3phase circuits

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3phase circuits

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of almost all the domestic and commercial

applications like lamps , fans, electric irons , TVs ,

refrigerators , washing machines, computers etc,

But it has its own limitations in Generation ,

Transmission

,

Distribution

and

industrial

applications . Due to these variations in these

parameters, the single phase system has been replaced

by poly phase system, which is commonly used for

generation, transmission and distribution of Electric

Power.

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3 PHASE CIRCUITS

voltage of the same magnitude and frequency.

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phase difference and depends on No. of phases. The phase difference is denoted by

.s

a

However the above relation is not good enough for the two phase system. In two

phase system the phase difference is 90.

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PHASE SEQUENCE

In 3 system there are three voltages having same magnitude and frequency

displacing by an angle of 120. These three voltages can attain their maximum

value in a particular order.

The order or sequence in which the all these voltages attain their maximum

value in the 3 is called PHASE SEQUENCE.

Generally the three phases may be represented by numbers i.e. 1, 2, 3 or by

letters a, b, c or by colors RED, YELLOW, BLUE. In INDIA they are named as

RYB.

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as RBY, BYR, YRB are considered as negative phase sequence.

The main significance concern regarding the usage of finding the phase sequence

is:

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sequence of 3 supply. To reverse the direction of rotation, the phase

sequence of supply given to motor has to be changed.

The parallel operation of alternators and T/F s is possible if the phase

sequence is known.

ADVANTAGES OF 3 SUPPLY OVER 1 SUPPLY

.s

a

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A poly phase 3 system requires less conductor material than the 1 supply

for same amount of power at same voltage level.

For same size of machine, the poly phase machine gives higher output than

1 machine.

Poly phase motor gives uniform torque, where as 1 motor gives pulsating

torque.

3 induction motors are self starting motors but 1 motors are not self

starting.

For same power rating the P.F of 1 motors is less than 3 motors

The parallel operation of 3 alternators or transformers id simple compared

to 1 alternators and transformers.

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Each coil of three phases has two terminals: one is starting terminal

represented by 1 and other is ending terminal represented by 2, as shown below.

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Hence the three phases are generally interconnected.

The general methods of interconnection are

STAR or WYE CONNECTION.

DELTA or MESH CONNECTION.

(a) STAR OR WYE CONNECTION

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.s

a

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If all similar terminals (i.e., starting ends or finishing ends) of three phase

windings are connected to a common point as shown in fig, then the id is called

star connection. This common point is called as star point or Neutral point.

Star Connection

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Phasor diagram

hi

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Where VRY= Vector difference of VRN and VYN=VRN-VYN

.s

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From the vector diagram the potential difference between R and Y phase is VRY

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Vector diagram

The resultant voltage VRY=VRN2+ (-VYN) 2 - 2 VRN (-VYN) COS (angle between VR

& VY)

VRY = VRN2+ VYN2 + 2 VRN VYN COS 60

(since

VRY= VLINE

.s

a

VLINE=3 VPH

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VRN=VBN=VYN=VPH)

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phase, so the current flowing through the line and phase are same. i.e.; the current

in phase R-phase is IR , current in Y phase is IY.

For balanced supply IR =IY=IB=IPH=IL

Line current (IL) =phase current (IPH)

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2. POWER EXPRESSION

If is the phase difference or phase angle between the phase current (IPh) and

voltage (VPh) , then the expression for power per phase is:

= 3 (VPh IPh Cos )

and IPh=IL

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= 3 (VPh IPh Sin )

Q = 3 VL IL Sin

var

hi

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.s

a

ks

If all dissimilar ends of the 3 windings are joined together to form a closed

path or the three ways are joined in series to form a closed path, then this

connection is called delta or mesh connection. i.e.; if the starting ends of one phase

is joined to finishing end of other phase and so on as shown below fig:

Delta connection

Vector Diagram

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VRY=VRB=VYB=VL=VPh

Line voltage (VL)=Phase voltage(VPh)

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difference between the two phases is called line voltage and it is also equal to

phase voltage i.e;

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From the above fig, the line current is vector difference phase current

of two phases concern let IYR , IRB and IBY are the phase currents i.e., the line

current through R phase is

IR=IYR-IRB

=IYR+ (-IRB)

hi

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=IBY + (-IYR)

IB=IRB-IBY

.s

a

=IRB + (-IBY)

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fig.

