the polyurethane and
silicone rubber layers113.

14.1.2
Whipple Shield Protection System (WSPS) 114
The WSPS will be a complex arrangement 115of Whipple Shield panels along the
outside of the station. These Whipple Shields will be stuffed with aluminum oxide
102

ceramic fiber116 which will be produced on the Moon. Each individual Whipple
Shield will be held out along branching solar panels which are attached to
gimbals. These gimbals will be controlled by the Computer Lab and linked to
multiple micrometeor tracking databases. Micrometeors117 travel at speeds
between 10,000 to 30,000 km/h, and are large enough to cause damage to the
outer layers with frequent impact.118

(Inspired by the Stardust spacecraft design, Wikimedia)

The program will constantly scan the Near Earth Objects Dynamic
Site119 (NEODyS) database and a new division will be introduced to scan the L4
orbit for micrometeors and other similar sized objects.

14.1.3
Secondary Major Deflection System (SMDS)
The SMDS will carry out path deflection for all minor asteroids120 (diameters
between 250m and 1km). These asteroids will be kept track of by the new TMD
department in the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research121 (LINEAR) program.
The focus of USSTRATCOM122 will not be diverted for the settlement.

103

14.1.3.1
Options for a deflection system for minor asteroids:

a. Kinetic Impact

A heavy spaceship (of not more than 1-2 tons) impacts the asteroid at an
angle, which changes the asteroids trajectory enough to prevent it from posing
a threat to TMD or the Earth.
In 2007, NASA stated123: non-nuclear kinetic impactors are the most mature
approach and could be used in some deflection/mitigation scenarios,
especially for NEOs that consist of a single small, solid body.
b. Gravity Tractor124

A heavy spaceship travels along with the asteroid, and the mutual gravitational
attraction causes a slight change in the path of the asteroid.

In 2007, NASA stated: "Slow push" mitigation techniques are the most
expensive, have the lowest level of technical readiness, and their ability to
both travel to and divert a threatening NEO would be limited unless mission
durations of many years to decades are possible
c. Ion Beam Shepherd125

Similar to the gravity tractor, a beam shepherd flies alongside the asteroid and
uses low divergence asteroid thrusters to change the trajectory of the asteroid
with the help of the momentum transmitted by the ions.
d. Solar Sail Focusing126

104

A solar sail (as wide at 2 km) could be sent to the asteroid and the sail could
wrap around the asteroid, changing its path when projected forward by solar
energy.

e. Vacuum Pocketing

Concentrating high amounts of the suns rays to a point on the asteroid would
create a pocket in its mass. This would lead to a slow path change.

f. VASIMR Thrusting

A Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket can be used to push the


asteroid and return back to dock. The use of waves to heat the propellant and
magnetic fields to accelerate the resulting plasma allows a very high thrust
power.

g. Painting

Dusting a specific area of the asteroid with soot allows us to alter its trajectory
via the Yarkovksy Effect, which basically allows us to take advantage of the
momentum transmitted by photons.

h. Magnetic Repulsion

Asteroids with high metallic content can be easily repelled by the


electromagnetic system, which is already present for radiation deflection. The
spectrometric analysis teams will detect these asteroids.

14.1.3.2
Summary

105

Table 7
Method
Kinetic Impact

Advantages

Disadvantages

Most effective

Expensive mission

method

Can only be used

Has worked
successfully in the

on single targets

past

Could create a
group of more
debris

Gravity Tractor

Can be paired with

Expensive

other methods of

Slow

Can be paired with

Expensive

other methods of

Slow

Can not work on

mitigation
Ion Beam Shepherd

mitigation
Solar Sail Focusing

Cheap

spinning debris

No other methods
to combine with

Vacuum Pocketing

Slow

Low maintenance

High initial cost

cost

Large lens
structure required

VASIMR Thrusting

VASIMR can be

Very expensive

used for other

Can only be used

tasks

on single targets

Can be used
multiple times

Painting

Cheap

Can easily be

alone must be

paired with other

combined with

methods of

other methods

106

Can not be used

mitigation

Makes use of soot,


which is normally
an impure residue
collected from the
Moon based
industries

Magnetic Repulsion

No additional build
required

Its preferable to
deflect any debris
before it reaches
close enough to
be affected by the
magnetic repulsive
force

The SMDS will shoot waste packets in the trajectory of the incoming
asteroid/debris, such that the angle at which they meet causes a deflection in the

107

path of the asteroid. The trajectory can simply be set by a linear program and
doesnt need any complex specifications.

14.1.4
Primary Major Deflection System (PMDS)
The PMDS is the deflection system that will prevent larger asteroids (of more than
1 km in diameter) from threatening the safety of TMD.

The PMDS Low will act to prevent asteroid impact when they are discovered
well before predicted impact times. The PMDS Low involves the use of a
VASIMR to act as a gravity tractor, while focusing a concentrated beam of light on
the soot-dusted asteroid.

108

The VASIMR or Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket will be present


on the two precision docking bays of TMD. The specifics of the rocket are details
in Section 14.2 VASIMR.

The PMDS High will be a nuclear missile, which will be used to directly take out
any asteroid, which is too close to be deflected. This missile will be located in the
Central Defense Hub (CDH) and will automatically be triggered by an inaccessible
modem of the PMDS.

14.2
VASIMR127 128
The VASIMR or Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket is an essential
part of TMD. Two relatively cheap VASIMR technology based crafts will be
located on two ends of the settlement and will have multiple functionalities.

14.2.1
Location
The two crafts will be docked at the Sunside dock and Moonside dock and will
each have a different purpose.

109

14.2.2
Engine
The engine present in both crafts will be the same electro-thermal propulsion
based engine as an arcject. Xenon gas will be used as a propellant which will be
stored in the gas bay (label 1). The gas will be passed into the initial coupler (label
2) which uses radio waves to displace the electrons from the argon gas. The gas
is now a flowing mass of cold plasma. Then the ionized plasma will be
compressed in the electromagnet section (label 3).

(Source: Wikimedia)

These magnets will also be used to reduce the magnetic field in this section of the
engine. The now slowed down plasma particle orbits can be energized by radio
wave resonance in the next final coupler section. Here the plasma may heat up to
temperatures 200 times the temperature of the surface of the Sun (1,000,000
kelvin). Finally in an outward diverging section at the end of the craft, the
magnetic field turns at an angle suitable to propel the plasma in the necessary
direction at speeds as high as 50,000 m/s.

110

14.2.3
Power
Both crafts will be powered by storage and continuous power sources. When
docked, the crafts will be charged by the mainframe power source. During travel
time the crafts will use their internal nuclear power source when out of energy.
They will not require solar panels as the internal battery is very efficient and the
crafts will never be used for extended periods of time. The Moonside Dock Craft
however will have a solar panel fitting grid on its rear for when it needs to travel
for long spans of time during gravity tractor usage or for mining expeditions.

111

14.2.4
Structure

(Inspired by Wikimedia Concept art of the VASIMR)

14.2.4.1
Common Structure

Both VASIMR crafts will be designed in the same way with just a few additions to
the Moonside Dock Craft. Materials used will be the same as the settlement with a
primary carbon fiber structural layer.

The potential passenger space of the craft will be built around the cylindrical
engine, which will run through the center. The passenger area will only have
enough space for six attachable seats. Here, mass is not limited, rather space is.

112

There will be a basic automated computer system with directional and basic
communication capabilities.

The area around the engine will enclose the strong battery which will store power
from short trips. Above the engine is a storage space and thermocouple converter
for Radioisotope Thermal Generators (RTGs)129 which will be primarily be kept in
the settlement, and will only be introduced into the craft when it needs to travel for
extended periods of time. We will be using Amercium-241 (241Am) as the active
element of our RTG. Americium has a half life of almost 450 years and can be
synthetically produced in the settlements nuclear reactor. For these long trips the
craft will only use battery power when it needs to carry out any function besides
moving; this means the craft will be programmed to always use RTG energy over
draining its battery.

The crafts will have laser based contact wielding appliances located to carry out
repairs.

The electromagnet in the engine will be extended outward to carry out specific
docking work or package interception.

14.2.4.2
Additional Moonside Dock Craft Structure

The Moonside Dock Craft will also be used by the PMDS Low as a gravity
tractor and for asteroid deflection.

The craft will be loaded with heavy materials in its central space to maximize its
mass.

A soot cloud releaser will be present in the front part of the craft. The releaser
structure will also contain the lasers required by the deflection systems.
113

14.2.4.3
Modifications and Patches

By minimizing the number of moving parts and by using electromagnetic


propulsion instead of electrode based thrusting the durability of each craft
increases greatly. Additionally, the onboard maintenance costs are majorly
reduced.

To prevent unwanted torque generated by interactions with astronomical


magnetospheres the Moonside Dock Craft will consist of two oppositely oriented
thruster units packaged together which will basically prevent external magnetic
interference from affecting the engines mechanism.

14.2.4.4
Functionality

14.2.4.4.1
Common Functions

Tasks which will be carried out by both crafts


Table 8
Specific Function

Description

Outer Layer Repair The laser fixtures on the crafts will allow any wielding
work on the outside of the settlement.
Payload

The electromagnets present inside the engine are

Interception

pushed out externally so payloads may be


intercepted and directed to storage bays.

Emergency

Both crafts will be ready in place incase an

Evacuation

emergency evacuation is necessary. Both can carry

114

5-6 people each and are durable enough to sustain


themselves for a very long time.
Exoplanet

Once the final exoplanet has been reached, the

Initialization

discovery crew will use the VASIMRs to explore the


conditions of the planet.

14.2.4.3.2
Additional Moonside Dock Craft Function

Additionally the Moonside Dock Craft will be used as a gravity tractor by as part of
the Asteroid Impact Avoidance Systems Primary Major Defense System Low.

TLDR;

The asteroid avoidance system of TMD is divided into several parts. The small
debris is blocked by the large outer structure, the larger micrometeores that arent
deflected by the settlements electromagnet will be stopped by the whipple shield
system, other meteors will be deflected by kinetic impact of waste removal
capsules, multipurpose VASIMR avoidance technology and in case of an
emergency, by means of a nuclear detonation.

115

Section 15: Power Supply Subsystem


This section aims to discuss all the different ways of powering the settlement and
choosing the primary, secondary and backup power sources.

15.1
Available Options

15.1.1
Uranium Fission
Uranium fission is when a uranium-235 (235U) nucleus is bombarded with a
neutron to split and release two daughter nuclei (Krypton-90 and Barium-143),
215 MeV energy and 3 neutrons, which continue the chain reaction. This is not a
logical option as there is a scarcity of uranium with the limited resources we have.

15.1.2
Helium-3
Helium-3 fusion130 is a possible way to generate power on TMD. Helium-3 can be
mined from the lunar regolith131 and used as a power source. Helium-3 (32He) and
deuterium (21H) take part in a fusion reaction to produce helium and 18.3 MeV.
3

He + D " 4He + 18.3 MeV

This would mean that 2.931 kg of the mixture must be burned per second to
produce 1 megawatt of energy (Most of which is in the form of heat)

116

15.1.3
Liquid Fluoride Thorium Power
The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR) is a molten salt reactor. A molten,
fluoride-based thorium salt is initially used as fuel132 . Fuel is formed when 232Th
(Thorium-232) captures a neutron to become 233Th (Thorium-233), which decays
to give out a beta particle and an anti-neutrino to become 233Pu (Protactinium233), which again decays to give 233U (Uranium-233), which is used as fuel. The
breeder reactor creates more fuel for itself during the nuclear reaction. The LFTR
will be discussed in detail in the next section.

15.1.4
Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators
The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RITEG) is an electrical generator that
converts heat released by a decaying radioactive material to electricity by using
an array of thermocouples. Radioactive elements such as plutonium (238Pu),
strontium (90Sr), polonium (210Po) and americium (241Am) can be used as fuel.133

15.1.5
Space-based Solar Power
One of the best ways in which we can harness energy for TMD is through Spacebased Solar Power (SBSP)134

135

. The main benefit of this would be higher

collection rates as a result of the intense sunlight that the solar panels receive
due to reduced distance from the Sun and lack of an atmosphere. Since we are in
a relatively stable orbit, solar panels can be set-up to face the Sun at all times.
The SBSP set-up will be discussed in detail in the next section. During the
exoplanet movement stage, solar power will be more of a backup power supply
when the nuclear power system is put into effect.

117

15.1.6
Other Renewable Sources of Power
Energy sources such as wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass
and fossil fuels cannot be used in the traditional sense.

15.2
Summary
Power Source
Uranium Fission

Advantage

Efficient way to get

Disadvantage

energy

Helium-3

Uraniums huge

Low abundance of
uranium

Radioactive

energy density

actinide waste

Previously used

produced

High abundance

Efficient

initially until

Aneutronic

mining is set-up

Liquid Fluoride Thorium

Chemical stability

Reactors

Breeds fuel

Cant be used

Large heat output

Unrealistic

Low abundance of
thorium

Radioactive
actinide waste
produced

Radioisotope

Long lasting

Thermoelectric

Radiation risks

Radioactive waste

Generators
Solar Power

produced

Constant power

source

Low maintenance

Very high set-up


costs

Need a backup
source during time
spent behind the

118

Earth

15.3
Power Systems
We will have multiple stages of travel in the duration of the settlement, first near
the Sun and later away from it. Thus, we have used multiple different stages of
power sources.

15.3.1
Solar
The initial travel will be in the heliosphere thus we will be using solar panels to
capture the sunrays and power the settlement. But this will be effective only
during our time in the L4 as the intensity of sun rays will decrease as we go away
from the sun and thus to maintain our power requirement we shall require other
sources.
We will be putting the solar panels on the curved area of the disc such that it will
continuously face the sun and other stars once we reach the orbit of the other
planet.

15.3.2
Nuclear
For majority of the journey our settlement will be away from solar radiation thus
the most obvious way to generate power during that time would be using a
nuclear reactor. But again it requires fuel to run and having a trip for about
200,000 years will require a lot of nuclear fuel, thus we shall use nuclear poweras
a backup power generator.

119

Also reactors like the breeder reactor, which were hoped to be a long-term power
source, have a lot of complication and thus will be unsafe to use in a space
settlement.136

15.3.3
Main Power System (MPS)
Due to the limitations in the nuclear and solar power sources we have to resort to
construction of our own electric generators.
The basic working of an electric generator is have relative motion between a coil
and a magnet. So if we are able to make magnets with a strong magnetic field we
can make turbines and use sources like hydroelectricity and wind in the
settlement.

The permanent magnets are not strong enough or abundant enough for this
purpose thus we have make electromagnets. But conventional electromagnets
utilize coils of current carrying wire around aa piece of iron to create magnetic
field. But these wires have some resistance and thus some energy is lost due to
heat.

The solution to this is using superconductors. Superconductivity is a phenomenon


which works at near absolute zero temperature and thus is hard to sustain on
earth. But since we are in space these temperatures are easily maintainable if we
keep the system away from solar radiation.

Thus by creating superconducting magnets we can make dynamos which can


sustain major part of the power requirement of our settlement. Also for the moving
coil aspect of a generator we can utilize the rotating settlement itself.
!

Since at the center the velocity at which a particle will move is minimum as ! = !
and thus if we keep our superconducting magnet in the middle of the settlement
120

and around it we can put a conducting metal enclosing and attach wires through it
gain electrical energy. Since further away from the center the velocity will be more
this can be achievable. We can later add step up transformers to amplify the
voltage and pass it around the settlement.

15.4
Construction Phase Additional Power (CP-AP)
During the construction of TMD, before the nuclear reactor is fully operational, and
while immigration to TMD is being conducted, the station shall use solar power.

15.4.1
Solar Panels
TMD will use Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE) solar panels137 to
convert solar energy to electrical power. The main benefits of using PETE solar
panels over the normal photovoltaic cells are higher efficiency and temperature
resistance. The PETE solar panels make use of thermionic and photovoltaic
effects; they use photon energy as well as heat energy to generate power. This
means that wavelengths of light that are generally not absorbed by solar cells are
now converted to heat and used by the PETE cells. As a result the efficiency
achieved is two times that of the solar cells that are currently used.

15.4.2
Structure
The outer surface area of the space station will be covered with PETE solar
panels. This will ensure complete exposure of panels to the Sun at all times
(except during the eclipse).
121

The total time considered to be in eclipse shall include the umbra as well as the
penumbra, as a decrease in the intensity of solar energy will also necessitate use
of backup energy.

15.4.3
Backup Power During CP-AP

!!"#$% = !384,399!!"
!!"#$!! = 6,371!!"!
The time spent by TMD between P1 and P3 is the total time spent under eclipse.
Assuming the orbit of TMD around Earth to be a perfect circle, the time spent from
P1 to P2 is half the total time under eclipse.

The arc length s from P1 to P2 can be calculated as follows:

sin ! = !

!!"#$!
6,371!!"
=!
!!"#$%
384,399!!"
122

! = ! sin!! 0.016573924 = !0.0165746829!!"#


! = !"
! = !!"#$% !! = 0.0165746829!!"# 384,399!!" !
!! 6,371.3!!"

Assuming the orbital speed of TMD to be equal to the average orbital speed of the
Moon, as in a circular orbit,
!
6,371.3!!!"
!!""# = !3,683! !" ! =
=
!
!"
!!!
! =!

6,371.3!!"
1.73!!
3,683! !" !

This is the time spent under eclipse from P1 to P2. Thus, the total time spent
under eclipse, from P1 to P3,
!!"!#$ = 2! = !3.46!! = !207.6!!"#$
TMD will spend a total of 207.6 minutes under eclipse each time it orbits Earth.

The orbital period of the moon is 27 days. Since the orbital speed of TMD is the
same as that of the Moon, TMD spends 207.6 minutes without solar energy
every 27 days.

In one Earth year of 365 days, TMD will spend roughly 2 complete days without
solar energy.

The backup power supply during this time will be stored solar energy. During
construction, temporary lithium-ion batteries will be installed. These shall store
123

energy from the solar panels to some extent, until the panels and the nuclear
energy backup are fully online.

TLDR;

During construction, the entire settlement, along with any subsidiary parts, which
need to travel in space, are powered by means of PETE solar panels. The nuclear
power generator will be used as a secondary power source and energy will be
stored in batteries for backup power use. The primary power source for the entire
movement stage is based around using magnetism based induced current
system.

124

Chapter V Life Support


Subsystems

125

126

Section 16: Atmosphere Subsystem


This section aims to discuss the methods of ensuring Earthlike atmospheric
conditions on the settlement.

TMD shall strive to emulate the atmospheric conditions of Earth as far as


possible. The only reasonable alternative is a pure oxygen environment, which
was ruled out for the following reasons:

1. Pure oxygen is extremely dangerous, as oxygen supports the combustion


of flammable materials. Open flames, electrical shorts, or any other cause,
could cause very large fires.
2. Pure oxygen environments would not allow agriculture or cultivation of
domestic plants, as plants require carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
3. A low-pressure oxygen environment, to combat risks of fires, would create
air pockets of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide.
4. There may be unknown health effects from extended time or childhood
development in a low-pressure atmosphere.
5. New occupants of TMD, and space travelers docking on TMD in an
emergency, would get decompression sickness, due to bubbling of nitrogen
in the bloodstream.

People will live out their entire lives on TMD, and to avoid adverse health effects,
TMD shall undertake Environmental Biomimetics (Section 19).

The composition of Earths atmosphere is approximately as follows:


Table 10
Gas

Percentage by Volume

Nitrogen (N2)

78.084
127

Oxygen (O2)

20.946

Argon

0.9340

Carbon Dioxide

0.0397

Neon

0.001818

Helium

0.000524

Methane

0.000179

Water Vapour

(maintained by the Comprehensive


Humidity Regulation System)

Argon, neon, helium, and methane, are not necessary for human life, and so their
composition shall not be artificially maintained. Water vapor is to be regulated by
the CHRS.

Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, shall be maintained by TMD Atmospheric


Regulation Subsystem (ARS), which shall be Computing System Beta (Section
12 Computing).

Dangerous and unnecessary gases shall be removed by TMD Atmospheric


Purification Subsystem (APS), which shall be Computing System Gamma
(Section 12 Computing).

128

16.1
TMD Atmospheric Regulation Subsystem (ARS)
The volume of TMD was calculated to be
! = 518100!!!

Using the ideal gas equation, we can calculate the required amount of each gas to
be transported, where

P = pressure
V = volume
n = moles of gas
R = universal gas constant
T = absolute temperature
x% = percentage of volume of TMD of the gas
!" = !"#
101325!!" !%!!"!518100!!!! = !!!!(8.3144598!!!/!!!!"#)!!(298!!)
! !%!!2.57!!10!! !!"#

16.1.2
Carbon dioxide

Molar mass of CO2 = 44.01 g / mol


Percentage composition = 0.0397%
! = 0.0397%!!2.11!!10! !!"# 8376.7!!"#
129

!"## = 44.01!

!"# !!8376.7!!"# 37,000!!"

16.1.3
Oxygen138

Molar mass of O = 16.00 g/mol


Percentage composition = 20.496%
! = 20.496%!!2.11!!10! !!"# 4324656!!"#
!
!"## = 16.00! !"# !!4324656!!"# 70,000!!"

16.1.4
Nitrogen

Molar mass of N = 14.01 g/mol


Percentage composition = 78.084%
! = 78.084%!!2.11!!10! !!"# 16500000!!"#
!
!"## = 14.01! !"# !!16500000!!"# 230,000!!"
The total gas mass of TMD shall thus be
!"##!"# = (37,000! + 70,000! + !230,000!)!!"
! = 337000!!"

16.1.5
Cycling
Nitrogen levels will stay approximately constant, as the human body does not
retain a significant portion of inhaled nitrogen.
130

An average human at rest consumes 550 liters of oxygen per day.139 Allowing for
variation due to different metabolic rates, exercise time, and so on, we use the
high average of 1000 liters/day.
!!! = !!!!!
!
101325!!" 1000!! = !!!(8.314! !!!"# )!(300!!)
! = 40.62!!"#
! = (40.62!!"#)(32.00!! !"#)
! = 1300!!!

Thus, each person on board TMD consumes 1.3 kg of O2 per day. With an initial
population of roughly 15,000, and allowing for slight expansion upto 20,000
people, the following is the total oxygen consumption of TMD:

!"## !2!!"#$%&'! = 1.3

!"
!"#$%&!!"#

20,000!!"#$%&$ = !26,000!!"/ !"

