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Preface

Thanks to Allah SWT that has given His blessing to the writer to complete the English paper
titled task that " The Concept Of Freedom In Islam".
The authors also wish to convey our gratitude for the depth and sincere for them that has
guided in the complete this paper. This paper contains about the concept of freedom
according to Islam and also limits the limits of freedom according to Islam.
Hopefully this article can be useful and give us more knowledge about the concept of
freedom according to Islam. Thank you for your attention.

Pontianak, September 15th 2016

Author

Chapter I
Introduction

A. The Background
In the modern world one concept is is most staff by the dominance of secularisme is
that of freedom. The discussions of the concept of freedom in the West today is so deeply
influenced by the Renaisance and post-Renaisance notion of man that it is difficult to
envisage the very meaning of freedom in the context of a traditional civilization such as
Islam.
In addition to the luster of freedom without borders, we can see how a Munir so keen to
meut fetch defending human rights, that these one in dalamya is freedom. This is not
possible if the community among the bottom of no little freedom stolen generations and
justice diijnak swallow. An example is rielnya slavery. Although now is not "his" again
but the rights of the domestic servants are often overlooked. And any freedom seems to be
the couples riskan once.
What is the meaning of freedom is already well understood by those who are
always crowing about freedom? So in this paper we try to give a little review about the
meaning of the real freedom and the concept of Islam (the Qur'an) in providing an
alternative solution in the implementation of "freedom."

B. The formulation of the problem

From the problem above so we took some of the points the question that can
become a discussion, namely :
1. How is the sense of freedom?
2. How the concept of freedom in Islam
3. How islam provides restrictions on the freedom to not restless noise from The
shari'a

Chapter II
The discussion
A. Understanding and Various Kind of Freedom
I. Understanding

Before mendefinisan meaning of freedom, need to be known about how religions


generally view this problem. The religious aspects in english means religion., which
comes from the latin which means the binding. That is the opposite of freedom. In the
religions of India, freedom is associated with the release of the bonds of all happenings
limitations, or called Hindus with moksa.[1]In the Christian teachings known the
teachings of the ten commandments of God (Ten Commandments), which forms the
morality of the Jews and Christians. In Matthew 8:34 say " If anyone comes after
me, let him reject himself, tighten up his cross and follow
me. According to the interpretation of the revelation of John, that these things are a
specified the condition that Jesus to the people who want to obtain the freedom. [2]
If traced further, the teachings of every religion that is contained in the book of
the lamb each defines the freedom to remove from our own existence and not the
individual freedom, namely the ego.
In the Bahasa Indonesia Dictionary freedom means free from something
of his nature binding, despite completely.[3]Freedom according to the declaration of
Paris is the human capacity to perform an act that does not cause a loss for
others[4].While Zakariya Ibrahim defines freedom as the ability that only belongs

to human beings that are wise in accordance with the desires of himself without
any compulsion of others.[5]
From some of the views of freedom above we can take a conclusion that
freedom is a form of independent rights which is a human rights to do all things,
stand up during not in contact with the interests of others and what is more
important is not contrary to the law or shari'ah.
II. Various kinds of freedom[6]
In the simple, freedom is related to the interests of human beings can be
divided into two, which are related to the material and non material. In the material
can be divided into four, namely:
1. Individual freedom is the right of a person to get freedom from the treatment
of slavery, free to jump-the journey in a country eligible for freedom
wherever and etc. Here, he cannot be detained or imprisoned without any
clear charges in accordance with the applicable law.
2. The freedom of property rights, namely the freedom of each individual to be
able to have the results of his efforts and use in accordance with his will.
However, in practical overtones sometimes also there are a few exceptions
that are considered important for a country such as seizing the possessions
of individuals for any reason. Only the property or ownership system
something only applies in the democratic system is not the communist
system.
3. The freedom to get the protection of the living. This means that a person has a
security guarantee in his house. No one could enter or searched the house of

dwelling places except in certain conditions in accordance with the


applicable law.
4. The freedom to get the work and trade of Indonesian Industry Ministry. In
other words, each individual free to do business profession. Here is not
directly is a ban on the system in a state monopoly. The monopoly resulting
in loss of some individual freedom for business and moreover melakuakan.
While freedom is related to the individuals in maslahat non material can
be divided into four, namely:
1. Religious freedom.
2. Freedom of speech, come together to form a organization and freedom of the
press.
3. The freedom to get the right of education and teaching.
4. The freedom to be critical of the government policy.
B. The Islamic concept of Freedom
Islam was born in the environment religious pluralism. Where at that time is not
only the Jews or Christians only, but various the flow has developed and the roots of the
strong in the hearts of the public Qurasy when it. Rites of Islam has established the
freedom of carrying out the teachings of various religions ( good Islam or not). This is the
aim of this freedom does not result in disbelief for the people of Islam and the error which
is against the symbols of the to-Islaman. Recording reality of freedom of religion
throughout the history of Islam can be seen in the Medina Charter. (saas has established
the freedom of the Jews with the three divisions in the Medina to carry out their religious

