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N. J. 44 BARCLAY STRKKT. or THE ORDER OF FRIAR PREACHERS. KENEDV AND SONS PRINTERS TO THE BOLT APOSTOLIC 8KB No. . if rmtssu P. Thorn** mcn0rnw. BY A FATHER OF THE SAME ORDER Augustinus Fratri sic loquitur : Thomas mihi par cst in gloria. Y.THE LIFE or THB ANGELIC DOCTOR ST. Office for Feast of St. Virginali prcsstans munditia. THOMAS AQUINAS.

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Com. SADOC VILARRASA. O. f JOHN CARDINAL MCCLOSKEY. fidem facimus quod excudendis pro scriptis attente perlectum opusculum cujus titulus "The Life of Saint Thomas Aquinas." published by D. Gen. In quorum fidem his propria infrascripti manu subscripsimus. typis mandari posse censemus. . by a Dominican Father. LUDOVICUS DANIEL. We approve of the publication of the book The Life of Saint Thomas Aquinas. P. entitled Sadlier " & Co. O. New York. Fr. MANNES DOOGAN.APPROBATION. P. Fr. die 16 Junii. Praed. 1881. Fr. by a Dominican Father" compilatum. P. Calif. Imprimatur. 1881. O. Archbishop of June. Nos Revisores Ord. Benetiae. & J.

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32 CHAPTER The Dumb Sicilian Ox. - I CHAPTER Receives the White Habit of St. III.c 3 $9 .. CHAPTER I. CHAPTER St. Dominic. The Miraculous Cord. . 17 V. Cologne. CHAPTER II. FAGS Early Life of St. Thomas's Labors at IV.. Thomas. .CONTENTS..

Sublime Death of St. Thomas. xia X. CHAPTER .CONTENTS vi. CHAPTER VI. Origin of the Feast of Corpus Christi. Thomas. PAO* How St. .. Thomas is 66 received the Doctorate.... St Thomas and the Miraculous Visions. Thomas's Character. called to VII.. 166 .. Thomas CHAPTER St. CHAPTER VIII. 147 XII.. IX. CHAPTER 93 - - 136 XI. 88 Rome. . CHAPTER Sketch of St.. CHAPTER Canonization of St.

CHAPTER I. is little situated at an equal distance from Rome and Naples.THE LIFE OF SAINTTHOMAS AQUINAS (THE ANGELIC DOCTOR). which the inhabitants call "Campagna felice. and which is or almost surrounded by bare and sterile mounIn the thirteenth century." the happy valley. near which St. upon tains. HE town of Aquino. Thomas was born. EARLY LIFE OF SAINT THOMAS. . It is in the centre of a fertile plain.

THOMAS AQUINAS. In the middle of the twelfth century the head of this family was Count Thomas. being descended Norman from the kings of Naples and Sicily. . She was of royal blood. of parts the Apennines. which flows from the Secca. The castle of Rocca-Secca belonged to the old and powerful family of the Counts of Aquino. of the illustrious family of the Carracioli. the father of St. 2 the moct advanced spur of these tains.LIFE OF ST. LieutenantGeneral of the army of the Emperor Frederick him his I of Germany. still attest its ancient splendor. there moun- stood a castle called Rocca- whose overhanging the torrent of Melfi. He married the Countess Theodora. Thomas. From this union sprang Count Landolph. who had given sister Frances in marriage. highest ruins.

THOMAS AQUINAS. Before his birth several signs predicted the greatness he was destined to acquire. as some authors to St. and who was venerated as a saint. 3 Thus St. nearly related of France.LIFE OF ST. say. One day when was the Countess Theodora at the castle of Rocca-Secca. being the second Emperor Frederick and. Thomas was allied by birth to some of the most noble families of Europe. King II cousin of the of Germany. that this age will give birth to no one able to with him: you will call be compared him Thomas. Louis. ! for you bear who in your his life will during a splendor of abroad such spread holi- ness and learning. a ven- erable old hermit called the lived Good." . went to her and said " : womb Rejoice a child. who with some companions upon a neighboring mountain.

but found him and his nurse A shining light was unhurt often seen to en- . more for the and the boy than for his ran to his bedside in haste. who horses in the stable. Thomas was born the in first quarter of the year 1225." St. a year before St. the The providence of St. 4 The upon her knees at his feet. but spared years. while it killed his sister His mother. feared sister. and imitating her who was the Mother of God. him. THOMAS AQUINAS. Louis throne of God appear- ed to keep special watch over his earliest One night lightning struck the tower in which the child slept. said: "I am not pious Countess fell worthy of such a son. his Francis of Assissi died. yet be it done unto me according to the holy will of God.LIFE OF ST. and ascended relative France.

THOMAS AQUINAS. yet quiet and placid beyond his While yet in arms. 5 but the early signs he wonderful character were the surest proofs of his future greatness. head his . He the seems to have been free from little faults of the fits all of childhood. nurse. was. but. usual in children. and tried to take it from him to see what it habits. cheerful. was then her. His sea. his mother. and she was obliged to let him keep it. contrary to his usual he kept firm hold of it. taking who Thomas with carried him. bathe in the age. and rapid changes from joy to grief. he was always the same. wait- ing for the time to bathe. who went one day to at Naples. for instead of anger. saw that he held a roll of paper in his little hand. On wlo . their return she told the Countess.LIFE OF circle his showed of ST.

he liked to be taken to the gates of the castle to see the pilgrims and poor people who came to beg for alms never refused by the rich ages of faith. At in those the age of five the Court of Aquino determined to send him to be brought up in the celebrated Benedictine Mon- Monte Cassino. THOMAS AQUINAS. was he prized so much. a beautiful presage of the tender love for Thomas always St. so that while he learned all things . It was a piece of paper on determined to see what which was written the it Ave Maria. and forced him to open his hand. Mary preserved in his heart. among the noble youths who were educated there astery of . When he was a ticed that and little older he loved to be also that it was no- in the chapel.LIFE OF 6 ST.

and many hundred after years of glory was then in the height of its It is built on the summit of renown.UFE OF ST. being the fiftysixth from St. THOMAS AQUINAS.n the sixth century by St. and is about six miles from the castle of Rocca-Secca. The family of our saint had always been among its constant protectors. and at the time venerable when St. necessary for his future 7 the world. one of the mountains which surround the plains of Aquino. life in he could at the same time advance in the love and fear of God. Benedict. uncle. soon saw the remarkable character of . justly famed for their system of Christian education. Abbot. This famous monastery was founded . The Benedictine Fathers. Landolph was its Senebald. Benedict nimself. Thomas entered its his walls.

LIFE OF ST. to him. who are satisfied with the simple answers usually given to their questions. 8 boy who was entrusted to them. although so young. but his mind had commenced to inquire more deeply into the nature of God. for. and also in the love of God. but several times modesty forced him to stop in the dle of these discourses. among mid- we are his audience the venerable white heads of the Fathers themselves. and more than once he went to one of . and. as he saw told. He had already begun to think much about God. THOMAS AQUINAS. and gave more than common care the little He made quick progress in his studies. was often heard to advise his schoolmates to keep the rules of the college . humbly listening to his words. not as other children of his age.

Monte Cassino his father's castle of Loretto. in his Summa is " Theologia. of which he had given so many signs when much younger. A grievous famine desolated Italy at that time. to spend vacation before going to Naples. from Rocca-Secca. "What is God?" In after years this child. The Count chose which was not St." or the whole of theology. Thomas then far left that of Naples. While there he again showed for his the same remarkable love and compassion for the poor. the Abbot advised his father to send him to one of the Catholic universities. a great number . 9 learned and holy masters to ask. was to write those won" articles on God.LIFE OP ST. who so eagerly desired to learn his what derful God. and day by day." When he had been at Monte Cassino five years. THOMAS AQUINAS.

secretly of the castle to get all he could lay gave. who obstructed his passage. and castle gates. He he was met by his had been on the watch. hands upon for them. to the astonishment of both. a shower of roses fell at let .LIFE OF ST. at that time. IO of the starving poor went to beg at the Thomas loved to give them alms with his own hands. with his booty hid under the cloak it was the fashion to wear father. as he was returning from one of these foraging expeditions. THOMAS AQUINAS. far begged father more for them from his and mother than they usually And not content with doing he went into the larders this. and asked him what he had got there. He took so much. Thomas the food drop. but. that at last the steward comhis plained to the Count So one day.

LIFE OF

ST.

THOMAS AQUINAS.

II

Count Landolph, moved to

their feet.
tears

by this beautiful miracle, warmly
embraced his son, and from that time

Thomas was free
At the end of

to take what he chose.
his holidays

he set out

for Naples, under the care of the

who had the
Monte Cassino.

charge of him while

tutor
at

"

Naples

is

a paradise

inhabited by demons,"

ing in

which

expressed.

its

The

is

upon
a

earth, but

common

beauty and

its

purity of the

mildness of the climate,
site,

same

its

say-

vice are
air,

the

unrivalled

being built on the shores of the

most beautiful bay
clear waters

reflect

the fertility of the

in the world,

whose

the heaven's blue,

soil, all

unite to

make

an earthly paradise. But on
*he other side, it seems always to have
this city

been noted for the immorality of the

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUIffAS,

13

How

people.

can one describe the

cor-

ruption of morals at the time of which

we

write!

was the
the

The kingdom

capital,

was

it

in the possession of

Emperor Frederick

who had

of which

II of

Germany,

repaid the kindness of

Pope
him when a youth, by
revolting against his authority, and by
attempting to deprive him of his PonInnocent III to

tifical

power.

The

city of

Bologna was one of the

most powerful supporters of the Pope,
and warmly opposed the Emperor. It
possessed an university with over ten

thousand students, gathered from
parts of Europe.

upon

it,

To avenge

all

himself

Frederick founded a rival uni-

versity at Naples,

and to draw the

stu-

dents away from Bologna, and to attract
both learned professors and good stu*

LIFE OF
dents from

money nor

THOMAS AQUINAS.

ST.

all

parts,

13

he spared neither

privileges.

But, as

is

always

the case in great centres of learning
where there is a number of youths, the

became very sad, and
although the university had only been
founded twelve years when St. Thomas
state of morality

Naples had acquired the reputation of being one of the most licentious
arrived,

towns

in

His

Europe.

who was a pious man,
Thomas against the evil at-

tutor,

warned

St.

but the youth
possessed powers within his soul suffi-

tractions of the

cities,

cient to preserve

him from

As

is

all

dangers.
fellow-stuthe
his
case,
generally

dents tried to draw him into their
vicious

habits;

endeavors were

him

to himself.

own

but seeing that these
useless,

they soon

left

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

14

The

principal

means he used

serve his purity of heart

to pre-

amid so many

and surrounded by such
great dangers, was to practice great
modesty of manner, to set a guard upon
occasions of

his eyes

sin,

and to forbid himself to look

upon anything which could in any way
sow the seeds of unchaste desires in his

He
or excite his imagination.
also fled all the gaieties and idle amuseheart

ments of those of

his

own

age,

and

lived in as great retirement as possible.

He

was often

in

the

prayed much, but above

churches
all

and

he trusted

in the protection of

ginal hearts,

her

care.

Mary, Queen of virand placed himself under

These are

within the reach of

all;

simple

means,

would that

all

Catholic youths followed his example
It was not surprising that St. Thomas,

!

But all his is so natural to endeavors to shun applause could not hinder his acquiring a brilliant reputation. who in a but there more spe manner exercised a great over him. He was very humble. should have advanced very quickly He attended many were two professors cial in his classes. than to exhibit them. and it is said of him even at this time that he could re peat the lectures he heard more clearly and profoundly than his masters. and sought rather to hide his talents from his fellow-students. THOMAS AQUlfrAS. Professor of rhetoric and humanities. who studies. influence- These were Peter the lectured on Irish- dialectics and philosophy. as youth. 15 whose heart was so pure and so free from all earthly affection. and Peter Martin. His charity again became noticed.LIFE Of 5T. . man.

he did not spend it in vain amusements like the other students. and he soon came upon as a wonder of wisdom and modesty. THOMAS AQUINAS. as he hid his one nor the other the observation world. and had much pocket money. neither could escape alms to the notwithstanding he sought to hide his good deeds.1 6 LIFE OF ST. youthful . of the to be looked charity. Although he was rich. but gave it away in secret poor. And mental talents.

so that. and he was always asking his tutor to take him to their by little. RECEIVES THE WHITE HABIT OF ST. T. and theirs became church. thought (17) went it was one of the best . THOMAS the churches often went into of Naples to pray. he ceased to attend the others. who had gained his heart. little the only one to which he His visits from discouraging his to the Dominican Friars. on the tutor. DOMINIC. but above all he loved that of the Friar Preachers.CHAPTER II. far contrary.

means he could take cue.1 8 LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. any idea of entering their Order. had spread into all parts After the death of St . of Friar Preachers. for at the age of eighteen. Thomas came to crown all its glories with The Order the lustre of his name. had been founded only about thirty years. But he was devoted mistaken. and to advance in Thomas had he suspected if vir. or Do- minicans. the relative of some of the most powerful kings of the earth. Here we may pause to form some idea of the Dominican Order at the time when St. Thomas asked leave from the Fathers of St. Dominic's Monastery to receive the habit of their holy founder. yet of the world. should choose a state of life to the strictest poverty. he seems to have thought it impossible that his charge.

Blessed Jordan of Saxony. Peter of Verona gave his life for the faith. was raised to the office of Master-General. 19 Dominic.LIFE OF ST. Lombardy resounded with the apostolic voice of Blessed John of Vincenze. and Spain saw holy Dominican preachers leading a countless num- . In Germany Blessed Albert of Cologne children of St. own blood on the ground. But these of Pennafort. was spreading abroad the fame of his virtues and unrivalled learning in Italy . THOMAS AQUINAS. writing the word Credo with his St. in France. Raymund were not the only saints among the Dominic they were to be found in all the countries of Europe. one of the greatest men the Order has produced. and after him followed St. William and his Blessed companions shed blood for the faith at their Avignonette.

Amazed sudden step his charge had taken. preached the faith in Poland. and the time when to eclipse learning. Russia and Livonia. and the miracle worker of the thirteenth century. 2O God her of strayed souls back to . St. accompanied by Ceslaus. and even went as far as north. Sweden and Denmark and into Asia in the east. Dominic Dominican character. Hyacinth. in the few years which has elapsed between the days of St. Bohemia. them and to let Thomas came by his virtues and show to the world the all perfection of the But St. THOMAS AQUINAS. the Apostle of the North. so unexpected.LIFE OF ST. he hastened at the to send the news to the Count Lan- . in the These were some of the glories of the Dominican Order. us return to the tutor of St. Thomas.

LIFE OF

who

dolph,

ST.