16.2
TMD Atmospheric Purification Subsystem (APS)
The following gases will be produced by various processes of human activity on
TMD, based on samples of gases from United States submarines. 140

They shall be detected and removed by the APS.

131

141

16.2.1
Carbon monoxide

(Diagram from Figaro.co.jp)

Detection: Carbon Monoxide Electrochemical Sensor (CO ECS)

In an electrochemical carbon monoxide detector, two electrodes are kept in a


container containing an electrolyte. Here, platinum electrodes shall be used with a
sulfuric acid electrolyte.

When carbon monoxide is present in the air, it reacts with the water vapor in the
air due to the presence of the platinum catalyst as an electrode. It oxidizes to
carbon dioxide. This reaction causes a current to flow between the electrodes.
The current is detected by an ammeter. 142

The current is proportional to the amount of carbon monoxide in the air. Upon
calibration, when carbon monoxide levels rise too high, a CO ECS unit sends a
CO-EM signal to TMD APS. The APS shall handle this message as described in
Computing System Beta (Section 12 Computing).

Control: Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum Beds

132

According to Wolverton, Mcdonald, and Mesick143, Chlorophytum elatum var.


vittatum sorbs 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm of leaf area. Thus, beds of this plant
shall be kept at equal intervals across TMD.

16.2.2
Ozone

(Diagram from Global Ozone Project)

Detection: UV Absorbance Detector

An air inlet and outlet are set up across a detection cell, as shown. Air is pumped
in, and a UV light is shone through the cell. A photodiode measures the intensity
of UV light that passes through the detection cell. Higher concentrations of ozone
absorb more UV light, and cause a linear decrease in the intensity of light that
passes through the detection cell.144
The concentration of ozone can be calculated with the Beer-Lambert law145.

!!! =

1
!!
ln
!
!"
!

!
133

= Absorption cross section of ozone = 1.15 x 10-17 cm2/molecule


l = length of detection cell
I0 = intensity of UV light when no ozone is in the detection cell
I = measured intensity of UV light when air is passing through
CO3 is given in units of molecules/cm3.

The concentration of CO3 in parts per billion can be calculated as follows:

!!!

1
!!
ln
!"#$%#&'(&)"#! !!!3
! ! 10!! !
!!" =
10! = !"
!!!!
!"#$%#&'(&)"#!!"!!"#!
!!!

P = atmospheric pressure = 101325 Pa


NA = Avogadros number
R = universal gas constant
T = ambient temperature of TMD

When ozone concentration reaches 50 ppb, an OZ-EM message will be sent to


TMD APS.

16.2.3
Hydrogen
Detection: Hydrogen electrochemical cell sensor

This sensor works on the same principle as that of the CO ECS. The electrolyte
used here is also sulfuric acid. The electrodes are made of the following nickel
complex.

134

According to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Center for Molecular


Electrocatalysis, this compound is a fast electrocatalyst for hydrogen.

16.2.4
Nitrogen dioxide
Detection: In2O3 Nanowire Devices

(Diagram from Zhang et. al., Department of E.E.-Electrophysics, University of


Southern California)

According to Zhang et. al. using room temperature nanowires of indium oxide
yields ppb-accurate readings of NO2 levels, even near chemicals like NH3, H2, O2,
and CO.146
135

Control: Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum Beds

These plant beds also sorb high amounts of NO2, near 8500 micrograms/hour per
plant (in a 3.8 liter container).

16.2.5
Other organic compounds
According to Wolverton, Douglas, and Bounds, the following plants are the most
efficient at removal of their respective organic compound:

Plant

Controlled Organic Compound

Gerbera jamesonii

Benzene

Chrystanthemum morifolii

Trichloroethyne

Dracaena fragrans (massangeana)

Formaldehyde, xylene, toluene

Beds of each of these plants shall be grown along with the beds of Chlorophytum
elatum.

Another benefit of removing these organic compounds is that the bad odors in the
settlement will be removed.

16.2.6
Hydrogen fluoride
Detection: HF Electrochemical Sensor

This sensor works on the same principle as that of the CO ECS. The electrolyte
used here is also sulfuric acid.

136

Hygrometers at
regular intervals

Control: Adsoprtion on NaF


Water tank in the

Air is pumped over NaF at low velocity, which increases


adsorption capacity
central section
according to Afzal, Rahimi, Ehsani, and Tavakoli147. HF is adsorbed onto the
surface of NaF.

Total of 8 water
scrubbers

16.3
Humidity Regulation

16.3.1
Humidity Sensing System (HSS)
16.3.1.1
Chilled mirror hygrometer

A CM hygrometer operates on the principle of measuring the dew point of a


sample of air. Air samples are fed over a chilled mirror, and light is shined over it.
137

The light reflected back from the mirror is detected by a phototransistor, and used
to measure how thick the layer of dew condensed on the mirror is. This
measurement is part of a feedback loop. The thickness of the dew layer is
maintained by raising or lowering the temperature of the mirror. The temperature
achieved is the dew point.148

Diagram of a CMH (Sensorsmag.com)

The ClausiusClapeyron equation for water vapor under typical conditions is given
by 149

!!! !! ! !! !
=
!"
!! ! !

- es (T) = saturation vapor pressure of water as a function of temperature


- T = temperature
- Lv(T) = specific latent heat of evaporation of water as a function of temperature
- Rv = gas constant of water vapour
138

Using the August-Roche-Magnus approximation formula for the Clausius


Clapeyron equation150 , the saturation vapor pressure of pure water vapor es (T)
can be approximated as below:

!! ! =

!".!"#!
!"#.!"!!
!6.1094!!!
!!

For a mixture of pure water and moist air, according to Alduchov and Eskridge,
the following formula should be used151:

!!" ! = !1.000071!!! !.!!!!!"#! !!! ! !!


!
- p = pressure in hPa

Finally, the relative humidity can be calculated:

!" = 100!!

(!".!"#!!!")
! (!"#.!"!!")
(!".!"#!!!)
! (!"#.!"!!)

!
- T = outside temperature in degrees Celsius
- DP = dew point temperature in degrees Celsius

CM Hygrometers will be used monthly to calibrate the capacitive hygrometers


mentioned below.

16.3.1.2
Capacitive hygrometer

139

Image Credit: University Of Michigan Encyclopedia Of Chemical Engineering


Equipment

A C Hygrometer uses a dielectric material between two electrodes, forming a


capacitor. The dielectric constant of the capacitor varies with different humidity
levels.152

TMD will use gold-plated aluminum oxide C hygrometers. The gold layer allows
moisture to pass through to the aluminum oxide. It also serves as the first
electrode. The moisture that passes through is absorbed by the aluminum oxide
and affects its dielectric constant.

The substrate here will be made of metallic aluminum to serve as a conductor. It


shall be the second electrode.

The dielectric here is aluminum oxide. It has a high dielectric constant when
dry.153
! = 9.1!
!
This structure forms a capacitor, whose capacitance varies with humidity.

Calibrated with a CMH, C hygrometers are deployed at regular intervals across


TMD. These shall all be networked to a Central Humidity Regulation Unit

140

(CHRU), which will be Computer System Alpha (CSA) (Section 12


Computing).

16.3.2
Humidity Regulator (HR)
The humidity regulator shall have two functions Increase Humidity and
Decrease Humidity. It shall perform these functions as directed to do so by the
Comprehensive Humidity Maintenance System. The HR system consists of many
dispersed Humidity Regulation Nodes (HRNs). Each node will be able to
perform both functions, and the cumulative effect shall determine the conditions
on TMD.

16.3.2.1
Increase Humidity

Humidity increases shall be achieved through simple atomization breaking up of


water into droplets.154 TMD shall use ultrasonic atomizers, as they produce a low
velocity fine mist spray. Each HRN shall contain one Ultrasonic Atomizer, which
shall receive water piped from TMD Water Network (Section 17 Water
Subsystem).

141

Image Credit: SonoTek Ultrasonic Atomizer

When the HR receives the INCREASE command, all HRNs will turn on their
Ultrasonic Atomizer for 60 minutes.
16.3.2.2
Decrease Humidity

There are many options for dehumidification technology, summarized below:

Technology

Advantages

Disadvantages

Thermal condensation

dehumidification

Well developed
technology

Additionally

Huge energy
consumption

dehumidifies by

Inefficient for large


scale operations

heating
Ionic membrane

dehumidification

Low energy

requirement
!

Low maintenance

capacity
!

requirements
Desiccant
dehumidification

Low energy
requirements

142

Low dehydration

Inefficient for large


scale operations

Requires
consistent

!
!

Does not affect

maintenance of

temperature

desiccant wheel

Easily scalable to
large sizes

The primary method of dehumidification shall be desiccant dehumidification, as


it is the only one suitable to the massive scale of dehumidification of TMD.

Each HRN shall have one desiccant wheel. The options for desiccant material are
below:

Material

Advantages

Disadvantages

Silica gel

Non corrosive,

- Difficult and

non toxic

relatively expensive

Very efficient

to prepare

below 25 deg C
Calcium sulphate

Hold moisture

- Low adsorptive

upto high

capacity

temperatures
(210 deg C)
!

Inexpensive,
stable

Montmorillonite Clay

!
!

Abundant, easy

- Returns moisture

to access

as temperatures rise

Inexpensive and
effective at
normal
temperature
ranges

Zeolite (molecular
sieve)

Strongest

- Expensive as it is

adsorption

synthetic

143

Maintain moisture
even at high
temperatures

TMD shall use a zeolite as a desiccant. It will use a 13X alumniosilicate molecular
sieve, with the following composition:

1 Na2O: 1 Al2O3 : 2.8 0.2 SiO2 : xH2O

It will be a bead form 8-12 mesh, giving it a regeneration temperature range of


200 315C.

The desiccant wheels shall have the following structure.

144

TMD Atmosphere

Dry air out to TMD

Moist air in from


TMD

16.3.2.2.1
Air Flow
TMD Atmosphere " Inlet Port " Desiccant Wheel Dehumidification Section "
TMD Atmosphere
16.3.2.2.2
Wheel Operation

Air is blown in through Fans 1-4 from each inlet port to the desiccant wheel
dehumidification section. The zeolite adsorbs humidity from the air, and the dry
exhaust air passes through to TMD.

145

The desiccant wheel is constantly regenerated. Electric heating in the


regeneration section causes water to evaporate and saturate the air below it. This
water then condenses into a container. Thus the wheel remains constantly usable.

The container feeds water into TMD Water Network (TMDWN).

The wheel is constantly rotating to provide regeneration to the entire wheel.

When the HR receives the DECREASE command, all HRNs will turn on their
desiccant wheels for 60 minutes.

16.3.3
Comprehensive Humidity Maintenance System (CHMS)
This system aggregates the HR and HSS systems, and is run as the CHRU on
CSA.

The C hygrometers of the HSS will be deployed every 100 meters along the
central circumference of TMD. These sensors will be divided into 10 regions.
The average relative humidity of every sensor in that region shall be calculated.

!"!"# =

!"!
!". !"!!"#!$%!

Each region shall have one HR. The arrangement of its HRNs is described in
Section 19 Environmental Biomimetics. Using the following decision making
mechanism, the relative humidity of TMD shall be controlled to maintain it at
approximately 37%:

LOOP (EVERY HOUR)


IF (RHavg < 34%)
HR.REDUCE
146

ELSE IF (RHavg > 40%)


HR.INCREASE

TLDR;

Stable atmospheric conditions, with Earthlike pressure and gas values will be
achieved while regulating humidity, excessive gas production and maintaining
humidity,

147

Section 17: Water Subsystem


17.1
Acquisition
As detailed in Section 8.1 Lunar Production, all the water needed aboard TMD
shall be shipped in from the Moon during the construction phase. This water shall
initially be stored in a central Water Heating Core.

As per Section 16.3, humidity shall be regulated on board TMD. Excess humidity
shall put water into the Water Subsystem, while when humidity is low, it shall be
drawn from this subsystem into the Ultrasonic Atomizer.

Water shall also be collected through processing of stool and urine.

17.2
Storage
The central Core shall contain a thermally insulated sphere of water in liquid form.
It shall be connected via pipelines to the rest of TMD.

The water shall be stored parallel to coolant pipelines.

17.3
Piping
Pipes of water shall run into every home aboard TMD, providing free unlimited
water for all residents within reason (cases of water abuse shall be prosecuted by
148

the Judiciary). Additionally, as required by crops and livestock, water shall be


piped to the agricultural section. It shall be piped to the 3D Printer banks as well.

17.3.1
Temperature
The water shall be partially heated by the heat transfer from the coolants. If more
heating is required, heat-generating resistors shall heat the water.

17.3.2
Purification
All purification of water shall happen before it enters the storage area to prevent
contamination. The insulated storage shall be transparent to UV light, so that
incident UV light can kill pathogens in the water.

The water from the Moon will be clean as there is no source of dirt or infection in
the process.

Water drawn from the humidity regulation system shall be drawn by condensation
and filtration of water absorbed by desiccants, which itself is a form of purification.

Water from stool and urine will be extensively purified by boiling and radiation.

149

Section 18: Food Subsystem


This section aims on covering the agricultural aspects of the food grown on TMD.
This section will also cover the kinds of plants and livestock farmed.

The residents of TMD will have an active lifestyle and will exercise for at least 1
hour every day on the settlement. With this in mind we will calculate the
necessary minimum nutrition requirements per person.

We assume that the average height of a resident of TMD is 6 feet and they weigh
an average of 70 kilograms (155 pounds).

The calorie intake of the residents will be set to at least 2500 Calories per day but
not more than 3000 Calories per day.

18.1
Nutritional Requirements155 156

18.1.1
Protein157
Residents will require 1.8-2.0 times their body weight in kilograms of protein in
grams. For a person weighing 70 kilograms this would mean a minimum 130
140 grams of protein per day. Each gram of protein has approximately 4 Calories
which means that 520-560 Calories will be consumed in the form of protein.

150

18.1.2
Fats
25-30% of the total calorie intake will be in the form of all kinds of fats. With each
gram of fat containing 9 Calories, the average fat consumption per resident would
be between 70-90 grams per day. This adds 600-800 Calories to our total limit.

18.1.3
Carbohydrates 158
The remaining Calories will be consumed in the form of Calories. With one gram
of a carbohydrate containing 4 Calories, the resident consumes between 285-345
grams of carbohydrates per day.

18.1.4
Essential dietary minerals
Minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorous and zinc
are essential components of the diets and regulate supply will ensure no
deficiency or excessive consumption related illnesses.

18.1.5
Vitamins
All necessary vitamins will also be provided to the residents without any kind of
shortages.

There will be excess availability of foods high in calcium and vitamin D3 to make
up for the alterations in resident bone growth and lack of natural sunlight.
151

152

No.

Maximum Daily

Maximum Yearly

Requirement

Requirement per

per capita

capita

Nutrient

1.

Protein

140 g

51,100 g

2.

Fats

90 g

32,850 g

3.

Carbohydrates

285 g

104,025 g

4.

Essential Minerals

4.1.

Calcium

1000 mg

365 g

4.2.

Magnesium

400 mg

146 g

4.3.

Potassium

4.7 g

1,716 g

4.4.

Sodium

1500 mg

548 g

4.5.

Phosphorous

700 mg

256 g

4.6.

Iron

19 mg

5g

4.7.

Zinc

11 mg

4g

5.

Vitamins

5.1.

Vitamin A

900 g

329 mg

5.2.

Vitamin B1 B12

600 mg

219 g

5.3.

Vitamin C

90 mg

33 g

5.4.

Vitamin D

15 g

5.5 mg

5.5.

Vitamin E

20 mg

7g

5.6.

Vitamin K

120 g

44 g

18.2
Food Production
Perfect nutritional requirements will be assured to each and every TMD resident. 6
months worth of food will be grown and ready on the settlement before the first
group of people arrives. The following crop and animal growing plans will take into
account the increase in population over time and will prepare for the target
population of 30,000 inhabitants.

Though supplementary pills are the most convenient to produce, we will strive
supply of the most earth-like food elements which will be a result of the Robotic
Food Production Sector (RFPS).

153

To begin discussing food produced we will first discuss the agricultural part of the
RFPS and then the livestock farming part.

18.2.1
Agriculture159

160

In the agricultural sector, we can produce any crop and plant that grows on Earth
and production can be maintained with the advance technology161 of the Seasonal
Condition Change System (SCCS) the working of which is covered in the
Computer Lab.

An outline of all the crops that will been grown and their methods of farming is
given below:

18.2.1.1
Rice Oryza sativa162

Rice will be one of the primary sources of carbohydrates on TMD. We will serve
brown rice, as there are no situations where excess supply could arise and milling
rice would not be necessary.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

111

Protein

3g

Carbohydrates

23 g

Fat

1g

Rice will be cultivated in the Summer Block of the agricultural disk. Temperatures
will lie between 23-26C. The aeroponic system here163, known as the Rice
Waterfence System, will ensure that the crops receive enough water during

154

harvest time and cultivation. The Harvest System will engage this sector every
160 days.
18.2.1.2
Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa164

Quinoa will serve as another source of carbohydrates on TMD.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

120

Protein

4g

Carbohydrates

21 g

Fat

2g

Quinoa requires lower temperatures than rice, and will be placed in the
Intermediate Block of the agricultural disk, where temperatures range from 1624C. The aeroponic system here will be more general as flooding does not have
to be simulated. The Harvest system will engage every 145 days.
18.2.1.3
Chickpeas Cicer arietinum165 166

Chickpeas will serve as a source for carbohydrates and second-class proteins.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

164

Protein

9g

Carbohydrates

27 g

Fat

3g

The chickpeas will be cultivated167 in the Intermediate Block and will receive the
general aeroponic treatment. The harvest system will engage every 85 days.

155

18.2.1.4
Lentils - Lens culinaris

Lentils will serve as a source of carbohydrates and second-class proteins. They


are high in Iron and contain good amounts of other minerals.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

164

Protein

9g

Carbohydrates

27 g

Fat

3g

They will be grown in the Intermediate Block along with the chickpeas. Lentils and
chickpeas will share a common harvest system.
18.2.1.5
Peanuts Arachis hypogaea168

Peanuts can be eaten as a snack and are high in necessary monounsaturated


fats.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

600

Protein

28 g

Carbohydrates

15 g

Fat

53 g

Peanuts will be present169 in the Stationary Section of the Intermediate Block. The
harvest system will engage every 130 days.
18.2.1.6
Avocado Persae americana170

156

Avocados will serve as a strong source for essential minerals as well as good fats.
The trees are low maintenance and can be grown on disinfected alluvium.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

160

Protein

2g

Carbohydrates

9g

Fat

15 g

Avocados will be grown171 in the Intermediate Block, as they need to be exposed


to both summer and winter climates. They will be harvested seasonally and the
initial set of trees will be grown in the first set-up mission of the Agricultural Block.
The trees can be stably grown on the tree holding structures.

18.2.1.7
Dried Fruit Raisins

Raisins are potentially incredible sources of important vitamins and can be eaten
as a snack but would involve growing grapes172 . This could lead to production of
alcohol, which is preferably something to be avoided.

18.2.1.8
Bananas Musa acuminata173

Bananas are of course the best fruit that could be grown on TMD. With a high
mineral content, bananas are one of the best sources of carbohydrates on TMD.
The leaves can be utilized for their industrial value.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

90

Protein

1g
157

Carbohydrates

23 g

Fat

0g

Banana trees will grow in the Outer Summer Block and will be harvested every 9
months. To ensure yearlong supply, 6 sets of trees will be planted at 2-month
intervals.

18.2.1.9
Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas174

Sweet potatoes are great sources for carbohydrates and are considerably
healthier175 than potatoes.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)

Amount

Calories

90

Protein

2g

Carbohydrates

21 g

Fat

0g

These will be planted in the Intermediate Block, as low temperatures must be


sustained. Harvest systems will engage 120 days.

18.2.1.10
Pineapples - Ananas comosus176

Pineapples are easily maintained fruits, which contain a sufficient number of the
essential minerals required177. One cup of the fruit contains the dailyrecommended amount of vitamin C.

Nutrient (per 100 grams)


158

Amount

Calories

50

Protein

1g

Carbohydrates

13 g

Fat

0g

Pineapples will be planted in the Outer Summer Block along with the bananas.
Harvest systems will engage alternatively every 18 months to ensure yearlong
supply of the fruit.

18.2.1.11
Olive Oil

All cooking oil on TMD will be extracted Olive Oil. The olive oil industry will be set
up on the Moon and the extracted oil will be sent to TMD on a weekly basis.

During the Exoplanet Movement Stage Olives will be grown in the intermediate
block along with broccoli in bulk to ensure enough oil is produced.

18.2.1.12
Broccoli and Spinach
Broccoli178 and Spinach179 will be grown and supplied to houses in the same
quantities. They will be the green vegetables essential to the diet. 180

Nutrient (per 100 grams each)

Amount

Calories

20-30

Protein

3g

Carbohydrates

4-7 g

Fat

0g

159

Both will be grown in the Intermediate Block and will be harvested at 40-day
periods.

18.2.2
Livestock
To provide residents with optimum nutrition and to reduce the need for
supplementary protein and amino replacement products meat is a necessity.
An outline of all the animals that will been farmed is given below:
18.2.2.1
Cows

Beef is a strong source of creatine and other proteins. It has high levels of Vitamin
E and B-12, which keep the immune system in check.

Nutrient (per 100 grams each)

Amount

Calories

250

Protein

26 g

Carbohydrates

0g

Fat

15 g

18.2.2.2
Chicken

Chicken is the best white meat and source of protein of available. It will be the
primary meat that will be produced on TMD.

Nutrient (per 100 grams each)

Amount

Calories

240

Protein

27 g
160

Carbohydrates

0g

Fat

14 g

18.2.2.3
Fish

The two fishes that will be found on TMD are salmon and tuna. Both are brilliant
sources of protein and are universally celebrated for their taste.

Nutrient (per 100 grams each)

Amount

Calories

208

Protein

25-30 g

Carbohydrates

0g

Fat

6-13 g

18.2.2.4
Eggs
Naturally the chickens will produce eggs, which are again a great source of
nutrition.

Nutrient (per 100 grams each)

Amount

Calories

155

Protein

13 g

Carbohydrates

1.1 g

Fat

11 g

18.3
Growing

161

Crops will be allocated blocks based on their climate requirements and will be
grown throughout the year. To ensure yearlong supply of all crops the blocks will
be further divided into sub-blocks, which will alternate between planation and
cultivation periods.
The agricultural section of TMD has a floor space of around 6000 m2 at a ceiling,
which is 500 m high.

