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4.3.

3 Calculation of Momentary Line to Line Faults


A line to line fault occur when two of the three phase
conductors touches each other as illustrated on figure 4.19. For
Analytical convenience, phase B and phase C is traditionally
chosen as the faulted lines. The magnitude of the fault current I FAULT
(in per unit) is calculated as

Ia 0; Ib Ic IFAULT

Ia0
1 1
I 1 1 a
a1 3
Ia2
1 a2

1 Ia
a2 Ib
a Ic

Ia0
1 1
I 1 1 a
a1 3
Ia2
1 a2

1 0
a2 Ib
a Ib

Ia0 0

Ia1

1
1
aIb a2Ib (a a2 )Ib
3
3

Ia2

1 2
1
a Ib aIb (a2 a)Ib
3
3

Ia1 Ia2

Ph-A
Ph-B
Ph-C

IFAULT
ZFAULT=0
(bolted Fault)

Figure 4.19 Illustration of Bolted Line to Line Fault


The derived relation between symmetrical component of
currents shows that Ia1=-Ia2 and Ia0=0. This means that one can
construct an equivalent sequence network where the positive and
Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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negative sequence impedance can be connected in parallel as


shown in figure 4.20. Using this network, the positive sequence
current can be calculated in terms of the sequence impedance
values.

Z1
Ia1

Va1

Ia2

Z2
Va2

VF

Figure 4.20 Equivalent Sequence Impedance Network for


Line to Line Fault.

Ia1 Ia2

VF
Z1 Z2

Equation 4.7

Using these values of positive and negative sequence currents,


Phase values of the fault current I b and Ic can be derived using the
matrix equation for sequence and phase domain currents.

Ia 1 1
I 1 a2
b
Ic 1 a

1 Ia0
a Ia1
a2 Ia2

Ia 0
IFAULT Ib (a2Ia1 aIa2 )
Since Ia1=-Ia2, above equation can be simplified as

IFAULT Ib (a2Ia1 aIa2 ) j 3 Ia1

Equation 4.8

Ic IFAULT j 3 Ia1

Equation 4.9

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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4.3.3.1 Calculation of Line to Line Fault for Main Buses


For Bus 1 (Fault Point F1)
The fault point impedance derived from 3-phase fault
calculation at F1 is the positive sequence impedance for fault point
with the driving voltage equal to 1 pu as shown in figure 4.21.

Z TH,F1,MOM,1 Z TH,F1,MOM 0.0007394 j0.0179826 pu

0.0007394

+j0.0179826

Ia1

1pu
Reference
Figure 4.21 Momentary Positive Sequence Impedance for
Fault point 1
Consequentially, the negative sequence network is equal to
the positive sequence network impedance as shown in figure 4.22.

Z TH,F1,MOM,2 Z TH,F1,MOM 0.0007394 j0.0179826 pu


0.0007394

+j0.0179826

Ia2

Reference

Figure 4.22 Momentary Negative Sequence Impedance for


Fault point 1

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Using these three impedance networks and from the


relation on equation 4.5 where Ia1=-Ia2

and Ia0=0, the equivalent

network diagram is shown in figure 4.23 where the two impedance


networks are connected in parallel.

Ia1

0.0007394

0.0007394

+j0.0179826

+j0.0179826

1 pu

Ia2

Figure 4.23 Equivalent Sequence Impedance for Fault point 1


Using equation 4.7, the value of the positive and negative
sequence impedance is calculated below.

Ia1 Ia2

VF
ZTH,MOM,1 ZTH,MOM,2

1
0.0007394 j0.0179826 0.0007394 j0.0179826
1
Ia1
0.001478 j0.035965
Ia1

Ia1 1.141368 j27.757621 pu


Ia2 Ia1 -1.141368 j27.757621 pu
Using equation 4.8 and 4.9 to calculate the line b and c fault current

Ib Ic j 3 Ia1 j 3 1.141368 j27.757621

Ib -48.077611 - j1.976908 pu
Ib=48.118/-117.640 pu

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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Actual value
Ib=48.118/-117.640 x IBASE 13.8kV
Ib=48.118/-117.640 x 418.369 A
IMOM,SYM,RMS,LL = Ib= 20,131.179/-117.640 A

Momentary asymmetrical rms fault current IMOM,ASYM,RMS,LL :

IMOM, ASYM,RMS IMOM,SYM,RMS x 1 2e

-2
X/R

From the calculation results of momentary symmetrical rms


values, Using separated X and R reduction, X/R ratio is calculated as
For X/R ratio

XsepPositive XsepNegative
X /R
R sepPositive R sepNegative
X /R

0.017952 0.017952
28.612
0.0006274 0.0006274

IMOM,ASYM,RMS,LL 20,131.179 x 1

-2
28.612
2e

IMOM,ASYM,RMS,LL 32,496.039 A

Momentary asymmetrical peak fault current IMOM,ASYM,RMS,SLG :