THOMAS AQUINAS.

21

once ordered Thomas to

at

put all such ideas aside, and at the same
time threatened the Dominican Fathers
with the anger of the Emperor if they
should dare to receive him as a novice.

He

knew

little

the courage of

men

full

power of God, devoted
of poverty and to all the hard-

of faith in the
to a

life

ships

which follow from

that

if

Thomas had

God would
out,

a

it

true

him a way
no
and took
notice of
find

They knew
vocation

to carry

it

his father's

threats.

They had
vocation

God

;

little

his

life,

doubt, however, of his
piety,

and ardent love

still
proved it to them
miraculous signs were not wanting to

of

make

it

all

;

sure to their minds, for as the

holy youth was praying in their church
one dav several of the Friars saw bis

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

22

face illumined, as

if

he was already

in

the possession of the blessed light of
the glory of God.
They could have no
reason, therefore, to delay his receiving

the habit, and publicly announced a day
for the ceremony.

The news
the time

spread abroad, and

came

their church

when

was

filled

with a crowd of the most influential of
the inhabitants of the town.
in the

1243,

month
that

St.

white habit of

It

was

of August, in the year

Thomas
St.

received

the

Dominic from the

hands of the Prior of Naples, Father

Thomas Aqui,

afterwards Patriarch of

Jerusalem.

This step produced different impres*
sions

upon those who knew of

it.

The

Friars themselves could not sufficiently

thank

God

for sending

them a novice

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

from

which

great

things;

23

they

naturally expected
but the world thought

some admired

his courage and
but
were
self-sacrifice,
few; others
they
blamed him for taking so important a

different

;

and

step without longer consideration,

others

exclaimed

Friars,

whom

loudly

they accused of having

him to enter

enticed

mere motives of

their

Countess Theodora,

Rocca-Secca.
her, foi
St.

purity of

It

although

Thomas

Order from

avarice.

The news soon reached
the

his mother,

who was

at

was a great blow to
all

the historians of

praise her for her piety

life,

the

against

and

she does not seem to have

arrived at that state of Christian perfec-

mere earthly affections
are dead, and the world and its honors
Could it be possible, she
despised.

tion in

which

all

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

24

thought to

from

her dear son,

herself, that

whom

she hoped such great things,
should have deserted her to bury himself

and

his talents in the living

tomb

of a Dominican monastery? Could it
be possible that her son, a scion of one
of the noblest families of Italy, should

wish to spend his life as a begging
Friar? She racked her mind to discover some means by which she could

change his resolution and draw him
back again into the bosom of his family,

and

at last

determined to

set

out her-

Naples, to see if she could not
show him the folly of the step he had
self for

taken.

But

as

that his

soon as

St.

mother had

for Naples, judging

Thomas heard

left
it

Rocca-Secca

not prudent to

expose himself to the danger of giving

who had learnt his flight. the least wish to shake his vocation.UFS OF ST. But he had not long been in that celebrated house. his superiors. and of so many other saints who had dwelt there. and begged the Prior to refuse her an interview. Arriving in Rome he went to the convent of Santa Sabina. he would not see her. and would not turn back. arrived at the convent gates and But in with all in demanded to see her son. although she protested a mother's art that she did not vain . He had heard . whose very walls reminded him of the holy founder of the Friar Preachers. with the leave of by a road other than that which he knew she would take. when his mother. he left Naples for Rome. THOMA S A Q VINA S. He had put his hand to the plow. 25 way to his affection for his mother.

and. Thomas Aquinas. THOMAS AQUINAS. " Fol- low me. 26 the voice of his Saviour in the depths of his heart. best to send would be free him to from Paris." and nothing could cause him to waver an instant in his vocation. went to complain at the feet of the Sovereign But while she Pontiff. judged where he his mother's impor- same time. The sweet words of Jesus have never gained a purer or a more beautiful soul than that of St. knowing the issue certainly be in their favor. did this. The Countess Theodora. at the his studies Thus a at fugitive and exile from his . would it the Fathers. resume that famous university. whispering sweetly. tunities.LIFE OF ST. and few have passed through greater trials than he to carry out their vocation. seeing that she could not alter his mind. Innocent IV.

" father or He that loveth me mother more than worthy of me. not he out for Paris. The Count of Aquino had two other sons who were older than St. Landolph and Reginald. native land for the love of God. accompanied by four of his Brothers in religion. the Emperor of Germany. surrounded when by they a who took Thomas were troop of prisoner. THOMAS AQUIA'AS. v. set the most unfrequented roads. 2J musing upon those words of our Lord. and had got They chose as far as Aquapendente. is 10. avoided the towns. officers in the army of their relative. their mother. in Tuscany. Thomas. so hard to those who in his heart Blessed understand them not." (Matt.LIFE OF ST. 37). . and were seated on the bank of a brook resting suddenly soldiers. c. themselves. The Countess.

where his with reproaches. but in Did she forgive him. as he expected. mother! neither thy tears. treated to tear his habit from Thomas to his resisted bravely keep it. 28 when she found that St. It who now made him him with great rudeness. but and managed triumph to Roccamother met him. Poor this. not in Secca. THOMAS AQUINAS. but let us hope that lady. a mother's art to soften his resolution? We this know not. or was it tears.LIFE OF ST. and even went as far as to try prisoner. Thomas had escaped her a second time. He was led back. sent word to his brothers to keep watch over all the was roads leading Reginald He into France. nor thy . who was so pious in all but was so overjoyed to see him once more that all was forgotten.

LIFE OF marks of ST. and the result visit was him. she was again mistaken. and that no except his two and Theodora. nor all 29 the kindness thou canst pour upon him will change him to in the least. God has given himself without a shadow of reserve. and she soon saw that she could not overcome his determination. These two sisters were filled with the far . Her tenderness and were useless . poor white habit more the honors thou canst promise and he loves than him all He his in this world. THOMAS AQUINAS. should one. love. her arguments he was still of the same all mind. sisters. from what she expected. Marietta be allowed to hoping that they might But persuade where she could not. so ordered him to be imprisoned in one of the castle towers.

they could not therefore understand how their brother could so as to demean himself become a Dominican So Friar. to his state of He listened. and brought them blessed mere worldly honors. as his mind some ideas more they thought. Thomas seemed pleased to see to take how pleasure in . THOMAS AQUINAS. to try and in incite fitting. His words were by God. acting under the instruction of their mother. The Countess.LIFE OF ST. and to their joy and consolation at the to despise seek all foot of the Cross. they set themselves. great prudence and sweetness. and with then. and he succeeded in changing their hearts. and to attempt to lead them to God. life. 30 spirt of the world. began to attack them. all their thoughts ran upon pleasures and vanities. calmly answered.

. little guessing the reason why.LIFE OF ST. encouraged them to be always with him. hoping that the end of his sad obstinacy was near at hand. 31 their society. THOMAS AQUINAS.

encamped Aquino. his Landolph and Regithe castle. returned to Thomas had been several im- months. the force at that time not far from He was using every effort to election of a successor to Pope Celestine IV. hoping to obtain from the newly-elected Pontiff all the concessions he had in vain tried to (32) * .*^ CHAPTER III. nald. HEN St. prisoned brothers. THE MIRACULOUS CORD. to see if they could put an end to this strange The Emperor Frederick was struggle.

to visit who Thomas. But. fearing the scandal which would be caused if his imprisonment were known. The Dominican Fathers had not forgotten their young novice. THOMAS AQUINAS. to force to give up his religious voca- tion. wrest from the late Popes. like their mother. willingly undertook but. young Counts. by Thomas fair same or foul means. took advantage of their neighborhood to their father's castle to pay a visit to their mother. enlisted Marietta and Theodora on their side.LIFE OF ST. who were 33 The two in his army. They began by increasing the strict- ness of his confinement. as we know. with quite another intention. and knew all the temptations to which he was sub- jected. determining at the time. and. and feeling sure that he .

thought it not prudent a public appeal to the in his favor. wearing two . the sacred Scriptures. and the Book of Sentences of Peter Lombard. Father John of St Julien. and sent him some books on philoso- to encourage also phy. But a est Dominican. which he read entire. strip They then went him of so far as to his habit. to force the mod- youth to put on the secular clothes which they left in his chamber. to penetrate into the castle him by their counsels. paid him a secret visit. They Pope contrived. doubtless by the help of the two young Countesses. however. but with the same want of success as before. Landolph and Reginald again tried by arguments to shake his resolution.LIFE OF ST. which he learnt by heart. TITOMS AQUINAS 34 would be make to firm.

and shut her up alone with Thomas in his prison. betook themselves to the wiles of the him to give way. his him into the nets of the be easy. habits. They found who had lost precious ornament. all would a poor young woman's most who was out- wardly very beautiful. 35 one of which he gave to St Thomas. They they could draw him into devil to force thought if and rob pure young soul of its If chastity. that all would be gained. who at that time young seem to have kept little fear of God in their hearts.LIFE OF ST. creature. The contest was short. he saw the poor creature enter. seeing that all they could say or do was of no avail. understood the meaning . they could once succeed in dragging sin. Then. but flesh. THOMAS AQUINAS. these two men.

and knees before it. But while he prayed a sweet upon him. Then with he brand the upon the wall of falling upon his his made a cross chamber.LIFE OF S T. then. chased the temptress from his presence. and two angels came to him sleep in ecstatic fell and girded ing: "We his waist with a cord. and renewed the vow of chastity he had made in the depths of out his soul to God. THOMA S AQ UINA S. felt of the flesh arise in of God to make him his the stimulus by permission all victory the more glorious raised his heart to God for a brief moment. say- come to thee from God to . poured who had given him the victory. 36 of her detestable arts. snatching a burning brand out of the fire. like that of Adam Paradise. when he had received the holy habit of religion. his heart.

Paul. 12.) When the the holy he felt so he the that youth pain keenly cried out aloud. but he said nothing.LIFE OF ST. and of the beautiful confraternity to which it gave rise. v. flesh. We be pardoned if we give a short account of the subsequent history shall of this miraculous cord. vir- and from that time he never the slightest temptation against purity. ." c. THOMAS AQUINAS. . 7. and his guards entered to see angels girded what was the matter . an (2 Cor. his confessor. a grace not accorded even to " There St. when he revealed it to Father Reginald. who thus complains : me was given a sting of my angel of Satan to buffet me. 37 give thee the grace of everlasting " ginity felt . and kept this wonderful grace a secret until nearly the end of his life.

in Piedmont. near Turin. tempted by the domestic enemy. custom which were by touching the original.LIFE OF S T. THOMA S A Q UINA 5 38 St. Thomas wore it until the end of was given by Father John of Vercelli. miracles were worked by in the sixteenth century a arose to make cords like it. it. and these also were the means of countless blessed graces to those who. to the Dominican Convent at Vercelli. where Many and it still remains. This . when the convent was destroyed and it was taken to the Dominican Convent at Chieri. used them as a pious preservation against sin. But it was not until the year 1649 that a confraternity was canonically instituted. where remained until the it French revolution. who was his and life. after his death it then Master-General of the Order.

for what more beautiful model can Catholic him who passed unhurt through the same dangers to students take. and at the same time shows them in himself the highest perfection to which the human mind can attain. where numbers of the university students enrolled themselves in all parts its chaste ranks. of Europe. March 2ist. took place versity at THOMAS AQUINAS. Having ." approved by Pope Innocent X. 39 Louvain. 1651. the ancient uni- town of Catholic Belgium. Thomas of Aquino. than which they themselves were exposed. it spread into and especially in the university flourished towns. It was under the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. and called the " Confraternity of the It was solemnly Angelic Warfare. From Louvain.LIFE OF ST.

glorious victories. Thomas ? Five centuries have passed since his virginal entered heaven. by several Popes. France.LIFE OF ST. who can count the souls snatched from the snares of the flesh by devotion to St. But who can tell the numbers of St. other lands. Spain. granted to those who wear the cord of Thomas. and the ber will never be known until that numhour . and how many chaste souls are there not who have owed their salvation to and to the cord they wore honor? None but they who have his prayers in his the cure of souls can say. 4O been propagated in and in many Italy. THOMAS AQUItfAS. leaving the fragrance of his pure life upon the earth soul . Pope Benedict XIII gave permission Fathers to to the establish it Dominican where they Many indulgences have been pleased.

have gloried in wearing this beautiful cord of chastity. THOMAS AQUINAS. his captivity seemed to . the young. lived like an angel upon earth. since the days when Thomas St. thus victorious the temptations to which he was subjected. when the secrets of hearts will be all Kings and queens. and the Confraternity these our work own days. and the penitent of all ages. beautiful the care of or school-teachers. 4! rich and the poor. is very flourishing in No more who have priests. the innocent. can be imagined than to encourage and propagate this devotion and none . the revealed. Let us now return to our Although Thomas was over all narrative. for those youth. more pleasing to God and the chaste Mother of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. nuns.LIFE OF ST.

42 be no nearer its end than before until . when a temporary peace was established between the Pope and the at last. and be allowed to return to the religious Order he had chosen. The Pope was much moved when he heard of the treatment to which St.LIFE OF ST. at any well to appear to be strict orders to the that the holy youth should be freed at once. and to make it seem . Landolph and Reginald were forced to obey. Thomas had been subjected to force him to give up his vocation. it and sent castle of Aquino . THOMAS AQUINAS. but they wished at least to save appearances. and we are also told that Frederick was no less affected rate. the Dominican Fathers took the opportunity to complain both to the one and to the other. Emperor. he thought angry.

and on the night arranged St. and asked the Pope to annul his profession. They gladly obeyed. He had been in prison more than a year. for mother and brothers made another effort to wrest him from his beloved Order. The two sisters were commissioned to let the Dominicans know as if St. Thomas came out from his room. was possible for the young novice to escape. and was now nineteen Soon after his happy years of age. THOMAS AQUINAS. But his his trials were not yet over. return he made his vows with great joy of soul. 43 Thomas had escaped against their will.UFB OF ST. and was let down in that it a basket by his sisters into the arms of beloved brothers in religion who waited below. Pope Innocent summoned . and was quickly on his his way to Naples.

defended his vocation with such force and clearness.LIFE Of ST. in the begin- ning of the following year (1244). and. THOMAS 44 the brave account religious to give an young of his Thomas went vocation Rome to in person. and fearing that he could never be induced to leave it alto- . where he would be master of a large revenue and be in possession of great power. and been the dearest wish of it had his father and mother that he should be Abbot of that monastery. that that it no one could doubt was from God. Yet the Pope. offered him the Abbacy This was an office of Monte Cassino. to please the family of the saint. At the same time the Pope. of the highest importance. in the presence of the Papal Court. seeing his unchangeable love for his own Order.

wearing the beautiful white habit he loved so much. Thomas declined . and for which he had undergone so many rude trials. though it would put an all his heart. provided he kept up end to all the credit of his family. and he could never consent to leave an Order he loved with even in the way proposed and. what else could be expected? His humility shrank from so great an honor. yet be Abbot of Monte Cassino. the equal of princes. 45 gether.LIFE OF THOMAS AQUINAS. and the head of the venerable Benedictine Order. which he would do the rich and powerful if he were Abbot of Monte Cassino. little . ST. to him . so they reasoned. so they thought. but not at least. proposed that he should remain a Dominican. opposition on the part of his family. who had never objected to his being a religious.