Blocks will not be divided equally as most plants require moderate climatic
conditions.

18.3.1
Aeroponic Setup 181

182

All crops will be setup in a pyramidal aeroponic system to ensure maximum


utilization of space and minimize wastage. Single plant pyramids183 will be 2
meters wide and 3 meters high. These can hold between 40-50 plants each
(sloped planting space of 6.1 meters and upper space of 0.7 meters)
Plants will be fed by a nutrient substrate184, which contains all the essential
minerals185 required for optimal plant growth.

Nutrient

Seedling solution

Standard solution

concentration

concentration

Ca(NO3)24H2O

0.5 mm

2 mm

KNO3

0.5 mm

2 mm

KH2PO4

0.15 mm

0.6 mm

MgSO47H2O

0.13 mm

0.5 mm

K2SO4

0.13 mm

0.5 mm

FeNO39H2O

2.5 m

10 m

FeCl3+HEDTA

11.3 m

45 m

MnCl24H2O

0.75 m

3 m

162

ZnSO47H2O

0.75 m

3 m

CuSO45H2O

0.05 m

0.18 m

Na2Mo42H2O

0.02 m

0.09 m

H3BO3

0.5 m

2 m

Special UV lights spread along the ceiling of the agricultural sections will artificially
provide sunlight.
The Central Atmosphere Control (CAC) will maintain temperature186

187

and

humidity.

The single plant pyramids will be stacked in groups of 5 to form Group A


pyramids. These groups are supported by the waterlines, which reduces the need
for additional support structures. It may seem like a lot of space is going to waste
but with the size of the single plant pyramids this setup allows maximum
efficiency. The gaps between the single plants pyramids will hold the harvest and
processing robotics.

Group A pyramids will act as single plant pyramids when triple stacked to form the
final group based pyramidal structure. This final group structure will take up up to
300 m3. The number of final groups depends on the allotted volume for the crop.
Summer Block

3 crops

Intermediate Block

9 crops

163

164

roup A Pyramids

165

ingle Plant Pyramid

166

18.3.2
Rice Waterfence System
Rice crops, which need flooding, will be given an additional Waterfencing railing
on the sides of the crops, which will allow stagnation of water near the rice crops.
Excess water will be free to flow down to the lower levels of the crops. The only
way in which this set up is different is that the slopes of one pyramid lead into the
next.

18.3.3
Additional Growth
All crop beds will contain regions between crops where herbs and seasoning
spices such as basil, chillies, oregano, sage, etc.

18.3.4
Livestock Production
The pie chart below shows the division of area of the meat block:

Meat

Chicken
Beef
Salmon
Tuna

167

The animals will be fed with conventional animal feed which will be produced
through the crop and processing units.

Structurally the chickens and cows will be set in layered barn structures.

168

Chicken barns will have special mechanisms to retrieve eggs. All eggs will be
retrieved using conventional methods and the transferred to the harvest center by
means of tubes. Cows will be placed in very similar structures with greater ceiling
height and milk retrieval machinery.

The fishes will be kept in a specially designed grid of tanks to allow eas y harvest.
The central space will contain machinery capable of sucking in specific fish to
harvest as well as feeding the animals.

Fish will be fed by food releasing structures, split between two structures. The fish

food will be synthesized in the food industry.

Motors present in the central space will run a suction pump which will suck out
fish by means of a grate drainage system which only pulls out the larger fish while
retaining fish eggs or other waste which will be drained out twice a day by filters
which line the tanks.

169

Total Production
Produce

Volume

Per

Year-end

allotted

Group

Produce

Yield
Quinoa

0.09166645661

2,000

215,990,463
crops

Rice

0.09166645661

2,000

215,990,463
crops

Pineapples

0.04166633969

1,500

161,992,848
crops

Bananas

0.04166633969

750

48,597,854
crops

Avocados

0.08333267938

500

32,398,570
crops

Broccoli and

0.09166645661

1,750

Spinach
Lentils and

188,991,655
crops

0.09999980943

2,000

Chickpeas
Sweet

crops
0.05555526106

1,500

Potato
Meat + Milk

215,990,463

161,992,848
crops

0.3

+ Eggs

18.4
Robotics
Robot systems present perpendicular to the single plant pyramids will harvest
plants according to the ideal harvet time. These robot systems will then transfer
crops to processing units towards the outer side of the settlement the industrial
170

sector. Here, the food will be proccessed till when it can be safely consumed by
residents.

The livestock will be treated in a similar way where, but in addition to the meat, we
can extract eggs from chickens and milk from cows. Robots will be responsible for
milking the cows, which only lactate around their calves (which are now
hologaphic). While this may seem like animal cruelty, it isnt because the calves
are being taken better care of in the young animal development zone.

TLDR;
TMD will grow food ranging from bananas on trees to rice and quinoa cultivation
fields. The food will be grown in a complex aeroponics system which maximizes
produce while ensure that the plants receive necessary nutrition. Meanwhile, the
livestock grown, although limited to 4 species of animals, will ensure that the
protein needs of all residents are met. Robots will perform harvesting and sowing
actions to ensure efficient supply of food.

171

Section 19: Environmental Biomimetics188


This section aims to discuss the closeness of the environment on the settlement
to the environment back on Earth.

According to the Oxford dictionary, biomimetic means Relating to or


denoting synthetic methods which mimic biochemical processes.189 We want to
provide the residents an environment as close to earth such that there is no
problem in adapting for the residents190. Since seasons do not affect the systems
of our bodies simulating them is unnecessary. But it is important that we simulate
a day and night cycle as our circadian system is dependent of it.

19.1
Biological effect of Day and Night on Humans
The day and night also known as the circadian rhythm majorly affect the
secreation of melatonin from the pineal gland, core temperature of our body and
plasma levels in our cortisoid. The circadian rhythm also has an large effect on
our consciousness which can easily be measure by logic test and vision test.
We conducted experiments with subjects working from a period of 12am to 5 am
to see the effect and have illustrated it in Experiment 1.191

To change the day and night we just need to change the lighting and temperature
of the system.

19.2
Lighting

172

We have two mechanisms for this first we will have mirrors which will reflect sun
light or the light from the star near the exoplanet into the settlement. These will be
attached on the circular face and will rotate with an angular velocity of 24 hours
such that it recreates the feeling of dawn and dusk.

The pair of these mirrors will provide enough light for the entire station.
But this method will not be viable during the 200,000-year journey to the exoplanet
thus we have to use internal lighting to achieve the transition of day and night.
Thus we will have to use lighting, which will recreate sunlight.
The intensity of sunlight is 6.33107 W/m2.192 And include the UV A, B, C and IR
spectrum. Thus by placing these artificial sunlight lamps around the settlement
symmetrically and having a computer fade them every 12 hours giving 12 hours of
day and night.

19.3
Temperature
Our temperature regulation module changing the amount of coolant will be able to
change the temperature diurnally.

TLDR;
Conditions appropriate for humans will be provided by an the atmosphere
regulation, temperature modulation and lighting systems. This includes an Earthlike atmosphere and day and night simulations.

173

Section 20: Temperature Modulation


This section aims on discussing how the temperature in the settlement will be
maintained and altered as needed.

TMD will be divided into 3 primary residential, agricultural and industrial regions,
which will all function at different temperatures. For this reason a strong
temperature modulation system is imperative to the proper functioning of TMD.

TMD will be exposed to a vast range of temperatures with a maximum


temperature of 150C (300F) on the sun-facing sides, and a minimum
temperature of approximately -150C (-250F) on the dark side.

The materials chosen for the middle layers of TMDs structure have been selected
with strong insulation in mind. The layers sealant gel, silicone rubber and other
insulators193 will block transfer of heat through conduction. Conveniently, there is
no air in space so convection is not a problem we need to worry about. Space is a
predominantly radiation-based heat transfer environment. The sunlight, which
manages to pass the MCC-1 paint layer, will be absorbed by the 6AL-4V Titanium
structural layer, which will cool off by emitting infrared energy. This extra radiation
wont be an issue, as the 1.2-meter thick silicon rubber layers will prevent any
potentially threatening effect of the heat. So we can safely say that the problem of
excess heat entering TMD because of the sun is not a problem.

The same way, the heat from inside TMD cannot leave the settlement. High
amounts of excessive heat are produced inside TMD, mainly because of electrical
equipment and the backup nuclear generator located in the central region. A
rather simple heat rejection system will be set up in order to get rid of this excess
heat and maintain target temperatures.

174

20.1
Target Temperatures
Section

Residential

Min Temp

Max Temp

(C)

(C)

25

30

Optimal living temperature

30

Simulates the optimal

Temperate Agricultural 5

Reason

temperatures for cold crops


Tropical Agricultural

22

35

Simulates the optimal


temperatures for warm
crops

Electrical Backboard

25

50

Reasonable upper limit to


prevent overheating of
machinery

20.2
Mechanism
The excessive heat will be dealt with in two ways:

20.2.1
Thermal Control System (TCS)
The TCS will work in a fairly simple way. The individual sections temperatures will
be measured and accordingly heat will be removed by means of a transfer
system, taken to the external radiators and rejected into space. The remaining
heat energy will be converted into electricity, which will be stored or be left
unaffected in order to maintain target temperatures.

175

20.2.2
Temperature measure
Temperature of sections will be measured electronically and pass through the
temperature control software which is shown in Appendix G.

Thermal Transfer System (TTS)


Initially, the heat transfer system will be regulated through an ammonia based
coolant194 loop system. Hot plates and circulating loop pipes will be present
throughout the settlement with groups of internal and external pumps. The hot
plates will be heat shielded by plastic resin coverings when temperatures begin to
fall too low.

This system will also be regulated by the temperature control software.


Ammonia195, which has a freezing point of -77C (-107F) and a higher specific
heat capacity (4.45 kJ kg-1 K-1) than water is the best substance to use for the
cooling loop. The absorbed heat will move out of TMD to the closest radiator
group sections. The ammonia pipelines will split up into smaller subgroups at
multiple instances to increase surface area of heat absorption. Tanks of ammonia
with inbuilt pumps will be located at every Separation Junction in the middle
section.
Once capable, the earth sent boron arsenide196 stock will provide enough boron
arsenide to replace parts of the electrical cooling system, which will require the
densest TTS. The arsenide has higher thermal conductivity 197 (more than 2000 W
m-1 K-1) than diamond. The absorbed heat is carried along the substance 198by
means of vibrational waves called phonons instead of electron transfer. The
former experiences a natural resistance due to boron arsenides structure and can
naturally be used as a coolant.

176

The ammonia coolant loop will be setup as follows:

20.2.4
Radiators199
The TTS splits out into airlocks built to allow the transfer of heat from the
ammonia coolant loops to the radiators.
The radiators are the most crucial part of the TCS as they ensure that the
excessive heat is radiated off of the settlement. Therefore material chosen to be
used must have the following properties:
1) Low areal density to minimize total mass
2) High emissivity to attain maximum heat output
3) Minimum absorbance to reflect environmental heat (primarily IR)
4) High temperature tolerance when exposed to the sun-facing side
5) High thermal conductivity for quick absorbance from the TTS

177

With these constraints in mind two options must be considered

20.2.4.1
Carbon based radiators

Material

Density

Conductivity

Temperature
Tolerance

Carbon

LOW

LOW

HIGH

LOW

LOW

LOW

LOW

HIGH

HIGH

Carbon
Composite
Carbon Polymer
Composite
Carbon Fiber

Clearly, carbon fibers are the most suitable here. Bare carbon fiber also has 11
times the thermal conductivity of graphite.
20.2.4.2
Titanium-Vanadium alloys

Again, a titanium-vanadium alloy can be used as a very effective radiator because


of its low density and high thermal conductivity and melting temperature. The alloy
of vanadium we consider here is 6Ti-4AL Vanadium.
Emissivity of close to 1 (perfect emissivity) could be achieved by using surface
texturing techniques. The alloy will undergo the process of acid etching, followed
by heat treating and finally ashed. This will increase the emissivity by one and half
times.

Fortunately, we can use both these options very strategically where not only do
they complement each other, but also minimize the extra mass that would have to
be transported during construction.
178

The radiator system will be split into two unequal halves: the larger carbon
radiator groups and the joint titanium based groups.

20.2.5
Carbon Radiator Group (CRG)
The carbon fiber radiators 200 will be the main radiators used in the TCS heat
rejection system. Coolants loops will transfer heat the Outer Belt Radiator groups,
which contain 100 CDG radiators each. A special airlock will be made to ensure
safe transfer of heat.

The material used as the outer cover of the pipe will be attached to the outer
structural layer by a hinge.
The radiator design201 used is highly optimized and is easily stowed for
maintenance and during the build stage

179

(Inspired by WO Millers Paper on C-C-Radiators202 )

As it can be seen above, the CRG easily folds into a small fit when necessary.
The maintenance lock shown at the upper end is used during repairs and initial
set-up.

The VASIMR repair devices can lock on to the magnetic lock during open radiator
repairs, or can use the locks as a handle to unfold a CRG radiator.

180

The coolant pipe present on the CRG radiators splits out from the thick External
Pipeline System to enter the Coolant Pipe Fit in the Assembly Hold.

The hinges will be pre-fit and maintained daily.

The Supporting Dock will be part of TMD structure and fit in with the Outer
Structural Layer and the Docking Port will act as an inlet for the Coolant Pipe.

20.2.6
Joint Titanium Group
While the 6Ti-4AL Vanadium alloy is a superb choice for radiator material it may
be hard to produce on the moon due to the scarcity of vanadium ore. However,
the 6AL-4V Titanium alloy, previously used for the outer structural layer of TMD is
also just as good an alternative.

The coolant loops will travel though pipes under the MCC-1 outer paint layer and
will enter the paint layer through Entrance Grooves, created at build time.

With this setup of radiators we can ensure that all the heat absorbed by the
ammonia will be radiated into space. The computerized system will cover the
181

pump mechanism which will allow the flow of the coolant when temperatures
begin rising.

20.3
Heat Energy Converter
The excess heat around TMD will primarily removed by the TCS, but to maximize
the amount of energy produced and stored in the settlement, a system of
thermoelectric coolers (TECS) will always be active.

The TECS will be made of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te4) and the specific functioning
will be as follows:

The human body gives of between 2500 to 3000 Calories of heat every day. That
is approximately 10,000 to 12,000 kJ of heat energy per human per day. This
provides a total of more than 1.5 x 108 kJ of heat energy in the settlement, not
including heat released by any machinery. A good amount of this heat energy can
be converted into electrical energy, which will be stored in the central power unit.

182

20.4
Water Heating Core

Pipes containing water used as hot water pipelines by the residents in will run
parallel to the coolant pipelines in certain regions where the coolant pipes are
copper covered to allow easy transfer of heat. This heated water will allow the
coolant pipes to give off some heat, while reducing energy (which would be used
to heat water) use as much as possible.

TLDR;

The temperature of the settlement will be regulated by means of coolant pipelines


and Peltier plates located throughout the settlement. The pressure in these pipes
is variable and external carbon group radiators give out heat. Temperatures are
held constant based on certain temperature ranges that are specific to certain
regions.

183

Section 21: Waste Management


TMD shall spend the initial phase of its existence at L4, near Earth. At this point, it
can keep importing more resources to maintain its systems. It will be fully
constructed, utilizing lunar resources in addition to Earth imports. Here, waste
management will include the compression and ejection into Earth re-entry
trajectory faecal matter, general trash, chemical waste, and so on.

However, during the stage of transport to the exoplanet Gliese 667 Cc, TMD will
spend 200,000 years without supply from a planet. Thus, it must remain a fully
closed system. All waste shall be reprocessed in some way.

Note: All waste exiting VM shall be fully sterilized, to ensure there is no


contamination of Earth or other bodies with life.

21.1
Food and Water Waste
Human and animal food waste will be perhaps the most important type of waste
management, as even if some functions of TMD fail on the way to Gliese 667 Cc,
food must remain.

Humans produce an average of 128 g of stool each day, of which roughly 96 g is


water.203 The stool shall be collected from every home into a Fecal Processing
Plant, where it shall be heated strongly to extract the water, which shall be taken
up and used by the TMD Humidity Regulator (Section 16.3).The remaining 32 g
of feces is mainly organic matter.

Urine shall be similarly treated it shall be boiled to extract water, and the
remaining ammonia shall be used where needed on TMD. All other waste in urine
184

shall be treated as organic waste.

This organic matter should now be dead, from the intense heating. It shall now be
incinerated using plasma gasification, where a plasma torch shall decompose the
waste into constituent molecules at high temperature without oxygen. This
process is clean, and the gases given off like CO and H2 will be dealt with by the
TMD ARS.204

21.2
Industrial Waste / e-Waste
Industrial waste shall not truly exist on VM, as there are no large scale industries.
However, the small industries such as maintenance and 3D printing will generate
some waste.

This waste shall be dealt with individually, but the general procedure shall be to
strip it down into its constituent components, and re-use it as a raw material.

21.3
Radioactive Waste
TMD contains a nuclear reactor, which shall produce some radioactive waste. The
waste shall be reprocessed as much as possible, until there is no remaining
power generating capacity. This waste shall be launched into deep space in a
direction perpendicular to the line between Earth and Gliese 667 Cc.

21.4
Medical Waste
This waste shall be treated as on Earth, and re-used.
185

186

Chapter VI - Social Setup

187

188

Section 22: Legal Status of TMD


This section aims to select the treaties (which were signed on Earth) that TMD will
follow and comply with.

22.1
Treaty Compliance

22.1.1
The 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States
in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies205
a. Article II

Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject
to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or
occupation, or by any other means.

TMD will not be under the national sovereignty of any nation.

b. Article IV

States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the
Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons
of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station
such weapons in outer space in any other manner.

189

The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to
the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military
bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons
and the conduct of military manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be
forbidden. The use of military personnel for scientific research or for any
other peaceful purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment
or facility necessary for peaceful exploration of the Moon and other
celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.

TMD will not be used for weapons testing, military maneuvers, or


installation of military structures. The only weapon present on the craft will
be in case of complete emergency as specified in PMDS High.

c. Article VI

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for


national activities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial
bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies
or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities
are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present
Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space,
including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization
and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty.
When activities are carried on in outer space, including the Moon and
other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for
compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international
organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such
organization.

As TMD is not launched by a single state, no State will be held liable for
damages caused by TMD. There is no appropriate State to supervise

190

TMD, as it is an international space station, so Article VI does not apply.

d. Article IX

States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including
the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so
as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the
environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial
matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this
purpose.

All waste material ejected from TMD will be completely sterilized, to


prevent any contamination of space or celestial bodies. This procedure is
mentioned in Section 21 Waste Management.

22.1.2
The 1974 Convention on Registration of Launched Objects into
Outer Space206
TMD will be registered with the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs
(UNOOSA), with the following registry information:

Name of launching state: N/A


Designator: TMD
Launch information: Launched from Eastern Pacific Ocean
Orbital parameters: temporary orbit of Earth-Moon Lagrangian Point 4
General function: permanent space settlement for residence and scientific
research

191

22.1.3
The 1968 Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of
Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space
If TMD receives any kind of communication from a space-faring vehicle in
distress, the Secretary General of the United Nations will be immediately notified
via Communications Hotline Alpha (Section 13 Communications). Additionally,
using the relevant Communication Hotline, the State in which the vehicle is
registered will be notified.

If possible, using the docking systems, the vehicle will be directed or remotely
controlled to dock into TMD. Repairs on the vehicle will be attempted if possible
and necessary. The vehicle personnel may be given refuge on TMD, or
alternatively be given safe passage to the State of their vehicles registry.

Any vehicle in distress will be given any other assistance as required.

22.2
Applicability of Laws
No State owns outer space, and as per Article II of the 1967 Treaty on Principles
Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space,
including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty,


by means of use or occupation, or by any other means

Thus, the location of TMD in space is not and cannot ever be the territory of any
state. TMD is technically terra nullius. The laws applicable on TMD will have to
thus draw their authority from the people of TMD directly.

192

TLDR;

TMD will not be under the national sovereignty of any nation and will not be used
for any sort of military purpose.

193

Section 23: Population Model


This section aims to discuss the population plan for the station, keeping in mind
the initial population and the final population limit.

23.1
Growth Model
We plan on to create a population growth plan which will maintain the growth of
the population and also create a gender balance in the settlement. Thus the
model we chose was,

Every woman will be allowed to have as many more daughters until a son is
born

This means that if a mother gives birth to a daughter she will be allowed to have
another child if the second child is a boy she will not be allowed to have another
child, if it is a girl she can have another child.

This model though may seem to incline towards a gender imbalance but the fact
is quite the opposite. If we call d (1), d (2) d(n) be the probabilities for mothers
to have 1, 2 n daughters and mi the probability for the mother of i daughters
going on to have another child, then (1-mi) is the probability of mother stopping to
have more children.
! 1 = ! !"#$!!"#!!!"!!"#$ !"# + ! !"#$!!"#!!!"!!"#$%!!!!"#
1
1
1
1 !! + !!
2
2
2
1
1
! 1 = 1 !! + !!
2
4

! 1 =

Similarly for having two daughters,


194

! 2 = ! !"#$!!"#!!"#$%#&%#'!!"!!"#!!!!"#$!!"#!!!"!!"#$$%&'
+ ! !"#$!!"#!!!"!!!!"#$!!"#!!!"!!"#$%!!!!"#
! 2 =

1
1
1
1
1
!! 1 !! + !! !!
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
! 2 = !! 1 !! + !! !!
4
8

Similarly,
! ! =

1
1
!! !! !! !!!! (1 !! ) + !!! !! !! !! !!
!
2
2

If we do a similar thing for ways to get boys such that b(n) is the probability of
mother having n boys,
! ! =

1
! ! ! !!!!
2! ! ! !

Now, the average number of sons per woman will be,


! = 1 ! 1 + 2 ! 2 . ! !(!)
Now, the average number of daughter per woman will be,
! = 1 ! 1 + 2 ! 2 . ! !(!)
We can see that both of them simplify to give,
!=!=

1 1
1
1
+ !! + !! !! + !! !! !!
2 4
8
16

Assuming that each woman wants to have more children, that is mi = 1, this is not
true in the practical world and mi<1, but if we assume that,
! =! =1

1
2!