symbols. In the charter are mentioned :"The Jews from the descendants of 'Auf is one
people with the believers. For the Jews is their religion for the Islam is a religion of them,
except the iniquitous world and sin. Verily it is not destroyed or destroyed except by
himself and keluargannya" friend Umar Ra in his letter sent to the inhabitants of Baitul
Maqdis said:"This is what is given to the inhabitants of Eliya Umar (Quds) i.e. security.
They were given the security forces against themselves, the church and also their religion
and one of them will not hurt.
Islam does not conflict and Human Rights, thus very respect the rights and
freedoms of man. If the principles in the Qur'an summarized then there are many points
which strongly supports the principle of universal human rights. The principles that has
been poured out in various meetings of Islam. The first is the Universal Islamic
Declaration of Rights, held by a group of scholars and Islamic leaders in a conference in
London last year 1981 which he sware officially by UNISCO in Paris.
In fiqh islam specified, the individual live with earning the rights and obligations.
The rights of free done, for no interfere with other individuals. In the rules of fiqh
mentioned La dharara to loyalty contract dharar(not harm and hurt). So the islam
-shari'ah-provide limitations for each individual in implying the right one is freedom.
From the law or the order of the shari'ah is then lahirla then in islam a law that regulates
the relations between humans, convenient, law jinayat etc.[7]
Sometimes people redefining the word freedom in metaphysical purpose, namely
the freedom of which hinges on the belief that God is a substance that is not limited, in
other words the absolute freedom. The attitude of islam toward this understanding is
present as a helper so that people do not fall into the current -independence--without
borders. Eat from this independence, implied preventing islam to believe that human

beings have the freedom to live in dignity in the world and carry out their obligations
obligations.[8]
Islam set up various kinds of freedom. The freedom of choice is one of human
keistmewaan compared with other creatures. Islam sees that forced resulting in the
emergence of the attitude of the antipathy, fear sensory self-defense, anger and hatred of
selfishness and self-rescue efforts that sometimes overlap with agresifitas and the
attitude of confrontational approaches. At a time like this, as indicated by the study of
the research of the brain, then someone has hijacked emotionally and intellectually so
that part of the brain to think improves difficult to function properly. Therefore, in the
Qur'an mentioned there was no force in religion...."[9].
The freedom in Islam is the freedom that is based on the Lord as the axis and
benchmarking, not man (humanism). Allah swt replied: "O man you need (Faqir)
against Allah, and Allah is the Rich Beyond Need to besides Him), Worthy of all
Praise"[10]
In Islam the rights and freedoms can be divided into four kinds of[11], namely:
1. Security, honor the individual freedom, includes in it the right to guarantee
2. Live and free to travel, guarantee about the secret of correspondence and etc.
3. The freedom of maneuver, includes in it freedom of speech, religious freedom and
do offerings consecrated to religion, the freedom of the press gathered, provide
criticism of government policy and free to assists in the political scene in
accordance with the principles of matters [requiring] determination.

4. The right to freedom of the economic and social development. The first section
includes property rights, and the second includes the right to work, guarantee of
health and social solidarity which is reflected in the obligation of paying the
zakat or other shadaqah forms such as sadaqah from nadzar, expiation for the
sacrificial animal etc.
C. Restrictions on freedom in Islam
For a human being, freedom and ketebatasan limit is not as clear. What for
someone including in the area of freedom barag kai for others self-determination have
the impossibility, vice versa[12]. This indicates the bring the interests of different bebasa
tia individuals and this iiberari membbutuhkan atoran certain rules.
Although Islam admits freedom, but it does not mean that man can be free without
borders. The freedom in Islam is stressed in the form of social responsibility(al qur
maslahah mursalah). The general basic principles that people remain in societies
embracing during not bertrubkan independence with the common good.
Islam provides limitations on the rights and freedom of religion, think and
speak embodied in the Declaration of London as follows[13]:
A. Everyone has the right to express their ideas and beliefs so far in the scope of
which is set in the law. But no one is entitled to distribute kepalasuan or
spread the news that might interfere with calm public or otherwise harass the
price of others.
B. Search for knowledge and the search for truth is not only the right but the
obligation for Muslims.