" as the Dominicans were com- monly called at that time. and allowed him to remain an humble " Friar his will. of Mary. seeing he could not change confirmed his profession. future.LIFE OF 46 knowing the an ST. The Pope. student . THOMAS AQUINAS. and determined to send him to Cologne to study under Blessed Albert. was in Rome at this time. little recommend it to the eyes of the rich. Master-General of the Dominican Order. if he remained in newly founded. John the Teuton. illustrious a He saw at once that so novice should have the best advantages he could give him for continuing his studies. but who was to be eclipsed by the now to be put under his care. whose fame had spread throughout the whole of Europe. and with of the things of this world to Order.

was very ancient. 1 244. the General having business which called him there. A flour- . over fifteen Rome in October. but their Office books and habits. and took Paris on the way. taking on Thomas with foot.LIFE OF ST. They left thus. even at the time when St Thomas first saw it. 1245. and arrived in Cologne in the beginning of the next year. and had become one of It the chief towns in Germany. Cologne. The General was going ^f himself to preside over the Twenty-third General Chapter of the Order at Cologne in the beginning of the year following (1245). had been founded thirty-seven years before Christ. staff in hand. and began a journey of hundred miles. They went nothing with them carrying him. THOMAS AQUINAS. and so set out without further delay.

THOMAS AQUINAS. a great ardor for study. It already a convent of the of all pil- the a sight possessed Dominican which was a flourishing school of philosophy and theology. which ranked second to none except Paris. in over by Blessed Albert. St. presided Order. were full of interest for a crowds of students stranger. . lined with quaint houses. when amongst them. and under so excellent a regent of studies. ishing university existed there. made well worth remembering. Its narrow streets. grims of to the famous shrine three Kings of the East. and at the same time for religious perfection reigned among Thomas arrived the and novices discipline.48 LIFE OF ST. mixed with monks and nations.

and of the persecution he sake at of had so bravely undergone for his the least. they had heard of the reputation he had acquired at the as university of Naples. we may suppose. among whom St. his silence and retirement but although. were much impressed by his application to study. to have they seemed.CHAPTER "THE DUMB IV. (49) vocation. Thomas now found himself. underrated his and soon nicknamed him "the . SICILIAN OX. HE German Dominican students. abilities. .

St charitably offered to help his lesson for Thomas gratefully and simply accepted . Thomas of the timpre. Can- of in his ill opinion his fellow students had formed of his powers of mind was. only. THOMAS AQUINAS. him to prepare the next day's class. for was and the holy. whc and judgment." who Church. to cause them to shine more brilliantly in the future. were Blessed was as learned as he afterwards famous scarcely less time than St.LIFE OF ST. however. in truth. thinking his silence came from slowness of wit. and for a time succeeded. 5O dumb condemn charity these students as wanting in among them Ambrose of Sienna. One of his fellow novices. Cardinal was But we must not Sicilian ox. distinguished The Thomas. work. his own He sought to hide his talents.

when St. THOMAS AQUINAS. we know not his name. who was struck with astonishment at the wonderful clearness with which the " " mute ox unravelled the difficulty. Thomas came to his aid and explained the matter to his instructor. asked him to write St. the Areopagite." upon "Book usually attrib- Denys. unhappily lost himself. in trying to explain the young question to him. and with the simplicity of a generous heart asked his pardon for having dared to teach one who should rather be his master than his pupil. who uted to St. but the kind novice. Some time after Blessed Albert asked his scholars to give him their ideas a very obscure passage in the on the Divine Names. Thomas his opinion . The student. had learnt the greatness of mind. 51 the help offered in charity.LIFE OF ST.

how many excuses would he not have made ? But no . amazed. ing his clearness. before all the professors and students of the Dominican Convent. which The paper once. Thomas did at into the hands of fell who saw the impress of a master mind. he at once the morrow. Blessed Albert. stood up. and on of modest strength. St. which were commonly under debate at that time in the schools. THOMAS AQUINAS. without fear.LIFE OF ST. Thomas Had did as he was told. or not humility. called He began by explainsuch subject. and ordered him to prepare to defend publicly several very knotty questions. 52 on the matter. full about set it. with that all Was this the " his he dumb ox whom " surprising hearers were they had on account of . he been of a so firmly grounded less in mind.

pion of truth . ST. and most thorny ter mind? 53 The forget that in objector said you exposing : his "You seem to are not a master to de- but a scholar to answer objections put him. before this new and mighty chamreply." "I do not see any other way to answer the difficulty. answered with no less clearness studies Thomas shown than he had thesis. and Blessed Albert. slowness of scarcely believe Then the of objectors put their favorite difficulties. but he will bellow so loud that the sound of his voice will be heard throughout the whole world" Soon after this the Twenty-third Gen- . at last cried out. of joy." was his simple cide. to whom St. him the dumb "We full have called ox. All his opponents fell. The mas- began. They could it. one by one.LIFE OF his THOMAS AQUINAS.

THOMAS AQUINAS. Chapter of the Dominican Order was held in the convent of Cologne. and at the same time to receive all the advan- tages Paris offered him. to Paris . although not strictly original. excellencies of his future works. being an abstract of the lessons of Blessed Albert. . the former to take the Doctor's degree at the university and to fill one of the professorial chairs which the Dominican Order possessed in that university .LIFE OF 54 ST. Thomas. now his favorite pupil. a treatise on the morals of Ariswhich. the other to studies under continue his Blessed Albert. He was only about a year at Cologne. reveals to us all the totle. eral and the Fathers. who were gathered together there. decided to send Blessed Albert and St. yet he found time to write his first work.

sent there to establish the Order in the capital of France. together by a holy love. which Arriving in Paris. another Augustine. had been founded twenty-seven years. Blessed teach in the Albert began Dominican at once to and his schools. " and large St. which was to cease only with death. before by Blessed Manez and several companions. whom Dominic had St. The master and his 55 bound pupil. Thomas continued his studies. THOMAS AQUINAS. fame having preceded him drew a very number of students to his lectures." says an old author (Tritheme). "gave himself to like the study of the hol v ocriptures night . James. left Cologne for Paris at the end of the which they had come same year there in (1245).LIFE Of ST. they went to the Dominican Convent of St.

and he was the acknowledged example of his con- . He and day. beautiful work." works also studied the of the philosopher Aristotle. and the writings of the Fathers of the Church. Day by became more and he pious holy as day he became more learned. Austin. was the table in Dominic. let these serious his religious spirit. defending his especially of St. opinions all through But he did not studies dry up life. always upon his cell. book of the Conference of Cassian. whom he al- ways loved and followed. The that beloved so by St.56 LIFE OF ST. time learned to imitate the austerities and virtues of the saints of the desert Cassian so forcibly describes. he refreshed his soul and at the same . yet ever new. old. and in the simple and pious pages of this author. THOMAS AQUINAS.

Francis. " Let us leave a saint. in the simplicity of his heart he to the angelic Doctor.* UPS Of ST. While the of in Paris great he became the friend Franciscan. THOMAS AQUWAS. This holy friendship lasted until death. retiring unseen. He found him busy writing the life of St. "to write the Upon said of a saint." he said. but vent for above all for that precious quality which distinguished him through life. and is one of the most venture. Thomas. One day he went to the Franciscan Convent to visit Father Bona venture." another occasion Bonaventure who and life visited it was St St. beautiful traits of St. Thomas' life. Bona- St. what book do you take all "From those beau- . unchangeable sweetness to all around him. 57 modesty and wisdom.

"This my only book. 58 tiful so which astonish the world ideas much?" answered crucifix.LIFE OF ST. pointing to a is . THOMAS AQUINAS. St." Thomas.

having decided to establish houses of general studies of the Order in the other four principal university cities of Europe. HEN he had been about two Paris years at he began to teach publicly. (59) Bologna Germany. by order of his superiors. Oxford in France. in Cologne in England and Montpellier in Italy.CHAPTER ST. held Albert. THOMAS' LABORS AT COLOGNE. under the direction of Blessed But the Twenty-sixth General Chapter of the Dominican Order. at Paris in the year 1 248. . V.

* letter he perhaps a asked his advice how *This life being chiefly intended for spiritual reading.LIFE OF ST. although it is not easy to separate the man and the saint from his writings. to fill the first chair. it would be out of place to enter into a description of the marvelous works of St. on foot. Thomas. time. which is easily found elsewhere. At Cologne we are told that. the former in his capacity as Doctor. who had is at this found a his friends. Blessed Albert therefore Paris for left Cologne. THOMAS AQUINAS 6O they chose Thomas Albert Blessed St ana to teach in that of Cologne. philosophical Among his treatises works wrote to one of novice. in spite of the great fame of Blessed Albert. the Master of studies. We shall also not attempt to give a complete list of all he wrote. Thomas and St. and Thomas to be St. . making the journey as before. lectures. St. Thomas attracted great numbers to his he was beginning to He wrote several eclipse his master. in fact.

embrace purity of conscience. cease not to pray. for it is difficult ones. . says. We think to study. thy instruction : I bid speak. that thou dost not choose to plunge at once into the sea. show all Be agreeable into the doings thyself very familiar . love to be often in thy cell if thou wishest to be admitted into the wine to all cellar (of the Lord). therefore. search not at of others. my will it 61 be useful to : dearly beloved John. but reach it by the little streams.LIFE OF " it he THOMAS AQUINAS. this subject give thee this advice. give ST. "thou hast asked me how ' it behoves thee to study so as to acquire a treasure of I knowledge on . and in going to is my the more of easier advice and you be slow to the guest rooms . entire here Because. come at questions by means necessary to This.

"Whatever remember it comes. "Following during thy life. it. of thou good but care not Be hearest much whence sure to understand thou dost and hearest. what thyself and strive up whatever thou canst in the storehouse of thy mind. like him who to lay wishes to fill a vase. nor cease to follow in the footsteps of good and holy men. Run not after things above thee. and leads to the loss of much " study. make certain about difficult points. Do not mix up thyself with the sayings and deeds of secular persons. for too great familiarity breeds contempt.LIFE OF ST THOMAS AQUINAS. put forth and produce leaves and fruit useful in *he vineyard . 62 with no one. fly idle wanderings. this advice thou wilt. Above all.

LIFE OF
of

the

things

ST.

Lord.

you

will

THOMA S A Q UINA S.

63

you follow these
obtain what you wish."
If

Thomas was

ordained priest soon
after he began to teach at Cologne.
Little is said by historians about this
St.

beautiful event of his

about his

first

life,

Mass.

and nothing

They

tell

us,

however, that he always prepared for
his daily Mass with great fervor, passing
several hours in the day

and spending

the greater part of the night in preparation for this holy function,

sometimes

kneeling as if annihilated before the
Blessed Sacrament, sometimes raised in

contemplation of the sublime mystery
of the depth of the love of

men.

He

never

his soul,

for

ascended the altar

steps without tears;

revealed the inward

God

his face
fire

and eyes

of love within

and the people, who came in

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

64

crowds to hear

his

Mass, seemed

somewhat of the ardor of the

to catch

God which burned

love of

alsc>

in his soul.

He

had not long been ordained priest
when he heard of sad misfortunes which
had befallen

and

Landolph

Reginald,

obstinate and evil

seeing

resistance

master the Emperor of

Pope

His brothers,

his family.

of their

Germany

in its true light,

the

to the

had thought

it

necessary to abandon his cause, and, in
fact, to take up arms in defence of the
rights of the

Holy

See.

The Emperor

besieged and almost destroyed their
castle of Rocca-Secca, in the year 1 250,

and reduced them to great
their worldly loss

for

it

blessing

But

their souls' gain,

them to serve God more

led

faithfully

was

straits.

than before.

^

It

was

also a

h*k mother, the Countess

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

who had

t'neodora,
St.

Thomas'

taught

so vainly opposed

religious

the

in

65

vocation,

school of

for,

became a model of Christian

virtues,

and died a holy death.
His sister Marianna

entered

Benedictine Convent of

St.

and died as a

sister,

saint.

the

Mary

Capua, where she became Abbess
on,

she

sorrow,

The

at

later

other

Theodora, married the Count of

Marsico and San Severino.
forgot the

good

She never

lessons of piety her

brother had taught her when he was a
prisoner in the tower of Rocca-Secca.

She divided her time between
works of

charity,

prayer,

management of her

household, and the bringing up of her
family, and was, in short, a beautiful

example

of

the

Christian matron.

virtues

of

a

truly

CHAPTER
HOW

ST.

THOMAS RECEIVED THE DOCTORATE.

AVING

taught at Cologne for

four years, St.

