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fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

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before answering.

2. During interval III only


3. During interval II only
4. During interval I only

4
2
I

II
2

III
4

t
6

During these three intervals, when was the


objects speed highest? Do not confuse the
speed with the velocity.
1. During interval II
2. Same speed during each of the three intervals.
3. During interval III correct
4. During interval I
5. Same speed during intervals II and III
Explanation:
The velocity v is the slope of the x(t) curve;
the magnitude v = |v| of this slope is the
speed. The curve is steepest (in absolute
magnitude) during the interval III and that is
when the object had the highest speed.
002 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
During which interval(s) did the objects velocity remain constant?

5. During none of the three intervals


Explanation:
For each of the three intervals I, II or III, the
x(t) curve is linear, so its slope (the velocity
v) is constant. Between the intervals, the
velocity changed in an abrupt manner, but it
did remain constant during each interval.
003 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
Consider the following graph
Displacement vs Time
10
8
displacement (m)

001 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


Consider a moving object whose position x
is plotted as a function of the time t. The
object moved in different ways during the
time intervals denoted I, II and III on the
figure.

6
4
2
0
2
4
6

8
10

0 2

4 6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20
time (s)
What is the displacement at 10 s?
1. 4 m correct
2. 1 m
3. 1 m
4. 3 m
5. 0 m
6. 3 m

1. During each of the three intervals correct

7. None of these

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

x1 = 58.2 m , and
v1 = 3.96 m/s .

8. 2 m
9. 2 m
10. Unable to determine
Explanation:
Read the displacement from the graph.
004 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What is the velocity at 10 s?

The lead swimmer will reach the end of the


pool in
t1 =

x1
58.2 m
=
= 14.697 s .
v1
3.96 m/s

The second swimmers distance is given by


x2 = v2 t + x1

1. 2 m/s
2. None of these
3. 0 m/s correct
4. 1 m/s
5. Unable to determine

and the velocity is


v2 t + x1
x2
=
t1
t1
v2 t1 = v2 t + x1
v2 (t1 t) = x1
v2 =

6. 4 m/s
v2 =

7. 1 m/s

58.2 m
x1
=
t1 t
14.697 s 0.47 s

= 4.09082 m/s .

8. 2 m/s
9. 3 m/s
10. 3 m/s
Explanation:
At 10 s, the slope is 0.
005 10.0 points
One swimmer in a relay race has a 0.47 s
lead and is swimming at a constant speed of
3.96 m/s. The swimmer has 58.2 m to swim
before reaching the end of the pool. A second
swimmer moves in the same direction as the
leader.
What constant speed must the second
swimmer have in order to catch up to the
leader at the end of the pool?
Correct answer: 4.09082 m/s.

006 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A runner is jogging at a steady 7.2 km/hr.
When the runner is 8.6 km from the finish
line, a bird begins flying from the runner to
the finish line at 36 km/hr (5 times as fast
as the runner). When the bird reaches the
finish line, it turns around and flies back to
the runner.
vb
vr
finish
line
L

How far does the bird travel? Even though


the bird is a dodo, assume that it occupies
only one point in space (a zero length bird)
and that it can turn without loss of speed.

Explanation:
Correct answer: 14.3333 km.
Let :

t = 0.47 s ,

Explanation:

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

Let :

vr = 7.2 km/hr ,
L = 8.6 km , and
vb = 5 vr .

finish
line
dr1

L1
db1

The runner travels a distance x until the


encounter with the bird. In that time, the bird
has traveled a distance L + (L x) = 2 L x .
The bird travel 5 times as fast as the runner
during this time frame, so
db = 5 dr
2L x = 5x
2L = 6x
1
x= L
3

bird will fly 5 times as far as the runner until


the next encounter. This pattern repeats over
the entire original distance, so
db = 5 L = 5 (8.6 km) = 43 km .
008 10.0 points
A car makes a 219 km trip at an average
speed of 35.4 km/h. A second car starting
1 h later arrives at their mutual destination
at the same time.
What was the average speed of the second
car for the period that it was in motion?
Correct answer: 42.2255 km/h.
Explanation:
Let :

d = 219 km ,
v = 35.4 km/h ,
t = 1 h .

