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Course Plan:

Introduction
Simple Harmonic Oscillation
(Vibration)
Transverse wave (1-dimensional):
wave motion on a rope
Longitudinal wave: the sound
wave
Electromagnetic wave

Fourier Analysis
Modulation

Transmission and reflection

Interference and diffraction
Wave guide

References
M. O. Tjia, Gelombang, Dabara.
HJ Pain, The Physics of Vibrations and Waves, 6th ed. Wiley.
Hariadi P. Supangkat, Catatan Kuliah FI311: Gelombang

Course Rules
Evaluation criteria
1st Exam (30%)
2nd Exam (40%)
Assignments/Quizzes (20%)
RBL project (10%)

Similar to First Year Physics
*)Subject to agreement from parallel class lecturers

(Vibration)
1.

Simple Harmonic Oscillation

& Coupled Oscillators
Review : Math. Phys. & Mechanics

Objectives
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
Derive simple harmonic motion for various physical
models
Compute the characteristic frequency of simple
harmonic oscillation
Derive the equation of motion for coupled oscillators
Compute the solutions for coupled oscillators
Use matrix equation to find the eigen solutions of
coupled oscillators

What is wave?
Wave is a propagation of a local disturbances (oscillation) to a
certain physical quantities.
Example of oscillations:

Oscillation of pressure
Oscillation of position
Oscillation of mass density
Oscillation of electric field or magnetic field
Oscillation of current
Etc

The local oscillation can propagate through a medium except

for electromagnetic oscillation.
The oscillation may be periodic or unperiodic
A special case of periodic oscillation is simple harmonic
The propagating waves may be 1D,2D or 3D.

Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Model 1 of 1D SHO : a mass attached to a spring
Consider a mass m attached to an ideal spring
with spring constant k on a smooth horizontal
plane.

x0

The force (horizontally) will be = 0

Where x0 is the position when the spring is relaxed (equilibrium)
According to Newtons laws of motion the acceleration is given by:
2
2

= 0 or

2
2

= 2

And 2 =

Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Solution:
Many possible solutions, one of them is the well known harmonic function:
. = cos( + ), or
. = 1 cos() + 2 sin(), or
. = exp + : solusi realnya dari Re (X) atau Im (X)
Show that those are equivalent solutions!
Lets take (a), then A : amplitude and : angular frequency = 2 =
period

2
,

where T :

If X(t) is obtained then everything about the motion is completely determined, such
as :
Velocity: =

= sin( + ), = _ max

Acceleration: =

= 2 sin + , 2 = _ max

Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Question:
1. Where are the positions with max velocity ? Max acceleration? Min velocity? Min
acceleration?
2. Explain why in such positions the quantities (v,a) are max or min.

2. Model 2: Simple pendulum

Small mass m (in what sense?) hangs freely by a massless string
(non elastic too) with length l . Suppose at t=0 s, the mass m
makes an angle to its equilibrium position.

According to Newtons law of motion for rotation : =

Where is the torque by the mass weight, I : the inertial
moment and the angular acceleration.
W=mg

Or:
2
sin = 2

Question : Why the torque has a negative sign?

Small angle approximation : if is small (in rad sense) then
Question: Check the value of sin , for =0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 rad. Express the angle in
degree () and make a rough sketch for the magnitudes for each of those angles.or
For small angle, the equation of motion may be approximated by:
2

= 2
2

With 2 = , for small mass, then I=ml2 and 2 = /

frequency of the system.

the characteristic

Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Question:
1. What is the motion if the angle is not small?
3. Model 3: LC electric network
A capacitor with capacitance C is connected in series with an inductor with
inductance L. Initially the circuit is connected to a battery, which is then removed.
The Kirchhoffs law for the voltage across this network gives :

L = 0,
Where I is the electric current and Q is electric charge.

The electric current is given by : =

(why there is a negative sign?)