Thomas was sent

once more to
with

the

VI.

intention

He

of

Paris, this

receiving

time
the

Cologne near the
end of the year 1252, paying a visit on
doctorate.

the
of

left

way to Adelaide de Burgogne, wife
Henry III, Duke of Brabrant

Arrived at Paris, he again taught in the
Dominican schools, which soon became
too small to hold the .crowds which

gathered there to hear him.
(66)

He

was

Thomas that we as a professor are tempted apostolic side of his life. wrapped in theories.LIFE OF ST. and theologian. THOMAS AQUINAS. In Paris he preached so often that one wonders how he found time to . and that too with great success. although he did not go into distant lands to carry the glad tidings of faith to those in the darkness of apostle. We are so accustomed to think of St. to the forget Still. that he never lost a single occasion of preaching. 6j by theologians from all parts of Europe. he was no less an and so loved to sow the seed of the holy Word of God. although he was not also consulted then more than twenty-six years of age. Yet we must not think that he. infidelity. was but a mere schoolman. and forgetful of the spiritual wants of the poor and ill-instructed.

an essential glory of the Friar would have been wanting him. THOMAS AQUINAS. show us what been the in his they are his sufficient to sermons must have mouth. to point to perfect Dominicans love Thomas St. and being the most perfect example of Dominican knowledge and science.LIFE OF ST. for we find in them luminous clearness of theological speculation joined to the simple practice of the Christian virtues. what them is strikes us most But above in reading the abundance of his Scriptural . 68 study and to teach. The bare skeletons alone have been but preserved. most but if he had not been a preacher as well as a theologian. all. the spirit of their Order . Preachers he would not have been crowned with the glory of the apostolate. after example as the Dominic of St.

pro- . 69 knowledge. some of the University Yet. forming an admirable illustration of his And we subject. ST. when the time came was presented by his superiors owing to in the usual way. all to the point. St Thomas having shown that he was not unworthy of that honor. linked on one to another. and no doubt the charm of sanctity which breathed in his features. a Convent Bachelor of Theology. known are told that the well holiness of his life. According to the of St James at rule of the Paris.LIFE OF THOMAS AQUINAS. when he had taught publicly a full year. was presented by the Prior of the Community to the Chancellor of the University to receive the degree of Doctor. so impressed the people that they heard him as one sent with an especial mission from God. and the number of texts.

cruelly It was treated. After resisting some time one of them was and the others wounded. killed town and gown. here. they de- and not being able .7<D LIFE OF S T. students were attacked during the night by the watchmen of the city. four evils. it was refused him. Here we must pause a little to give some account of the rise of this un- happy disagreement which lasted so long and was so productive of so many During Lent of the year 1250. But the the old tale of natter manded did not end satisfaction. fessors who were jealous of his success. The University authorities protested. and taken to prison. or according to some authors 1253. THOMA S AQ UINA S. and the students were set at liberty. but principally on account of a disagreement between the mendicant Orders and the University.

especially in and the city all public lectures should cease until the matter was arranged The Dominicans and Franciscans re- new The disagreement between them fused to promise to observe this law. however. that for the city future none should receive the degree of Doctor of Theology unless he swore to observe all the rules of the Uni- one newly made. and the watchmen having been punished. ceased to teach. they made a new law. not having part in the quarrel. and the University lasted a long time. that case of disputes between themselves versity. professors. continued their lectures as usual. obtain to it. . at last The University obtained satisfaction. THOMAS AQUINAS. of the JI The Dominican and Franciscan Orders. as they had done on a similar occasion once before.LIFE OF ST.

William of Amour. owing to St. not against them personally. seeing audiences dwindle away. his the Thomas and St with envy. the glory of centuries has fallen upon the twin mendicant Orders of St Dominic and St. of Paris there was a celebrated Doctor. It is when hard in these. and was referred to the Holy See. This infamous . At last Pope Alexander IV. Francis. but was not obeyed. THOMAS AQUINAS. but attacking Bonaventure. and to avenge himself wrote a book. was filled the very foundations of the Orders to which they belonged. by a Brief. to realize how they could have been attacked so In the University fiercely as they were.LIFE OF 72 ST. superior talents of St. who. our own times. Thomas. ordered the University to give the title of Doctor to St.

According to him. precursors of anti-Christ. but William of St Amour it . first of the false prophets. it would have at once met with the contempt and indifference merited. THOMAS AQUINAS. and same much more in the strain." St "The He "In the Paul. lamities of were to be traced to their false doc- all trines. was rork called Last Times. according to him." etc. If this absurd work had been written in calmer times.LIFE OF ST. Cap. and applied them to the Franciscans and Dominicans. which. and evils to guilty of all the sins and public ca- the times. the and they were. he said. 3). they were the source of innumerable the Church and society. of themselves. (2 Tim. Perils 73 of the took those words of days shall come men shall be lovers last on dangerous times .

although the voice of the whole French Epis. sent two embassadors to the Pope to lay the matter before him. under favor defending the Mendicant Orders. grieved to see them thus maligned. had seized the right moment and it caused great excitement and. secretly upheld also still " William of St.LIFE OF S T. THOMA S 74 AQ_ UINA S. Eternal who Amour. contained doctrines contrary to religion of . copate spoke many who against read it there it. The authorities of the University." which. and believed were all it contained. who was prob- ably a Tertiary of the Dominican and Franciscan Orders. St. while the Dominicans also sent some of their theologians to defend themselves. sent representatives to more scandalous work. Louis of France. defend a called the Gospel.

St. to cause the work to be examined by theologians of the Order. but while they did so he ordered Blessed Humbert de Romanis. for into Italy ciscans sent St. and piety. Amour was among the number chosen by the University. The Fran- desired that St.LIFE OF ST. This they 75 not from did. THOMAS AQUINAS. and especially Thomas should be sent to aid them. but from pure deceit. The Pope put the book written by William of St. hoping thus to obtain their condemnation while appearing to William of defend them. Bonaventure to repre- . any love of the Religious Orders. General of the Dominicans. Amour into the hands of four Cardinals to -examine. envoys of the King of France and the Dominican Friars arrived first. Alexander The IV was then at Agnani.

at the same time. was ready. who had been gathered together. and to them was soon added Blessed Albert. now to be found printed . will be to the end of time the surest apology and explanation of the religious life. Each gave his opinion in writing. among his works. sent their interests. who came from Cologne to aid in the good work. Thomas that the hopes of When all rested. cause of the mendicant Orders so ably that he gained the day. The work of . the everlasting gratitude of all the for Religious Orders of the Church his defence. and when the time came Thomas rose up before all the learned theologians. the Pope all fixed a day to hear the defence of the Franciscans and Dominicans. THOMAS AQUINAS.76 LIFE OF ST. and. but it was principally upon St. and pleaded the St.

5th.LIFE OF William of ST. recalled by his supe- end of the year went by sea from Italy to Paris at the He During the first part of the . France. THOMAS AQUINAS. but afterwards gave in. This was before the deputation of the When they appeared on the scene and found their Paris University arrived. who refused to submit. St. October 1256. He where he nursed his resentment. Thomas was riors to 1256. with the exception of William of Amour. journey useless they protested against the judgment. but. retired into an obscure village. Amour was condemned by the Pope dral of JJ solemnly in the Cathe- Agnani. St. and several years afterwards again tried to obtain the condemnation of the two Orders he hated so much. St. failed in his attempt. unnecessary to it is say.

He prayed. like another St. but great opposition from the University. but soon tempest arose. and as it was not many until the as eleven Pope had sent Bulls in his favor that the authorities consented. and said that there were several other Dominicans who deserved he. When the time came St. THOMAS AQUINAS. Paul the changed. and hope died in the breasts of all but his. . Thomas' he thought humility became alarmed he was not worthy of this dignity. and it it more than was only from the purest . At Paris take to his further his superiors wished him degree without again encountered Doctor's delay. lives of the passengers were granted to continued his prayers. a fearful .LIFE OF ST. so that the vessel on its course in perfect safety. 78 voyage the weather was fine.

68th). and behold a Brother of his Order." alluding to said make Then the he would have to before receiving his degree. 79 obedience that he consented. O God. The before the ceremony he night was praying. and began to say the " Psalm. Save me. him: "Why do you thus was sent in years. man is do not know which text to choose for old saint Because the burden of the : Doctorate.LIFE OF ST. and as he prayed he fell asleep. for which not The " : Behold. aged who him from heaven. THOMAS AQUINAS. and my the oration also discourse. said to pray God to answered " in to tears"? sufficient. my soul " (Ps. take the burden of the Doctorate upon . is ?aid because I my knowledge upon me. although he was sad at heart. for the waters come are even unto in. thou art heard .

the professors the presence of of the University." said filled with the (Ps. representatives of both Orders of Franciscans and Dominicans have ever shown towards each other. since the times of St. being the youngest. gave way. 1257).) this St. disputed Thomas. On in the morrow (October 23d. . and gave thanks to had so quickly heard his prayers. with that rivalry of holy humility which the truest and best St. and was created Doctor first. 103." text I propose no other than this: " Thou waterest the hills from thy upper rooms . Thomas God who awoke. St. for God is For thy with thee. the earth shall be fruits of thy After he had works. 13. Bonaventure and Thomas. THOMAS AQUINAS. 8o thee.LIFE OF ST. Dominic and St. the last place. all St. and Francis.

and wrote his immortal works. St. and translated into Greek. to help by writing a "Summa "Whole tiles." or the of Theology against the Gen- Its success was soon and request Jewish The holy Doctor answered by errors." " Gentiles. the great preacher and converter of in Thomas at of Raymund Dominican the many others scarcely less The " Summa contra Gen- was immense. treatise against the contra Gentiles. THOMA S AQ UINA S." and the as well as remarkable. the the Pennafort. From fruitful He life." of He him wrote to ask in his labors. Jews Spain. was written tiles" St. in order more it Hebrew surely to . the " Summa contra Summa Theologiae. Syriac. time until his death was this most the 81 period of his whole the in taught Dominican schools of France and Italy.LIFE OF S T.

who he fore- for after the of the glorious Apostle. on the and was favored vision of that great Apostle. happened in this wise: The It real pres- ence of our Lord Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of the Eucharist is of the Church. Thomas a doctrine deny or without making shipwreck of But at the time when St lived there were many opinions . he was destined to receive another from the visit King of the Apostles Himself.LIFE OF 82 THOMAS AQUINAS. scarcely less remarkable. no one can doubt it his faith. ST. After this wonderful work he wrote another. reach those against whose errors was it written. Epistles of St. by a Paul. wished to show his approval of had written. But this vision taste of all was but a mere what was to come.

on the way in which our divine Lord The there present. THOMAS AQUINAS. many useless disputes deter- refer the matter to St. and there. and whose help he had asked . had deigned to reveal to him. Then he wrote what the Holy Spirit. Still he did not wish to give the fruits of his labors and prayers to the schools before he had consulted Him of whom he wrote. and more satisfactorily The opinion of he seized how much he unraveled all it. he had more than once shown how much more clearly than others the point of a difficulty.UFE OF ST. Thomas. working in his soul. prayed for light according to his want. Thomas retired with them into solitude. the Doctors having been put into his hands. raised to a high state of contemplation. were and full after mined to for 83 is Doctors Parisian of this important question.

and hast said to truly determined the difficulty proposed to thee. beg Thee Thee be if what true that I I humbly have written of Thou wilt say so . standing in the air above the writing he had laid upon the altar." Some of the Fathers who had fol- lowed him saw our Blessed Lord appear to him. He went into the . and placing what he had written upon the altar. but have written anything which is not conformable to the faith. who him: "Thou hast written ably of the Sacrament of My body.LIFE.church. or contrary to if I this its holy mystery. he " prayed thus before the crucifix if O : Lord Jesus in this Christ. as for his Divine Master's approval. in as far as it can be understood . THOMAS AQUINAS. who art really present wonderful Sacrament. 84 OF ST. be pleased to hinder being published.

saint. and gave the most lasting benefits to France. Thomas was fidential adviser France. and be defined by human wisdom. THOMAS AQUINAS. as if drawn towards heaven by the fervor of lously raised his love for us that one The God. Fathers was miracu- from the ground. King of who made him one private Council for State affairs is it of ." Then and St. the friend and con- of St. Louis. old writer of the Fathers tells who was present afterwards related this to him. Thomas was wrapt in sight of the in spirit. his and it more than a mere fancy to assert that was exactly at the time when he called St. 85 by r/mn on earth. St.LIFE OF ST.King The genius of St. Thomas to his aid that the obtained the greatest temporal glory. Thomas was mani- .

as who study his possessed in a is works. were the foundations of all his decisions principles. Suddenly he struck the table violently and cried out " It was defined against : the Manicheans. nothing lay his gigantic mind. quite forgot the royal presence he was in. and at the . but thinking of a problem which occupied his mind. called His superior. interesting at this time : anecdote He is told of was one day at table with St. him to himself. THOMAS AQUINAS. which St Louis readily granted." was present. upon State An him affairs. broad based upon eternal truths. He remarkable degree. beyond the reach of fold. Louis. Thomas asked pardon. who and reminded him of the respect due to kings. evident to the all qualities necessary for a ruler of the earth .86 LIFE OF ST. St.

the celealso brated Father Vincent of Beauvais.LIFE OF ST. . same time write 87 told one of his secretaries to down the argument at once. for which St. lest they should perish or lose any of their first force He was with his and clearness. Louis became famous. engaged about this time Brother in religion. THOMAS AQUINAS. in arranging the magnificent library. for he said the thoughts of profound minds should be immediately put upon paper.

at teach and preach as before. make use of his learning Arrived in Rome. wishing to put an end to the unhappy schism of the IV. N THOMAS VII. (88) Yet he . CALLED TO ROME. and to and abilities. IS the year 1260 he was called from Paris to Rome by Urban This Pope. who had succeeded Alexander IV.CHAPTER ST. East. summoned the now famous Do- minican Doctor to his side to consult him. the once gave him a and he continued to Dominican-General theological chair.

and wrote a book against the errors of the Greeks. Paris and Rome. a in day. as he was which he had woman. Eighth it stantinople. leaving been the church preaching. who to Michael Emperor of Con- sent Paleologus. remember- ing her in the gospel who was cured by . THOMAS AQUINAS. By wish of Urban IV he extended his teaching to Viterbo. as beCologne.LIFE OF ST. always with the same remarkable success as at gia. 89 found time to cany out the wish of the Pope. fore. who was troubled with a bloody flux. he accompanied his theological by evangelical preaching. far surpassed the expectations of It the Pope. Peru- and other Italian towns. But. Orvieto. and there were not wanting miracles to conlectures One firm his doctrines.

Thomas could not long be in their society without trying to convert them. 90 the virtue of the Saint of Saints. visit in his who were as well known their riches as for their the religion in in Rome for attachment to which they had been educated. like her. and as full of confidence in the mercy of went and touched as she. He was by the Dominican.LIFE OF ST. mated controversy. to invited him country villa of Molara. Thomas. But a more remarkable cure than that of the body was to show forth the holiness and. God his habit. THOMAS AQUINAS. and was soon engaged in an aniSt. the zeal and learning of St. His were no mean . and. Cardinal Richard Hannibaldo di Hannibaldi. There he found two Jewish Rabbis. was cured. at the same time.

They however promised to return to the villa Then prayer. they pleaded their cause with eloquence. for who came into this world no other purpose than to save ners. and prayed Him. not to let these souls perish. learning and earnestness. put before them in the purest The debate spirit of Christian charity. apparently with no result. THOMAS AQUINAS. for on the following day they returned with tears in their . and he spent the whole night in contemplating the new born babe of Bethlehem. But all ended. they could say was met by clear proofs. the It saint betook himself to was Christmas eve. on the day following. sin- His prayer was heard. 9! opponents.LIFE OF ST. they appeared to be so unshakeably wedded to their opinions that all he could say produced no effect upon their hearts.

especially animating them to fervor. THOMAS AQUINAS. 92 no longer to dispute. and we are told exercised a great influence on itor for the the from Fathers all gathered together there parts of the world. Thomas went Roman as Defin- Province. but to ask holy Baptism from him who had opened their minds to the truth. eyes. In the Order held in 1263 the Dominican Fortieth General Chapter year its London. . St. and to a great love for their rule and loyalty to in the Dominican Order.LIFE OF ST.

