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Introduction

Simple Harmonic Oscillation

(Vibration)

Transverse wave (1-dimensional):

wave motion on a rope

Longitudinal wave: the sound

wave

Electromagnetic wave

Fourier Analysis

Modulation

Interference and diffraction

Wave guide

References

M. O. Tjia, Gelombang, Dabara.

HJ Pain, The Physics of Vibrations and Waves, 6th ed. Wiley.

Hariadi P. Supangkat, Catatan Kuliah FI311: Gelombang

Course Rules

Evaluation criteria

1st Exam (30%)

2nd Exam (40%)

Assignments/Quizzes (20%)

RBL project (10%)

Grade conversion:

Similar to First Year Physics

*)Subject to agreement from parallel class lecturers

(Vibration)

1.

& Coupled Oscillators

Review : Math. Phys. & Mechanics

Objectives

After studying this chapter you should be able to:

Derive simple harmonic motion for various physical

models

Compute the characteristic frequency of simple

harmonic oscillation

Derive the equation of motion for coupled oscillators

Compute the solutions for coupled oscillators

Use matrix equation to find the eigen solutions of

coupled oscillators

What is wave?

Wave is a propagation of a local disturbances (oscillation) to a

certain physical quantities.

Example of oscillations:

Oscillation of pressure

Oscillation of position

Oscillation of mass density

Oscillation of electric field or magnetic field

Oscillation of current

Etc

for electromagnetic oscillation.

The oscillation may be periodic or unperiodic

A special case of periodic oscillation is simple harmonic

oscillation (more about it!)

The propagating waves may be 1D,2D or 3D.

Model 1 of 1D SHO : a mass attached to a spring

Consider a mass m attached to an ideal spring

with spring constant k on a smooth horizontal

plane.

x0

Where x0 is the position when the spring is relaxed (equilibrium)

According to Newtons laws of motion the acceleration is given by:

2

2

= 0 or

2

2

= 2

And 2 =

Solution:

Many possible solutions, one of them is the well known harmonic function:

. = cos( + ), or

. = 1 cos() + 2 sin(), or

. = exp + : solusi realnya dari Re (X) atau Im (X)

Show that those are equivalent solutions!

Lets take (a), then A : amplitude and : angular frequency = 2 =

period

2

,

where T :

If X(t) is obtained then everything about the motion is completely determined, such

as :

Velocity: =

= sin( + ), = _ max

Acceleration: =

= 2 sin + , 2 = _ max

Question:

1. Where are the positions with max velocity ? Max acceleration? Min velocity? Min

acceleration?

2. Explain why in such positions the quantities (v,a) are max or min.

Small mass m (in what sense?) hangs freely by a massless string

(non elastic too) with length l . Suppose at t=0 s, the mass m

makes an angle to its equilibrium position.

Where is the torque by the mass weight, I : the inertial

moment and the angular acceleration.

W=mg

Or:

2

sin = 2

Small angle approximation : if is small (in rad sense) then

Question: Check the value of sin , for =0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 rad. Express the angle in

degree () and make a rough sketch for the magnitudes for each of those angles.or

For small angle, the equation of motion may be approximated by:

2

= 2

2

frequency of the system.

the characteristic

Question:

1. What is the motion if the angle is not small?

3. Model 3: LC electric network

A capacitor with capacitance C is connected in series with an inductor with

inductance L. Initially the circuit is connected to a battery, which is then removed.

The Kirchhoffs law for the voltage across this network gives :

L = 0,

Where I is the electric current and Q is electric charge.

(why there is a negative sign?)

2

2

1

2 =

Question:

1. Derive a similar equation for electric current.

2. For each of the following physical systems, show that their equation of motions

may be reduced to a simple harmonic oscillator as given in the figures.

3. Then write down the expression for the characteristic frequencies for each

system

Couple HMS

Model 1: a coupled simple pendulums

A pair of pendulum each with mass m is connected by a spring with

a spring constant k. Each of the pendulum is hung by a massless

rope with length l . Suppose each pendulums are displaced from its

equilibrium position by x and y.

What is the equation of motion for each pendulum?

Fk = -k (y-x)

Applying Newtons law horizontally :

2

2 = sin ( )

2

Or

2 = tan ( )

W=mg

2

2

/ .

(1)

/ + .

(2)

Couple HMS

If there is no spring then each pendulum will vibrate with the characteristic frequency

02 =

2

2

2

2

+02 =

+02 =

(3)

(4)

The coupled differential equations may be de-coupled by using substitution:

= + and =

Question: What is the physical meaning of this substitution?

This new coordinates (X,Y) are called normal coordinates. The frequencies associated with each

normal coordinates are called normal modes.

Replace the original equations with (3)+(4) and (3)-(4):

2

2

2

2

+02 = 0

+(02 +

)=0

(5)

(6)

Meaning of equations:

If Y=0, the x=y all the times, the motion is completely described by (5, with normal frequency 02 =

Can you imagine the motion ? This is the in-phase motion.

If X=0, the x=-y all the time, this is the outof-phase motion,

The motion is completely described by (6)

2

with normal frequency 2 = 02 +

In normal coordinates each equation of motion is a differential equation with

constant coeff and each eq. only contains ONE dependent variable (e.g, X or Y)

Vibration associated with each normal coordinate is called normal mode and it has

its own normal frequency.