Thus the average number of children per woman will be,


! =!+! =2

1
2!!!

Assuming n>1, thus every woman will have less than 2 children per average.
Thus we will be able to maintain the growth of the population and also have
gender equality.207

This model is largely based on the Chinese policy before its adoption of the two
child policy which requires more law enforcing and is just a bigger restriction than
the one in this population.208
195

23.2
Population Growth
If we accept 25 years as 1 generation, then we can say that the average lifespan
of a human being will be 3-4 generation. Thus the starting 5,000 residents of
settlement will grow till a maximum of 15,000-20,000 people after the first few
generation and due to death of the older residents this number will stabilize.
This can be shown using the logistic growth function. In the start the birth rate is
close to the death rate thus the population growth is less, slowly the birth rate
becomes greater than the death rate therefore the population increases but then
again after years the death rate becomes equal to the birth rate and thus the
population stabilizes.

!"#$%&'(") =

20000
20000
1+
1 ! !!.!"!
5000

Growth of population with time in years, graph shows that the population will
stabilize by about
196

3-4 generations with an average of 2 children per women

TLDR;

The settlement will allow couples to have between two to three children,
depending on the number of girl children born. By adopting this somewhat counter
intuitive model, we ensure that

197

Section 24: Demographics


This sections aims to show the method of selecting passengers for TMD.

24.1
Selection Procedure
Each country will send a certain calculated number of people to TMD, as per
Section 24.2 -International Representation. However, to ensure safety and
sustainability of TMD, all people sent should fit certain criteria.

24.1.1
Individual Criteria
Individuals must meet the Basic Heath Criterion (BHC), and also must fulfill the
Additional Psychological Criterion (APC). Countries should use the Guiding
Supplementary Criterion to aid in the decision making for selection from
candidates who meet the BHC and the APC.

24.1.1.1
Basic Health Criterion

1. Currently healthy, with no long-term or chronic diseases


2. No family history of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, mental illness, or any
other major disease
3. No chemical dependencies, such as marijuana, cocaine, or alcohol
4. Vision correctable to 20/20
5. No implants or amputations
198

6. Fully functioning hearing and smell


7. Body Mass Index between 20 and 23

The above 7 criteria ensure that the population aboard TMD will be initially
healthy as well as sustainable in the long term. This prevents high medical
costs, as well as hereditary disease epidemics.

8. Score a 52 or above on the Berg Balance Scale

The Berg Balance Scale is a reputed measure of a persons static and


dynamic balancing abilities. Candidates must be independent walkers, and
must have near-perfect balancing abilities to remain fully functional through
transport to TMD and on life aboard TMD.

24.1.1.2
Additional Psychological Criterion

1. No criminal history

This criterion shall reduce crime on TMD, as no or few people with criminal
tendencies shall be in the first batch of TMD. Due to the egalitarian economic
setup in Economy, class based conflict and crime will be very low. Due to
interbreeding and equality of people from different countries and regions,
ethnic, racist, and caste-based violence will also be low.

According to the Broken Windows Theory, due to low initial crime on TMD,
crime shall remain low throughout its existence. Low initial crime and low
urban disorder, low vandalism, etc. shall deter future criminals.

2. Must test to a score between 0 and 19 on the Beck Depression Inventory II

The Beck Depression Inventory II is a test to measure depression in


199

individuals. The scoring is as follows:

013: minimal depression


1419: mild depression
2028: moderate depression
2963: severe depression

This test is included to prevent the inclusion of clinically depressed


individuals on TMD. Such individuals may be more likely to commit suicide,
or engage in antisocial behavior against the best interest of TMD.

24.1.1.3
Guiding Supplementary Criterion (sort in descending order of)

1. Literacy
2. Education level
3. Athletic ability

24.1.2
Group Criteria

The group of people sent by any country must together meet the following
statistical criteria:

24.1.2.1
Sex Ratio

A sex ratio of 50% 2%. That is, the maximum that the sex ratio can be skewed
is 52% male : 48% female, or vice versa.

24.1.2.2
200

Age Distribution

A maximum of 15% of the population may be above 55 years of age


A minimum of 15% of the population must be below 25 years of age

24.1.3
Genetic Engineering Concerns
During the selection procedure of the habitants for TMD, we considered having an
initial generation of genetically modified humans to allow for the generation long
breeding of genetically perfect human beings.

This idea however was rejected for two reasons:

Firstly, we have absolutely no idea on how to carry out any form of genetic
recoding without observing any major side effects in a human.

And secondly because this would not benefit us in any major way as medical
research would have to be restart from scratch for this new species of humans
who will, over a span of 200,000 years, develop their own forms of disease
some of which could be completely new.

24.2
International Representation
In the interest of fairness and neutrality, to promote international cooperation while
building TMD as well as harmony during life on
TMD, countries will be proportionately represented by population.

As per Article I of 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in


the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial
201

Bodies, The exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other
celestial bodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all
countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and
shall be the province of all mankind.209

The method used to calculate the number of people from a country is as follows:

1. A countrys population is taken, and its fraction of the world population is


considered (% world pop.)
2. That countrys GDP is taken, and its fraction of the world GDP is
considered (% world GDP.)
3. These two fractions are averaged (Avg.)
4. The average considered is multiplied with the ideal population of TMD
(15,000 people) to give a raw value for that countrys representation
5. The raw value is divided by 4, as TMD will support a maximum of 4
generations per family simultaneously
6. If the number of people represented is below 2, this number is rounded up
to 2.

Thus, wealth and size are considered equally when allocating place on TMD.
Even the smallest of countries are represented by a minimum of 2 people, so that
TMD is inclusive and progressive in every way.

In addition to promoting genetic diversity by building a population with a very large


variety of genetic material, this policy will develop a permanent peace through a
universal feeling of brotherhood. The concept of separate nationalities and
ethnicities will blur as interbreeding between people of different countries occurs.

The summarized formula for this is given below:

202

!"#$%&'(")!!"!!"
!"#$%&'!!"#$%&'(") !"#$%&'!!"#
+
!"#$%!!"#$%&'(")
!"#$%!!"#
2
= !"#$%

203

15,000

Countries, sorted by fraction of World Population


Table 1.1210
% World
Country Name

Population (2014)

Population

China

1,36,42,70,000

18.75521694

India

1,29,52,91,543

17.80693989

United States

31,88,57,056

4.38346754

Indonesia

25,44,54,778

3.49810123

Brazil

20,60,77,898

2.83304308

Pakistan

18,50,44,286

2.54388481

Nigeria

17,74,75,986

2.43984007

Bangladesh

15,90,77,513

2.18690821

Russian Federation

14,38,19,569

1.97715058

Japan

12,71,31,800

1.74773651

Mexico

12,53,85,833

1.72373394

Philippines

9,91,38,690

1.36290297

Ethiopia

9,69,58,732

1.33293414

Vietnam

9,07,30,000

1.24730503

Egypt, Arab Rep.

8,95,79,670

1.23149094

Germany

8,08,89,505

1.11202344

Iran, Islamic Rep.

7,81,43,644

1.07427488

Turkey

7,59,32,348

1.04387523

Congo, Dem. Rep.

7,48,77,030

1.02936731

Thailand

6,77,25,979

0.93105868

France

6,62,06,930

0.91017565

United Kingdom

6,45,10,376

0.88685238

Italy

6,13,36,387

0.84321816

South Africa

5,40,01,953

0.74238849

Myanmar

5,34,37,159

0.73462402

Tanzania

5,18,22,621

0.71242826

204

Korea, Rep.

5,04,23,955

0.69320018

Colombia

4,77,91,393

0.65700920

Spain

4,64,04,602

0.63794438

Ukraine

4,53,62,900

0.62362365

Kenya

4,48,63,583

0.61675932

Argentina

4,29,80,026

0.59086523

Sudan

3,93,50,274

0.54096544

Algeria

3,89,34,334

0.53524733

Poland

3,79,95,529

0.52234117

Uganda

3,77,82,971

0.51941904

Canada

3,55,40,419

0.48858970

Iraq

3,48,12,326

0.47858029

Morocco

3,39,21,203

0.46632963

Afghanistan

3,16,27,506

0.43479717

Peru

3,09,73,148

0.42580142

Saudi Arabia

3,08,86,545

0.42461086

Uzbekistan

3,07,42,500

0.42263061

Venezuela, RB

3,06,93,827

0.42196148

Malaysia

2,99,01,997

0.41107584

Nepal

2,81,74,724

0.38733027

Mozambique

2,72,16,276

0.37415406

Ghana

2,67,86,598

0.36824709

Yemen, Rep.

2,61,83,676

0.35995846

Korea, Dem. Rep.

2,50,26,772

0.34405399

Angola

2,42,27,524

0.33306638

Madagascar

2,35,71,713

0.32405066

Australia

2,34,90,736

0.32293743

Cameroon

2,27,73,014

0.31307059

Syrian Arab Republic

2,21,57,800

0.30461298

Cote d'Ivoire

2,21,57,107

0.30460345

Sri Lanka

2,06,39,000

0.28373337

205

Romania

1,99,10,995

0.27372516

Niger

1,91,13,728

0.26276479

Chile

1,77,62,647

0.24419088

Burkina Faso

1,75,89,198

0.24180641

Kazakhstan

1,72,89,111

0.23768098

Mali

1,70,86,022

0.23488902

Netherlands

1,68,54,183

0.23170183

Malawi

1,66,95,253

0.22951695

Guatemala

1,60,15,494

0.22017201

Ecuador

1,59,02,916

0.21862435

Zambia

1,57,21,343

0.21612818

Cambodia

1,53,28,136

0.21072260

Zimbabwe

1,52,45,855

0.20959144

Senegal

1,46,72,557

0.20171006

Chad

1,35,87,053

0.18678717

Guinea

1,22,75,527

0.16875704

South Sudan

1,19,11,184

0.16374826

Cuba

1,13,79,111

0.15643362

Rwanda

1,13,41,544

0.15591717

Belgium

1,12,25,207

0.15431783

Tunisia

1,09,96,600

0.15117507

Greece

1,09,57,740

0.15064085

Burundi

1,08,16,860

0.14870411

Benin

1,05,98,482

0.14570197

Haiti

1,05,72,029

0.14533831

Bolivia

1,05,61,887

0.14519888

Somalia

1,05,17,569

0.14458963

Czech Republic

1,05,10,566

0.14449335

Dominican Republic

1,04,05,943

0.14305505

Portugal

1,03,97,393

0.14293751

Hungary

98,61,673

0.13557274

206

Sweden

96,89,555

0.13320655

Azerbaijan

95,37,823

0.13112063

Belarus

94,70,000

0.13018824

United Arab Emirates

90,86,139

0.12491113

Austria

85,34,492

0.11732740

Tajikistan

82,95,840

0.11404654

Israel

82,15,300

0.11293933

Switzerland

81,90,229

0.11259466

Honduras

79,61,680

0.10945270

Papua New Guinea

74,63,577

0.10260506

Hong Kong SAR, China

72,41,700

0.09955482

Bulgaria

72,26,291

0.09934299

Serbia

71,29,428

0.09801137

Togo

71,15,163

0.09781526

Lao PDR

66,89,300

0.09196074

Jordan

66,07,000

0.09082932

Paraguay

65,52,518

0.09008033

Sierra Leone

63,15,627

0.08682369

Libya

62,58,984

0.08604499

El Salvador

61,07,706

0.08396531

Nicaragua

60,13,913

0.08267589

Kyrgyz Republic

58,34,200

0.08020530

Denmark

56,39,565

0.07752957

Singapore

54,69,700

0.07519436

Finland

54,63,596

0.07511045

Slovak Republic

54,18,506

0.07449057

Turkmenistan

53,07,188

0.07296024

Norway

51,36,475

0.07061337

Eritrea

51,10,444

0.07025551

Central African Republic

48,04,316

0.06604704

Costa Rica

47,57,606

0.06540489

207

Ireland

46,12,719

0.06341307

Lebanon

45,46,774

0.06250649

New Zealand

45,09,700

0.06199682

Congo, Rep.

45,04,962

0.06193168

Georgia

45,04,100

0.06191983

Liberia

43,96,554

0.06044135

West Bank and Gaza

42,94,682

0.05904087

Croatia

42,36,400

0.05823965

Oman

42,36,057

0.05823493

Mauritania

39,69,625

0.05457217

Panama

38,67,535

0.05316870

Bosnia and Herzegovina

38,17,554

0.05248159

Kuwait

37,53,121

0.05159580

Moldova

35,56,400

0.04889139

Puerto Rico

35,48,397

0.04878137

Uruguay

34,19,516

0.04700958

Armenia

30,06,154

0.04132692

Lithuania

29,29,323

0.04027069

Mongolia

29,09,871

0.04000327

Albania

28,94,475

0.03979161

Jamaica

27,21,252

0.03741024

Namibia

24,02,858

0.03303314

Botswana

22,19,937

0.03051845

Qatar

21,72,065

0.02986033

Lesotho

21,09,197

0.02899605

Macedonia, FYR

20,75,625

0.02853453

Slovenia

20,62,218

0.02835021

Latvia

19,90,351

0.02736223

Gambia, The

19,28,201

0.02650782

Kosovo

18,23,149

0.02506363

Guinea-Bissau

18,00,513

0.02475244

208

Gabon

16,87,673

0.02320118

Bahrain

13,61,930

0.01872305

Trinidad and Tobago

13,54,483

0.01862067

Estonia

13,13,645

0.01805925

Swaziland

12,69,112

0.01744704

Mauritius

12,60,934

0.01733461

Timor-Leste

12,12,107

0.01666337

Cyprus

11,53,658

0.01585984

Fiji

8,86,450

0.01218642

Djibouti

8,76,174

0.01204515

Equatorial Guinea

8,20,885

0.01128507

Comoros

7,69,991

0.01058540

Bhutan

7,65,008

0.01051690

Guyana

7,63,893

0.01050157

Montenegro

6,21,800

0.00854816

Macao SAR, China

5,77,914

0.00794484

Solomon Islands

5,72,171

0.00786589

Luxembourg

5,56,074

0.00764459

Suriname

5,38,248

0.00739953

Cabo Verde

5,13,906

0.00706489

Malta

4,27,404

0.00587571

Brunei Darussalam

4,17,394

0.00573810

Bahamas, The

3,83,054

0.00526601

Maldives

3,57,415

0.00491354

Belize

3,51,706

0.00483506

Iceland

3,27,589

0.00450351

Barbados

2,83,380

0.00389575

French Polynesia

2,79,781

0.00384627

New Caledonia

2,66,000

0.00365682

Vanuatu

2,58,883

0.00355898

Samoa

1,91,845

0.00263738

209

Sao Tome and Principe

1,86,342

0.00256173

St. Lucia

1,83,645

0.00252465

Guam

1,67,543

0.00230329

Channel Islands

1,62,917

0.00223969

Curacao

1,55,872

0.00214284

Kiribati

1,10,470

0.00151868

Grenadines

1,09,360

0.00150342

Grenada

1,06,349

0.00146203

Tonga

1,05,586

0.00145154

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

1,04,170

0.00143207

Micronesia, Fed. Sts.

1,04,044

0.00143034

Aruba

1,03,441

0.00142205

Seychelles

91,526

0.00125825

Antigua and Barbuda

90,900

0.00124964

Isle of Man

87,127

0.00119777

Andorra

72,786

0.00100062

Dominica

72,341

0.00099450

Bermuda

65,181

0.00089607

Cayman Islands

59,172

0.00081346

Greenland

56,295

0.00077391

American Samoa

55,434

0.00076208

St. Kitts and Nevis

54,944

0.00075534

Northern Mariana Islands

54,541

0.00074980

Marshall Islands

52,898

0.00072721

Faeroe Islands

48,221

0.00066292

Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

37,664

0.00051778

Monaco

37,623

0.00051722

Liechtenstein

37,286

0.00051259

Turks and Caicos Islands

33,740

0.00046384

San Marino

31,595

0.00043435

St. Vincent and the

210

St. Martin (French part)

31,530

0.00043346

Palau

21,097

0.00029003

Tuvalu

9,893

0.00013600

211

Countries sorted by Fraction of World GDP


Table 1.1211
Country Name
United States

GDP 2013

% of World GDP

1,67,68,05,30,00,000.00

22.16327893

China

94,90,60,26,00,148.49

12.54426335

Japan

49,19,56,31,08,372.50

6.50246331

Germany

37,30,26,05,71,356.51

4.93049524

France

28,10,24,92,15,589.07

3.71446448

United Kingdom

26,78,17,34,87,557.30

3.53989256

Brazil

23,92,09,45,01,287.20

3.16176587

Italy

21,36,94,82,55,815.56

2.82452472

Russian Federation

20,79,02,47,82,973.32

2.74796401

India

18,61,80,16,15,477.90

2.46084793

Canada

18,38,96,41,75,409.41

2.43066240

Australia

15,60,37,24,73,125.21

2.06243208

Spain

13,93,04,01,77,013.68

1.84125957

Korea, Rep.

13,05,60,49,61,393.05

1.72569152

Mexico

12,62,24,88,25,555.90

1.66838528

Indonesia

9,10,47,87,29,099.04

1.20343095

Netherlands

8,53,53,93,51,964.46

1.12817098

Turkey

8,23,24,25,87,404.14

1.08812604

Saudi Arabia

7,44,33,57,33,333.33

0.98383041

Switzerland

6,85,43,42,08,916.93

0.90597695

Argentina

6,22,05,79,81,847.40

0.82220903

Sweden

5,79,52,60,08,582.07

0.76599213

Poland

5,26,06,40,38,473.71

0.69532843

Belgium

5,24,77,88,37,629.77

0.69362971

Norway

5,22,34,91,06,382.98

0.69041820

Nigeria

5,14,96,46,50,436.05

0.68065775

Iran, Islamic Rep.

4,93,79,83,98,466.37

0.65268112

212

Austria

4,28,32,19,37,480.43

0.56613720

United Arab Emirates

4,02,34,01,63,738.04

0.53179563

Thailand

3,87,25,25,84,362.71

0.51185353

Colombia

3,80,06,34,56,192.64

0.50235125

Venezuela, RB

3,71,33,66,34,589.95

0.49081652

South Africa

3,66,05,79,13,372.21

0.48383934

Denmark

3,35,87,75,48,363.83

0.44394825

Malaysia

3,13,15,82,47,642.57

0.41391887

Singapore

3,02,24,59,04,259.57

0.39949541

Israel

2,90,55,06,00,211.45

0.38403707

Chile

2,76,67,36,95,234.28

0.36569519

Hong Kong SAR, China

2,75,74,26,50,850.95

0.36446457

Philippines

2,72,06,66,52,120.83

0.35960580

Egypt, Arab Rep.

2,71,97,28,22,883.38

0.35948178

Finland

2,68,19,69,56,059.90

0.35449100

Greece

2,42,23,07,32,091.10

0.32016999

Iraq

2,32,49,72,36,277.87

0.30730468

Pakistan

2,32,28,67,81,110.56

0.30702651

Ireland

2,32,07,73,67,192.54

0.30674971

Kazakhstan

2,31,87,62,82,133.87

0.30648393

Portugal

2,24,91,24,80,764.73

0.29727948

Algeria

2,10,18,34,10,526.10

0.27781124

Czech Republic

2,08,79,60,24,645.83

0.27597745

Qatar

2,03,23,51,64,835.17

0.26862735

Peru

2,02,36,25,97,917.12

0.26747403

Romania

1,89,63,91,11,752.16

0.25065668

New Zealand

1,88,38,48,59,626.76

0.24899887

Ukraine

1,83,31,01,46,378.08

0.24229133

Kuwait

1,75,82,67,16,255.73

0.23240006

Vietnam

1,71,22,20,25,390.00

0.22631378

Bangladesh

1,49,99,04,51,022.29

0.19825082

213

Hungary

1,33,42,38,98,611.95

0.17635387

Angola

1,24,16,31,74,732.96

0.16411345

Morocco

1,03,91,48,24,207.36

0.13735007

Puerto Rico

1,03,13,47,78,000.00

0.13631904

Slovak Republic

97,71,26,77,178.68

0.12915234

Ecuador

94,47,26,80,000.00

0.12486986

Oman

78,18,25,74,772.43

0.10333831

Cuba

77,14,97,00,000.00

0.10197310

Azerbaijan

73,56,04,84,384.96

0.09722903

Belarus

73,09,76,19,636.82

0.09661724

Sri Lanka

67,20,61,29,444.83

0.08883012

Sudan

66,48,06,92,535.25

0.08787127

Libya

65,50,95,94,212.02

0.08658772

Dominican Republic

61,19,82,58,779.34

0.08088918

Luxembourg

60,13,08,47,623.64

0.07947832

Myanmar

58,65,22,41,646.01

0.07752397

Croatia

57,86,86,74,297.53

0.07648828

Uruguay

57,52,46,53,093.51

0.07603357

Uzbekistan

56,79,56,56,324.58

0.07507001

Kenya

54,93,08,13,987.92

0.07260515

Bulgaria

54,47,98,73,099.89

0.07200911

Guatemala

53,85,11,53,446.70

0.07117810

Macao SAR, China

51,31,38,18,756.12

0.06782436

Costa Rica

49,23,67,10,394.45

0.06507893

Ghana

48,58,47,37,986.80

0.06421718

Slovenia

47,98,98,55,094.58

0.06343089

Ethiopia

47,52,47,28,957.16

0.06281611

Tunisia

46,99,48,04,035.72

0.06211568

Lithuania

46,40,31,89,419.45

0.06133371

Serbia

45,51,96,50,911.41

0.06016588

Lebanon

44,35,24,18,120.44

0.05862309

214

Tanzania

44,33,34,56,244.74

0.05859802

Panama

42,64,81,00,000.00

0.05637039

Turkmenistan

41,01,29,82,456.14

0.05420917

Syrian Arab Republic

40,40,50,06,007.21

0.05340557

Yemen, Rep.

35,95,45,02,303.50

0.04752309

Jordan

33,59,38,43,661.97

0.04440287

Bahrain

32,89,76,06,382.98

0.04348262

Cote d'Ivoire

31,29,25,58,602.36

0.04136114

Latvia

30,90,87,61,928.17

0.04085385

Bolivia

30,60,11,57,742.40

0.04044727

Congo, Dem. Rep.