Average velocity is v =

and the bird flies a distance of


1
5
5
db = 2 L L = L = (8.6 km)
3
3
3
= 14.3333 km .
007 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
After this first encounter, the bird then turns
around and flies from the runner back to the
finish line, turns around again and flies back
to the runner. The bird repeats the back and
forth trips until the runner reaches the finish
line.
How far does the bird travel from the beginning (including the distance traveled to the
first encounter)?
Correct answer: 43 km.
Explanation:
The distance remaining for the runner after
2
the first encounter is L1 = L , and again the
3

t = t1 t2 =

and

d
.
t

d
d

v1 v2

d
d
=
t
v2
v1
v2
1
v1
=

d
d
v
t 1
v1
d v1
v2 =
d v1 t
(219 km)(35.4 km/h)
=
219 km (35.4 km/h)(1 h)
= 42.2255 km/h .

009 10.0 points


A car travels along a straight stretch of road.
It proceeds for 12.9 mi at 56 mi/h, then
27.4 mi at 47 mi/h, and finally 32.1 mi at
32.4 mi/h.
What is the cars average velocity during
the entire trip?

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

The instantaneous velocity is the slope of


the tangent line at that point.

Correct answer: 40.1313 mi/h.


Explanation:
Let :

dA
vA
dB
vB
dC
vC

v=

= 12.9 mi ,
= 56 mi/h ,
= 27.4 mi ,
= 47 mi/h ,
= 32.1 mi , and
= 32.4 mi/h .

011 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points


Find the instantaneous velocity at 2.5 s.
Correct answer: 2 m/s.

The total time the car spent on the road is

Explanation:

dA dB
dC
t =
+
+
vA
vB
vC
12.9 mi
27.4 mi
32.1 mi
=
+
+
56 mi/h 47 mi/h 32.4 mi/h
= 1.80408 h ,

v=

so the average velocity is


dA + dB + dC
d
=
t
t
12.9 mi + 27.4 mi + 32.1 mi
=
1.80408 h
= 40.1313 mi/h .

Correct answer: 0 m/s.


Explanation:

v=

010 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points


The position versus time for a certain object
moving along the x-axis is shown. The objects initial position is 2 m.
position (m)

2 m (2 m)
= 0 m/s .
6s3s

013 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points


Find the instantaneous velocity at 8 s.

6
b

Correct answer: 1 m/s.

b
b

0
4

2 m (4 m)
= 2 m/s .
3s2 s

012 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points


Find the instantaneous velocity at 4.5 s.

v=

4 m (2 m)
= 3 m/s .
2s0s

Explanation:

4 5
time (s)

v=

0 m (2 m)
= 1 m/s .
9s7s

Find the instantaneous velocity at 1 s.


Correct answer: 3 m/s.
Explanation:

014 10.0 points


Consider the acceleration of an object starting from rest.

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

Acceleration (m/s2 )

5
4

Let :

3
2
1
0
1

and

vf = vi + a t
vf
vf vi
=
a=
t
t
76.8 mi/h
= 4.5056 m/s2 .
=
7.62 s

2
3
4
5

vi = 0
vf = 76.8 mi/h ,
t = 7.62 s .

2
3
4
5
Time (s)
Other than at t = 0, when is the velocity of
the object zero?

016 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


Find the distance that the car travels during
this time.
Correct answer: 130.808 m.
Explanation:

1. 5.0 s
2. At no other time on this graph correct

x = vi t +

1 2 1 2
at = at
2
2

1
(4.5056 m/s2 ) (7.62 s)
2
= 130.808 m .

3. 3.5 s

4. 4.0 s
5. During the interval from 1.0 s to 3.0 s
Explanation:
Z t
vt =
a dt is the area between the accel0

eration curve and the t axis during the time


period from 0 to t. If the area is above the
horizontal axis, it is positive; otherwise, it is
negative. In order for the velocity to be zero
at any given time t, there would have to be
equal amounts of positive and negative area
between 0 and t. According to the graph, this
condition is never satisfied.