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Vector Diagram

From the vector diagram, the line current IR

IR=IYR2+ (-IRB) 2 - 2 IYR (-IRB) COS (angle between IYR & IRB)

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= IPH2+ IPH2 +2IPH IPH *0.5

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IL = 3 IPH

i.e.; line current=3 Phase current

IPH = IL /3

= 3 VL IL Cos

VPh = VL

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hi

.s

a

= 3 (VPh IPh Sin )

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Q = 3 VL IL Sin

var

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Delta Connection

1. All dissimilar ends are joined

together or three windings are

joined in series to form a closed

path or delta connection.

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i.e. all starting or finishing ends

are joined together to form a star

connection

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Star Connection

phase current=Line current

Phase voltage = Line voltage

4. It

provides

arrangement

wire

4. It

provides

arrangement

wire

by 30

for

3

is

P = 3 (VL/3) IL Cos watts

Q = 3 VL IL Sin

var

for

3

is

P = 3 (VL/3) IL Cos watts

Q = 3 VL IL Sin

var

of neutral point is zero

VN=VRN+VYN+VBN=0

voltage in a closed path is 0 i.e

VRY+VYB+VBR=0

power loads

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.s

a

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by 30.

The power in 3- system can be measured by using following methods

1. Three wattmeter method

2. Two wattmeter method

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load whether star or delta connected. The current coil of each wattmeter carries the

current of one coil only and pressure coil measure the phase voltage of the phase as

shown below in fig

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.s

a

The total power in load is given by algebraic sum of the readings .Let W 1,W2, W3

are the readings of wattcmeters then the total power supplied to 3 load is P=

W1+W2+ W3 .

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Phasor diagram

hi

power. Let us consider IR, IY, IB are the currents of R, Y, B phases respectively

which are nothing but phase and line currents. From circuit VRN, VBN, VYN be the

phase voltages (VPH) and VRY, VYB, VBR be the line voltages (VL ) .

.s

a

ks

is VRN now reading in wattmeter 1 is

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VYN now reading in wattmeter 2 is:

W2= VYN Iy cos2

W2= VPH IPH cos2

Current through wattmeter 3 is IB and voltage across pressure coil of wattmeter 3 is

VBN now reading in wattmeter 3 is

W3= VYN Iy cos3

W3= VPH IPH cos3

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P= VPH IPH cos1+ VPH IPH cos2+ VPH IPH cos3

Two Wattmeter method

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unbalanced load. In this method, the current coils of two wattcmeters are inserted

in any two Phases and pressure coils of each joined to third phase.

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.s

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The total power absorbed by the 3 balanced load is the sum of powers obtained

by wattcmeters W1 and W2. When load is assumed as inductive load, the vector

diagram for such a balanced star connected load is shown below

Vector Diagram

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Let VRN, VBN, VYN are the phase voltages and IR, IY ,IB are currents (phase or line ) .

Since load is inductive, the current lags their respective phase voltages by phase

angle ().

Let the current through wattmeter w1 = IR

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From vector diagram phase angle between VRB and IR is 30-.

Reading of wattmeter W1= VRB IR cos(30-)

(1)

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=VL IL cos(30-)

Similarly current through wattmeter w2=IY

=VY-VB

Reading of wattmeter W2 = VYB IY cos(30+)

(2)

hi

= VL IL cos(30+)

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.s

a

= VL IL cos(30-)+ VL IL cos(30+)

P =3 VL IL cos watts.

(3)

Hence the sum of two wattcmeters gives the total power absorbed by the 3 load.

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w1- w2 = VL IL cos(30-)+ VL IL cos(30+)

w1 -w2 = VL IL sin

(4)

3(1 2)

3VL IL sin

=

1 + 2

3 VL IL cos

3 (12)

= Tan

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1+2

1 3(12)

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()

+

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()

+

hi

We know that

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METHOD

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Power triangle

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.s

a

In the balanced condition, from above relations and power triangle, the reactive

power is given by 3 times the difference of readings of wattcmeters used.