In undamped system the energy of each normal mode are :

potential energy (~ 2 2 ) and kinetic energy (~ 2 2 )

Thus for normal coordinate X, the energy = 2 + 2 and

normal coordinate Y, the energy = 2 + where a,b,c and d are constant.

In this example there are four different energies, therefore this system has 4

degree of freedom.

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

Lets review the couple harmonic osc. Eq. of motions for the simple pendulum again:

2

2

2

2

= / .

= / + .

(7)

(8)

The normal mode solution (or eigen solution) can be found by assuming that the solution may

be written as : = and = with initial condition all pendulums are starting from

rest. Substitute this solutions into (7) and (8) and use the definition 02 = and 2 =

(2 + 02 ) 2 = 2

2 + 2 + 02 = 2

(9)

(10)

Or in matrix notation :

2 + 02

= 2

(11)

+

In this expression , 0 are specified by the system parameters while A,B and are unkown.

2

02

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

The last eq. (11) is known as an eigen-equation : =

Question: recall the meaning of eigen equation, eigen vectors and eigenvalues!

Where the operator is A=

2 + 02

2 + 02

To find the eigen value 2 , we solve the auxiliary eq : det (A-I)=0, where I is the identity

matrix.

2 + 02

2 + 02

=0

(12)

2

1 = 02 1 = 0 and 2 = 22 + 02 2 = \ 22 + 02

Coupled Harmonic Oscillators

For = 02 , the eigenvector is obtained by solving: Ax=x or (Ax-I)x=0 where I is the identity

matrix, and =

2 + 02 02

0

+

2

02

(13)

02

Question: Write the solution for X and Y also in original coordinates x and y.

Analogously, for = 22 + 02 :

2 + 02 (22 + 02 )

2

0

+

+

Which give the solution A=-B.the antiphase motion.

2

02

(22

02 )

(14)

Question: Write the solution for X and Y also in original coordinates x and y.

If, initially the pendulums have initial velocities, then the solutions have the form:

= (1 ) and = (2) . The extra parameters are to be found from initial

conditions!

Model 2: a coupled spring system.

with spring constant k. Suppose the displacements of each ,mass from

its equilibrium position is given by y and x:

The floor is smooth frictionles

x

m

2

2

2

2

= ( )

(15)

= ( )

(16)

Using similar method we can solve these pair of eqs. Adding ( + ) and substracting =

will de-couple these eqs:

2

2

2

2

(17)

= 3

(18)

The normal coordinates in this system is (X,Y). If X=0, y=x is the in-phase mode, both masses move

in a similar way with freq. 12 = . This is the motion of the center of mass mode, no relative motion

The second case is when Y=0, x+y=0 or x=-y, the anti-phase motion. Where each mass moves in

opposite with frequency 22 = 3/. The center of mass does not move but each mass moves relative

to the center of mass.

The general solution can be written as :

(19)

The constants A,B and 1,2 are determined by its initial conditions.

Question: Can you write equivalent other form of general solutions?

coupled differential equations for the currents and

charges:

1+ 2=0

(20)

=0

(21)

Take the derivative with respect to t once again:

2

2

1 1

1 2

1 2

1 3

=0

=0

(20)

(21)

1

3

2

=

= +

=

Question: Can you explain why the sign in dq1/dt is negative whereas in dq3/dt is positive?

Substitute these expressions into (20) and (21) result in the following equation:

2

2

+ (2 ) = 0

+ (2 ) = 0

(20)

(21)

1 = + and 2 =

(22)

Substitute (22) into (20) and (21):

2 1

2

2

=0

(23)

+ 2 = 0

(24)

Therefore the general solution may be written as :

1 = cos(1 + 1 ) and 2 = cos(1 + 2 ) .

and 22 =

(25)

From (25) we can write the solution in original coordinates as sum of the solution in terms of the normal

coordinates.

Each of the solution in normal coordinates is independent, and it vibrates with its own frequency.

Thus the solution of the original problem can be written as a linear superposition of these solution in

normal coordinates each with its own frequency. This will lead to the general method to analyze

vibration known as Fourier Series and Fourier Transform (see your Math. Phys. Lectures)

Small Oscillation

The driving force behind a simple harmonic oscillation is a restoring force which is

proportional to the displacement. In spring-mass system the force is the ideal elastic

force (Hookes law):

F=-kx

Where x : displacement.

It is called a restoring force since it always tries to restore the mass to its equilibrium

position. Check the motion!

The force is not necessary a pull or push as we have seen along the slides for different

situations. And so does the displacement.

However, we can also express this restoring force in term of energy, it is equivalent to

a quadratic potensial energy:

V

=+

1

2

10

= 2

8

6

exactly quadratic, as long as it has a minimum then the system

may oscillate close to this minimum in simple harmonic style.

4

2

0

-4

-2

Small Oscillation

Suppose x=a is the location of the minimum of V(x), then from Calculus we learn:

2

2

=0

=

>0

=

= +

1

+

2

=

2

2

+

=

As long as x is close to a (that is |x-a| << 1) then we can truncate the series up to the 3rd

term, and relative to the minimum energy we can express the energy as :

1

=

2

Where

2

2 =

2

2

=

=

1

2

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