015 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A car accelerates uniformly from rest to a
speed of 76.8 mi/h in 7.62 s.
Find the constant acceleration of the car.
Correct answer: 4.5056 m/s2 .
Explanation:

017 10.0 points


An electron, starting from rest and moving
with a constant acceleration, travels 3.6 cm in
10 ms.
What is the magnitude of this acceleration?
Correct answer: 0.72 km/s2 .
Explanation:
Let :

d = 3.6 cm = 3.6 105 m


t = 10 ms = 0.01 s .

and

Starting from rest with constant acceleration,


the distance is
1
d = a t2
2
2 (3.6 105 m) 1 km
2d
a= 2 =
t
(0.01 s)2
1000 m
= 0.72 km/s2 .

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

The distance is
018 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
A plane cruising at 233 m/s accelerates at
1
15 m/s2 for 9.1 s.
x = x0 + v0 t + a t2
2
What is its final velocity?
2 (x x0 v0 t)
a=
t2
Correct answer: 369.5 m/s.
2 [7.78 cm 4.01 cm (16.5 cm/s) (2.62 s)]
Explanation:
=
(2.62 s)2
Let :

v = 233 m/s ,
a = 15 m/s2 ,
t = 9.1 s .

and

v = v0 + a t
= 233 m/s + (15 m/s2 ) (9.1 s)
= 369.5 m/s .
019 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
How far will it have traveled in that time?
Correct answer: 2741.38 m.

021 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points


Two students are on a balcony 18.6 m above
the street. One student throws a ball vertically downward at 15.3 m/s. At the same
instant, the other student throws a ball vertically upward at the same speed. The second
ball just misses the balcony on the way down.
What is the magnitude of the velocity of
the first ball as it strikes the ground?
Correct answer: 24.4749 m/s.

Explanation:
sf = so + v0 t +
= vt+

= 16.0305 cm/s2 .

1 2
at
2

1 2
at
2

= (233 m/s) (9.1 s) +

1
(15 m/s2 ) (9.1 s)2
2

= 2741.38 m .
020 10.0 points
A body moving with uniform acceleration has
a velocity of 16.5 cm/s when its x coordinate
is 4.01 cm.
If its x coordinate 2.62 s later is 7.78 cm,
what is the x-component of its acceleration?
Correct answer: 16.0305 cm/s2 .

Explanation:
Assume that the position of the balcony is
yi = 0 m; then the position of the ground is
yf = 18.6 m:
Let :

For the first ball,


2
2
vf,1
= vi1
+ 2 a y

Explanation:
Let :

v0 = 16.5 cm/s ,
x = 7.78 cm ,
x0 = 4.01 cm , and
t = 2.62 s .

yf 1 = yf 2 = 18.6 m ,
vi1 = 15.3 m/s ,
vi2 = +15.3 m/s and
a = 9.81 m/s2 .

= (15.3 m/s)2

+ 2 9.81 m/s2 (18.6 m)
vf,1

= 599.022 m2 /s2
q
= 599.022 m2 /s2
= 24.4749 m/s .

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)


Since its direction is downward, the velocity is 24.4749 m/s and its speed is k~v k =
24.4749 m/s .
022 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points
What is the magnitude of the velocity of the
second ball as it strikes the ground?
Correct answer: 24.4749 m/s.
Explanation:
For the second ball,
2
2
vf,2
= vi2
+ 2 a y

= (15.3 m/s)2

+ 2 9.81 m/s2 (18.6 m)
vf,2

= 599.022 m2 /s2
q
= 599.022 m2 /s2

= 24.4749 m/s .