ORIGIN OF THE FEAST OF CORPUS CHRISTI. there he took the opportunity of proposing to the Pope a special feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament But we must go a to out of our way show some of the causes which led little to the institution of this incomparable feast The adorable Sacrament has always been Church's system (93) the of of the altar centre devotion. of the How . T.CHAPTER VIII. THOMAS was called by While Pope Urban to Orvieto.

and Com- munion came to be less frequent. faithful faith grew we communicated cold. THOMAS AQUINAS. who so lovingly and patiently dwells in our tabernacles Accustomed day to the as we ? are at the present beautiful processions and Benedictions of the Blessed Sacrament. 94 could it What otherwise? be othei devotion can for an instant be com- pared to the devotion towards the King of Kings. were firmer In the read daily. we can hardly realize how our ancestors could have done without them. in faith first that But the They than we.LIFE OF ST. and the ever-abiding presence of Jesus . Yet there never was a time when the daily Mass was neglected by those who claimed to be looked upon as pious The sacrifice of the Mass. ages of the Church. Christians.

in Belgium. almost on all sides. little who Augustin. in especial way. in the tabernacle. to be the destitute of in- means of obtaining the institution of the feast of Corpus crown and perfection of all Let us trace the hisChristian feasts. the tory of her an eminence. nearly unknown and fluence. Christi. be seen the remains of a concity Sisters.LIFE OF ST. the miracle of some more love. to honor the mystery of mysteries. there arose a great wish. THOMAS AQUINAS. follow- In the orphans were given . hospitallers ed the rule of year 1197 two St. to the east of the Upon beautiful may still vent of life. But when the all 95 our pious thir- teenth century came. were ancestors desired. Following His almost invariable rule. of Liege. God chose a poor and weak woman.

There. Her parents were rich. who was five years old. her and her sister of Monte when she Her guardians placed Agnes in the Convent Cornillon. The good sisters had charge lepers. Mother Sapience took them under her especial care. THOMAS AQUINAS. . according to the custom of the times. to be educated. g6 into the charge of these pious Sisters The Agnes. Julienne. in the neighborhood of Liege. was she who was chosen by God to eldest. who were so numerous time. died soon after the othei. but died waj five years old. and at once . She was born in the year 1 192. and fearing that the little might catch the infection. at the little hamlet of Retinne.LIFE OF ST. sent of the at that orphans them to the convent farm to be out of danger. obtain the institution of the Feast of Corpus Christi.

and we may judge of her progress by the fact that she soon learnt the psalter by and read the works of St heart. passing. who we may remarkable virtues. in a God alone. she was truly a holy lived for say. was Prioress at the It would be quite beyond our time. 97 Julienne grew up in holiness and wisdom. formed a strong affection for the poor deprived of their father and little girls mother.UFE OF ST. was already remarkable for her devotion to- wards the Blessed Sacrament . She excelled in Latin. When fourteen years old she entered the convent. present intention to speak of Julienne's austerities word and will suffice Nun. that she Yet. THOMAS AQUINAS. . Mother Sapience. Her dear. and the holy Scriptures in Latin. constant friend. St. Bernard. Austin.

and threw the consecrated hosts upon the ground. she saw a very remarkable vision. Count of Brabrant. and have vessels. Horrible sacrileges were ruthlessly committed by the soldiers. which ever after was . In the year 1212. making off with the sacred This horrible profanation must have been known to Julienne. Four years before (1208). six years after het entrance into religion. strengthened the desire already implanted by God in her heart to obtain the in stitution of a special feast in honor of the Blessed Sacrament thus so fearfully profaned. the Prince- Bishop having fled. who cruelly pillaged it. THOMAS AQUINAS. they forced the doors of the tabernacle of the cathedral open. the city of Liege was taken by Henry.98 LIFE OF ST. when she was sixteen years of age.

THOMAS AQUINAS. dangerous. none of them thought it supernatural. that it she determined to declare the whole matter to her superiors. and all advised Julienne to it treat it as a Schooled mere imagination or dream. before her eyes. own to the Prioress. what she was and meekly bore afraid all was a the sus- . shin- ing brightly. who. She paid little or no attention to it at first. she grew afraid was some cunning temptation of the evil one to ensnare her. she tried to rid herself of delusion.LIFE OF ST. distrusting her some holy and Some of them declared opinions. While she prayed one saw a moon before day. but when it haunted her continually. she 99 her. in holy obedience. She went first of all Mother Sapience. but obscured by a dark line upon the disc. consulted prudent Sisters. Alarmed.

IOO

LIFE OP ST. THOMAS AQUIXAS.

picions which

garded as a

fell

upon

her,

silly visionary.

being reThis con-

tinued for two years, but the vision
Then she
remained ever the same.

prayed

At

God

last,

to take

it

away from

as she lay asleep

her doubts vanished; for

her.

one night,

God

all

revealed

meaning of her vision. The
moon represented the Church militant,
to her the

and the dark

line

signified

that

her

glory was obscured by the want of an
especial feast in honor of the most holy

Sacrament, and that
it

should

now

it

was His

will that

be instituted and observed

by the whole Church. It was to atone
for all the sacrileges committed against
this holy mystery.

Julienne was seized with unutterable

joy when this was made known to her ;
but her joy was soon changed into sor*

LIFE OF
row, for

ST.

God

THOMAS AQUINAS.

revealed to her that she

was chosen to make known His
the whole world.

long time.

IOI

But

She

resisted

at last she

will to

for

a

confided her

secret to a pious recluse, Blessed Eve,

who

lived in a

little cell

attached to the

beautiful church of St. Martin-on-thehill

Liege, and for

in

whom

formed a holy friendship.
she said to
think."

Eve

her,

"tell

at first

she had

"Tell me,"

me what you

spoke not, but

at

acknowledged that she thought the
vision was from God.

last

In the year 1222 Mother Sapience
died, and Julienne was elected her successor, as Prioresr of

Soon

Monte

Cornillon.

after this she told her secret to

another holy virgin, Blessed Isabel of

Huy.

She sought

for

some one

her to carry out the divine

to help

command;

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

IO2

she was sure

was from God, but her
great self-distrust and humility kept her
back from carrying out so important a

At

work.

first

she received no encour-

but one day Isabel having
a visit to Blessed Eve, entered St.

agement

made

it

;

Martin's church, and as she knelt, pray-

saw a

ing,

vision.

The very heavens

were opened to her sight, and she saw
countless numbers of saints, falling on
their

knees before the eternal

praying

Him

to grant a special feast in

honor of the holy Eucharist
that time she

God,

;

and from

warmly supported Blessed

Julienne.

Among

the canons of Liege was one

John of Lausanne, distinguished
learning and holiness.

for his

Blessed Julienne

determined to confide her secret to him.

He

believed her at once, and consulted

LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS.

103

some of the most learned theologians of
These were James Pantaleon,
the city.
Archdeacon of St. Lambert, afterwards
Pope Urban IV; Hugh of
Provincial

of

the

wards a Cardinal

;

St.

Cher.

Dominicans,

after-

Guy de

Laon, Bishop

of Cambrai, and three Doctors of the

Dominican

Order,

Giles,

John

and

Gerard.

After a long and searching examination into the

whole

case,

they came to

the conclusion that the institution of
the

feast

of

the

Blessed

Sacrament

would be eminently useful in promoting love and veneration for this holy
mystery.

Strengthened thus by the opinion of
these holy and learned men, Julienne

next looked about for some one to write
an

office for the

new

feast,

and chose

THOMAS AQUWAS. John of Monte Cornillon. to whom she He set to had already told her vision. the written by St. but it. and the works of the Fathers of the Church. work. which lasted until the death of Julienne. when St. It existed now up Marti n-on-the-hill at more beautiful one Thomas supplanted tb the year 1613. for all the most beautiful quotations applicable to the Blessed Sacrament. who with . was to seemingly Liege. is lost All seemed to be going well. a priest. but there came a dreary time of trial. This office was in use in the church of Liege. die her mission All the clergy of were remarkable for their unfulfilled.IO4 UFE OF ST. and searched the holy Scriptures. she who had been chosen by and God to lead to the institution of the dearest of feasts.

holiness. died. He was a simoniacal priest. Robert de Sorote. Hugh of St Cher. and all the Sisters who supported her from the She sought shelter with Blessed Eve. succeeded in driving her. who had force. and although the Dominican. and was He reproached by Julienne for it. in her humble cell at St convent. The Bishop of Liege. Godfrey.LIFE OF ST. with his hatred Julienne until her death. pulpit with the year 1233. believed in her vision greater part were against 105 but the . THOMAS AQUINAS. and was succeeded by a very unworthy who pursued priest called Roger. her. the Then in of Monte ever been her most constant friend. preached the devotion from the eloquence and opposition was too strong. Martin's church. restored her to her . Prior Cornillon.

The greater part of the clergy of the Diocese looked upon the new feast with suspicion. of Guelders. feast in was first the year "This celebrated in St. and the year 1246. office. and sent copies of the office to all the priests.LIFE OF ST. Henry was very unfit for his for Julienne. and after . But more troubles came The new Bishop. THOMAS AQUINAS* IO6 convent about three months after. Martin's at Liege. Martin's 1247. it was only observed in St. he ordered the in be kept in the churches of his feast to Diocese. when she was now fifty-four years of age. which has thus the honor of being the cradle of this beautiful devotion. with great magnifi- cence. before his pious wish could be carried out. in the same The good Bishop died year. and as the Bishop died.

LIFE OF ST. one of her nuns. at . last This was she lived several died. Julienne's implacable enemy. THOMA S A Q UINA S. than Roger. 107 was deposed by the Council of Lyons. a few days before her death. sister. 1258. prudent to at last she flee from her convent. to the church that . She took refuge in the Convent of Robertmont. several years of grievous misrule. and after changing her home small died at Fosses. who had " let us her into accompanied farewell of on the days my and may I take a dear Lord." several times. again excited the popular mind thought against it and her. knowing well that the Bishop would not support her. a " near Namur. April 5th. to Ermentrude. go exile. town My she said. feast of Easter after.". He was no sooner in possession of his See.

. whom she had loved so much under the sacramental veils on earth. she died. Jacques Pantaleon. was raised to the Papal chair in the year name Urban IV. trusting that pardoned for we this have. and took the part St. She died without obtaining that to which nearly her whole life had been devoted. After long and dreary years of trial. was at hand. successively Papal* Legate. ere now. the age of sixty-six. formerly Archdeacon of Liege. now come to the of We took 1261.IO8 UPS OF ST. but her triumph. or rather the triumph of her mission. THOMAS AQUINAS. brightened now and then by partial success. face to face. Bishop of Verdun. and Patriarch of Jerusalem. been long digression. and went to see Him. Thomas in this beautiful chain of events.

IOQ After the death of Blessed Julienne. and extended the feast.UFZ OF ST. . Henry of Guelders. relate. by Robert of Sorote Bishop eighteen years before. it. does not appear. wonderful to the soldier-like Bishop of Liege. who was at Orvieto with the Pope. her friend Blessed Eve ceased not to carry on her work. whether before or letter arrived. and. St Thomas. and confirmed and renewed six years afterwards by Hugh of St Cher. quence of after the and whether Bishop's in conse- or. listened to her pray. as is probable. the feast of Corpus Christi. which had been instituted for the Diocese of Liege. made the same request. to carry out a long meditated plan of his own. THOMAS AQUINAS. Urban at once agreed. and even wrote to the Pope to transmit to him her petition to institute ers.

and sent a copy written by his own of. Thus when the altars in our churches are gaily decorated with flowers and lit with the light of waxen tapers. hill. Thomas to write an office for the new feast. to The Sovereign Pontiff ordered St. it. and the . Cardinal Legate of the the universal Church. with a letter hand. to Blessed Eve.HO LIFE OF ST. None of the offices in the Breviary are more beautiful than that of Corpus Christi. the poor and humble hermit of Martin's St. THOMAS AQUINAS. for and when an the rite office solemn of was required benediction. nothing more fitting could be thought of than the devotional "O Salutaris" and the " majestic which are a part of the Tantum office of Ergo'' Corpus Christi. Holy See.

Him as Ho . it is in the sing to Oh until see words of St. and Jesus Himself taken out to bless His faithful people. for who is it alone can would have us the pure and chaste sing to sing. tabernacle is is Ill opened. pray for us that our hearts may become as pure and holy as thine. when we last v shall and sing another song not granted to us upon earth. O thou God-chosen poet. THOMAS AQUINAS. Him as He is. thy words will the end of time. holy saint. Thomas that we Him.LIFE OF ST.

now attempt to sketch the character of St.CHAPTER SKETCH Of E ST. describe his virtues. will IX. He was of so elevated that it is a perfection. and But to at the outset. we must acknowledge almost impossible to put on paper any adequate description of this wonderful man. that any attempt to analyze the excellencies of his moral and intellectual gifts must necessarily fall far we say short of the truth. Thomas. THOMAS'S CHARACTER. But we cannot be wrong if .

but who can say to what heights of excellence and worth. that the source ness and THOMAS AQUINAS. in the sight of God he is but as a whited sepulchre.LIFE OF ST. Yet. nevertheless. insidious temptation against his chastity. although angels from heaven assured him that he should remain in a state of virginity all his life. in all but chastity cannot. and although he may do great things. and 113 secret of his holi- mental culture was his im- He who is faultless maculate purity. and merit the applause of the world. Thomas lived all his life a perfect We have already narrated the glorious victory he obtained over an virgin. when he was a youth. This is as a trite truth . be pleasing to God. he in no way neglected to pray . he who is pure and chaste can rise? St.

placid in conversation. raised as if above his senses. The author of his life. Father William de Tocco. and full of contempt for all earthly things. 114 that God would by His grace. devout in prayer. this holy virtue in his slackened his efforts to prevent the evil one gaining an entrance into his soul by means of his senses. most pure in body and mind. of a very retentive memory. soul. prudent in council. THOMAS AQUINAS. we will tr* to give as perfect an account of each of . thus sums up his character " He was most humble about his repu: tation. and never preserve.UFE OF ST. and when he lay on his death bed. and made a general confession of his as pure whole life. he was and innocent as a child of five years old." Following this old writer. full of charity.