2
2

1
2 =

Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Question:
1. Derive a similar equation for electric current.
2. For each of the following physical systems, show that their equation of motions
may be reduced to a simple harmonic oscillator as given in the figures.
3. Then write down the expression for the characteristic frequencies for each
system

Couple HMS
Model 1: a coupled simple pendulums
A pair of pendulum each with mass m is connected by a spring with
a spring constant k. Each of the pendulum is hung by a massless
rope with length l . Suppose each pendulums are displaced from its
equilibrium position by x and y.
What is the equation of motion for each pendulum?

Fk = -k (y-x)

Equilibrium condition vertically demands: T cos = W = mg,

Applying Newtons law horizontally :
2
2 = sin ( )

2
Or
2 = tan ( )

W=mg

2
2

/ .

(1)

Analogously, it can be derived that :

/ + .

(2)

Couple HMS
If there is no spring then each pendulum will vibrate with the characteristic frequency

02 =

2
2
2
2

+02 =

+02 =

(3)

(4)

Finding the solution:

The coupled differential equations may be de-coupled by using substitution:
= + and =
Question: What is the physical meaning of this substitution?
This new coordinates (X,Y) are called normal coordinates. The frequencies associated with each
normal coordinates are called normal modes.
Replace the original equations with (3)+(4) and (3)-(4):
2
2
2
2

+02 = 0
+(02 +

)=0

(5)
(6)

Meaning of equations:
If Y=0, the x=y all the times, the motion is completely described by (5, with normal frequency 02 =
Can you imagine the motion ? This is the in-phase motion.

Normal Modes and Normal Frequencies

If X=0, the x=-y all the time, this is the outof-phase motion,
The motion is completely described by (6)
2
with normal frequency 2 = 02 +
In normal coordinates each equation of motion is a differential equation with
constant coeff and each eq. only contains ONE dependent variable (e.g, X or Y)
Vibration associated with each normal coordinate is called normal mode and it has
its own normal frequency.
In undamped system the energy of each normal mode are :
potential energy (~ 2 2 ) and kinetic energy (~ 2 2 )
Thus for normal coordinate X, the energy = 2 + 2 and
normal coordinate Y, the energy = 2 + where a,b,c and d are constant.
In this example there are four different energies, therefore this system has 4
degree of freedom.

General method for Solving

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators
Lets review the couple harmonic osc. Eq. of motions for the simple pendulum again:

2
2

2
2

= / .

= / + .

(7)
(8)

The normal mode solution (or eigen solution) can be found by assuming that the solution may
be written as : = and = with initial condition all pendulums are starting from

rest. Substitute this solutions into (7) and (8) and use the definition 02 = and 2 =

(2 + 02 ) 2 = 2
2 + 2 + 02 = 2

(9)
(10)

Or in matrix notation :
2 + 02

= 2
(11)

+
In this expression , 0 are specified by the system parameters while A,B and are unkown.
2

02

General method for Solving

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators
The last eq. (11) is known as an eigen-equation : =
Question: recall the meaning of eigen equation, eigen vectors and eigenvalues!
Where the operator is A=

2 + 02

2 + 02

To find the eigen value 2 , we solve the auxiliary eq : det (A-I)=0, where I is the identity
matrix.

2 + 02

2 + 02

=0

(12)
2

Which gives us a quadratic eq. in : 2 + 02 4 = 0 with the solution:

1 = 02 1 = 0 and 2 = 22 + 02 2 = \ 22 + 02

General method for Solving

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators
For = 02 , the eigenvector is obtained by solving: Ax=x or (Ax-I)x=0 where I is the identity

matrix, and =

2 + 02 02

0
+

The solution is A=B,the in-phase motion.

2

02

(13)

02

Question: Write the solution for X and Y also in original coordinates x and y.