Since its direction is downward, the velocity is 24.4749 m/s and its speed is k~v k =
24.4749 m/s .
023 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points
What is the difference in the time the balls
spend in the air?
Correct answer: 3.11927 s.
Explanation:
For the first ball,
vf 1 vi1
v1
=
t1
t1
vf 1 vi1
t1 =
a
(24.4749 m/s) (15.3 m/s)
=
9.81 m/s2
= 0.935263 s .
a=

For the second ball,


vf 2 vi2
v2
=
t2
t2
vf 2 vi2
t2 =
a
(24.4749 m/s) (15.3 m/s)
=
(9.81 m/s2 )
= 4.05453 s .
a=

The difference in the times is


t = t2 t1
= 4.05453 s (0.935263 s)
= 24.4749 m/s .

024 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points


How far apart are the balls 0.525 s after they
are thrown?
Correct answer: 16.065 m.
Explanation:
For each of the balls,
Let :

t = 0.525 s .

For the first ball,


1
a (t)2
2
= (15.3 m/s) (0.525 s)

1
9.81 m/s2 (0.525 s)2
+
2
= 9.38444 m ,

y1 = vi,1 t +

which is 9.38444 m below the balcony.


For the second ball,
1
y2 = vi,2 t + a(t)2
2
= (15.3 m/s) (0.525 s)

1
+
9.81 m/s2 (0.525 s)2
2
= 6.68056 m .
The distance between the balls is
y2 y1 = 6.68056 m (9.38444 m)
= 16.065 m .

025 10.0 points


At a certain instant of time, a toy car is
traveling at a constant speed of v0 to the
right, while a distance D ahead is another toy
car starting from rest and traveling to the left
with constant acceleration a. The cars are

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)


moving along the same line, directly toward
each other.
At what time do they collide, in terms of
D, v0 and a?
1.

v0
a

2. The cars will never collide.


2D
3.
a


1 2 D v0
4.
+
2
a
a
r 
v0 2 2 D v0
5.

correct
+
a
a
a
r
2 D  v0 2 v0

6.
a
a
a
r 
v0 2 2 D v0

7.
a
a
a
r 
v0 2 2 D v0
+
+
8.
a
a
a
Explanation:
The first toy car starts at a position x = 0
and moves to the right at a constant speed v0 ,
so its position is given by x1 = v0 t. Meanwhile, the second toy car starts at a distance
D ahead of the first and accelerates to the left
with an acceleration a, so its position is given
1
by x2 = D a t2 .
2
The two cars collide when
x1 = x2
1 2
at
2
0 = a t2 + 2 v0 t 2 D
q
2 v0 4 v02 + 8 D a
t=
q 2a
v0 v02 + 2 D a
=
ra 
v0
v0 2 2 D
=
+
+
a
a
a
t > 0 when the two cars collide, so the
negative root must be rejected.
v0 t = D

026 10.0 points


The acceleration due to gravity on planet X is
one fifth that on the surface of the earth.
If it takes 4.3 s for an object to fall a certain
distance from rest on earth, how long would
it take to fall the same distance on planet X?
Correct answer: 9.61509 s.
Explanation:
Let :

te = 4.3 s .

Because the acceleration due to gravity is


uniform near the surface of both planets, the
distance an object falls in a time t is given by
xf all =

gplanet t2
.
2

Since the distance xf all is the same for both


planets, then
ge t2e
2

gx t2x
2

1
ge t2x
5
=
2

1 2
t
5 x

tx = 5 te = 5 (4.3 s) = 9.61509 s .
t2e =

027 10.0 points


Judy, by chance, spots a potted plant falling
outside the window at 1.76 m/s . Further
down the same building, Judys boyfriend
clocks the pot at 68 m/s .
How far apart are the friends? The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 235.76 m.
Explanation:
All the motion is down, so we can consider
down to be positive.
Let :

v0 = 1.76 m/s ,
vf = 68 m/s , and
g = 9.8 m/s2 .

fan (rf22492) 1 - 1D Motion carroll (1065)

vf2 = v02 + 2 g y
y=

vf2 v02

2g
(68 m/s)2 (1.76 m/s)2
=
2 (9.8 m/s2 )
= 235.76 m .