C. The rights and obligations of Muslims is to protest and fight against the
oppression, although in this case must be against the ruler of the country.
D. There is no limitation in disseminating information, as long as it does not
endanger the safety of the public and State and still within the scope of what is
allowable by law.
E. No one is entitled to despise or insulting the beliefs of others or inflaming public
hostility; respect the beliefs of others is an obligation for Muslims.[14]
The freedom in Islam has the value of the individual and social at the same
time. Islamic law provides limitations for each individual so that it can implement
the freedom proportionally. To keep the freedom of each individual awake, then there is
a preventive efforts and defensive in Islam. Namely with provide supervision from in
each individual so that he can control the freedom from in itself. He will not use the right
to freedom in accordance with the desires of sheer. In between these attitudes is the shame
and other Islamic ethics.
The second, the scrutiny that comes from outside of himself which is in the form
of rules and laws that applied a state. Regulations so that not all human beings are able to
control himself and can use the rights of freedom in accordance with the values and
norms that apply in the community. Thus the law is indeed aimed to protect the freedom
and not as a means of pengekang freedom.

Chapter III
The cover
A. The conclusion and Analysis
Man is the only living creatures that have the freedom to choose their own way of
life and the ability to develop himself. Man as being the most perfect creature, equipped
with the ability to think (mind) and feelings. With the mind, memungkunkan man know
the traditions of Allah, and retire them for the sake of his life. "he thought
The right to freedom is as important as the right to life. Freedom can be
applied by post on personal intentions, the will and control of prioritising. While the
power to use it practically depending on whether freedom is harmful to others or
not. Kebebesan vote is the basis of ethics for one of the Islamic principles of
individual responsibility of every Muslim in the presence of their Lord, and
everyone has the right to what it has earned [15]
Islam is the liberation of which hinges on the monotheism. Social mission
Islamic culture attempt to delete all the practice that can dehumanize and human
nature itself. So in this problem, Islam set with both about the use of freedom by
memerikian certain restrictions. So we can take one kesimpuln Islam admits the
existence of freedom in the sense of independence that an adversary to slavery. Islam
in the form of freedom is ikhtiyar, namely selecting. Islam does not impose very
distant in terms of religious faith ). has clearly mentioned in the Qur'an Lakkum
dinukum wa liyaddin.

B. The cover
So the paper we can we complete. We hope that this paper be useful for the writer
and the reader.But, in this arrangement, we are aware that there are many flaws, because
we are still in the stage of learning and drawing up. So we need a constructive criticism
and suggestions from the readers and mentor

A list of the Library


Abd al-Rahim, Muddathir 2005, The Human Rights Tradition in Islam, Praeger,
Westport, Connecticut, London,.
[1]

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, the heart of islam pesan-pesan universal islam untuk

kemanusiaan.(Bandung: Mizan2003)hal 355


[2]

Wahyu John, 8: 32 read also in ibid Seyyed Hossein Nasr

[3]

Sulchan, yasin kamus bahasa Indonesia (Surabaya : amanah ,1997) page 60

[4]

http://www.hamid-hakdankebebasanagama a paper delivered in Lokakarya Nasional

Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Ma nusia, 10 tahun Reformasi, Quo Vadis Pemajuan dan
Penegakan HAM di Indonesia, Hotel Borobudur, Jakarta 8-11 Juli
[5]

http://www.multiply.kebebasamerajutkehidupandenganimandantaqwa read also in

Dr,. Wahdah al-Haqqu al Huriyyah


[6]

http://malay.bismikaallahuma.org/islam-dan-fahaman-pluralisme-agama

[7]

Muhammad

Tholhah

Hasan,Islam

cetIII(Jakarta:Lantabora Perss 2004)hal 176


[8]

Ibid Seyyed Hossein Nasr hal 357

[9]

Al-Baqarah: 536

[10]

QS. Faathir :15

dalam

Perspektif Sosiokultur

[11]

http://www.menembusbatastradisi.kebebasanberagama.blogspot.com read also As-

Syarif, Teori Pemberlakuan Syariat Islam Secara Bertahap, terj. Azman Ismail dkk., (Banda
Aceh, Ar-Raniry Press, 2003), page 81,
[12]

Machasin,Menyelami Kebeasan Manusiai cet I (Yogyakarta:Pustaka pelajar Ofset,

1996) page 24
[13]

http://www.hamid-hakdankebebasanagama a paper delivered in Lokakarya

Nasional Komisi Nasional Hak Asasi Manusia, 10 tahun Reformasi, Quo Vadis Pemajuan
dan Penegakan HAM di Indonesia, Hotel Borobudur, Jakarta
[14]

Quote from Muddathir Abd al-Rahim, in The Human Rights Tradition in Islam,

Praeger, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2005, hal 170-171

The Paper
Religious Islam
The Concept Of Freedom In Islam

By:
DESY NUR WAHIDAH (NIM. B1034161009)

TANJUNGPURA UNIVERSITY WEST KALIMANTAN


The Faculty of Economy
International Accounting Studies Program
PONTIANAK
2016