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Submitted By: Abdul Rehman (M13-443)

Submitted To: Engr. Kashif Habib


Generation Assignment#2

Power

TYPES AND PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF


STEAM TURBINE
TURBINE:A turbine is a machine that transforms rotational energy from a fluid that is picked up by
a rotor system into usable work or energy.

STEAM TURBINE:A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and
uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF A STEAM TURBINE:An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process, or constant entropy
process, in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of
the steam leaving the turbine. No steam turbine is truly isentropic, however, with typical
isentropic efficiencies ranging from 2090% based on the application of the turbine. The
interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades or buckets. One set of stationary
blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the
shaft. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances, with the size and
configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage.
The working principle of steam turbine is very important to be known in the power plant
system. Steam turbine is the engine, where the energy of working fluid is used directly to
rotate the turbine blades. In the turbine, the working fluid undergoing a process of
expansion, namely the pressure drop and flow continuously. The working fluid of steam
turbine is steam. Steam turbine classification can be categorized based on steam flow
direction, working principle, exit steam and steam pressure.
In general, the steam turbine system consists of several components, such as:
compressors, pumps, boilers, combustion chamber, condenser and turbine. Turbine is
much in use for power generation, aircraft, in the industry, and others.
Steam turbine is one of machine types that use a method of external combustion engine.
The heating of working fluid (steam) is done outside the system. In brief the working
principle of steam turbine as follows:
1. Steam enters into the turbine through a nozzle. In the nozzle, heat energy from
steam is converted into kinetic energy and the steam is expanding. Steam
pressure at the exit of nozzle is smaller when compared with at the time of enter
into nozzle, but otherwise the velocity of steam out from nozzle is greater than at
the time of enter into the nozzle.
2. The steam gushing out of the nozzle is directed to the turbine blades with arches
shaped and fitted around the wheel turbines. Steam flowing through gaps between
the turbine blades is deflected towards following the curve of the turbine blades.
The changes in steam velocity raise the force that encourages and then rotate the
turbine wheel and shaft.
3. If the steam still has velocity when it leaves the turbine blades means that only
some of the kinetic energy of steam is taken by the turbine blades which are
running. More than one line of blade motion is installed to utilize the remaining
kinetic energy when steam leaves the turbine blades.
4. Before entering the second line of blade motion, so between the first row and
second row blades motion is mounted one line fixed blade (blade guide) that allows

Submitted By: Abdul Rehman (M13-443)


Submitted To: Engr. Kashif Habib
Generation Assignment#2

Power

you to change the direction of the steam velocity, so steam can enter the second
line of blade motion in the right direction.
5. The velocity of steam when it leaves the last blade motion should be made as
small as possible, so that the available kinetic energy can be utilized as much as
possible. Thus the steam turbine efficiency is higher because of energy loss is
relatively small.
Therefore the working principle of steam turbine should be well designed to perform
highest efficiency and produce small turbine heat rate.

TYPES OF STEAM TURBINE:According to the action of steam:

Impulse turbine:
In impulse turbine, steam coming out through a fixed nozzle at a very high velocity
strikes the blades fixed on the periphery of a rotor. The blades change the direction
of steam flow without changing its pressure. The force due to change of
momentum causes the rotation of the turbine shaft. Ex: De-Laval, Curtis and Rate
au Turbines.
Reaction turbine:
In reaction turbine, steam expands both in fixed and moving blades continuously
as the steam passes over them. The pressure drop occurs continuously over both
moving and fixed blades.

According to the number of pressure stages:

Single stage turbines:


These turbines are mostly used for driving centrifugal compressors, blowers and
other similar machinery.
Multistage Impulse and Reaction turbines:
They are made in a wide range of power capacities varying from small to large.

According to the type of steam flow:

Axial turbines:
In these turbines, steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the turbine rotor.
Radial turbines:
In these turbines, steam flows in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the
turbine, one or more low pressure stages are made axial.

According to the number of shafts-:

Single shaft turbines.


Multi-shaft turbines.

According to the method of governing:

Turbines with throttle governing:


In these turbines, fresh steam enter through one or more (depending on the power
developed) simultaneously operated throttle valves.

Turbines with nozzle governing:


In these turbines, fresh steam enters through one or more consecutively opening
regulators.
Turbines with by-pass governing:
In these turbines, the steam besides being fed to the first stage is also directly fed
to one, two or even three intermediate stages of the turbine.

According to the heat drop process:-

Submitted By: Abdul Rehman (M13-443)


Submitted To: Engr. Kashif Habib
Generation Assignment#2

Power

Condensing turbines with generators:


In these turbines, steam at a pressure less than the atmospheric is directed to the
condenser. The steam is also extracted from intermediate stages for feed water
heating). The latent heat of exhaust steam during the process of condensation is
completely lost in these turbines.
Condensing turbines with one or more intermediate stage extractions:
In these turbines, the steam is extracted from intermediate stages for industrial
heating purposes.
Back pressure turbines:
In these turbines, the exhaust steam is utilized for industrial or heating purposes.
Turbines with deteriorated vacuum can also be used in which exhaust steam may
be used for heating and process purposes.
Topping turbines:
In these turbines, the exhaust steam is utilized in medium and low pressure
condensing turbines. These turbines operate at high initial conditions of steam
pressure and temperature, and are mostly used during extension of power station
capacities, with a view to obtain better efficiencies.

According to the steam conditions at inlet to turbine:

Low pressure turbines:


These turbines use steam at a pressure of 1.2 ata to 2 ata.
Medium pressure turbines:
These turbines use steam up to a pressure of 40 ata.
High pressure turbines:
These turbines use steam at a pressure above 40 ata.
Very high pressure turbines:
These turbines use steam at a pressure of 170 ata and higher and temperatures of
550oC and higher.
Supercritical pressure turbines:
These turbines use steam at a pressure of 225 ata and higher.

REFERENCES:http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/turbine
http://steamofboiler.blogspot.com/2011/10/working-principle-of-steam-turbine.html
http://steamofboiler.blogspot.com/2011/10/working-principle-of-steam-turbine.html
http://www.massengineers.com/steam_turbines%20design.htm