Analogously, for = 22 + 02 :
2 + 02 (22 + 02 )
2

0
+

+
Which give the solution A=-B.the antiphase motion.
2

02

(22

02 )

(14)

Question: Write the solution for X and Y also in original coordinates x and y.
If, initially the pendulums have initial velocities, then the solutions have the form:
= (1 ) and = (2) . The extra parameters are to be found from initial
conditions!

Other Couple HMS models

Model 2: a coupled spring system.

Two blocks of masses are connected by a series of identical springs

with spring constant k. Suppose the displacements of each ,mass from
its equilibrium position is given by y and x:
The floor is smooth frictionles

x
m

Similar to coupled pendulum system, the equation of motion will be given by :

2
2
2
2

= ( )

(15)

= ( )

(16)

Using similar method we can solve these pair of eqs. Adding ( + ) and substracting =
will de-couple these eqs:

2
2
2
2

(17)

= 3

(18)

The normal coordinates in this system is (X,Y). If X=0, y=x is the in-phase mode, both masses move

in a similar way with freq. 12 = . This is the motion of the center of mass mode, no relative motion

Other Couple HMS models

The second case is when Y=0, x+y=0 or x=-y, the anti-phase motion. Where each mass moves in
opposite with frequency 22 = 3/. The center of mass does not move but each mass moves relative
to the center of mass.
The general solution can be written as :

= cos(1 + 1 ) and = cos(1 + 2 ) .

(19)

The constants A,B and 1,2 are determined by its initial conditions.
Question: Can you write equivalent other form of general solutions?

Using Kirchhofffs Law in the circuit we can generate 2

coupled differential equations for the currents and
charges:

1+ 2=0
(20)

=0

(21)

Other Couple HMS models

Take the derivative with respect to t once again:

2
2

1 1

1 2

1 2

1 3

=0

=0

(20)
(21)

But conservation of charges gives the following relationships:

1
3
2
=
= +
=

Question: Can you explain why the sign in dq1/dt is negative whereas in dq3/dt is positive?
Substitute these expressions into (20) and (21) result in the following equation:

2
2

+ (2 ) = 0

+ (2 ) = 0

(20)

(21)

1 = + and 2 =
(22)

Other Couple HMS models

Substitute (22) into (20) and (21):

2 1
2
2

=0

(23)

+ 2 = 0

(24)

Compare to (17) and (18)!

Therefore the general solution may be written as :
1 = cos(1 + 1 ) and 2 = cos(1 + 2 ) .

Where the frequencies are 12 =

and 22 =

(25)

From (25) we can write the solution in original coordinates as sum of the solution in terms of the normal
coordinates.

Each of the solution in normal coordinates is independent, and it vibrates with its own frequency.
Thus the solution of the original problem can be written as a linear superposition of these solution in
normal coordinates each with its own frequency. This will lead to the general method to analyze
vibration known as Fourier Series and Fourier Transform (see your Math. Phys. Lectures)

Small Oscillation
The driving force behind a simple harmonic oscillation is a restoring force which is
proportional to the displacement. In spring-mass system the force is the ideal elastic
force (Hookes law):
F=-kx
Where x : displacement.
It is called a restoring force since it always tries to restore the mass to its equilibrium
position. Check the motion!
The force is not necessary a pull or push as we have seen along the slides for different
situations. And so does the displacement.
However, we can also express this restoring force in term of energy, it is equivalent to
V

=+

1
2

10

= 2

8
6

In general, even when the potential energy of the system is not

exactly quadratic, as long as it has a minimum then the system
may oscillate close to this minimum in simple harmonic style.

4
2
0
-4

-2

Small Oscillation
Suppose x=a is the location of the minimum of V(x), then from Calculus we learn:

2
2

=0
=

>0
=

Using Taylor Expansion at x=a :

= +

1
+
2
=

2
2

+
=

As long as x is close to a (that is |x-a| << 1) then we can truncate the series up to the 3rd
term, and relative to the minimum energy we can express the energy as :
1
=
2
Where

2
2 =

2
2

=
=

1

2