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First Midterm Examination

February 28, 2012

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Make sure that your Banner ID is on every page. This is the only way we have of matching you with
your exam after grading it. Please work independently. Read each question carefully before answering.
Unless otherwise indicated, there is only one correct answer for each multiple-choice question. Points
are indicated by the question within brackets []. There are no calculators or other electronic devices
needed or allowed on this exam. All hats must be removed during the exam. Exams will be
photocopied before being returned.

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1. [5 points] Draw the structure of AlaGlu-Gly in the ionic form that predominates at pH 7. Draw all
atoms (including hydrogens) as well as any charges as necessary.

2. [2 points] Titration of isoleucine by a strong base, for example NaOH, reveals two pKs. The titration
reaction occurring at pK1 (pK1 = 2.4) is:

COO + H2O.

COO + NH2+.
C) COO + NH2

D) NH3+ + OH

NH2 + H2O.
E) NH2 + OH

NH + H2O.
Circle the correct answer.

3. [4 points] Pauling and Corey showed that in small peptides, six atoms associated with the peptide
bond all lie in a plane. Draw a dipeptide of two amino acids in trans linkage (side-chains must be
shown as R), and indicate which six atoms are part of the planar structure of the peptide bond.

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4. [2 points] An octapeptide composed of four repeating alanylglycyl units has:

A) one free amino group on an glycyl residue.
B) one free amino group on an glycyl residue and one free carboxyl group on a alanyl residue.
C) one free amino group on a alanyl residue and one free carboxyl group on an glycyl residue.
D) two free amino and two free carboxyl groups.
E) two free carboxyl groups, both on glycyl residues.
Circle the correct answer.
5. [2 points] The diagram to the right illustrates:
A) the polypeptide chain of an alpha-helix
B) two polypeptides of a beta-pleated sheet running in a parallel fashion
C) two polypeptides of a beta-pleated sheet running in an antiparallel fashion
D) a flexible coil segment of a polypeptide
E) two polypeptides of a coiled coil
Circle the correct answer.
6. [2 points] A sequence of amino acids in a certain part of protein is -S-G-P-G-. The sequence is most
probably part of a(n):
A) random coil
B) parallel beta sheet
C) beta turn
D) alpha helix
E) antiparallel beta sheet
Circle the correct answer.
7. [2 points] Roughly how many amino acids are there in one turn of an helix?
A) 1
B) 2.8
C) 3.6
D) 4.2
E) 10
Circle the correct answer.
8. [4 points] Describe (succinctly) the experimental design of the experiment conducted by Dr. Anfinsen
that led to the conclusion: The primary sequence of a protein determines its three-dimensional
shape and thus its function.

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9. [2 points] In hemoglobin, the transition from R state to T state (high to low affinity) is triggered by:
A) Fe2+ binding.
B) heme binding.
C) oxygen binding
D) subunit dissociation.
E) 2,3 BPG binding
Circle the correct answer.
10. [2 points] Which of the following statements about allosteric control of enzymatic activity is false?
A) Allosteric effectors give rise to sigmoidal V0 vs. [S points] kinetic plots.
B) Allosteric proteins are generally but not always composed of several subunits.
C) An effector may either inhibit or activate an enzyme.
D) Binding of the effector changes the conformation of the enzyme molecule.
E) Heterotropic allosteric effectors compete with substrate for binding sites.
Circle the correct answer.
11. [2 points] When oxygen binds to a heme-containing protein, the two open coordination bonds of
Fe2+ are occupied by:
A) one O2 molecule and one amino acid atom.
B) one O2 molecule and one heme atom.
C) two O atoms.
D) two O2 molecules.
Circle the correct answer.
12. [2 points] The following values were determined for alcohol dehydrogenase in the absence and in
the presence of acetaldehyde, an inhibitor:
In the absence of acetaldehyde
In the presence of acetaldehyde

Km (mM)

Vmax (micromoles/min)

Acetaldehyde is a(n) __________________ inhibitor.

a. competitive
b. noncompetitive
c. uncompetitive
d. mixed
e. irreversible
Circle the correct answer.
13. [2 points] The proximal histidine residue in myoglobin coordinates Fe2+ and acts to (choose one):
A) prevent oxidation of the heme Fe2+
B) lower the relative affinity for CO
C) assist in the binding of O2
D) prevent binding of N2
E) decrease
Circle the correct answer.

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14. [2 points] The steady state assumption, as applied to enzyme kinetics, implies:
A) Km = KD.
B) the enzyme is regulated.
C) the ES complex is formed and broken down at equivalent rates.
D) the Km is equivalent to the cellular substrate concentration.
E) the maximum velocity occurs when the enzyme is saturated.
Circle the correct answer.
15. [6 points] (No calculators allowed on this question) An enzyme catalyzes the reaction A B. The
initial rate of the reaction was measured as a function of the concentration of A. The following data
were obtained:
[A], micromolar V0, nmoles/min
A) What is the Km of the enzyme for the substrate A (expressed as a number and explain how you
determined it to get credit for the answer)?