30,01,49,05,126.06

0.03967239

Cameroon

29,56,75,04,655.49

0.03908103

Paraguay

28,89,66,60,618.38

0.03819434

28,00,00,00,000.00212

0.03700918

Zambia

26,82,08,06,278.84

0.03545057

Estonia

24,88,02,64,958.12

0.03288565

Uganda

24,70,32,49,696.04

0.03265167

Trinidad and Tobago

24,43,38,12,700.37

0.03229554

El Salvador

24,25,91,00,000.00

0.03206462

Cyprus

24,05,72,51,748.56

0.03179782

Afghanistan

20,31,08,81,086.98

0.02684603

Nepal

19,24,42,45,405.08

0.02543620

Honduras

18,49,64,48,465.91

0.02444780

Bosnia and Herzegovina

17,85,13,26,454.42

0.02359510

Gabon

17,20,50,83,304.33

0.02274093

Georgia

16,14,00,47,012.14

0.02133321

Brunei Darussalam

16,11,11,35,785.88

0.02129499

Equatorial Guinea

15,58,03,15,663.71

0.02059338

Mozambique

15,45,71,96,860.23

0.02043065

Papua New Guinea

15,41,31,63,674.92

0.02037245

Iceland

15,39,45,53,338.35

0.02034785

Korea, Dem. Rep.

215

Cambodia

15,22,79,91,395.22

0.02012769

Botswana

14,97,93,06,813.99

0.01979899

Senegal

14,79,16,99,008.58

0.01955102

Jamaica

14,36,22,62,584.91

0.01898341

Congo, Rep.

14,08,58,52,120.48

0.01861806

Zimbabwe

13,49,02,27,135.74

0.01783079

Chad

12,94,98,53,281.25

0.01711655

Namibia

12,93,22,05,891.19

0.01709322

Albania

12,91,66,69,735.69

0.01707269

Mongolia

12,54,52,17,934.42

0.01658172

West Bank and Gaza

12,47,59,99,993.05

0.01649023

Burkina Faso

12,12,63,22,793.50

0.01602804

Mauritius

11,92,80,55,398.13

0.01576598

South Sudan

11,80,44,46,135.59

0.01560260

Channel Islands

11,51,46,05,842.34

0.01521950

Lao PDR

11,18,95,14,292.07

0.01478981

Mali

11,11,16,50,036.17

0.01468689

Nicaragua

10,85,07,33,052.08

0.01434202

Macedonia, FYR

10,76,74,38,756.10

0.01423193

Madagascar

10,61,34,73,993.03

0.01402843

Armenia

10,43,12,17,084.28

0.01378753

Malta

9,64,28,48,650.12

0.01274550

Tajikistan

8,50,66,15,265.14

0.01124367

Haiti

8,45,27,26,176.91

0.01117244

Bahamas, The

8,43,17,50,000.00

0.01114472

Benin

8,30,72,21,457.56

0.01098012

Moldova

7,98,53,49,731.46

0.01055469

Niger

7,68,30,45,042.91

0.01015511

Rwanda

7,52,20,06,198.23

0.00994226

Kyrgyz Republic

7,33,50,27,591.92

0.00969512

Kosovo

7,07,30,21,773.77

0.00934881

216

Guinea

6,23,17,25,512.07

0.00823682

New Caledonia

6,07,48,84,388.59

0.00802952

Monaco

6,06,30,00,000.00

213

0.00801381

Curacao

5,60,00,00,000.00

214

0.00740184

Bermuda

5,57,37,10,000.00

0.00736709

Liechtenstein

5,48,77,73,452.44

0.00725350

Suriname

5,29,87,87,878.79

0.00700371

Mauritania

5,05,77,54,938.61

0.00668512

Sierra Leone

4,92,82,72,986.05

0.00651398

215

0.00608008

Montenegro

4,41,72,55,708.98

0.00583854

Togo

4,33,85,75,494.94

0.00573454

Barbados

4,28,10,00,000.00

0.00565844

Isle of Man

4,06,23,67,147.66

0.00536946

Malawi

3,88,35,21,174.80

0.00513307

Fiji

3,85,50,42,259.35

0.00509543

Swaziland

3,53,02,26,512.41

0.00466610

French Polynesia

3,44,75,43,137.94

0.00455681

Eritrea

3,44,40,97,560.98

0.00455226

Andorra

3,24,91,00,674.84

0.00429452

Cayman Islands

3,20,70,32,512.94

0.00423892

Guyana

2,99,00,06,533.78

0.00395206

Burundi

2,71,45,05,576.35

0.00358791

Maldives

2,70,51,45,308.82

0.00357554

Faeroe Islands

2,61,34,58,940.70

0.00345436

Aruba

2,58,44,63,687.15

0.00341603

Lesotho

2,14,76,80,334.75

0.00283871

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

1,99,60,00,000.00

0.00263823

Liberia

1,94,65,00,000.00

0.00257280

San Marino

1,89,98,79,955.48

0.00251118

Cabo Verde

1,83,79,09,382.55

0.00242927

Guam

4,60,00,00,000.00

217

Bhutan

1,78,12,61,412.54

0.00235439

Belize

1,62,42,94,250.00

0.00214692

Central African Republic

1,54,46,26,421.54

0.00204162

Timor-Leste

1,46,80,00,000.00

0.00194034

Djibouti

1,45,63,44,495.02

0.00192493

Seychelles

1,41,10,33,800.62

0.00186504

St. Lucia

1,33,57,64,111.11

0.00176555

Greenland

1,26,77,11,816.12

0.00167561

Antigua and Barbuda

1,20,05,87,518.52

0.00158688

Solomon Islands

1,05,96,90,062.43

0.00140065

Guinea-Bissau

94,66,29,755.79

0.00125121

Somalia

91,70,44,253.99

0.00121211

Gambia, The

89,12,45,556.82

0.00117801

Grenada

83,55,55,555.56

0.00110440

Vanuatu

80,17,87,555.86

0.00105977

Samoa

79,59,47,899.09

0.00105205

St. Kitts and Nevis

77,40,74,074.07

0.00102314

American Samoa

74,86,00,000.00

216

0.00098947

Northern Mariana Islands

73,30,00,000.00

217

0.00096885

71,88,79,481.48

0.00095018

218

0.00093316

61,86,64,794.04

0.00081772

219

0.00074217

Dominica

51,66,66,666.67

0.00068291

Tonga

43,28,89,959.12

0.00057218

Micronesia, Fed. Sts.

31,62,45,700.00

0.00041800

Sao Tome and Principe

31,06,84,591.53

0.00041065

220

0.00040195

Palau

22,85,67,644.08

0.00030211

Marshall Islands

19,09,14,600.00

0.00025234

St. Vincent and the


Grenadines
Turks and Caicos Islands
Comoros
St. Martin (French part)

Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

70,60,00,000.00

56,15,00,000.00

30,41,00,000.00

218

Kiribati

16,89,44,505.21

0.00022330

Tuvalu

3,83,22,359.53

0.00005065

219

Countries sorted by Population on TMD

Country Name

Average
(GDP,Pop)

Population
on TMD
(unrounded)

Population
of first
generation
(unrounded)

China

20.45924794

3,068.89 767.2217976

United States

15.17560162

2,276.34 569.0850608

India

5.442965425

816.44 204.1112034

Japan

4.214298235

632.14 158.0361838

3.27375378

491.06 122.7657668

3.041888685

456.28 114.0708257

2.80080297

420.12 105.0301114

Indonesia

2.505716465

375.86 93.96436744

France

2.362557295

354.38 88.59589856

United Kingdom

2.10429222

315.64 78.91095825

Italy

2.07719817

311.58 77.89493138

Mexico

1.712667525

256.90 64.22503219

Nigeria

1.587096855

238.06 59.51613206

Canada

1.486498275

222.97 55.74368531

Pakistan

1.44993811

217.49 54.37267913

1.157727195

173.66 43.41476981

1.10122293

165.18 41.29585988

1.066000635

159.90 39.97502381

1.00659886

150.99 37.74745725

0.918517815

137.78 34.44441806

0.86619234

129.93 32.48221275

Philippines

0.826422255

123.96 30.99083456

Egypt, Arab Rep.

0.769273295

115.39 28.84774856

0.7180091

107.70 26.92534125

Germany
Brazil
Russian Federation

Spain
Korea, Rep.
Australia
Bangladesh
Turkey
Iran, Islamic Rep.

Vietnam

220

Thailand

0.71252111

106.88 26.71954163

Argentina

0.696543005

104.48 26.12036269

0.67294065

100.94 25.23527438

Saudi Arabia
Ethiopia

0.6115732

91.74

22.933995

Netherlands

0.584870005

87.73 21.93262519

South Africa

0.56773859

85.16 21.29019713

Poland

0.559555285

83.93 20.98332319

Colombia

0.540840875

81.13 20.28153281

Congo, Dem. Rep.

0.51240239

76.86 19.21508963

Switzerland

0.48959779

73.44 18.35991713

Venezuela, RB

0.46813002

70.22 17.55487575

Sweden

0.459457225

68.92 17.22964594

Ukraine

0.436313385

65.45 16.36175194

Belgium

0.42213774

63.32 15.83016525

Malaysia

0.4153971

62.31 15.57739125

0.397201485

59.58 14.89505569

Algeria
Myanmar
Iraq
Tanzania
Norway
Peru

0.3926416

58.90

14.72406

0.38955093

58.43 14.60815988

0.3714003

55.71 13.92751125

0.36463308

54.69

13.6737405

0.359051175

53.86 13.46441906

Kenya

0.34703999

52.06 13.01399963

Austria

0.340318995

51.05 12.76196231

United Arab Emirates

0.332763285

49.91 12.47862319

Sudan

0.31888485

47.83 11.95818188

Chile

0.31001572

46.50

11.6255895

Morocco

0.300846865

45.13 11.28175744

Uganda

0.295762345

44.36 11.09108794

Kazakhstan

0.286797055

43.02 10.75488956

0.28103473

42.16 10.53880238

Romania

221

Denmark

0.273452155

41.02 10.25445581

Uzbekistan

0.268501755

40.28 10.06881581

Angola

0.255023575

38.25 9.563384063

Israel

0.23598799

35.40 8.849549625

Singapore

0.21955933

32.93 8.233474875

0.204152165

30.62 7.655706188

Greece
Hong Kong SAR, China

0.18957824

28.44

7.109184

Afghanistan

0.18700001

28.05 7.012500375

Portugal

0.18202068

27.30

6.8257755

Ghana

0.178285845

26.74 6.685719188

Finland

0.16642763

24.96 6.241036125

0.161072555

24.16 6.040220813

Nepal

0.15792669

23.69 5.922250875

Yemen, Rep.

0.15637271

23.46 5.863976625

Mozambique

0.14977636

22.47

Czech Republic

Sri Lanka
Ireland
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Syrian Arab Republic
Cameroon

5.6166135

0.148731355

22.31 5.577425813

0.14414889

21.62 5.405583375

0.133838175

20.08 5.018931563

0.12411768

18.62

4.654413

0.120636115

18.10 4.523854313

Cote d'Ivoire

0.11646095

17.47 4.367285625

Ecuador

0.11597537

17.40 4.349076375

Madagascar

0.11469392

17.20

Hungary

0.11189011

16.78 4.195879125

New Zealand

0.11132498

16.70

4.301022

4.17468675

Qatar

0.109941105

16.49 4.122791438

Guatemala

0.106763165

16.01 4.003618688

Kuwait

0.10520862

15.78

Niger

0.10470803

15.71 3.926551125

Cuba

0.10401026

15.60

222

3.94532325

3.90038475

Burkina Faso

0.10365473

15.55 3.887052375

0.102585365

15.39 3.846951188

Mali

0.10213561

15.32 3.830085375

Malawi

0.09786931

14.68 3.670099125

Cambodia

0.09591482

14.39

Azerbaijan

0.094859325

14.23 3.557224688

Zimbabwe

0.093279315

13.99 3.497974313

0.08956015

13.43 3.358505625

Dominican Republic

0.085366485

12.80 3.201243188

Senegal

0.080784815

12.12 3.029430563

Zambia

Belarus

Tunisia

3.59680575

0.0786711

11.80

2.95016625

Chad

0.07803864

11.71

2.926449

Slovak Republic

0.07540692

11.31

2.8277595

Bolivia

0.071729455

10.76 2.689854563

Puerto Rico

0.070001045

10.50 2.625039188

South Sudan

0.06950769

10.43 2.606538375

Guinea

0.0685462

10.28

2.5704825

Libya

0.0680048

10.20

2.55018

Bulgaria

0.06448496

9.67

2.418186

Rwanda

0.063139945

9.47 2.367747938

Oman

0.06148299

9.22 2.305612125

Serbia

0.05973768

8.96

Benin

0.059170265

8.88 2.218884938

Haiti

0.058014965

8.70 2.175561188

Burundi

0.057236855

8.59 2.146382063

Somalia

0.053525665

8.03 2.007212438

Jordan

0.051482885

7.72 1.930608188

Croatia

0.04982108

7.47

2.240163

1.8682905

Honduras

0.049352775

7.40 1.850729063

Costa Rica

0.04861575

7.29 1.823090625

223

Paraguay
Turkmenistan

0.047146725
0.04595418

7.07 1.768002188
6.89

1.72328175

Tajikistan

0.045424445

6.81 1.703416688

Uruguay

0.043238845

6.49 1.621456688

Papua New Guinea

0.04288867

6.43 1.608325125

Lebanon

0.04188046

6.28

El Salvador

0.04131709

6.20 1.549390875

Panama

0.040897905

6.13 1.533671438

Lao PDR

0.04074135

6.11 1.527800625

Togo

0.04045162

6.07

1.57051725

1.51693575

Lithuania

0.039529705

5.93 1.482363938

Nicaragua

0.03843583

5.77 1.441343625

Sierra Leone
Slovenia

0.0376781

5.65

1.41292875

0.037664075

5.65 1.412402813

Kyrgyz Republic

0.03582243

5.37 1.343341125

Luxembourg

0.03487521

5.23 1.307820375

Georgia

0.03448591

5.17 1.293221625

Congo, Rep.

0.03381192

5.07

1.267947

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0.032328685

4.85 1.212325688

Macao SAR, China

0.032191985

4.83 1.207199438

West Bank and Gaza

0.03111454

4.67

1.16679525

Eritrea

0.028058365

4.21 1.052188688

Latvia

0.02747879

4.12 1.030454625

0.027172645

4.08 1.018974188

Liberia

0.02701177

4.05 1.012941375

Bahrain

0.025719335

3.86 0.964475063

Mauritania

0.023410335

3.51 0.877887563

Moldova

0.021631975

3.24 0.811199063

Central African Republic

Albania
Mongolia

0.020552
0.020084245

224

3.08

0.7707

3.01 0.753159188

Jamaica

0.019839625

2.98 0.743985938

Armenia

0.019665165

2.95 0.737443688

Estonia

0.01895846

2.84

0.71094225

Trinidad and Tobago

0.018331465

2.75 0.687429938

Botswana

0.017502945

2.63 0.656360438

Namibia

0.01722378

Cyprus

0.016274995

2.44 0.610312313

Gabon

0.013479935

2.02 0.505497563

Macedonia, FYR

0.013325095

2.00 0.499691063

Kosovo

0.01303653

1.96 0.488869875

Mauritius

0.01242444

1.86

Equatorial Guinea

0.01235085

1.85 0.463156875

Lesotho

0.011958435

1.79 0.448441313

Gambia, The

0.011431775

1.71 0.428691563

0.00943577

1.42 0.353841375

Guinea-Bissau

0.009279565

1.39 0.347983688

Iceland

0.008682575

1.30 0.325596563

Swaziland

0.00821197

1.23 0.307948875

Malta

0.00812572

1.22

Brunei Darussalam

Timor-Leste
Channel Islands
Fiji
Bahamas, The
Guyana

2.58

0.64589175

0.4659165

0.3047145

0.008080005

1.21 0.303000188

0.00695881

1.04 0.260955375

0.006538955

0.98 0.245210813

0.00648066

0.97

0.24302475

0.006155345

0.92 0.230825438

0.00597817

0.90 0.224181375

Montenegro

0.005808575

0.87 0.217821563

Djibouti

0.005085115

0.76 0.190691813

Bhutan

0.00498851

0.75 0.187069125

New Caledonia

0.004609035

0.69 0.172838813

Comoros

0.004250725

0.64 0.159402188

Suriname

225

Barbados
Cabo Verde

0.0042053

0.63

0.15769875

0.003978935

0.60 0.149210063

Solomon Islands

0.00365589

0.55 0.137095875

Monaco

0.00334249

0.50 0.125343375

Maldives

0.003147525

0.47 0.118032188

French Polynesia

0.00306589

0.46 0.114970875

Guam

0.00257428

0.39

0.0965355

0.0024955

0.37

0.09358125

0.00243952

0.37

0.091482

Bermuda
Liechtenstein
Belize

0.002225105

0.33 0.083441438

Isle of Man

0.002140655

0.32 0.080274563

Curacao

0.00204159

0.31 0.076559625

Andorra

0.001721805

0.26 0.064567688

Cayman Islands

0.00168423

0.25 0.063158625

Aruba

0.00161379

0.24 0.060517125

Vanuatu

0.001563575

0.23 0.058634063

St. Lucia

0.001509475

0.23 0.056605313

Faeroe Islands

0.001415495

0.21 0.053081063

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

0.00133663

0.20 0.050123625

Samoa

0.00123518

0.19

0.04631925

Seychelles

0.001213825

0.18 0.045518438

Sao Tome and Principe

0.001151085

0.17 0.043165688

San Marino

0.001030195

0.15 0.038632313

Antigua and Barbuda

0.001023275

0.15 0.038372813

Grenada

0.000959605

0.14 0.035985188

0.000901465

0.14 0.033804938

St. Vincent and the


Grenadines
Greenland

0.00087138

0.13

Tonga

0.00085613

0.13 0.032104875

Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

0.00084425

0.13 0.031659375

226

0.03267675

Micronesia, Fed. Sts.

0.00078376

0.12

St. Kitts and Nevis

0.00073469

0.11 0.027550875

0.000672915

0.10 0.025234313

Kiribati

0.029391

Northern Mariana Islands

0.00054498

0.08

Dominica

0.00046761

0.07 0.017535375

Turks and Caicos Islands

0.00046162

0.07

American Samoa
St. Martin (French part)
Marshall Islands

0.02043675

0.01731075

0.000432895

0.06 0.016233563

0.00036823

0.06 0.013808625

0.0003429

0.05

0.01285875

Palau

0.000256665

0.04 0.009624938

Tuvalu

0.000093325

0.01 0.003499688

227

Countries By First Generation Population On TMD Final,


Rounded

TMD Pop
Country Name

(rounded)

China

767

United States

569

India

204

Japan

158

Germany

123

Brazil

114

Russian Federation

105

Indonesia

94

France

89

United Kingdom

79

Italy

78

Mexico

64

Nigeria

60

Canada

56

Pakistan

54

Spain

43

Korea, Rep.

41

Australia

40

Bangladesh

38

Turkey

34

Iran, Islamic Rep.

32

Philippines

31

Egypt, Arab Rep.

29

Vietnam

27

Thailand

27

Argentina

26
228

Saudi Arabia

25

Ethiopia

23

Netherlands

22

Poland

21

South Africa

21

Colombia

20

Congo, Dem. Rep.

19

Switzerland

18

Venezuela, RB

18

Sweden

17

Ukraine

16

Belgium

16

Malaysia

16

Algeria

15

Myanmar

15

Iraq

15

Norway

14

Tanzania

14

Austria

13

Kenya

13

Peru

13

United Arab Emirates

12

Sudan

12

Chile

12

Morocco

11

Uganda

11

Kazakhstan

11

Denmark

11

Romania

10

Angola

10

Israel

10
229

Uzbekistan

Greece

Singapore

Afghanistan

Hong Kong SAR, China

Portugal

Finland

Ghana

Czech Republic

Nepal

Yemen, Rep.

Mozambique

Ireland

Korea, Dem. Rep.

Sri Lanka

Cameroon

Syrian Arab Republic

Cote d'Ivoire

Ecuador

Madagascar

Hungary

New Zealand

Qatar

Guatemala

Kuwait

Niger

Burkina Faso

Cuba

Mali

Zambia

Azerbaijan

4
230

Belarus

Cambodia

Malawi

Zimbabwe

Dominican Republic

Senegal

Chad

Slovak Republic

Tunisia

Bolivia

Guinea

Puerto Rico

South Sudan

Bulgaria

Libya

Oman

Rwanda

Benin

Burundi

Haiti

Serbia

Croatia

Honduras

Jordan

Somalia

Costa Rica

Lebanon

Papua New Guinea

Paraguay

Tajikistan

Turkmenistan

2
231

Uruguay

El Salvador

Lao PDR

Panama

Lithuania

Nicaragua

Sierra Leone

Togo

Congo, Rep.

Georgia

Kyrgyz Republic

Luxembourg

Slovenia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Central African Republic

Eritrea

Latvia

Macao SAR, China

West Bank and Gaza

Albania

Armenia

Bahrain

Jamaica

Liberia

Mauritania

Moldova

Mongolia

Botswana

Cyprus

Estonia

Gabon

2
232

Macedonia, FYR

Namibia

Trinidad and Tobago

Brunei Darussalam

Equatorial Guinea

Gambia, The

Kosovo

Lesotho

Mauritius

Bahamas, The

Channel Islands

Djibouti

Fiji

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Iceland

Malta

Montenegro

Suriname

Swaziland

Timor-Leste

American Samoa

Andorra

Antigua and Barbuda

Aruba

Barbados

Belize

Bermuda

Bhutan

Cabo Verde

Cayman Islands

2
233

Comoros

Curacao

Dominica

Faeroe Islands

French Polynesia

Greenland

Grenada

Guam

Isle of Man

Kiribati

Liechtenstein

Maldives

Marshall Islands

Micronesia, Fed. Sts.

Monaco

New Caledonia

Northern Mariana Islands

Palau

Samoa

San Marino

Sao Tome and Principe

Seychelles

Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

Solomon Islands

St. Kitts and Nevis

St. Lucia

St. Martin (French part)

St. Vincent and the


Grenadines

Tonga

Turks and Caicos Islands

234

Tuvalu

Vanuatu

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

235

Summary

Top 5 Countries Represented on TMD:

TMD Pop
Country Name

(rounded)

China

767

United States

569

India

204

Japan

158

Germany

123

Total first generation population: 3881

Maximum simultaneous population (4 generations): 15,524

TLDR;
The citizens on the craft will be selected based on strong genetic and social traits.
Each country will send a certain number of representatives based on their total
contribution to the setting up of the settlement. Every country will receive a
minimum of two representative slots so as to retain diversity.

