Petroleum Refinery

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Week 4 - Rheological Fluid Properties DR.yee 2

Petroleum Refinery

© All Rights Reserved

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Dr. Yee Kian Fei

Manipal International University

To produce socially conscious, competent, innovative and confident human capital for the 21st century- in abundance

Classification of Petroleum

Paraffinic base

Mixed base or Intermediate

Naphthenic base (asphaltic base)

Residue containing

>5% paraffins Paraffinic

2% - 5% paraffins Intermediate

<5% paraffins Naphthenic

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API Gravity

API gravity for a mixture

of individual API gravity x corresponding

wt. fraction in the mixture

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Sp. Gravity of fraction at 15C

Naphthenic base K10

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Correlation Index

TB Boiling point

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Distillation Characteristics

(How is the fluid flow?)

Rheological Parameters

Shear Stress

Shear rate

Viscosity

Yield Stress

Shear stress, w is a stress state where the stress is parallel to

the surface of the material, as opposed to normal stress when

the stress is vertical to the surface.

w = F/A

In a horizontal circular CSA pipe having ID D.

With average velocity U.

Pressure difference 1 & 2 of distance L is P1-P2

If w = shear stress at pipe wall

*Area of pipe wall = DL

So,

Force acting at pipe wall, F= - ( D L) w

Negative sign force acting in opposite direction

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Pressure difference force on fluid,

F=

*Pressure = Force/Area

So, Force = Pressure*Area

And, Area of a circle =

Net force is equal to 0

Thus, - ( D L) w +

=0

Shear rate

Consider 2 parallel planes of

area A.

Separated by distance dr and

space between filled with

fluid.

Lower end fixed.

A small Force F is given to

upper plane give velocity dU

in direction of force.

Rate of shear = the difference in velocity between liquid flows close to the pipe

wall and in the middle of the pipe, divided by the relative distance

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Fluid nearer to upper layer velocity dU

Fluid nearer to lower layer - 0

A Uniform velocity gradient dU/dr with shear

force F is uniform across distance dr.

Velocity gradient dU/dr = rate of shear

Viscosity,

Ability of fluid to flow

Ratio of shear stress and rate of shear

Shear stress shear rate

Hagen-Poiseuille equation

For laminar flow = 8U/D

For Turbulent flow = (8U/D) * Cf

Cf - Correction factor depends on NRe

Yield Stress

Ability of fluid to restart its flow after

shutdown of transportation system.

i.e. shear stress required to initiate flow.

Basic behavior patterns of fluids

o Newtonian fluids

o Non-Newtonian fluids

o Time independent non-Newtonian fluids

o Time dependent non-Newtonian fluids

o Viscoelastic fluids

Fluids

NonNewtonian

fluids

Purely

viscous

fluids

Time

Dependent

Thixotropic

Newtonian

fluids

Viscoelastic

fluids

Time

independent

Rheopectic

Pseudo

plastic

Dialtent

Bingham

plastic

Newtonian Fluids

Fluid whose viscosity is

independent of rate of

shear.

A fluid which obeys

Newton's law of viscosity

i.e., is called Newtonian

fluid. In such fluids shear

stress varies directly as

shear strain.

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Fluid whose viscosity is

dependent of rate of

shear.

A fluid which does not

obey Newtons law of

viscosity is called nonNewton fluid.

Time independent

Non-Newtonian Fluids

Shear stress at any rate of

shear is constant with time.

In this case the strain starts

after certain initial stress (t 0)

and then the stress-strain

relationship will be

linear. t 0 is called initial

yield stress. Sometimes they

are also called Binghams

Plastics.

Time independent

Non-Newtonian Fluids - Thixotropic fluids

amount of yield stress to

initiate shear strain.

Afterwards, stress-strain

relationship will be non

linear.

An introduction to Rheology

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmiII_XwIJY

Refinery Crude Oil Distillation Process

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYnGgre83CI

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