Reactive power = 3 (W1-W2) var

Reactive power = 3 (VL IL sin) var

We know that, for balanced inductive load

Reading of wattmeter 1 is W1 = VL IL cos(30-)

Reading of wattmeter 2 is W2 = VL IL cos(30+)

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depend on load but also depends on its phase angle i.e.

i.

Then W1= W2= Cos 30

ii.

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W2 =VL ILCos(30+60)=0

iii.

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are positive and readings of wattmeter W2 will be reversed. For getting

the total power, the readings of W2 is to be subtracted from that of W1 .

When = 90 i.e power factor = 0

.s

a

iv.

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Total power = W1+W2=0

The single wattmeter method is used to measure the power of 3- balanced

system. Let ZR, ZY, ZB are the impedances of R, Y, B phases. IR, IY, IB are currents

through R, Y, B phases respectively.

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VRN, VBN, VYN be the phase voltages (VPH) and VRY, VYB, VBR be the line voltages

(VL).

Vector diagram

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From above diagram, the current through wattmeter is IR, voltage across

pressure coil is VRN. Now wattmeter reading is:

ks

.s

a

= 3 VL IL cos

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METHOD

The reactive power of 3 circuit can be measured using compensated

wattmeter. The circuit diagram of 3 star connection with compensated wattmeter

is shown below.

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Let ZR, ZY, ZB are the impedances of R, Y, B phases. IR, IY, IB are currents through

R, Y, B phases respectively.

VRN, VBN, VYN be the phase voltages (VPH) and VRY, VYB, VBR be the line voltages

(VL ) .

VRN=VBN=VYN=VPH

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.s

a

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VRY=VYB=VBR=VLINE

Vector diagram

Current through the current coil of wattmeter is IR

Voltage across pressure coil of wattmeter =VYB= VY-VB

Wattmeter reading = 3 VPH

IPH Sin

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Q = 3 VPH IPH Sin

UNBALANCED SYSTEMS

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frequencies of three phases is same otherwise it is called as unbalanced system.

2. Three phase three wire system(Delta or Star connection with Neutral)

1. THREE PHASE FOUR WIRE SYSTEM

The three phase three wire unbalanced system can be solved by any one

of the following methods.

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Loop or Mesh analysis method.

Millimans Method

.s

a

i)

ii)

iii)

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system. Let us consider the 3 star connection without neutral as shown below.

Let the phase sequence be R, Y & B.

Let ZR, ZY, ZB are the impedances of R, Y, B phases. IR, IY, IB are currents through

R, Y, B phases respectively.

VRN, VBN, VYN be the phase voltages (VPH) and VRY, VYB, VBR be the line voltages

(VL) .

VRN VBN VYN VPH

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ZRY , ZRB and ZYB are the branch impedances and are determined as

ZRY = ZR+ZY + (ZR ZY)/ ZB

ZRB = ZR+ZB + (ZR ZB)/ ZY

ZYB = ZY+ZB + (ZY ZB)/ ZR

hi

Brach Currents

ks

If IRY, IYB, IBR are the Brach currents, then can be determined as:

IRB =VRB -240 / ZRY

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Line currents

IR, IY, IB are the line currents and can be determined as follows:

At point a IRB +IR= IRY

IR= IRY- IRB

At point b IYB +IY= IRB

IY= IRB- IYB

At point c IRY + IY= IYB

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The voltage across ZR is VZR = IRZR

Voltage across ZY is VZY=IYZY

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is used to solve the 3, star without

neutral system. Let us consider a star

without neutral as shown below. Let the

phase sequence as RYB

Y, B phases.

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IR, IY, IB are the line or phase currents

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VRY0 = I1ZR + I1 ZY - I2 ZY

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VYB -120 = - I1 ZY + (ZB + ZY) I2

Now by substituting I1 in above equation we get I2

IY=I1-I2

IB= -I2

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MILLIMANS THEOREM

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shown in fig.

.s

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Let ZR, ZY, ZB are the impedances of R, Y, B phases. IR, IY, IB are the currents of

R, Y, B phases.

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The voltage at load star point o w.r.t source point o is VOO is given as

follows:

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Voltage across ZB of load is VBO = VOO VBO

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