236

Section 25: Government


This section aims to establish the government set-up on the settlement.

TMD will operate a government, as it must govern 15,000 people. The


government shall be democratic to a certain extent, as necessary for the
satisfaction of the people and the day-to-day management of the station.

There shall be three branches of government the Executive Council of Ministers,


Legislature, and Judiciary.

Only holders of TMD Residency Space Passports may vote in any election.

25.1
Executive Council of Ministers (ECM)
The Executive Council of Ministers (ECM) shall consist of 10 elected Ministers,
elected directly by the people living on TMD. It shall aim to be a technocratic but
proportionally representative council. The positions of the Executive Council shall
be as follows:

1) Executive Head
2) Engineering, Science, and Technology
3) Labor and Research
4) Finance
5) Food and Water
6) Justice and Law Enforcement
7) Residential Planning
8) Education
9) International Relations / Communications
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10) External Defense

The ECM elections will be conducted as per the Single Transferable Vote system.
Each citizen of TMD above the age of 16 years, who has not been explicitly
forbidden from voting by the Judiciary, shall have a single vote. They shall be
presented with an electronic ballot. The ballot shall contain 10 sections, one for
each Ministerial position. Each section shall have a list of the name and picture of
each Candidate contesting elections for that Ministerial position.

Voters must mark off a minimum of FIVE (5) Candidates for each position, in
descending order of preference. Their most preferred Candidate will be indicated
by a number 1 (Vote Rank 1), the second most preferred by number 2 (Vote
Rank 2), and so on.

The votes for each position shall be tallied, and evaluated as follows. Assuming
there are n candidates contesting elections for a single Ministerial position:
First considering only the First Votes (Vote Rank 1) of every voter " check if
any candidate has a simple majority (>50%) of votes tallied. If yes, he/she is
elected.

If no, the candidate with the minimum Vote Rank 1 is eliminated. Each voter
whose Vote Rank 1 was counted towards the eliminated candidate, now has their
Vote Rank 2 tallied, and distributed to the remaining Candidates. " check if any
candidate has a simple majority (>50%) of votes tallied. If yes, he/she is elected.
If no, continue the above process with Vote Rank 3, Vote Rank 4, and so on,
until a Candidate secures >50% of the vote.

Among its many benefits, in a Single Transferable Vote (STV) system, the final
candidate elected is likely to be passable for the majority of voters, if not Vote
Rank 1. Voters will also not waste their vote by voting for a fringe candidate who
they strongly support but has no real chance of winning a majority, as their Vote
238

Rank 2 or other vote will be counted. This improves proportionality of


representation.

Using STV for the ECM avoids many of the major problems of First Past the Post
voting, Alternative Member System voting, Presidential/semi-presidential system,
and so on.

(Image Credit: William H. Riker, cranor.org)

It is expected that Candidates will run individually, focusing on policy over


personality or other factors. This enables a large spectrum of opinions for each
sub-section of TMDs operation to be represented. People can choose extremely
specific, nuanced policies. The Ministers they elect will likely be extremely
qualified in their fields, as they will have to present rigorous and logically sound,
detailed policies for scrutiny by voters.

239

Voters must cast a minimum of 50 votes in ECM elections (5 per position, 10


positions). This demands voter knowledge and interest. Compulsory voting will
ensure that participation in the electoral process is ingrained into the psyche of
residents of TMD, and so they will participate in the political process.

25.2
Legislature
A directly elected Legislature of 100 members shall be constituted. TMD shall be
geographically divided into 100 Constituencies. Citizens may stand for election as
the Representative of a particular Constituency. By the Single Transferable Vote
system described for ECM elections, the election of a Representative shall be
carried out.

The Legislature will not deal with day-to-day or logistical management of TMD.
Instead, its role shall be to decide on existential, big-picture questions about the
direction and role of TMD. Any expansion of the roles of the ECM, the addition or
removal of an ECM seat, changing of the methods of election of the ECM, and
passage of other laws, falls under the ambit of the Legislature. The Legislature
shall meet when summoned by a 50% majority vote of the ECM.

The Legislature shall also review and modify the Legal Code, where voting
requires 50% majority.

25.3
Judiciary
As in most democracies of the 21st century, the Judiciary on TMD shall be
completely independent of the Executive Council of Ministers as well as the
Legislature. The Judiciary shall be constituted to determine violations of the
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Legal Code. It shall also have an Electoral Division to oversee elections, and
determine and prosecute malpractices.

The Judiciary will not function with a traditional judge or jury system. There will be
no cases or lawyers.

The Bench of the Judiciary shall consist of impartial, anonymous Adjudicators and
Investigators. Residents of TMD or the Minister of Justice and Law
Enforcement (MJLE) may submit Complaints to the Bench. Investigators shall
independently fact-find and verify details of Complaints, and then a panel of
Adjudicators shall decide on a course of necessary action. Criminal activity shall
be prosecuted via Complaints from the MJLE.
The size of the Bench shall always be 1/1000th of the population of TMD to the
nearest thousandth.

Even without filing of a Complaint (in fact especially so), the Investigators or the
Adjudicators of the Judiciary shall launch their own Complaints to keep checks on
the ECM, Legislature, and on illegal activity on TMD.

The Judiciary shall have a specially appointed Chronologer, whose role it shall be
to decide upon the severity of cases, and so decide upon the ordering of cases.
The Chronologer must make his/her ordering public, and is subject to filing of
Complaints about his ordering. Complaints about the Chronologer cannot be
rearranged by the Chronologer, and are sorted by ascending order of date of filing
of the Complaint.

The first Executive Head of the ECM shall appoint the first Adjudicators,
Investigators, and Chronologer. After this first appointment, the Adjudicators,
Investigators, and Chronologers shall work until they reach the age of 75 years, or
they voluntarily retire. They shall appoint their own successors.

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25.4
Legal Code
The Legal Code on TMD shall be based on the 1962 Model Penal Code (MPC)
of the American Law Society. The first task of every Legislature, upon election,
shall be to re-introduce and pass or fail every single section of the Legal Code. If
not renewed by the Legislature, the section will lapse.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations is


fundamental binding law on TMD. It cannot be repealed or modified.

The following sections of the MPC are to be excluded additionally:

Section 2.10 Military Orders


This section shall not apply, as there shall be no standing military on TMD.

Sections 5.06, 5.07


These sections shall be replaced by a complete and permanent, irreversible ban
on all kinds of firearms, explosives, projectile or non-projectile weapons, or any
other device thats primary purpose is to cause bodily harm to another living
entity.

Section 210.5 Assisted Suicide


Assisted Suicide shall be legal on TMD. However, the written consent of all
involved parties must be submitted to the Office of the MJLE before the act is
conducted.

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25.5
Citizenship
Residents of TMD shall be granted a Space Passport with a TMD Residency if
they meet ANY of the following conditions:

1) They were born on TMD;


2) They have lived on TMD for 5 consecutive Earth Years or more;

Only holders of TMD Residency Space Passports may vote in any election.
However, all protections and laws of TMD apply to all human beings on TMD.

25.6
Law Enforcement
The Legal Code shall be enforced by TMD Police Department (TMDPD) under
the MJLE. The strength of TMDPD should always be between 450 and 500
policemen or policewomen per person. TMDPD member shall carry only nonlethal projectile and close combat weaponry, such as electrical or ultrasonic stun
guns. They may detain any human on TMD on suspicion of violation of the Legal
Code, and present them before the Judiciary after filing a Complaint.

The Judiciary shall determine whether or not the accused must be imprisoned
until his/her Complaint is resolved.

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25.7
Religion
There is no official religion on TMD and residents are free to practice any religion
onboard.

However, there will be no special provisions or reservations made for specific


religions. To prevent any passive bias, any members of the ECM, Legislature,
and Judiciary must perform their functions in a secular manner.

The religious residents may request for certain limited number of days off for
festivals. One common religious place of prayer will be allowed for every religion.

In the event of solicitation, religious racism or violence in the name of religion,


very strict actions will be taken. Collecting taxes in the name of religion or turning
religion into a profession is strictly banned.

Statistically though, majority of the residents of TMD will not be affiliated with any
religion.

TLDR;

The government of TMD will be semi-socialist where certain posts are given to
capable individuals based on a ST voting system. Most of the government
features will be drawn around pre-existing governmental set-ups, and will include
all well working features of these governments

244

Section 26: Economy


This section aims to cover the economic alignment of the settlement.

TMD shall operate on a modified principle of socialism. It shall take lessons from
historical economic successes and failures, particularly from the Soviet Union and
Marxist theory, as well as the 21st century United States and Scandinavia.

TMD shall aim to have no class-based structure. All citizens are treated equally in
all circumstances, regardless of ethnicity, profession, ability, and so on. All
citizens are given the same necessities, and so there can be no class stratification
there. All citizens will be equally well fed and well clothed, and in homes of the
same size and quality.

26.1
Goods And Services
All Other Goods that citizens can pay for with their earned credits will not
substantially contribute to class stratification, as these goods are not important
enough.

For example, although a rich citizen with many credits may own a conspicuous,
expensive watch, a poor citizen will live in a house of the same size and quality
as the rich, be equally well fed and clothed, and so on. Thus while technically
there will be high credit rich and low credit poor, the class difference will be
invisible and insignificant.

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I.

Necessities

The list of items in Schedule A will be guaranteed to all citizens of TMD for
free, in the amounts mentioned in Column B of Schedule A. These
amounts and items cannot be subtracted from, but the Legislature may
add on items. These items are guaranteed because every citizen, and
every human being aboard TMD, deserves these regardless of profession
or ability.

These items either require minimal human labor to produce or are


extremely necessary.

II.

Other Goods

Production of goods on TMD shall be mainly through 3D Printing. The


banks of 3D printers (as classified in Section 26.4 3D Printing) are
allocated by class of good in the Nice Classification (2011)221.

Citizens shall earn credits in their jobs. These credits can be exchanged
for time on a 3D printer. The rate of time for each printer bank, for each
different type of object, shall be market-driven.

The Legislature shall initially set the rate when TMD is populated. After
this, printers with greater demand and/or rare materials shall increase their
credit rate.

However, the ECM may step in at any time to alter prices on 3D Printers.
The Legislature may also impose maximum or minimum prices for goods.

Schedule A

Column A

Column B
246

Food

3000 Calories per day

Water

4 liters per day

Medical care

Unlimited

TMD Intranet Access

Unlimited

Personal Computing Device

1 per year

Clothing

50 prints per year

Shelter

30 sq m of living space

Provision of Articles in Schedule A

1. Food
Food is grown automatically by robots in the Agricultural Section. See
Section 18.4 Robotics for further details.

2. Water
Water is provided by the systems aboard TMD as detailed in Section 17
Water Subsystem.

3. Medical Care

TMD will be equipped to fight against any and all medical conditions local
as well as settlement wide.

While strong filtration and solid air regulation systems will prevent all major
sections of the settlement from getting infected, a medical set up should be
present for general as well as emergency treatment.

General Practice

Patients may ask for basic treatment for common issues or basic body part
injuries. Specialists will be present to overlook all surgeries carried out by
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robots. Genuine treatment will be free to all, and wont cost any government
bought credits.

Psychological Care

To prevent major depression or other mental issues due to the shift in


environment, psychological help and counseling will be readily available to
all residents.

Emergency Protocol

In the case of a breakout of a new disease, sectors of the VM will be shut


down based on the rate of spread of disease. Immediate research on the
disease-causing organism will begin in order to prevent an outbreak, which
proves fatal to the settlement. This has been discussed in the emergency
procedure in Appendix E.

4. TMD Intranet Access / Personal Computing Device


Every citizen will be given a Personal Computing Device, and a broken or
damaged Device may be replaced once a year. Every device will have
access to the wireless intranet aboard TMD.

5. Clothing
Citizens may use the 3D Printers aboard TMD to print 50 units of clothing
for themselves each year.

6. Shelter
At the time of the arrival of the first settlers, each family shall be allocated to
a house in a housing block. At the time of birth of a new citizen, he/she shall
initially reside in the same housing block as his/her parents. A maximum of
two generations should simultaneously inhabit a housing block.

248

In case any unforeseen circumstances arise, all citizens are entitled to one
housing block (30 sq m of living space).

26.2
Professions
Life on TMD will share some similarities with that on Earth. Due to the large scale
and relatively large population on TMD, as well as the provision of almost all
necessary facilities and environmental biomimetics, people could very easily
transition to life on TMD.

The following professions will be needed on TMD. Initially, the ECM shall decide
in what proportion these people are to be hired. After the initial 10-year period, it is
expected that due to usual forces of market demand and supply, people will fill
these positions to the correct proportions. However, the ECM has full authority to
train more people to occupy a certain profession, hire or fire people from any
profession, and alter credit payments.

1) Scientific Research
Large amounts of research are to be conducted on TMD. This research will be
primarily funded by the ECM. Credit distribution for scientific research should
be considered high priority, as it is essential to the survival of TMD.

Due to its unique position in space, it can be used to study any of the following
areas:
a. Effects of low/zero gravity on the body
b. Psychological effects of living in a small community for a long time
c. Economics of a closed semi-Communist system
d. General sociological trends aboard TMD
e. Studies of cosmic radiation

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f. Study of all nearby space objects as TMD transits through space,


it can sample, observe, and otherwise study phenomena in all
objects it passes. It could study nearby planets, stars, radiation
sources, and so on

2) Maintenance of System On TMD

Every single subsystem on TMD shall need some maintenance, as mentioned


in Sustainability Report. Citizens shall fill these maintenance roles.

3) Education

Teachers and professors of all kinds will be needed on TMD. Teachers from
the preschool level up to the 12th grade, as well as professors for
undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees, will be essential. Education
will be compulsory till the undergraduate level, as mentioned in Section 27
Education.

It is expected that a large percentage of the population will pursue graduate


and doctoral degrees, to engage in scientific research or engineering on TMD.

4) Medical

Medical professionals, including doctors, dentists, therapists, and so on, will be


absolutely essential. They will have to treat every disease, ailment, and so on,
for every citizen on TMD.

5) Engineering

Engineers on TMD shall help to maintain and improve the systems on TMD,
and continually upgrade them.

250

6) Creative professionals

Creative professionals like artists, poets, writers, singers, and so on, shall form
an important part of life on TMD, mimicking Earth life. They shall provide
distraction and entertainment for citizens. Additionally, as in Section 28
Zero-G Games, these individuals shall work to televise the Olympics.

7) TMD Navigation Officers

These officers shall include astronomers, pilots, aerospace engineers, and


propulsion experts. They shall be responsible for maintaining TMDs position
at L4 during construction, and for directing its course towards its destination in
space.

8) Miscellaneous

Other professions on TMD will include computer system and information


technology professions, diplomats and liaisons with Earth, government
administrators, police officers, and other jobs created by corporations on TMD.

Thus, the people on TMD shall have sufficient diversity of opportunity. Each of
these professions, when occupied, will add to TMDs similarity to Earth life.

26.3
Legal Considerations

The ECM has a large breadth of authority to direct TMDs economy. It may
takeover firms, shut down firms, regulate prices, and so on.

251

Corporations may form with minimal bureaucratic procedure or licensing. They


must simply abide by all laws of the Legislature.

Credit distribution shall initially be through the ECM. It shall initially run and own
all facilities aboard TMD. All citizens shall be employed directly by the ECM.
After a period of 10 Earth years, the ECM shall begin a privatization process.
Citizens with sufficient credits may begin to incorporate their own corporations, or
make bids to purchase parts of any industries owned by the ECM.

For example, initially, all medical centers on TMD shall be owned and operated by
the ECM. After 10 years, any citizen who has accumulated enough credits from
his/her profession may either purchase a medical center to improve it, or start a
competing medical center in an unused plot of land.

In this way, citizens will start employing other citizens, and the economy will
become self-sustaining. As stated before, however, to prevent unfair practices,
the ECM may intervene in the economy in any way.

However, citizens are free to submit Complains to the Judiciary if they feel that
actions of the ECM have been any of the following:
!

Unnecessary or arbitrary

Directly or indirectly harmful to TMD

For personal profit or gain of the members of the ECM

26.4
3D Printing
The Nice Classification (2011) lists out every major category of goods. Based on
that, the following schedule has been prepared.

252

The table below lists out the 3D Printer Banks on TMD and their characteristics.

Printer Goods (adapted from Nice

Type

Bank

Classification)

Bank 1

Scientific, surveying, photographic,

Very small precise

cinematographic, optical, weighing,

ceramic metal

measuring apparatus

objects

Number
of Banks
100

Surgical, medical, dental and


veterinary apparatus and instruments,
artificial limbs, eyes and teeth;
orthopedic articles; suture materials
Bank 2

Clothing (polyester, nylon, rayon)

Human sized textile

500

objects
Bank 3

Metallic tools, machine parts,

Large metallic

agricultural implements, furniture

objects

200

(metallic)
Bank 4

Food items, beverages

Small food/drink

1000

objects
Bank 5

Bank 6

Computers, smartphones, electronic

Silicon, metal, and

100

equipment

rare earths

Specialized chemicals for industry,

Chemicals

100

Miscellaneous moderate sized

Moderate sized

500

consumer products

metallic and plastic

bleaching, preservative, paint,


scientific purposes
Bank 7

objects
-

Total

2500

The requisite materials for each of these printers shall either be obtained from
Earth, or produced on the Moon and sent to TMD. The materials are detailed in
Material Collection.

253

These printers are high priority for maintenance, as they shall be used in turn to
print parts for maintenance of other subsystems.

26.5
3D Printing Mechanism
Bank 1 / Bank 3 / Bank 5 / Bank 7
These banks of 3D printers involve conventional, existing technology. They
involve printing of metals and plastics. They shall use Selective Laser Melting,
which is very similar to Selective Laser Sintering. It is used for production of pure
substances, as it fully melts together the powder used. This forms very strong
bonds, which is why it is used for Scientific Instrument banks, Metal tools banks,
Computer banks, and Miscellaneous banks which require strong bonds. 222

(Image Credit: 3DPrintingFromScratch.com)

Bank 2 / Bank 7
Selective Laser Sintering can print a wide range of materials, including nylon223 ,
so it shall be used for the Clothing printer bank and the Miscellaneous printer

254

bank. It is used for alloys or impure substances, as it fuses powders together


without melting them. It forms weaker bonds than melting. 224

(Image Credit: 3DPrintingFromScratch.com)

This technique involves the use of a bed of a powdered form of the desired
material. A laser shall use a software file of instructions to draw out the shape of
the object on the top of the powder, melting the powder together. This forms one
layer of the object. A roller pushes more powder on top of the printed layer, and
the laser melts the next layer of powder together. This process forms the
complete object.225

Bank 4

This printer bank shall use processed forms of the food produced in the
agricultural section. Pastes or powder forms shall be accepted. Large quantities of
common foods can be produced here, while small scale refinements and
flavorings can be done at peoples homes.

Bank 6

255

This 3D printer bank shall use the technique of Small Molecule Synthesis to
produce complex chemicals in relatively small amounts, as described by Li et
al.226

This section shall also contain large vats, with very simplified 3D printers. Users
must simply specify the chemicals to be mixed, and in what proportion, and the
most efficient method for production shall be used for synthesis.

256

Section 27: Education


This section aims to establish the basic education system of TMD by laying out
the basic educational system framework.

The education system on TMD shall be modeled on the systems in Shanghai and
Finland, which is widely considered to be the best educational systems in the
world. Finland and Shanghai rank near the top in the PISA rankings for 2012227 ,
as well as in other years.

Education on TMD shall be compulsory up to and including four years of


undergraduate studies.

Education will be of primary importance. Given that TMD shall remain isolated for
thousands of years, it is essential that in addition to creation of new knowledge on
board, knowledge be passed down. Successive generations must be able to take
up and take forward previous generations work.

One may notice that the social sciences such as history and economics have
been given roughly equal importance to the natural sciences. On board a space
settlement, and indeed while colonizing an exoplanet, such education will be
necessary. Any settlement must have functioning economic systems and must
understand its own history.

The class size for primary and secondary school shall be capped at 15 students
per class. The class size for tertiary education shall be capped at 60 students per
class.

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27.1
Stages of Education

27.1.1
Pre-K (Age 2-4)
Many studies, including the Abecedarian Project and the Perry Preschool Project,
have shown that good education for children from the ages of 2-4 is fundamental
to their success and abilities later in life. It also has been shown to narrow the gap
between classes, furthering the goal of a classless society on TMD.

Activities in Pre-K shall mainly involve games, as per Jean Piagets theory of play
meeting childrens Physical, Intellectual, Language, Emotional, and Social
needs.

Pre-K shall be compulsory for all children on TMD. It shall run from 0800 hours to
1400 hours, as is typical of preschools. While it shall be available 7 days a week,
it shall only be compulsory 5 days a week. This allows parents who are unable to
take care of their children on weekends, because they are incarcerated, unwell,
deceased, or otherwise occupied, to keep their children in a safe environment.

27.1.2
Primary school (Age 4-14)
Primary school shall be compulsory for all children. It shall run from 0800 hours to
1300 hours. Students shall have the following classes, to be rearranged at the
discretion of the school. Students who show extreme promise may be allowed to
substitute some classes for classes at secondary schools.

1 hour Science
258

1 hour English / Reading


1 hour Math
1 hour History
1 hour Philosophy

27.1.3
Secondary school (Age 14-18)
Secondary school shall be compulsory for all children. It shall run from 0800 hours
to 1500 hours. Students shall be allowed to choose subjects. They shall have
compulsory subjects in Table A, and any 4 elective subjects in Table B. Students
with extraordinary abilities shall be permitted to take extra elective subjects.
These subject choices are modeled on those of the International Baccalaureate.

Table A

Table B

English Language

English Literature

Philosophy

Physics (*)

Mathematics

Chemistry (*)

Computer Science

Biology (*)

Science

Geography

History

History (*)
Sociology
Psychology
Business Management
Economics
Latin/Classical Languages
Global Politics
Creative Studies (film, dance, art)
Advanced Mathematics (*)
Advanced Computer Science (*)

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(*) These subjects replace their Table A equivalents. Students taking an elective
subject that overlaps with a compulsory subject are to drop that compulsory
subject, and take another elective instead. The compulsory versions of the
subjects shall be lower in difficulty than the elective versions.