THOMAS AQUINAS. profound humility showed his conversation. yet he found time to attend to . for itself in although he was almost always occupied in study and prayer. when in the professorial chair. In the simplicity of his soul he said one day. if I no my have had the beginnings of a notion of pride. or of scholastic action soul from its which could draw And." he received all He was so conscious that his knowledge from God. humility.LIFE OF ST. that he could not let a proud thought remain in his mind a single moment His. I have at once put it down by force of my reason. " I give thanks to God that I have never had a single notion of vain glory on account of my knowledge. possible in the short space at our 115 as is com- mand. his and virtues characteristics.

he was charming sweetness. full of him. sin. he was ever gracious and pleasant in his dealings He had a great horror of with others. ever No fell hard or uncharitable words from his lips. much time over would send them But away. never was he heard to say a useless word. listened to their and after giving little troubles.1 1 LIFE OP ST. and. To visitors. 6 He the wants of others. desired always that they should . and although full of mercy for sinners. them prudent counsel and a few strong. THOMA S AQ UINA S. full of comfort and joy. fearing to waste mere unholy things. and to those who went consult to patient. could at once descend to the level of his companions and showed himself very simple. agreeable and affable. without in the least showing any signs of fatigue. fatherly words of advice.

He was so innocent himself that he could with be brought to believe in the guilt of others but when he felt sure of it. God him the grace to die in the of religion. Two things alone he loved here below: the Order Dominic. and united the easy courtesy of a man of the world to the dignity and reserve of a cloistered religious. their sins. to which he belonged. and the poor. he always preserved the grace of noble manners. THOMAS AQUINAS. he always counselled severe punishment. be turned from their evil course of at whatever cost. he left no means difficulty . 1 1 7 life and when he saw that they were so hardened that kindness and mercy could not touch their heart.LIFE OP ST. He never ceased to pray of St. untried to draw Being of them from high lineage. and dreaded to be to give holy state .

ST. lay Brother. the children of St. having occasion to the town. to buy some companion. The him went to to appoint Prior into necessaries for the wants of the community. Dominic. He studied to acquire the perfection of monastic virtues. the Prior to ask go a told him a him to take the first religious he met. who was . which happened to be St. and nearly all his sermons were intended for them. v forced to accept any ecclesiastical dig- which could separate him from his Brothers. Convent of Bologna. Thomas. when he could not otherwise succor them. nity His love for the every day of his poor showed itself He even took life. but especially show- ed a great When spirit at the of obedience. the habit off his back to give to them.1 1 8 LIFE OF THOMA S A Q UINA 5.

full of ad- miration for such humility. but excused himself. who knew each Some time it by humbly of the citizens. who did not know who he was. St. walking time in the at the \ 19 cloisters. the holy Doctor.LIFE OF ST. which could induce so great a man to follow a lay Brother. walk as as they went through Thomas. But " All religion is perfected by obedience. Thomas : bent his head in assent. him who The poor companion Brother. But the streets. and was often scolded for the Brother. lagged behind." St. THOMAS AQUINAS. his : his pardon. and followed him at once. who could not fast as his companion. the Prior wishes you to go with me into the town. The lay brother. full of con- once begged Thomas answered fusion. told was. at St. by which man . went up to him and said " Good Father.

according to custom. the that he wrote his magnificent " Summa contra Gentiles. up here own fame. cellor of The Chan- the University. and less striking. to take the degree of licentiate in theology. THOMAS AQUINAS. He was very humble.I2O is UF& OP ST." on scraps of waste paper. boldly defended a thesis directly opposed . presided over the examination. and perfectly indifferent to his Paris. a self. The aspirant to honors St. Thomas and several Dominicans were present. picked and there. as man for the God obeyed man for the love of man. we are told work. When in young student presented him- among others." His spirit of religious poverty was no He chose the poorest and meanest clothes he could find. subjected to his fellow love of God.

opposition. if it I I all the Doctors. as he of them said: "Master. confusion in front of As for my teaching. praised upon the authority of and sound reasons. . for be God. The 121 saint showing any signs of But when the examination impatience. we have been grossly insulted in your person. one was over. theless. THOMAS AQUWAS. built the saints. St Thomas's to listened without teaching. and you ought not to be licentiate thus insulted in presence Doctors of Paris. do not dread any have always.UP& OF ST. for the ought not to speak against your opinions." ed " My St. neverit appears well to my brothers. of Thomas all the answer- thought it best to spare the young master in his first public attempt. was returning with his fellow Dominicans to their convent. and not to cover him with : I children.

the same the angelic Doctor then said to him. with great calmness " and sweet- Master." The next day. St. again. defended again The the among diciples I were assem- all bled in the Bishop's palace. . your opinion cannot be defended without detriment to the ness : goes directly against the teaching of such and such a Council of the Church. make up to-morrow have done to-day. and what for Thomas rest.LIFE OF J22 I can ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. cited the retracting his Thomas took him up words of the Council. if at you do not wish discord with the to be teaching of the Council. when his candidate thesis. for it differently. modified his theologian without St. You must therefore speak truth. but false opinion." The young language.

so that all who were by present were much edified his moderation and patience towards this young doctor. to 123 acknowledge Happily the young man was not quite humility. may be fittingly introduced here. Thomas to instruct him what he ought really in the to hold as truth regarding the matter. A beautiful anecdote. and finally forced him that he was in error. told us by one of his early biographers. illustrating his humility. One day the famous he went from Paris to see abbey of St. Denys. humbly asked St. THOMAS AQUINAS. Then " holy Doctor said the to him." and showed him in a few words what he should have defended.LIFE OF ST. the . Now you speak as you ought to do. and when he saw destitute of was that he wrong.

turned to the Doctor. and as they re- several of his turned to Paris they rested a little while on the road side. Chrysostom on the gospel of city St. The "I would rather have the homilies of St. I should be hin- .124 UFE OF ST THOMAS AQUINAS. says the old writer. edify them. said to beautiful you him " : the city of Paris. was accompanied by pupils. Matthew. to burial place of the venerate the relics of many saints pre- He served there. like a panorama before them. is like to how Would See Master. to hear something from the Thomas which would saint answered: mouth of St. For if this were mine. and. ' Kings of France. be the lord of this city?" for he thought. on account of the care required to govern it. after looking which lay at the city. with a touch of national pride. One of the students.

" character. and thus deprived of all my The old author. THOMAS AQUINAS. was his perfect command over his senses. he obtained so strong a command over his body. after narrating other anecdotes of the same consolation. by the force of his intellect. which we cannot omit. Although he was by nature delicate and sensitive." One teristics of the most remarkable charac- of this truly great man. despiser of the world who carried out in deeds of heaven ! ! what he taught in words. that he was able to undergo several medical . who thus despised earthly things. 1 25 dered from contemplating the divine mysteries. as if he had already received a gaze of the possession of the heaven which he was hoping for.UFR OF ST. thus "O concludes: happy O lover Doctor.

he held the candle in his hand to give the Brother a better light. Paris it much as even when he was at became necessary that he should be bled. operations without as Thus feeling the pain." pared himself. He put state of contemplation.126 LIFE OF ST. please tell his : he He then arranged himself upon his bed. " He said to When who is to companions on operate my leg comes. stretched out his leg and pre- me. to a copyist. THOMAS AQUWAS. as as he was his was in his cell dicta- wont. himself into a and felt nothing whatever of the operation. in One day ting. according to the custom of those times. According to . but became so absorbed contemplation that when the operation took place he never knew it. Another time the physician prescribed that his leg should be cauterized.

His memory was very retentive. " Summa. on widely same time." and in the lost in sublime mystery. with- out losing in the least the thread of his reasoning.LIFE OF ST. cither praying. his biographers says that he even continued to dictate when he was fast asleep. different subjects at the intellect. which and one of was yet very profound. Holy Trinity. without as as even feeling the slightest pain. 12 J he was then engaged upon the beautiful and profound treatise on the tradition. he down much It to its end first part of his admiration of this let the candle burn in his hand. that to as many he dictated as four secretaries. THOMAS AQUINAS. so that what he once read he never forgot He was always occupied. is said that he was so perfectly master of the faculties of his as well as of his senses. .

UINAS. of an im- patient religious." "The prayerless soul ad- vances in nothing. THOMAS AO." he said. it was always to the point. so that he was never may has moment. writing or dictating. unless it was neces- some good end.LIFE OF ST." "I ." "A religious should never go out alone. according to the advice of St. sary for Many of his wise sayings have been We preserved us almost by chance. "is a useless expense. spoke little. Austin. But when he did speak. 128 reading. sufficient to show how must valuable his conversation "The poverty have been." "A religious without prayer is like a soldier who fights without arms. choose a few of them. and to this we the immense works he idle a attribute left He behind him. for a religious alone is like a solitary demon.

for all tion." " I cannot conceive how is in a religious can " Idlethink of anything else but God." Another time she asked him what was the most ." how ed. with which all bait is taking. THOMAS AQUINAS. "By wishing to do so." ness is the hook with which the devil fishes. he does His sister . fears to be despised. I do not look upon him as a perfect man. how a state of can laugh or be merry. " said." He was asked one day how one can if a religious is truly perfect and tell spiritual who who minded. who is tired of is whatever marvels he life. He answered " : He always speaking of foolish things. to is a virtue without founda- and he who can not suffer is ready asked him one day she could save her soul he answer- fall. may work.LIFE OF ST. cannot understand." he once any one who knows he mortal sin.

defined and slightly bald. . nose long and straight. made men his stout. THOMAS AQUINAS. his mouth very firm. Altogether the beauty of his soul found fitting expression in his outward .UFE OF ST. his . His very appearance He was sufficiently the color of one of the witnesses pale. he answered." Thomas was of a very noble and said. new but wheat. was very calm. sweet. masbut well formed his forehead well ization. said glad. handsome figure. he " By reading one book only. complexion was ''like clear. full of meditation. The character of his appearance. but majestic his eyes clear and placid. trust a portrait said to if general we may be authentic." for his canon- His head was very large. 11 . sive. I3O desirable thing in his life . " and when he was asked To die well how a man can easiest become learned. St.

Leo XIII. Austin. It would be impossible to give any just idea of the influence his principal work. Every except perhaps St. THOMAS AQUINAS lineaments. more from than in a his books whole doctrine of others. has ever been privileged to receive. the Pope received them in full consistory. the "SummaTheologica" has exerted upon the Church and world. Thomas) more than One learns in a single year life-time from the . and said " : He (St. Volumes could be filled with its praises Pope down to our beloved Pontiff. We will cite only a few: when the embassadors of Naples went to Pope John XXII to demand his canonization. has enlightened the Church all the other theologians.UFE OF ST. has praised its doc trine in terms such as no theologian.

selected from many others .LIFE OF ST. TffOMAS 132 When AQUWA& was objected it (falsely. writing to the Academy We command you Toulouse. of words. . We it with will all your power. the has worked as he has written form in which said his : miracles as many articles." conclude these testimonials of the Popes. howhad ever. says follow the doctrine of St. manner of expres- holds it will path of truth so that he never swerve from the and. and study to em- brace . he who attacks it must always be suspected. Thomas " : of to as the Catholic doctrine.) to his canonization that he worked no " He miracles. "The thus spoke: the doc- trine of this Doctor. . on the contrary." Urban V." alluding to V Innocent same Pope "Summa" is written. has fitness and truth of opinions sion. who beyond all others.

as learned to our great joy. with an extract from a recent letter of his holiness Pope Leo XIII : " It is of the highest importance. one of the most illustrious ornaments of the Greek . result will certainly we have is This be obtained. without exception." says our beloved Pontiff. if. 133 equally forcible. ment well whose to the doctrine of St. Thomas flourish in your the Re- schools. "especially attach- Thomas in these times.LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. that the clergy should be deeply imbued with sound and solid doctrine." The Catholic universities. and all learned theologians and Catholic philos- ophers have praised the doctrine of St Thomas. The Eastern Church has also given its meed of praise to the angelic Doctor. known. ligious Orders. Cardinal Besarion. the doctrine of St.

The voice of heresy has also lent its unwilling testimony to the excellence " Take of the doctrine of St. "and " . ivas Thomas the most learned of the saints and the most saintly of the learned." was the boast of the apostate will dissolve the mouthed Church Luther." In the Council of Trent a table was placed in the middle of the hall in which the Fathers met . THOMAS AQUINAS. said "that St. Catholic Church.134 L*** OF ST. honored him with a torrent of abuse. Summa " of St. This Scriptures. . Thomas. and the I foul- being able to answer arguments drawn from the works of the angelic Doctor. Thomas. not shamefaced Bucer. upon it was the holy Decrees of the Popes. away Thomas. the " and the honor was repeated in the recent Council of the Vatican.

What more markable God we add testimonies we can only " can alone \ 35 to these re- from all sides." him in the . say. like Lacordaire.LIFE OF ST. that can praise eternal council of Saints. THOMAS AQUINAS.

of the Thomas.CHAPTER X. and crowned February 22d. FTER Guy the death of VISIONS. Cardinal-Bishop of Sabina. nominating him Archbishop of Naples. was elected Pope. and holiness of talents He as St. Thomas refusal. despite his a Bull. The new Pope formed opinion his predecessors. but St. 1263. taking the name of Clement IV. him to accept and. Fulcodi. Urban IV. THOMAS AND THE MIRACULOUS IT. tried to persuade ecclesiastical the same high honors. issued (136) .

of Anjou. and once more at Paris. held at Florence in the year 1272. THOAfA S A Q UINA S. Charles The I. asking to have the benefit of his teaching once more. that Clement at last annulled the Bull. He was met on entering by an immense that city crowd which accompanied him to the doors of hir. Paris. and prayed so earnestly to be freed from this honor. this During Chapter the Fathers received peti- tions from all nearly towns of Europe . convent. where nearly thirty years before be had received the ican habit Domin- . to Naples. After teaching at Bologna. 137 was so grieved. But the King of Naples. prevailed. the university Bologna.LIFE OF S T. he was sent by the General Chapter of the Order. and Naples. entry of the holy Doctor into was a kind of triumph.

which had thrown the blame upon the weakness of his intellect. walking about in the cloisters awaiting him. Soon after this the Cardinal Legate to the of See Court Holy Naples. . formerly a pupil The of St. absorbed visit. told of their and see them. merited the greatest admiration. not know- ing whether the learning or the humility of this holy man. and saint was at left his cell once to go But on the way. by a profound argument. saw him pass them by without as much as a Called to himself he humbly begged pardon. he forgot all about his illustrious visitors who.138 LIFE OF ST. wishing of the went to the convent. to a with have conference him. The Cardinal Legate retired after he had consulted him on reverence. THOMAS AQUINAS. some theological difficulties. Thomas. accompanied by the Bishop of Capua.