IMOM,ASYM,PEAK IMOM,SYM,RMS x

-2

2 1 e X/R

X / R
3
0.49 0.1e

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0.49 0.1e

28.612
3 0.489

IMOM,ASYM,PEAK,LL 20,131.179 x

-2x0.498x

2 1 e 28.612

IMOM,ASYM,PEAK,LL 54,035.28 A

Calculating for the current contribution:

j 3 Ia1Z1LOAD
IbSYSTEM
xIBASE
Z1SYSTEM Z1LOAD
j 3 Ia1Z1SYSTEM
IbLOAD
xIBASE
Z1SYSTEM Z1LOAD
Referring to the network simplification at figure 4.3 for Momentary
Positive Impedance we get
Z1SYSTEM = Z2SYSTEM = 0.000639 + j0.019257 pu
Z1LOAD = Z2LOAD = 0.0413215 + j0.268116 pu

j 3 1.1413 j27.7570.04132 + j0.268


IbSYSTEM
x418.369
0.000639 + j0.019257 0.0413 + j0.268

IbSYSTEM 18,804.53 A

j 3 1.1413 j27.7570.000639 + j0.019257


IbLOAD
x418.369
0.000639
+
j0.019257

0.0413
+
j0.268

IbSYSTEM 1,335.58 A

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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The

table

below

shows

the

summary

of

results

by

performing the same calculation procedure as the above for the rest
of the major buses (F2, F3 , F4 , F5, F6 and F7) using the Microsoft
Excel

developed

by

the

author.

Table

4.14

Summarize

the

Momentary Symmetrical, Momentary Asymmetrical and Momentary


Peak asymmetrical currents for the main buses. Table 4.15
summarize the current contributions from the Load and the System
for each of the main buses.

Table 4.14 Summary of Momentary Line to Line Faults


Fault
Point
F1

F2

F3

F4

F5
F6
F7

Fault
Location
13.8kV
Power Plant
Bus
Primary
terminals
of TRM1
6.9kV
switchgear
(bus)
Primary
terminals
TRL3A
Primary
terminals
TRL3B
MCC8 Bus
MCC9 Bus

Momentary Line To Line Faults


IMOM,ASYM,PEAK
IMOM,SYM,RMS (A)
IMOM,ASYM,RMS (A)
(A)
20,131.18

32,496.04

54,035.28

19,997.96

32,136.27

53,496.39

17,429.88

28,077.86

46,712.34

16,988.50

25,725.57

43,435.03

16,944.14

25,495.73

43,110.05

39,840.27
40,708.76

52,989.77
53,926.06

91,995.05
93,692.10

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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Table 4.15 Summary of Momentary Line to Line Fault Current


Contributions for Main Buses
I SYSTEM
I LOAD
Contribution Contribution

Fault
Point

Fault Location

F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7

13.8kV Power Plant Bus


Primary terminals of TRM1
6.9kV switchgear (bus)
Primary terminals TRL3A
Primary terminals TRL3B
MCC8 Bus
MCC9 Bus

(A, sym RMS) (A, sym RMS)

18,804.53
18,670.26
14,442.17
16,849.95
16,749.94
37,708.95
37,673.14

1,335.58
1,336.28
3,011.31
150.01
207.82
2,259.76
3,191.08

4.3.3.2 Calculation of Line to Line Fault for MV and LV Loads


For MV Loads
The Line to line fault for MV and LV loads are calculated
using the positive and negative sequence impedance derived from
momentary three-phase and single line to ground fault calculation.
Repeating the same procedure used for calculating the momentary
line to line fault for the main buses using Microsoft excel, the
calculation results is summarized in table 4.16 ad 4.17.
Table 4.16 Calculation Results for Momentary Line to Line
Fault for MV Loads
Fault
Point
PEKM5806
PEYM7601
PEKM8639
PEKM8601
PC001

Ia1 (pu)
Mom, Sym, RMS

Ib (pu)
Mom, Sym, RMS

2.141856-j9.877875

-17.108982-j3.709803

Ib (A)
Mom, Sym,
RMS
14,648.4280

1.843597-j9.943964

-17.223451-j3.193204

14,657.1222

1.820142-j10.480192

-18.152226-j3.152579

15,416.0407

2.395899-j9.291376

-16.093135-j4.149820

13,906.2400

0.860868-j11.790259

-20.421328-j1.491067

17,132.809

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

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Table 4.17 Calculation Results for Momentary Line to Line


Fault for LV Loads
Fault
Point
(F13)
GM1412
(F14)
GM1413
(F15)
KM5814
(F16)
GM8103
A
(F17)
GM8103
S
(F18)
MNDB
(F19)
EMBD
(F20)
YM7607
(F21)
SM8645
(F22)
GM7612
(F23)
7601M1
(F24)
KM8607

Ia1 (pu)
Mom, Sym, RMS

Ib (pu)
Mom, Sym, RMS

0.085628j0.034175
0.085628j0.034175
0.167318j0.140587
0.093832j0.045496

-0.059194j0.148313
-0.059194j0.148313
-0.243504j0.289804
-0.078802j0.162522

0.093832j0.045496

-0.078802j0.162522

0.516685j1.002566
0.516685j1.002566
0.651537j0.724739
0.260886j0.309178
0.139779j0.146292
0.095726j0.049784
0.075286-j0.02265

-1.736496j0.894925
-1.736496j0.894925
-1.255285j1.128496
-0.535513j0.451867
-0.253385j0.242105
-0.08623-j0.165802
-0.039232-j0.1304

Chapter 4-Short Circuit Calculation

Ib (A)
Mom, Sym,
RMS
1,920.77
1,920.77
4,552.95
2,172.51

2,172.51

23,497.42
23,497.42
20,303.14
8,427.93
4,215.33
2,247.88
1,637.93

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