For example, a student taking elective Advanced Mathematics must take a fifth
elective instead of compulsory Mathematics.

27.1.4
Undergraduate studies (Age 18-22) | Graduate, Postgraduate,
postdoctoral (Age 22- )
These tertiary institutions shall function with a large degree of autonomy. The
ECM shall initially invite citizens who hold degrees in any subject to set up
departments of those subjects.

There shall be a total of 3 Universities. Each one shall be multidisciplinary, to


encourage sharing of ideas and communication. Each University shall have a
Central Administration, as constituted by the ECM.

27.2
Neutrality of Education
1) Language
All students shall learn English as their first language. However, the first
generation of students shall have the option of also learning their native
language at home or in school.

Learning of a native language in school shall only happen if a citizen makes


such a request. The ECM is obliged to seek out and employ a teacher of that
260

native language. If one is unavailable, the citizen making the request will be
asked to provide one.

This option exists to prevent linguistic and nationalistic tendencies from


causing rebellion among the first generations. It is expected that future
generations, having learned English as a first language, will feel no such
attachment to their native language, and will integrate into TMD fully.

2) History, Economics, other sensitive content

Concerns about revisionist history, biased economics, blasphemous religious


studies, and so on, are likely to come up in any curriculum. Thus, a formal
system of reviewing such concerns shall be set up. Any citizen who disagrees
with the content of the curriculum in schools may file a Complaint in the
Judiciary.

The Judiciary is obliged to either throw out the case on grounds of extreme
absurdity or extreme factual inaccuracy, or constitute a committee of respected
academics from all regions of study of the curriculum in question to review the
Complaint.

TLDR;
The education system on TMD is model around providing a holistic education to
all citizens while completely removing all the problems that plague todays
education systems. Students will be taught the importance of innovation and
creativity, and will be told to celebrate failures and learn from them rather than
aiming to score a high grade.

261

262

Chapter VII
Miscellaneous

263

264

Section 28: The Zero-G Games (Space Olympics)


This section aims to describe the zero-g space games which will take place every
4 years.
Annual games will be held every 4th summer in order to preserve the skill and
discipline of sports. All sports will be played by slightly modified Olympic rules.
The event will be broadcast throughout the space station, as well as on Earth in
order

(Source: Space.com)

to establish a connection with those back on Earth, the same torch that will be
used on Earth to light the flame at the Olympics, will be brought up to space in
order to inaugurate the event this is only until before the Exoplanet Movement
stage is reached. An addition will be made to the torch, and moon regolith will be
added around it as a symbol of the new interstellar group of humans who will
carry on the tradition of the Olympics.

265

28.1
Teams
Teams will be randomized228 by means of bloc randomization, similar to the
randomized method of selecting the living set up of the people. This is primarily to
prevent teams from becoming reasons for conflict or an excuse for divides in the
population of TMD. Teams will be named and managed by a choosing committee
that will be elected by the members of the team after a short election process.
The bloc randomization process takes into account the skill levels and leadership
and management qualities of all individuals in order to create five fair teams.

28.2
deGrasse Stadium and Arena

266

The deGrasse Stadium, named after astronomer Neil deGrasse Tyson will be the
primary location for all field and track events.
The Hubble Arena will contain what is essentially a spinning hub, which spins in a
direction opposite to that of TMD.

The stadium will hold up to 8000 people who can register for seats on a first come
first serve registration system. Secondary seating will be given to marked citizens
or those who may hinder the correct functioning of the event. Other game rooms
can hold from 1000 (Newton Rooms) to 6000 people (Hubble Arena).

267

The rooms along the Higgs Field will lead to the lower level arena, where indoor
and outdoor game setups will exist. The Higgs Field in its second stage will open
out by a motorized system to allow access to the swimming pool.

268

28.3
Hubble Arena Specifications
The Hubble Arena laterally protrudes out of TMD into space through the central
gap in the Habitat Zone to provide a zero-G environment.

28.4
Structure

Motor powered spins and electromagnetic systems can change the acceleration
due to gravity in the Arena. The Kepler Bridge here is present as a mode of
transport to the Hubble Arena as well as a support structure within which lie the
motors.

28.5
Gravity
269

All zero-G games will be played under the influence of no spin or magnetic effects
and will use the entire volume of approximately 1,000 m3.
Humans can be trained to withstand up to 12 RPM229 with daily training sessions.
However to conserve energy and stay safe, we shall produce an RPM of 8 to
achieve standard value of 9.8 m/s2.

! = !! ! = (

2!!!!8! !
) !!
60

! = 9.8!
! = 13.96!!

The RPM for any gravity value can therefore easily be obtained by plugging
values into the equation
!"# =

30
!

!!"#$%&
13.96

Low-G games will be played on the circumference of the cylinder over the ~500
m2 playing grounds.

28.6
Charge Based Electromagnetic System
Games such as Paraball will require participants to use the Charge Based
Electromagnetic System (CBES), which both opens new doors to develop new
strategies and requires major additional skill from all participants.
Participants will be made to wear a double-layered insulator-charge-insulator suit
where the inner layer is made of a rubber-based material and the middle layer
made of light and flexible aluminum. When turned on, the electromagnet in the
Hubble Arena will create a magnetic field inside the arena. The contestants are
270

now like a charge in this field, so as their velocity increases it becomes harder for
them to control themselves due to the force due to the magnetic field.

28.7
Sports
The following sports230 will be played in standard gravity conditions. The sections
in which the events take place will be shown and discussed in detail along with
the stadium blueprint.
For sports that can be played in zero-G conditions, a vote will be taken, on the
basis of which either the standard gravity version or zero gravity version of the
game will be played. Games with low-G allowances will be voted on in the same
way. Rules and changes in the fields for games, which can be played in zero-G
conditions, will be further elaborated in the next section.
All field events will be played on synthetic grass, while indoor events are played
on standard housing flooring.

Event

Archery

Section

Per

Zero

Team

Sagan

1 rep.

NA

Center

per event

Rule Changes

Standard Olympic
Rules (World Archery
Organization)

Athletics

Ptolemy

2 rep.

NA

Track

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (International
Association of
Athletics Federations)
The following events
will take place: 100m,
200m, 400m, 800m,
1500m, 4 x 100m
relay, Long Jump,

271

High Jump, Triple


Jump, Pole Vault, Shot
Put, Javelin Throw.
Zero-G Race

Badminton

Hubble

2 rep.

Arena

per event

Newton

3 rep.

Room A

per team

Explained in the next


section

NA

Standard Olympic
Rules (Badminton
World Federation)

Basketball

Sagan

5 rep.

Center

per team

LOW G

Standard Olympic

VERSION

Rules (Fdration
Internationale de
Basket-ball)
Total game time
increases with the
decrease in gravity
levels.

Cricket

Higgs Field

11 rep.

NA

(Stage I)

per team

Standard Olympic
Rules (International
Cricket Council)

Volleyball

Hubble

LOW G

Standard Olympic

Arena

VERSION

Rules (Fdration
Internationale de
Volleyball) Total game
time increases with the
decrease in gravity
levels.

Mixed Martial

Newton

1 rep.

AVAILABLE

Arts

Room B

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (Ultimate
Fighting
Championship)
Zero-G Rules
explained in the next

272

section.
Triathlon

Higgs Field

2 rep.

NA

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (General
Committee)

Diving

Higgs Field

2 rep.

NA

(Stage II)

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (Fdration
internationale de
natation)

Football

Higgs Field

11 rep.

SEPARATE

(Stage I)

per event

EVENT

Standard Olympic
Rules (The Fdration
Internationale de
Football Association)

Gymnastics

Newton

1 rep.

Room B

per event

LOW G

Standard Olympic

VERSION

Rules (Fdration
Internationale de
Gymnastique)
Rubrics for scoring get
stricter with decreasing
gravity levels.

Handball

Higgs Field

7 rep.

SEPARATE

(Stage I)

per team

EVENT

Standard Olympic
Rules (International
Handball Federation)

Rowing

Hawking

8 rep.

NA

Virtual Lab

per team

Standard Olympic
Rules (Fdration
Internationale des
Socits d'Aviron)

Snowboarding Hawking
Virtual Lab

2 rep.
per event

LOW G

Standard Olympic

VERSION

Rules (Fdration
Internationale de Ski)
No real snow
environment will be

273

created.
Rugby

Higgs Field

11 rep.

LOW G

Standard Olympic

(Stage I)

per team

EVENT

Rules (World Rugby)


Total game time
increases with the
decrease in gravity
levels.

Shooting

Sagan

2 rep.

NA

Center

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (International
Shooting Sport
Federation)

Swimming

Higgs Field

1 rep.

NA

(Stage II)

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules (Fdration
internationale de
natation)

Table Tennis

Newton

3 rep.

NA

Room A

per team

Standard Olympic
Rules (International
Table Tennis
Federation)

Tennis

Huygens

3 rep.

NA

Hub

per team

Standard Olympic
Rules. (International
Tennis Federation)
Clay court.

Weightlifting

Newton

1 rep.

NA

Room B

per event

Standard Olympic
Rules. (International
Weightlifting
Association)
Magnetic Weight
Systems used, as
explained in
Recreation.

Figure

Galilee

1 rep.

NA
274

Standard Olympic

Skating

Rink

per event

Rules (International
Skating Union)

Ice Hockey

Galilee

6 rep.

NA

Rink

per team

Standard Olympic
Rules (Fdration
Internationale de
Hockey sur Gazon)

Enders Game Hubble

Quidditch

Jet Race

9 rep.

Arena

per team

Hubble

7 rep.

Arena

per team

Higgs

1 rep.

Holding

per event

Explained in the next


section

Explained in the next


section

OUTERSPACE Explained in the next


section

(Located
along the
Moonside
VASIMR
Dock)
Paraball

Hubble

7 rep.

(Parabolic

Arena

per team

Explained in the next


section

Football)

28.8
Game Rules

28.8.1
General Zero G Rules
Standard Olympic games played in Zero or Low G conditions will be voted for by
the 6 teams at the beginning to the new Olympic year, as mentioned before.
According to the voted decision, the Hubble Arena magnetic strength will changed
275

to meet gravity requirements. Games with goal or scoring based objectives will be
played for longer where game time increases with respect to the total G level
(Game time increases by 5 minutes for every 1 m/s2 reduction in total acceleration
due to gravity)
As for events such as Gymnastics, the participants will be scored with much
stricter guidelines as G reduces.

28.8.2
Zero G Race
The Zero G Race is a general start to finish race where participants race through
the Kepler Bridge, starting with a staircase run which moves into a run on steep
surfaces and finally ends in a zero G environment on the top, at the Hubble
Arena. Here participants must move through areas using different methods of
racing, ranging from running to crawling to even swimming in air. The total
distance raced will be 4 km.

28.8.3
Low G MMA
Mixed Martial Arts are the only fighting event in the Zero G Games. The lower G
version of the game allows combatants to use the Upper rooms of the Hubble
Arena, as they ascend to upper floors (and experience lower gravity) as they
move on in the competition. The final rounds will be fought in the central Hubble
Arena. The special feature of fighting in lower G environments is the use of tactics
involving collision fighting. Participants can push walls to gain momentum, which
will allow more forceful combat.

276

28.8.4
Virtual Lab
The virtual lab will be setup along with virtual reality gaming systems, secured
over the settlements core network system. Indoor rowing beds as used for
practice will be connected to this software and will allow providing the most
realistic experience. A similar setup will be used for snowboarding, where
participants will enter a gyroscopic module, created to emulate snowboarding
accurately.

28.8.5
Enders Game231
As described in the book, teams will prepare for the classic space game, Enders
game. Teams will navigated through a paintball field type of set-up which
randomizes every day and try to reach the enemy teams base, without getting
paralyzed by enemy laser guns. This game will probably be the highlight of the
entire event.

28.8.6
Quidditch 232
Quidditch will be played by standard rules, where each team has: a seeker who
runs after the motorized snitch ball which has been programmed to learn general
seeker path trends, making it harder to catch, three chasers who score goals with
the game ball, two beaters, who collide into enemy players to disrupt the flow of
their offensive plays and a goalkeeper, who protects his/her teams goal. The zero
G environment will make the game as realistic as possible.

28.8.7
Paraball233
277

Paraball or Parabolic football is football, played in a zero G environment. Here,


players may use tactics that allow them to achieve high speeds and swift
movements by intercepting and pushing off of each other as it will be supported
under the Charge Based Electromagnetic System.

28.8.8
The Jet Race
The Jet Race is a short race where teams design their own space vehicle, which
can be used to race around the settlement. Teams will be given a credit limit,
which they may use to purchase raw materials and work on their design. This
event will only take place once in 6 years, and the head engineer of the settlement
will supervise all designs. The race may be preponed or postponed when
approaching dangerous areas in space.

TLDR;

The Space Olympics or Zero-G Games will take place every 4 years in TMD
where fair teams will be randomly selected. They will include standard Earth
events, some of which may be played in low-g conditions, in the deGrasse
Stadium. New games such as quidditch and parabolic football will be introduced,
and held in 0-gravity conditions. Special games may be played outside the station,
inside a virtual lab or wearing a charged suit in a magnetic sphere.

278

Section 29: Other Activities


Recreation

The people of TMD, living in a more or less automated setup, will have a great
amount of free time in their daily schedules. For this we have setup certain
activities in areas throughout TMD

Fitness and Exercise

Not only the Olympic participant, but also the general public may want access to a
gym or running field. Gyms for those who want to exercise may be setup at every
house on request. The weights will be magnetically controlled and wont actually
weigh much. The citizens will be provided with a bench and a magnetic dumbbell
and barbell.

For those looking for a traditional workout experience, there will be public gyms
available around bus stops in every region of the habitat zone. Gyms will contain
some multipurpose machines in addition to the weights to provide both compound
and isolate movements of the muscles. The first three generations of residents will
be strongly advised against circuit training or high intensity interval training. The
first generation will also be strongly advised against training with heavy weights or
powerlifting, without the supervision of a trainer and will have to have monthly
health checks. While this may seem like a huge inconvenience, it is only to ensure
that the newly adapting human body is not put under too much physical exertion
and pressure.

Runners may install virtual treadmills in their homes, or take to the street, where
the shock absorbent zone flooring will minimize damage caused to the knees.
Cyclists may use cycling tracks that run adjacent to sidewalks.

279

(Source: Tuvie)

Sports

Residents will have completely free access to playgrounds, situated along with the
gyms. These grounds will comprise of a grass field, clay court and some indoor
practice areas. Parts of the grounds may be booked in advance for any major
sport event. Sports played here may range from field events such as football and
rugby, clay court games such as basketball or tennis, and indoor games such as
squash and table tennis. One can enter the ground from either the Indoor Room,
or the Clay Courts side. Grounds will be under camera security and littering or any
other crime will be strongly punished.

280

Space Walk

One thing that the residents of TMD will never be able to adapt to, throughout
generations, is their love for space or just any sort of adventure and so not
letting the residents truly experience space is quite unfair to them. Therefore
residents will be allowed to book space walks, where they are allowed to leave the
station on tethers and can explore the station from the outside. Some days may
be more booked than others depending on the position of TMD at that time.

Music

Music will be an integral part of the residents lives; primary so as to keep them
connect to both those on Earth, and to each other. All residents will be allowed to
purchase one instrument and will be able to purchase a new instrument on
completion of certain goals. Models provided to the residents will be among the
best and wont need to be upgraded. Music may be recorded at home and
equipment to record will be provided to those who are musically accomplished.
This music can be shared over the common intranet used by every resident.

281

Entertainment

Cinema and theatre will be strongly supported as it will again, ensure that the
creative side of residents isnt suppressed. Theatrical groups may audition and
perform at auditoriums spread across the settlement. Movies and television may
be filmed and aired at cinemas and on the intranet network shows, as long as the
shows have a viewership of more than 0.002% of the virtual budget of the show.
This means that movie The Martian would require a minimum expected
viewership of 2,160 residents (0.002% of the 108 million dollar budget) to be
considered as a movie worth filming. On a side note, the number of space sci-fi
movies will turn into documentaries and alien invasion films into horror.

Zero-G Meditation

The residents of TMD will be exposed to the most powerful form of meditation,
yoga in a zero gravity center. Trained by a guru and to prevent high-stress and
high-tension situations from affecting the efficiency of people on the craft. Studies
have shown that regular mediation increases general adaptability of the body,
something that will prove to be very necessary in the lives of these residents.

Makers Lab

Following the footsteps of the current Maker movement around the world, TMD
will have a large section of the industrial and habitation zone dedicated to those
interested in building and innovating. Ardiuno and Raspberry Pi microprocessors
(as well as newly developed quantum computing processors) will be freely
available to residents who can take lessons on electrical and robotic engineer
without having to enroll in a specific program. Parts will be freely available at
depot stores and specific parts can be 3D printed for small-scale projects. Largescale printing projects will require a written project proposal, which will almost
always be approved. Competitions ranging from robot battles to automated car
races and other robot competitions will be held regularly.
282

Video Games

Residents of TMD will be given access to virtual gaming devices, such as the
Oculus, but daily game time will be somewhat restricted to prevent inefficiency
amongst residents. Games can be developed by residents interested in learning
programming in a language customized for development of games on TMD.

Monthly Competitions

Monthly debates between randomly selected teams may be another highlight of


the settlement, where residents get to voice their opinion and develop public
speaking skills. Other events such as Model United Nations, music competitions,
races, book writing competitions, hackathons and art competitions will also be an
integral part of the residents year.

283

Section 30: Telescope


We may consider constructing a telescope over the upper surface of TMD since
space permits us to do so. This would be beneficial as the curvature of the station
wide lens will be larger than any telescope ever built by man, and would allow us
to prepare better for the exoplanet where landing.

This telescope shall be constructed in L4, and attached to TMD. It shall include
radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma sections to fully
understand the nearby universe.

The data from this telescope shall be integral to plotting the course to Gliese 667
Cc. Additionally, it shall be sent to Earth scientists for analysis. It is likely to
produce revolutionary new information as it shall probe faraway areas in great
detail due to its proximity to them.

284

285

Chapter VIII
Appendices

286

Appendix A: Stability of Chosen Points


The aim of this Appendix is to prove the stability of points L4 and L5.
3-Body Problem

In our case the Earth, Moon and the Space Settlement are the 3 bodies. The 3body problem is used to calculate the motions of the 3 bodies in accordance to
the laws of motion. Thus it can be used to find the stability of the chosen L4 orbit.

The following assumptions help us solve the problem:

1. The mass of the settlement is much less than the mass of earth and moon
thus its effect is negligible.

2. The moon-earth orbit is circular.

3. All 3 bodies lie on the same plane i.e. they are coplanar.

Thus now we can call this problem: Planar Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem
(PCR3BP).

The trajectories of the Earth and the Moon can be written as,
!! , !! = ! cos ! , ! sin !
!! , !! = (1 !) cos ! , (1 !) sin !
Where ! is the mass parameter. Therefore !! , !! the displacements from M1 and M2
to the point P are,

287

!! ! = ! + ! cos !

+ ! + ! sin !

!! ! = ! (1 !) cos !

+ ! (1 !) sin !

Thus the Lagrangian describing the motion is,

!!"#$%!&' !, !, !, !, ! = !

1
1! !
!! +
+
2
!!
!!

And since,
! =!!

where T is the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of the system. Thus the
potential energy of the system can be written as,

! !, ! =

1! !

!!
!!

The Force F(x) on TMD can be given by


288

! ! =!

!"
!"

At an equilibrium point, the net force on the body must be zero. Hence,

! ! =!

!"
=0
!"

Now, for the point to be a stable equilibrium point, there must be a restoring force
when there is any displacement of the body dx. Thus, at the point of stability, the
derivative of the force should be negative.
!"
<0
!"
!"
!! !
=! !
!"
!!
!! !
>0
!! !
For TMD, in 3-dimensional space, the stability criterion for orbit of L4 or L5 is
given below, considering the Sun (body 1) to be a fixed mass, and a dominant
mass m1 (body 2) with an orbiting mass m2. (body 3) [1]
In this case m1 represents the Earth and m2 represents the Moon.
!! = !!""# = 7.34767309!!10!! !!"
!! = !!"#$! = 5.972!!10!" !!"
!!
< 0.0385
!! + ! !!

289

!!""#
= 0.0121536191 < 0.0385
!!""# + ! !!"#$!
Thus, with this inequality satisfied, point L4 is a stable point of equilibrium.

290

Appendix B: Space Settlement Treaty


The current treaties regarding space and celestial bodies were mainly drafted
around the 1960s. New treaties must be drafted and ratified to enable space
settlements to become a reality. Such a treaty is given below.

Space Settlement Treaty (2016)

Article 1
Space settlements shall constitute sovereign political bodies. No nation is to
interfere in the internal functioning of any space settlement.

Article 2
Space settlements are the collective property of humanity. No claims of national
sovereignty shall be made upon any space settlement.

Article 3
Nations shall not engage in the threat or use of force against a space station,
except to exercise their inherent right of individual or collective self-defense.

Article 4
Nations shall provide emergency aid to any space settlement if it has a clear and
demonstrated need.

Article 5
Humans born on space settlements shall have the same rights and protections as
humans born on Earth, and shall be treated equally in every way.

Article 6

291

Conflicts on Earth, between sovereign nations or otherwise, should not affect


activities on board space settlements. No nation is to order any offensive or
defensive action on board a space settlement, in any situation.

292

Appendix C: Public Survey


NASA Ames Space Settlement Contest
Astrophe
Arpit Kalla, Rayan Sud, Varun Jhunjhunwalla

Scoring on a 5-Point Scale

5: Strongly agree
4: Agree
3: Neutral
2: Disagree
1: Strongly disagree

1) We should expand to other planets and attempt to colonize them.

2) Governments should spend money on space exploration, and space


settlement in particular.

3) Governments across the world will be able to collaborate to build a single,


international space settlement.

4) We should attempt to contact extraterrestrial life if we find it.

5) I would be willing to live on a space settlement of 15,000-20,000 people,


with my immediate family and other selected families.

6) Schools should teach students about space and space colonization.

293

Purpose:

The purpose of this survey is to understand the general outlook of people when it
comes to interstellar travel, the colonization of space and attempts to find and
contact extraterrestrial life.