139 At Naples he taught publicly." he said. he seemed at times able ecstasies. but as if separated from the body.UFE OF ST. Father Reginald thew himself at his begged him to say he had been conversing master's feet and with whom before he had called him into his cell . moments St." engaged in After a few Thomas called him the lamp. script if I And " " Light and get the manu: have begun to write on then he dictated to the astonished Father. Thomas. and continued writing his " Summa. One night Father Reginald. his companion and secretary. THOMAS AQUINAS. When he had ended." All his life he had been favored with remark- now they became almost continual. who slept in the cell next to St. heard him talking in a loud tone as an animated conversation. which Isaias.

he could not any longer." St." of our Reginald. THOMAS AQUTNAS. for there are " In the name yet several hours of rest." Another remarkable circumstance shows us visibly the character of St. and confessed that God had sent the holy Apostles Peter and Paul to instruct him what he should write. As he was spending Thomas.ST. his the night in prayer." appeal. This went Thomas's heart. "return to bed. "in the me name Father of God. to answered friendship. in the church of . befits you to know. give this little proof of friendship. resist made in the name of God. with holy prudence. "but in the name of God" he " added." 14O LIF2 OF "It little said Thomas. I command you not to breathe a word of this to any one during my lifetime. union of holiness and speculative doctrine.

a but as yet the news of his death had not had time to reach Naples. here was a soul who was privileged itself of to all contemplate the source truth. St. He said he had spent six days in purgatory. THOMAS AQUINAS.UFE OF Dominic ST. Let us see what were the questions uppermost in the mind of the holy Doctor. for St. he suddenly saw before him the soul of Father Romain. 141 Naples. but was now Here was a grand opportunity heaven. there. he added. enjoying the happiness of Thomas to solve several ques- tions which were at that time occupying his mind. "Is : my labor pleasing in the sight of . at Dominican professor who had sucHe had died ceeded him at Paris. The first was > what all pious souls would most probably Am ask in a similar position " I in a state of grace?" and.

as is if knowl- preserved well as to the third question. about the way in which blessed souls see God. did not attempt to raise the which enwraps these obscure points of speculative theology. for the was Father. but this side of the grave. less explicit. and with all his superhuman learning. that at hand . edge acquired on in heaven. 142 God?" TffOMAS AQUINAS. To He asked this earth this. was what which is all first thought The answer would wish to seldom known on hear. the answer much St.UPE OP ST. The second question reveals to us the Christian Doctor. Continual of study abstract questions had not dried up the spiritual fountains of his soul. But he told veil St Thomas. his was for his own salvation. like Paul. without being the end of his life was near asked.

to beg the light of heaven upon his last work." and increased his austerities and lengthened his prayers. his eyes fixed upon the crucifix . The sacristan of the convent church of St. heard him pouring out his fears to God before the crucifix in the chapel of St. determined to watch him. Nicholas Suddenly the saint was wrapt in ecstasy and was raised up several feet from tht ground. Dominic at having noticed that St was accustomed to go down to Naples. He saw him go down one night. The 143 was much encouraged by these visions.UFR OF ST. Thomas the church during the night when he thought all were asleep. THOMAS AQUINAS. God in his love and mercy deigned to assure him of this also. but yet was anxious lest saint any error should have crept into his " Summa. and having followed him.

144 LIFE OF ST THOMAS AQUINAS. These words are the epitome of his whole life. ran quickly to see this wonderful sight." On Passion Sunday. which appeared as if alive: "Thomas. " that what I one of have written and taught seems to be as nothing comparison. the secret of his marvellous success. and heard the following words fall Fathers. in Thomas ." he once said in loving confidence to the Fathers. and the expression of the holy violence which robbed heaven of its mysteries. - Some who were praying in the church." was the sublime answer of the holy saint. thou hast written well about me. Lord. St had a remarkable ecstasy. what " " reward wilt thou accept ? No other than thyself. from the mouth of the crucifix. 1273. " Such secrets have been revealed to me.

but in vain.LIFE OF He the fell THOMAS AQUINAS. Several officers from the Court of the King of Naples. is not able to express the wonderful things of God. left "The " tongue of man. and the Fathers who were present besought him afterwards to tell them what had passed at that time. near Naples. This visit he knew would be his last While there . ST. few days afterwards he told one of A the Fathers. 145 celebrated the holy mysteries in Dominican church at Naples. and into an ecstasy so profound that it became necessaiy to use violence to bring him round again. at her castle of San Severino." He went to pay a visit to his sister the Countess Theodora." he said. that the wonderful mysteries which had been revealed to him him in a state at that time had of stupefaction. in strict confidence.

heavenly kingdom. THOMAS AQUINAS. that his sister said to Father Reginald. by constant prayer tnd sweet communings with God. have often seen when engaged him in con- templating some truth. he was seized with an ecstasy. who was with answered "I "What is the " matter with my brother ? The Father wrapt in : spirit." From to teach.146 UF& OF ST. . so long. but never in his life have I seen him like this. him. life his was this all time he ceased to write and He knew that the end of his and prepared himself for passage from this world to the near.

to be held in Lyons. . 1274. THOMAS. to consider the sad land. and to attempt to regain the holy sepulchre.CHAPTER SUBLIME DEATH OF XI. His object was to put an end to the lamentable Greek schism also to take means for . at once summoned the bishops and the leading theologians of the whole Church to a general Council. ST. kssening the vices and errors prevalent among Christians state of the Holy . REGORY X. having ascended the Pontifical throne. May ist.

and He was it was the middle of winter. "to feed him. accompanied by his constant companion. al- though his infirmities were great. for his abstraction tinual. 148 Among the theologians called to the Council was Thomas. was Father Reginald. who privileged to be the confidant of the last moments of \ this great saint " He was obliged." says the old historian. with him the treatise he had written against the Greek schism by command He Urban IV. a special brief." as During the first part of their journey. of set off at once. who received commanding him to take St. they were descending from Terracina by the Borgo-Nuovo road full of the sublime thoughts which occupied bis .LIFE OF ST. so was now almost con- frequently did he fall into ecstasies. THOMAS AQUINAS.

in. blow was so violent that he on the fell ground. great good. and for a few minutes seemed Father Reginald and his as if dead. It will be a great boon for the Council. he was if Then his mind said." tinued: like "You Father will Reginald con- become a Cardinal Brother Bonaventure. he struck his head against a felled The tree which lay athwart the road.LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. wishing to distract from the pain he was and said " : Master. you are going to the Council. 149 mind. " Not much." . and both of you will be of great use to the Orders But at of which you are members. and the Kingdom of Naples. for our Order." he spot." Thomas answered calmly: "May God grant me the grace to see this St. companions hurried to the having raised him. asked him wounded. the Father.

. a doctor from Piperno. "I my state of life. but for the general him shall good. and the Cistercian Abbot of Fossa-Nuova. several Doappetite. the residence of his niece. once St. is no my now am." "Be r St Thomas interrupted sure. and while there became much worse." insisted the Father. St Thomas paid her a visit. recently married to Count Annibal de Ceccano. on the road upon which they traveled." I do not say this for your sake." from Naples. far Francesca of Aquino.I5O UFE OF ST. state which can be more useful to Thomas Order than that " " replied in . which There I " But. so that he lost all His companions. minicans of the neighborhood." never change Not he said quickly. THOMAS A QU1NAS. all lavished the greatest care upon him. was the castle of Maenza.

" St. by what looked upon as a miracle. a large quantity of them was found in the basket of a fish vender who came from all Terracina as The if by chance. 1 5 1 was Lent. I have several times. "here it is very dear. The doctor begged him to say if there was any particular kind It of food he could " relish. had been but troduced into Italy. delighted Father ran to the bed- side of the saint and said to him " : God has granted your wish. when. now ." he added. recently in- and was looked upon as a royal dish. "eaten a kind of fish in France called herring but. TffOAfA S AQ UINA S." he said." This fish. you have what you asked for. we have found the fish you desired. Father Reginald was much troubled that he could not procure some herrings for him. so common. Thomas said " . From .UFE OF ST.

and remembering the ex- ample of the holy King. the attentions which affection and veneration could afford him. He only remained four or five days at the castle of Maenza. THOMA S A Q UINAS. but he wished to continue . St." But Thomas." eat these fishes could not be prevailed upon to eat them. said " : It is should trust myself to the divine Providence than that I should better that I which have been granted me by the divine Master. fearing he had committed a fault against mortification. whence have they come? Who has " The Father answered brought them ? : " God has sent them. but during that time was able sacrifice He was of the to celebrate the Mass once or surrounded by all holy twice. but which I And he have too eagerly desired.152 LIFE OF ST.

ever . for I and have chosen . 1274. me. It was the loth of February. when he stronger. entering this monastery." he "If the Lord wishes to said.UFS OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. in the words of the royal " psalmist." seven miles of slow traveling he arrived at the monastery of Fossa-Nuova. and accompanied by several Dominicans. felt a little \ 53 One morning. the Abbot of Fossa-Nuova and some Cistercians. his journey. "it is better that I visit should be found in a religious house than in So after about the house of seculars. But he soon saw that he could not go much further. On be- he leant a while against one of the doorposts and said. he left for Rome mounted on a mule. and begged hospitality from the Abbot. This here will I is my rest for ever dwell. which has come famous on his account.

Bernard are always distinguished. 14). for which the sons of St. " Whence comes this honor to me. and his companions received the same loving hospitality. and ran into the forests to cut wood for the fire in his ried on it their own room. thinking themselves happy to pay him this mark of love. that .1 LIFE OF S T. 54 (Psalm 131. The holy Doctor. seeing one of them entering his room carrying a fagot. They would not let the servants of the monastery serve him. THOMA S AQ UINA S. The monks seemed not to be able to do sufficient to satisfy their veneration for him. raised himself in bed and said. after he it" had made a ment visit to the Blessed Sacra- in the church. v. He repeated the same words in the cloister. The Abbot gave up his apartments to him. and car- shoulders.

great numbers of religious from the neighboring monasteries. his modesty and fervent spirit of prayer were powerful lessons for men who were tending towards perfection. men should carry whence comes God should the servants of a a burden so painful to But for man far. his niece. such holy my fire ants of .LIFE OF S T. wood for that the serv- it make themselves me. The report of his illness having spread abroad. the Among them was Countess of Ceccano. and carry which must be very like them?" their charity his 155 was amply rewarded patience in his sufferings. and several of the nobility of kingdom hurried to Fossa-Nuova take a farewell of him they venerated the to and loved so much. including many Dominicans from Naples and Rome. THOMA S AQ UINA S. but .

then asked for the bread of angels. and you wish. spirit of St. his answer. the his beautiful ex* planation of this difficult book of holy Scripture. seated in his bed. begged him to explain to them the "Give me the Canticle of Canticles. the holy Eucharist he loved so much. who could not be admitted into the monastery on account of her The Cistercian have the last sex." was will I do what but they insisted so strongly that he could resist no longer. wishing to words of his teaching. he confession of his whole life made a to Father Reginald. Bernard. Fathers. and which he had defended and explained in his writings. and surrounded by these angelic Doctor gave holy men. His weariness increasing. So. THOMAS AQUINAS. When the .156 LIFE OP ST.

my all heart. and God and man. according to custom. who died for us upon the cross. who THOMAS AQUINAS. if he truly believed that he was about to receive the body of Christ. he answered: "If it were possible to have a knowledge more certain than that of faith in the ^ruth of the doctrine of the holy Sacra- ment. Abbot. thus fess I believe with with my mouth. 157 carried the Blessed Sacra- ment. came into his room he rose and threw himself prostrate on the ground.LIFE OF ST. true Son of God. and con- which the priest . the fervor of his love giving strength to his body. born of the Virgin Mary. that for certain this by I virtue believe of that and know Sacrament to be true the very Son of God the Father and of the Virgin Mary. I answer. Then when the Abbot asked him. knowledge.

for whom I have and taught. leave I all Roman whose communion I now to the correction of the holy Church. during which. me has just asked touching the Blessed Sacrament. he requested to be put on his bed once mo/e. the " I receive Thee.' his beautiful now said by Mass. in pass from this life.LIFE OF ST. all priests after . THOMAS AQUINAS. this if I have spoken Sacrament. according to one of his biographers." After he had made his thanksgiving. studied. nor am I obstinate in my I own opinions wrongly of but . preached have never said anything wilfully contrary to Thee. watched. the price of the redemption of my soul." When the Abbot had given him Holy of Holies he cried out aloud. he hymn "Adore te recited Devote.

who observed it.LIFE OF S T.th of March. 159 Early the following morning he asked to receive the Sacrament of Extreme moments after the Unction. and four or five Franciscans. and all the Community of Fossa-Nuova. was seated in the refectory at Cologne with the Community when suddenly tears began to fall from his eyes. he gently all fell asleep. His death was revealed to many holy persons. The Prior. about a to awake in the full light of the presence of God. asked . among whom was his beloved master Blessed Albert. This holy old man. in hundred. This was on the . THOMA S AQ UINA S. the Abbot. 1274. now more than eighty years of age. crowned with the glory of white hairs. He was forty-nine years of age. surrounded by many Dominican Fathers. and a few rising of the sun.

was fervently praying to God. copal vestments. it was Thomas had died. and bearing two charms. in all things." he answered. Austin. who followed the teaching saint. being him- or Professor of theology. the Blessed Virgin and the great St. 6O him why he wept. Thomas self a Lector. and afterwards found that the same day on which St. a of St. Some time after the death of the holy Dominican.1 LIFE OF ST. has revealed it to me. THOMA S AQ UINA S." The Prior carefully took note of the date. Austin. Father Albert of Brescia. and side. the light of the is dead. my Christ. clad in epis- St Thomas by his wearing a golden crown blazing jewels. God sad news I is son in Jesus whole Church. of Aquino. as he saw in spirit St. with . am about to "Thomas tell "It you.

upon his breast. habit white as the driven snow. These diamonds are also the symbols of . was embroidered with lustrous pearls. round his neck. having in God by bolized his all knowledge. 1 61 one of gold the other of silver. said Austin spoke to the Father. which by the which he is precious is sym- stones with covered. St. LIFE OF S T. and his light. especially by that which represents the uprightness of intention in all the works he has written in defense of the faith. and on his heart a magnificent precious stone. and I have come to reveal to thee " : the brightness and glory of Brother Thomas who with me. son.THOMA S AQ UINA S. for he is is my things followed my teaching and the doctrine of the AposHe has illumined the Church of tles. or cloak. which emitted a brilliant His cappa.

" Theue latter in the ninth words are is my me by embodied responsary of his Office.1 62 LIFE OF ST. then cast itself upon his coffin and died. His funeral took place. He equal in glory. his principal preserved by one of historians. " Augustinus Fratri sic loquitur: Thomas mihi par est in gloria. the Countess Francesca of Maenza. but he surpasses the aureola of chastity. A beautiful legend. and not being allowed to go into the cloister. THOMAS AQUINAS. went to the monastery to take a last view of her beloved uncle. ia the presence . begged that his body might at least be carried to the doors of the monastery. says that the mule on which he had ridden from Maenza to Fossa-Nuova. virginali pr&stans munditia" His niece. the books he has written.

Franciscans and Dominicans assisted at the solemn Offices.LIFE OF ST. he bent down and placed his eyes upon those of the body. Thomas. so that monks. 163 of a great crowd of people. This miracle made a great impression upon the people. who .Prior of Fossa-Nuova. his sight. caused himself to be car- he might kiss the feet of the saint with the other ried to the church. THOMAS AQUINAS. the sub. who was very service old and blind. invoking and immediately he received his aid. but not nearly so much as the sermon of Father Reginald. and a number of Cistercians. when suddenly. While the was going on. with great The Franciscan Bishop of solemnity. seized with a firm confidence in the merits of St. Terracina and Piperno officiated.

and solemnly affirmed that he had never lost his " I am. baptismal innocence." he said. that . He Thomas. 164 was now able to tell the wonderful which up till then he had been prevented from doing events of the saint's life. gave a history of his life. THOMAS AQUINAS." It will be remembered that this Father companion and confessor for many years." as says an purity. "that torch of flower of doctrine. old that author. whom I have always found as pure as a child of five years of age. "the witness of the whole life of the Doctor.^/WT OF ST. to weep for the loss of "that light of science. Father Reginald retired to a lonely convent. and that he had heard the confession of his whole life as he had been lay upon his his death-bed. After the ceremony. by the express wish of St.

that source of sweet- ness and suavity lost. " which the world had But before leaving Fossa-Nuova. to some convent . he solemnly protested that he only left the virginal body of his beloved master until he could have it of his own make arrangements transported to Order.LIFE OF model of ST. 165 holiness. THOMAS AQUINAS.

the paralytic and possessed. Thomas's funeral weie The lepers. a cure by virtue of his intercession with God. miracles which took place but the his XII. Few saints have worked so many miracles after death as he. first of a long list at deaf and dumb.CHAPTER CANONIZATION OF HE at tomb. (166) The family of the saint . obtained ST. blind. These remarkable events caused the Cistercians of Fossa-Nuova great uneasiness lest they should have to give up his body. all St. THOMAS.

also remembered They that Father Reginald had solemnly protested that he only left the relics of his Master. The relics were therefore publicly restored in the presence of the . Stephen. 167 was very powerful in the neighborhood. at the entrance to the cloister. Thomas. secretly carried the tion of the coffin to the chapel of St. Thomas appeared to him in the night and bade him restore it to its first tomb. in order to make it more secure. the Abbot. and they feared that they would claim the body of their holy kinsman. accompanied by two religious. and Brother in religion. so that they who went to pray there should not be deceived.LIFE OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS. These causes led to the first transla- body of St. James of Florence. But St. until the Dominicans could claim them.

68 community.1 LIFE OF ST. placed in the chapel of her which she castle. took place seven and a fourth seven years Each time the body was found perfectly incorrupt. but many miraculous answers to prayers were obtained by him in all parts of Italy. THOMAS AQUINAS. It . still. and given to his sister. the Countess Theodora of San Severino. not only worked at Fossa-Nuova. who enclosed it in a magnificent reliquary. and a delicious perfume exhaled from the holy The right hand was cut off remains. num- especially They were favor of holy purity. The bers in miracles continued in great after this translation. A fragrant perfume was This was but observed by all present seven weeks after his death. A years later third translation after.

. but to bring the as much as were yet unable matter to a favorable owing to the short reign of the first. favored the canonization lay in their power. Divine Providence seemed to favor them.LIFE OF ST. elected January 2ist. in These two Popes authoritatively 1303. The Fathers of the Order of St. Do- minic had never lost hope of recovering the body of their great saint. or of obtaining his solemn canonization. and Benedict XI. during the short space of thirty years two Dominicans were raised to the for Pontifical dignity. and was gifted by God with the same miraculous power as his body. 1276. and the very many important affairs for the good of the Church issue. THOMAS AQUINAS. Innocent V. 169 was afterwards given to the Dominican Convent at Salerno.

where the Pope. which claimed of the The all the time and attention latter.170 LIFE OF ST. in France. many princes and nobles and the University of Naples sent a deputation. in order the better to hide it if necessary. Naples and was The commenced. William of Tocco and Robert of Benevento. forty-four years after his death. to Avignon. at the accession of Benedict XI reduced the body into a small compass. Dominic. consisting of two Dominican Fathers. were Cistercians alarmed when Innocent much very V was elected. in the hope of keeping it at least and . the Kings of Sicily. the so-called Em- peror of Constantinople. John XX H . In the year 1318. THOMAS AQUINAS. the process of his solemn canonization Order of St. and separated the head from the body.

and held his court to tion. and numerous miracles clearly proved. and William de Godieu. com- . \>]\ demand his canonizaHe received them favorably. and his doctrine no other than miraculous. Bishop of Naples. and Pandulpho Savello. Apostolic NotaAll the customary forms having ry.LIFE OF S T. test commis- three details of the truth of his They were Umberto. Nicolas de Dominican Car- Freauville. been observed. Bishop of Viterbo. for his is : now was life We believe glorious in holy. Angelo." Three days afterwards he nominated three Cardinals to begin the process of his sioners to his and canonization. three dinals. Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. " other things said among that Brother Thomas heaven. Nicolas Aubertin of Prato. examine into the and to life. miracles. THOMA S AQ UINA S.

formerly a pupil of St. The Pope acceded to their request. in presence of the King and Queen of Naples. related to St. 1323. and the English Bishops of London and Winchester. the Pope effect upon their following. The evening before. Thomas at Paris. and on the 1 8th of July.LIFE OF ST. who was Thomas. Thomas. July i8th. asked that the canonization should now take place without further delay. 172 monly called the Cardinal of Bayonne. THOMAS AQUINAS. King Robert of Sicily. also spoke with great The day hearers. solemnly canon- ized St. . celebrated the first honor of the newly-canonized Mass in saint in the cathedral of Avignon. the Pope went the Dominican Convent at to Avignon and pronounced a panegyric of the saint. the Archbishops of Capua and Aries.

The Fossa-Nuova knowing Cistercians of this. and never ceased to claim them as their right. for he said: "St. the whole Pontifical Court. But. THOMAS AQUINAS. and 173 many princes and persons of rank.LIFE OF ST. for they were still deprived of his relics. Thomas has ize a worked as miracles many written articJes. and seeing . The Pope again preached on the life and virtues of the saint. Archbishops and Bishops of the Church announcing a Bull to all the glad event. and it was upon this occa- sion that he said." as he has The next day he sent the Patriarchs. that in order to canon- holy Doctor of this kind it was quite unnecessary to have evidence of miracles. although their great saint canonization the filled of the Dominican Fathers with joy. it was not unmixed with sadness.

While they them. caused them to be *hat they carried to the castle of the Count of Fondi to be more securely preserved This nobleman was at war with there. the turned it to the Abbot of Fossa-Nuova. 1361. He refused. the Count of Piperno. to the were under the care of the Count of King of Naples sent an embassador to beg him to give him the body of the saint. and reFondi. but some time after again obtained the relics. another nobleman of the neighborhood. The Cistercians complained at once to . - would hardly be able to retain them much longer. and the Fathers feared them he might take the to give who much them desired relics from King of Sicily. and gave them to the month of Febru- at last secretly the Dominicans in ary.t74 UFE OF ST THOMAS AQUINAS.

" Court he said to the General. 175 and The Dominican Raymondi. a Benedictine. Elias confirm to them. is c. to which. having been prepossessed against his claim by the Cistercian agents at the Pontifical 44 You come like a thief." it posed that this being generally supcase. Father was the Elias threw himself at the Pope's feet "Holy Father.LIFE OF ST. at first with success. 27. This beautiful and simple answer changed the Pope's heart: he asked v." Brother and our he said. The Pope received him ungraciously. "you have stolen the body of St. they had the first right.) . the possession of the body of their saint and Brother in religion. by his authority. our 37. Thomas. indeed. sought an audience of the Pope to beg him to General. Urban VI. THOMAS AQUINAS. flesh. the Pope." "he (Gen.

He his gave the body should be restored to his Order. while this Order exists. and secondly. to which Father Elias answered that he only desired to follow the wishes Then Urban of his Holiness. THOMAS AQUINAS. First. where the General wished to place the relics.176 LIFE OF ST. and fear heresies." An illness with which he was attacked prevented him from formally restoring the until relics the feast of Corpus Christi. He held his Court at that time at Viterbo. Dominic. that he had always been saint distinguished by his very ardent dcvO- . that the wrote the Office of Corpus Ckristi. praised " said : I nor their offspring. and pleaded cause with much two reasons why again sought an eloquence. The General audience from him. the Order of do not St.

"Is not my Order of St. and that my as nothing. compared to it. not your Order almost as nothing ? appears better to me that he should dwell among our monks. Benedict able to honor this and is saint." It therefore Then the Master-General said " : Most very true that the Order of St Benedict is very powerful." "What do you boon to our for all he has done Then Urban wish me said: him?" to give The General answered: "Most Holy Father.LIFE OF ST. Therefore. is But at the same time that . the Dominicans. and they will honor him much. towards tion 44 the Blessed Iff Sacrament. Holy Father. grant that he may dwell with his own Brothers. it is Order. THOMAS AQUINAS." he said. "I beseech your Holiness to give some saint to repay for the him Church." The Pope answered quickly.

Dominic's greatest son to Dominic's St. has as yet only two Thomas. and was put into his hands by the Piperno the body Thomas from . Benedict ful. and should therefore be occupied in honoring them on the contrary. our . at St. and you will grant us his honor him very much with relics we will saints as well as St. It was at the Cister- once given up to him in a silver-gilt reliquary. it is very power- has saints almost without number. if the other two. A dis- tinguished priest of the Papal Court. children. THOMAS} AQUINAS." Then the Pope agreed. 178 the Order of St. as you have often said with your own lips. was entrusted with the delicate commission of receiving the head of cians. William of Lorvat. and restored the body of St. Order which you love especially.LIFE OF ST.

ninety- four years after the death of St. how- holy relics translated to Toulouse. . Thomas. where he had so often taught one of his hands. . The to should be where the Do- found a house of arm of the right saint was to be given to Paris. where they were temporarily placed and on the in the Papal chapel. at Fondi. August 4th. who had begged for them so perti- naciously. THOMAS AQUINAS. feast of Dominic. 1368. which had been given to the Countess Theodora. The Pope made ever. minicans were studies. that the the stipulation. He at 179 once took the precious relics to Monte Fiasconi.LIFE OF Dominicans ST. and afterwards preserved in the Dominican Convent at Salerno. St. were solemnly restored by a Benedictine Pope to the General of the Dominicans.

especially at Prouille. Roche. of the relics from France took place almost priThey were accompanied by a guard of monks alone. The reception into the nificent.000 people went out to meet the procession. dedicated to St. to Italy. Many miracles were worked on the way. they were temporarily deposited in a small chapel.l8o LIFE OF was alone ST. Arrived at Toulouse. outside the walls of the town. left THOMAS AQUINAS. More than town was mag- 150. the Archbishop of Toulouse and Narbonne. the land of his birth. the by Louis. King of France. Avignonette and little Villefranche. until made arrangements could be proper for the solemn entry. . The translation Italy to vately. headed Duke of Anjou. brother of Charles V.

the Counts of Aquino and the town of Toulouse round the reliquary of the saint. and a panegyric was preached by the Archbishop of Narbonne. The relics were taken to the Church of floated the Friar Preachers. It was publicly received by the person at the church of St Genevicve. all The the confraternities standards of France. Aire and Beziers. of the Pope. both secular and regular. The solemn reception of the arm of the saint into Paris was no less magnificent. several abbots. 1369. THOMAS AQUINAS. and of the town. and was then carried in pro- King in . but the most magnificent testimony to the holiness of the saint was the many miracles which took place anew by his intercession. This transla- tion took place January 28th. l8l Bishops of Lavaur. many clergy. Anjou.LIFE OF ST.

open street. and then placed in the new shrine. the saint. THOMAS AQUINAS. magnificent shrine was body in the built for his church at Toulouse in the year 1628. A secular preached priest in the church.1 LIFE OF ST. which was very richly ornamented. Thomas have at several times been given to the city of A new and very Naples and to Spain. and a Carmelite Large relics in the of St. a Dominican Convent of Jacques. 82 cession to the St. and so designed that four priests could say . and on the feast of the Holy Trinity in the same year the holy relics were solemnly carried round the town. where chapel was deposited it prepared especially at in the Three panegyrics were preached simultaneously in honor of King's expense. a Franciscan in the cloister. which was decorated for the occasion.

seeing that they would not longer be able to preserve the holy relics. which is carried in procession every Whit-Sunday. 183 This was destroyed during the calamitous times of the French Revolution of shrine Dispersed by a decree of the Republic. hoping at least to secure their Three years afterwards. THOMAS AQUtNAS. Mass at it the same at time. February 27th. and they. the relics were placed in the crypt of the church. They were safety. restored to the Church in 1807. the Dominican Fathers were 1790. 1794. Saturnine. took them to the church of under the St.LIFE OF ST. and in 1825 the head of the saint was encased in a bust. of care and put them the schismatical Bishop. placed in a reliquary The body was of gilded wood . Two obliged to leave the convent alone remained.

the Bishops of Mon- and Montpellier. the shrine was placed a wreath of which bore the words " Caro flowers. narrated. as flesh. many Dominicans. of the Dominican tauban. when they were translated to a more magnificent shrine in the presence of the Archbishops of Toulouse and Auch. we have (He Genesis 37. 27). Thomas Elias . Carcassonne the Vicar-General Order. is oui v. in the chapel of the Holy Ghost. The children of St. Brother Raymondi claimed the body from Pope Urban V. and deposited THOMAS AQVItfAS.184 LIFE OF ST. There the holy relics remained until September 1878. secular goodly number of the On Religious of priests. other Orders. Dominic and Brothers of St. nostra et frater nosier est" Brother and our with which. and a faithful.

number of Thomas should be de- a great . St.LIFE OF ST. On St. Leo Augustine. Gregory. has shown unmistakable signs of his warm and almost unexampled at- tachment to the teaching of St. Ambrose. XIII. the year 1567. ne issued a very remarkable ing the study of letter. THOMAS AQUINAS. and on the same feast of the year following he acceded to the request Bishops that of St. The holy Pontiff ordered that in future his feast Pius in should be kept like that of the four great Doctors of the Latin Church. St. Thomas. the recommend- works of the Angelic Doctor. St. 185 have not yet given up hope of recovering what they have so unwillingly lost. St. Thomas was solemnly declared Doctor of the Universal Church by V St. Dominic's day. Jerome and The present Pope. 1879. St.

to the Dominic. and seminaries. It may thus be doubted whether the greatest Thomist Popes have exceeded him in his devotion St. most learned son of . clared patron of colleges all Catholic universities. THOMAS AQUINAS.1 86 UFE OF ST.

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