This survey sheet was given to 40 students, 10 parents and 10 teachers of our
school in order to understand the general trend.

Result:

Question

Average

Average

Average

Students

Parents

Teachers

3.60

2.80

3.00

4.40

3.50

4.70

3.50

2.60

2.80

4.40

3.80

4.00

4.20

4.00

3.80

4.90

4.50

4.70

Conclusion:
From this survey, we can safely say that the general thought process and
viewpoints of most people are leaning towards the promotion of increasing the
encouraging space travel.

Most of the students look keenly upon interstellar travel; while most opinions are
shaped by science fiction movies and references in popular culture, it is very

294

evident that the newer generations are most in touch with and more open to
exploring space.
The parents and teachers however seem more reserved as well as more practical
(as displayed by the results of question 3). The trend however is made clearer, as
newer generations seem more inviting to the idea of space exploration.

295

Appendix D: Alien Contact Protocol


As we venture out into deep space towards planets and star systems we barely
know anyhting about, odds are that we will come across some sort of life form
which could be intellegent, like us, or much more medival.

If the life we come across is more intellegent than us, it can be divided based on
its base life existance, as well as under criterion set by the Fermi Paradox. One
thing that we establish well in advance, is that under no circumstance do we as a
race, take any offensive action against the new-found life, unless threatened
directly or indirectly.

If we come across a Type I civilization (One that harnesses the complete energy
of their planet), we may try and make contact without any major fear in the back of
our minds, however if you come across a Type II or III civilization, we should aim
to avoid any major contact as these civilizations are definetely stronger and
smarter than us.234

If the species is more medival, and more basic than us, we will attempt to make
peacful contact. If peacful talks are unable to occur, we may take this as a sign to
go ahead and commencee with the organized colonization of the planet.

Although it may seem far fetched, but in the situation that we are one of the now
many newly found species we must make the taxing and well calculated decision
of who to contact and who to side with. Surival is the primary goal throughout.

296

Appendix E: Emergency Procedure and


Maintenance

Emergency and Maintenance

1. War on Earth

In the situation where countries are at war on Earth, the TMD should stay
unaffected. News of the problems will initially be sidelined (but not blocked)
to avoid chaos and antinationalist feelings on the settlement. After a few
generations, problems on Earth would not create worry in the minds of any
of the residents.

As emphasized in the Space Settlement Treaty (2016) (Appendix B)


Article 6, no action on Earth will affect the functioning of the station.

In the situation of a large-scale war during the construction period, as low


as the probability is, construction would have to be temporarily suspended,
primarily for counties in conflict. This means that neutral countries can
continue production, while other countries are advice against input
production. Space shipments will resume after the official end of conflict.

2. Bloc separation on the TMD

If blocs are created on the settlement, based on religion, region, race, etc,
strict actions will be taken to prevent the separations, as history has shown
that the creation of blocs is what leads to future conflict. The laws on the
settlement clearly state that the creation of direct or indirect groups is
forbidden.
297

This rule is not extended to groups working on projects or preparing for


team sports and only applies to long-term groups based around birth given
characteristics.

3. Terrorism

The settlement will follow a policy of complete non-negotiation when it


comes to terrorism on Earth or on the craft (although chances of this are
close to nothing). Following this policy is legal as explained in the Space
Settlement Treaty (2016) (Appendix B).

In the situation where terror organizations on Earth are threatening the


safety or functioning of the settlement, both the security organizations
dedicated to TMD on and off Earth will take extremely focused actions.
However, any non-nuclear threat to TDM is not a major emergency
situation as both the asteroid deflection system and the extremely well held
structural layering will barely be damaged by the standard missiles that
terrorist organizations have access to.

4. Hacking

Almost the entire functioning of TMD is based on self-learning computer


systems. Although citizens of the settlement are only allowed complete
access to the Internet and highly restricted access to the intranet, coders
always tend to figure a way out around firewalls. To prevent any such
incident that will cause the entire station to lose its basic organization, the
security of the intranet will be layered differently every month, the core
software systems will be connected in parallel to the habitant accessed
intranet (making the only way to access the core system by means of
physical rewiring) and strict actions being held against the convict.
298

5. Rotational speed loss

As velocity decreases due to any gravitational disturbances, extended


exposure to low drag forces, stock interceptions or waste ejections
rotational speed may be lost over a long period of time. To prevent this, ion
thrusters and waste injection systems will be directed such that velocity is
kept constant.

6. Wear and tear

The flooring, walls and other materials will face major wear and tear with
time; so all materials will be uni-carved and undergo heavy maintenance to
be able to last long.
To maintain lubrication in machinery, the sealant get will be used to create
a diluted oil-like lubricant.

7. Food shortage

Food shortage due to lack of productive agricultural produce, wastage or


bad distribution of food cannot be solved by employing economic policies
generally used against shortages, as food is provided as a free good.
Luckily enough though, the food produced on the VM increases with the
needs of the people and stabilizes with population so a shortage shouldnt
be an issue. Additionally excess food is kept in a cool storage area and can
be used during a shortage.
If complete food production stops or decreases significantly, the Calorie
needs for people will be dropped by 250-500 Calories each until production
returns to normal.

8. Water shortage

299

Water shortages will be dealt in a similar way as food shortages. The water
produced on the VM is provided in excess, so a shortage is extremely
unlikely. But incase of an issue, general non-drinking water supply will be
directed to purification units and supplied for consumption until production
is brought back on track.

300

9. Emergency Removal of Carbon monoxide

A catalyst made of manganese dioxide and copper oxide, called Hopcalite,


is used. Air is passed through a particulate and oil filter, then passed
through activated carbon to further remove organic compounds and oils.
The Hopcalite then oxidizes the CO to carbon dioxide.

(Diagram from Cartus Corporation)

This procedure is only a short-term emergency measure. When it receives


a signal from the TMD APS, this process activates to scrub CO from the
air.

10. Emergency Removal of Ozone

The catalyst used here is similar to that used for CO removal. It is a

301

granular blend of Hopcalite.


The system shall be permanently running, as the catalyst is not used up.

11. Emergency Removal of Hydrogen

The process used here is the same as that used for CO removal. A
Hopcalite catalyst catalytically absorbs hydrogen.

12. Construction problems

The planning organizations on Earth will deal all problems faced during
construction in the L4 orbit, and any additional materials or workers needed
can be sent directly from Earth. The VASIMR may be used for any welding
work.

13. Exoplanet travel problems

Problems in the path on the way to the exoplanet will be dealt by a


rerouting system on board however the system will always give a higher
preference to delaying travel in order to continue along a single,
predetermined path and will only change course it high emergency
situations stemming from being placed in a potential collision courses or
due to gravitational anomalies.

14. Power failure

The coil power system will undergo maintenance on a weekly basis where
it is lubricated by sealant-based lubricants.
In case of complete power failure in the nuclear generators, the VM will
switch to using solar power. If the settlement is in a dark region, the backup
power supply and generator will be put into effect. This generator-storage
system can store enough energy to power the essential functionalities of
302

the settlement (basic communications and navigation, basic electricity, the


core system, etc) for over 5 years.

15. Overheating

The highly computerized settlement is bound to overheat at some point in


time, as usage of electronics increases. While the TCS aims to keep
temperatures stable and below 50C, in case of major overheating power
supply to the affect regions computers will be temporarily cut off.

In case of overheating in the nuclear region, which cannot be controlled by


the TCS, the nuclear power supply will have to decrease production and
the ammonia coolant system will increase pressure to the nuclear reactor
region.

16. Pipeline clogging

Clogging in ammonia heat transfer pipelines or any water supply pipelines


will have to be solved manually. This task will get rather messy and would
be something habitants would like to avoid. Hence this task will be given to
convicts in times of clogging.

17. General problems

General problems such as fires, leakages, docking issues, electrical


problems, or hub major damages in the interior of the craft may constantly
occur.

Fires will be solved by typical fire a detection system that triggers an


extinguishing belt, which releases highly pressured carbon dioxide and
nitrogen along the plane of the region on fire.

303

Leakages will almost never occur as doubly enforced single block pipes will
be used, but in case of any household leakage, residents will be provided
with the tools necessary to carry out any plumbing.

Docking issues will be solved by sending out an engineer on tethers to help


manually docking the craft. Additionally, the electromagnets present inside
the engine of the VASIMR are pushed out externally so payloads may be
intercepted and directed to storage bays.

Electrical failures are as unlikely as leakages as large plastic coverings


insulate all wires. All electrical installations are supervised and carried out
with permission so that no new power source interrupts the stability of the
overall circuit. All houses are connected in parallel and grounded in the
industrial waste region.

All major hub damages will be considered as to be a major problem and


will be given high priority. The regions will be air-locked before construction
to prevent complete settlement depressurization and teams will work along
with robotic support to fix all damage and replace all parts. The VASIMR
may be used here.

18. Radiator or Whipple shield damage

Engineers on tethers will manually repair any major damage done to the
carbon group radiators or the Whipple shields. The Whipple shields can be
easily replaced if need be, and will be produced in the industrial region.
The VASIMR welding may be used here.

19. Radiation shielding malfunctions

If the radiation shielding mechanism fails, the mass shielding structure will
have to face complete shielding pressure. This mass shielding mechanism,
304

depending on the location of the craft, will only be able to provide enough
healthy shielding for up to only about 1 month.

Therefore the radiation-shielding sector will be connected to the main


power supply and well as the backup storage unit.

20. Olympic cheating

Any cheating or match fixing in the Zero-G games will result in conviction,
as this event is the proof of complete teamwork and sportsmanship on the
craft.

21. Asteroid failure

Failure to deflect a large asteroid by the PMDS Low will result in needing
to activate the PMDS High. The biggest problem this creates is that, by
launching a nuclear weapon present for emergency protection it open
doors for both overriding protocol to use the now activated warhead to
hamper functioning on the VM, as well requires the construction of the next
emergency nuclear missile to take place on the settlement itself.

The first problem of warhead hijacking can be countered by keeping the


activity highly secretive and classified, and shut down all intranet and
internet access for two days prior to the launch.

The second issue can be avoided by trying to allow as low human


involvement as possible in the construction of the missile. This leads
towards both, perfection in building the weapon through precise robotic
means as well as ensuring limited human access.

22. Religious groups

305

As emphasized before, the creation of distinct religious groups is highly


illegal and convicts will be dealt with strictly. No one may ask for subsidies
or reservations based on religious grounds, and any petition to do so will
be treated as a criminal offense against the function of the ship.

23. Economy fails

Since most goods on the VM are free and made to optimize negative
externalities, there are not many ways in which the hypothetical market on
the VM may fail. However, if demand for any product increases largely and
a black market for 3D printed goods is created, major law enforcement will
have to take place.

24. Chemical threats

Any threats of chemical leakages in any region will be dealt with, with high
priority. After drones analyze the contaminant or potential contaminant,
necessary steps along the lines of chemical neutralization will be taken to
prevent any general pollution in the settlement.

25. Disease breakthrough

In a span of more than 200,000 years a new patient X is bound to exist,


who carries a disease than humans have never dealt with. To prevent
breakthrough of diseases, major medical centers will be present to only
deal with such catastrophes. If the disease is specific to a region, it will be
cut off from all surrounding areas as soon as discovered.

26. Artificial Intelligence Takeover

Almost all the entire VM is controlled and run by a core computer software
system that works on the basic principles of artificial intelligence and will
306

learn over 200 thousand years. Chances are that the system will eventually
see itself as a more superior species than the humans and will try to take
full control of the settlement. Preventing this is rather simple. Creating a
parallel core software which is disconnect from and not known to the core
system, which only tracks the thinking of the core system. Whenever it
identifies a thought which is leading towards an idea which could harm
humans, it identifies those in charge, who simply clear the thought
process tree to the last safe node.

27. Emergency evacuation

Both VASIMR crafts will be ready in place incase an emergency evacuation


is necessary. Both can carry 5-6 people each and are durable enough to
sustain themselves for a very long time. These crafts have enough storage
space to carry close to a 500 TB of data and would serve as ideal backups
for all craft held data, in the event of a major emergency.

307

Appendix F: Cost Estimation


Good or Service
Space Elevator Construction

Quantity

Cost Per Unit

Total Cost

$40,000,000,000

$40,000,000,000

21000000

$40,000

$840,000,000,000

$200,000,000

$200,000,000

Helium Fuel Stage 1

1200000000

$17

$20,400,000,000

Helium Fuel Stage 2

8800000000

$17

$149,600,000,000

Helium Fuel Stage 3

743864000000

$17

$12,645,688,000,000

Helium Fuel Stage 4

667246008000

$17

$11,343,182,136,000

MCC-1 Paint Layer 1

1886841

$120

$226,420,920

Carbon Nanoube Framework

2872588

$20

$57,451,752

780349

$120

$93,641,832

983918

$3

$2,951,753

79121

$150

$11,868,084

1194046

$8

$9,552,372

Sealant Gel Layer 2

100116

$15

$1,501,747

Aluminum Oxynitride Glass

804325

$120

$96,518,943

100965

$150

$15,144,700

1014830

$3

$3,044,490

Sealant Gel Layer 4

102001

$150

$15,300,205

Aluminum Oxynitride Glass

819404

$120

$98,328,447

102850

$15

$1,542,744

1241546

$8

$9,932,367

312507

$120

$37,500,839

3171721

$280

$888,081,944

MCC-1 Paint Layer 3

107185

$120

$12,862,181

Lunar Industry Set up

$98,000,000

$98,000,000

Space Elevator Use


Sapce Elevator Maintainance

Aluminum Oxynitride Glass


Mesh Layer 1
Polyurethane Foam Layer 1
Sealant Gel Layer 1
Silicone Rubber Layer 1

Mesh Layer 2
Sealant Gel Layer 3
Polyurethane Foam Layer 2

Mesh Layer 3
Sealant Gel Layer 5
Silicone Rubber Layer 2
MCC-1 Paint Layer 2
6AL-4V Titanium

308

Construction Set-up

$60,000,000,000

$60,000,000,000

Radiation Shielding

125664

$800

$100,530,965

360

$70

$25,200

$21,000,000

$42,000,000

125664

$100

$12,566,371

Nuclear Power Plant

$40,000,000

$40,000,000

Atmosphere Installation

$100,000

$100,000

Atmosphere Maintanence

$20,000,000

$20,000,000

Aeroponic Setup

$5,000,000

$5,000,000

Other Agricultural s

$5,000,000

$5,000,000

Temperature Regulation

$3,769,911

$3,769,911

$3,769,911

$3,769,911

180

$12,000

$2,160,000

Olympic Stadium

$10,000,000,000

$10,000,000,000

Intranet/Internet Setup

$100,000

$100,000

General Civilian Aid

$3,000,000

$3,000,000

Housing

$5,000,000,000

$5,000,000,000

Recreational Facility

$2,000,000,000

$2,000,000,000

General Facility

$10,000,000,000

$10,000,000,000

Labour

$1,000,000,000

$1,000,000,000

Industrial and Running

$800,000,000

$800,000,000

Nuclear Fuel

$4,000,000,000

$4,000,000,000

Electromagnet
Whipple Shielding System
VASIMR Craft
Solar Panel Installation

System

Pipeline System
Water-distrubution Line
Carbon Group Radiator Setup

$25,133,787,803,680

Final Cost- $25,133,787,803,680

309

310

Appendix G: Thermal Control System Program


The core system software will be linked to individual communication sectors,
which are connect to all major functioning systems.

The temperature modulation and control systems, explained in Section 20 is


controlled by the following program.

The Core_Software.Probes.Temperature package connects to the settlements


digital thermometers and the Core_Software.Data.tempBand package allows
access to the file of temperature range values for all regions.

Here the sector_temp array stores the temperature value for all points in the
station, in 360 sectors, over all 3 layers of the settlement.

The permissions class is a simple password enter tab, which runs the program.

The read_temp function rechecks the temperature of the station, usually in 5


minute intervals.

The change_temp function changes the temperature of any region by increasing


or decreasing coolant flow in that region.

The Radiator function opens and shuts the external wide winged radiators
whenever necessary.

The core_TCS functions ensure that temperatures in regions dont fluctuate or


cross the allotted temperature ranges and closes the thermoelectric cooling
system if the settlement temperature falls drastically.

311

Class Thermal_Control_System - Programs


1
2

1/2

import Core_Software.Probes.Temperature; // To measure temperatures


import Core_Software.Data.tempBand; // For temperature requirement data

3
4
5

class Thermal_Control_System
{

6
7

double [] sector_temp = new double [1080]; // Temperature for every d


egree of the habitat

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

private void permissions(String Password) // Security


{
if(Password.equals("spacelover123"))
{
Core_TCS();
}
}

16
17
18
19
20
21

22
23
24

public double read_temp()


{
for(int i=0; i<1080; i++) // scan through every temperature point
{
sector_temp [i] = TemperatureProbeCelcius(i); //returns tempe
rature
}
return sector_temp;
}

25
26
27
28

29

public void changeTemp (int region, double change)


{
region.setTemp(read_temp()[region] + change); // Increase or decr
ease temperature
}

30
31
32
33

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

public void Radiator (String command, String password, int IDnumber)


{
if(command.equalsIgnoreCase("close") && password.equals("spacelov
er123"))
{
CRG.close(number); //Shut radiator number
}
else
{
CRG.open(all); //Open all radiators
}
}

42

public void core_TCS()

43
44
45

{
for(int j=0;j<1080;j++) // Check all regions
Feb 21, 2016 6:14:42 PM

312

Class Thermal_Control_System - Programs (continued)


{

46
47
48
49

2/2

if((read_temp()[j]>j.tempBand(max)// if it's above maximum


{
changeTemp(j,(j.tempBand(max)-read_temp()[j])); // Lowers
temperature

50
51
52
53
54

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

}
if((read_temp()[j]<j.tempBand(min)// If it's below minimum
{
changeTemp(j,(read_temp()[j])-j.tempBand(min)); // Increa
ses temperature
TECS.close(j); // Close TECS in region
}
else
{
TECS.open(all); // Open all TECS
}
}
}

63
64
65
66

Feb 21, 2016 6:14:42 PM

313

Fuel
Appendix
H: Derivation of Rocket Equation
Storage

Fuel Storage

The momentum (p) of a body is defined as the product of its mass and its velocity,
that is, p = mv.

Assume at time, t1, the mass of the settlement is Mi and its velocity is v1.

At time, t2, however, the mass of the settlement is Mi - Mfuel (written as M2) and its
velocity is v2. And at this same time, the mass of the fuel released, is Mfuel and its
velocity is vfuel.

314

So initially the total momentum of the settlement system is pi and by the law of
conservation of momentum, the final momentum (pf) is the sum of the new
momentum of the settlement, p2, and the momentum of the fuel released pfuel.

This is represented by the equation,


!! = !! !!
!! = !! !!
!!"#$ = !!"#$ !!"#$
!! = !! + !!"#$ = ! !! !! + ! !!"#$ !!"#$ !

keeping in mind, the initial mass of the station, Mi, is the sum of the mass of the
fuel and the rest of the station (M2 + Mfuel) and the new velocity of the settlement is
the sum of initial velocity and the change in its velocity ( vinitial + vchange), the new
equation for momentum is,
!! !! = ! !! !! + ! !!"#$ !!"#$
(!! + !!"#$ )!! = ! !! (!! + !!!!"#$ ) ! + ! !!"#$ !!"#$
!! !! + !!"#$ !! = ! !! !! + ! !! !!!!"#$ + ! !!"#$ !!"#$
!!"#$ !! = ! !! !!!!"#$ + ! !!"#$ !!"#$

Although, the fuel from our point of view travels opposite to the direction of force
and has a relative velocity to the craft, allowing us to make the statement that,
!!"#$%&'" = !! !!"#$
And this changes the equation as such,
!!"#$ !! = ! !! !!!!!"# + ! !!"#$ (!! ! !!"#$%&'" )
!!"#$ !! = ! !! !!!!"#$ + ! !!"#$ !! ! !!"#$ !!"#$%&'"
0 = ! !! !!!!"#$ ! !!"#$ !!"#$%&'"
With these steps we have shown that the change in momentum, which is
conserved (therefore 0) is equal to !! !!!!"#$ ! !!"#$ !!"#$%&'"
Now using Newtons 2nd law of motion which states that the rate of change of
momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force applied on the body, and
in the direction of the force, we can mathematically show that,
315

! =!

!! !!!!!
!

! =!

or ! = !

!!!"#$!!"!!"!#$%!"
!"#$!!"#$%

!! !!!!"#$ ! !!"#$ !!"#$%&'"


!"# !!"#$%
!"

now the change in velocity with respect to the time is

!"

and the mass of fuel, when taken with respect to time is the rate of loss of mass of
the settlement, or

!"
!"

. This rate is negative, since mass is lost, so it finally

!"

becomes ! !" .
And hence,
! = ! !!

!"
!"

+ ! !!"#$%&'"

!"
!"

And as shown before, this net force is equal to zero due to conservation of
momentum, allowing us to form the equation
!!

!"
!"
= ! !!!"#$%&'"
!"
!"

Now lets integrate this equation,


!!
!!

!"
=
!"

!!
!!

!!!"#$%&'"

!" 1
! !
!" !!

!!!!"#$ = !!"#$%&'" !ln! ! !

!!
!
!!

!!!!"#$ = !!"#$%&'" !ln !! !" !! !


!!!!"#$ = !!"#$%&'" !ln !! !" !! !
!!"#$%& = !!"#$%&'" !!!" !

!!
!!

This is the rocket equation, which may be used as


!!
! = !! !"
!!
where the change in velocity is found using the velocity of the fuel lost (Ve), and
the propellant mass ratio (ratio of the mass of the fuel, mf to the total mass of the
settlement, md)

316

Reflecting on Experience
All in all, writing this paper was an incredible experience for all of three of us. Over
the last six months, not only have we successfully completed the most intricate,
detailed project that we have ever attempted, but have also learnt a great deal
from each other. After the numerous dinner meetings where we discussed topics
ranging from complex orbital mechanics to ideal designs for things as simple as
chicken coops and the countless coffee fueled all-nighters, it is safe to say that
this is the greatest project we have worked on yet. To be able to produce a paper
that covers every field of study, from astrophysics to psychology and from
mathematic modeling to economics and government, is something that we are
very proud of. The process of writing this paper has been an incredible journey
and as it comes to its end, we are just thankful that it has been able to get us
closer to each other and has helped us deal with our Astrophe.

317

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