B) What is the value of V0 when [A] = 43 (Setup but do not solve the calculation)?

The above data was plotted as 1/ V0 vs. 1/[A], and a straight line was obtained.
C) What is the value of the x-intercept of the line (expressed as a fraction)?

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16. [2 points] An enzyme catalyzes a reaction at a velocity of 10 mol/min when all enzyme active sites
are occupied with substrate. The Km for this substrate is 1 10-5 M. Assuming that MichaelisMenten kinetics are followed, what will the reaction velocity be when the concentration of S is (a) 1
10-5 M.


17. [2 points] One of the enzymes involved in glycolysis, aldolase, requires Zn2+ for catalysis. Under
conditions of zinc deficiency, when the enzyme may lack zinc, it would be referred to as the:
A) apoenzyme.
B) coenzyme.
C) holoenzyme.
D) prosthetic group.
E) substrate.
Circle the correct answer.
18. [2 points] The scheme S T U V W X Y represents a hypothetical pathway for the
metabolic synthesis of compound Y. The pathway is regulated by feedback inhibition. Assuming S
T is the rate-limiting step, indicate where the inhibition is most likely to occur and what the most
likely inhibitor is. Draw an arrow at where the inhibition occurs and circle the likely inhibitor:

19. [4 points] a) What is the effect of increased concentration of CO2 on the binding of oxygen to

(b) Briefly describe the mechanism of this effect.

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20. [6 points] Provide the correct answers below in the spaces given
A) In the active site of chymotrypsin, a _________ residue increases the nucleophilicity of a
nearby _____________ residue, which makes a covalent bond to the substrate.
B) A hydrophobic pocket provides____________________________________
C) The oxyanion hole provides____________________________________
21. [2 points] Which of the following contains an ether-linked alkyl group?
A) Oleoyl oleate
B) Triacylglycerol
C) Phosphatidyl serine
D) Platelet-activating factor
E) Sphingomyelin
Circle the correct answer.
22. [2 points] An example of a glycerophospholipid that is involved in cell signaling is:
A) cholesterol.
B) triacylglycerol.
C) phosphatidylinositol.
D) testosterone.
E) vitamin A (retinol).
Circle the correct answer.
23. [2 points] Which of these statements about facilitated diffusion across a membrane is true?
A) A specific membrane protein lowers the activation energy for movement of the solute through
the membrane.
B) It can increase the size of a transmembrane concentration gradient of the diffusing solute.
C) It is impeded by the solubility of the transported solute in the nonpolar interior of the lipid bilayer.
D) It is responsible for the transport of gases such as CO2 across biological membranes.
E) It requires the highly exergonic hydrolysis of ATP..
Circle the correct answer.
24. [4 points] Explain how a biochemist might discover that a certain enzyme is allosterically regulated
in the absence of a crystal structure.

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25. [2 points] Which of the sugars shown in the figure are

L sugars?
A) A and B
B) B and C
C) C and D
D) A and D
E) None of the above
Circle the correct answer.
26. [2 points] Which sugar is the enantiomer of sugar A?
A) B
B) C
C) D
D) B and D
E) none of the above
Circle the correct answer.
27. [2 points] Which two sugars shown in the figure are
A) A and B
B) B and C
C) C and D
D) A and D
E) None of the above
Circle the correct answer.

28. [2 points] Which of the following monosaccharides is not an aldose?

A) erythrose
B) fructose
C) glucose
D) glyceraldehyde
E) ribose
Circle the correct answer.
29. [4 points] Show the basic structure of all glycerophospholipids. Indicate the charge on the molecule
if any at pH 7.

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30. [2 points] The fluidity of the lipid side chains in the interior of a bilayer is generally increased by:
A) a decrease in temperature.
B) an increase in fatty acyl chain length.
C) an increase in the percentage of phosphatidyl ethanolamine
D) a decrease in the number of unsaturated fatty acids.
E) an increase in the number of double bonds in fatty acids.
Circle the correct answer.
31. [2 points] Which of following is an anomeric pair?
A) D-glucose and D-fructose
B) D-glucose and L-fructose
C) D-glucose and L-glucose
D) -D-glucose and -D-glucose
E) -D-glucose and -L-glucose
Circle the correct answer.
32. [2 points] Indicate whether the following two statements are true or false
(True / False) 2 protons are transferred in every redox reaction
(True / False) Standard reduction potentials, E' , are relative to that of oxygen
33. [2 points] Redox reactions require an electron _________________ and an electron
34. [3 points] Explain how homopolysaccharides of glucose can have either helical or planar structures.

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35. [2 points] Once inside a cell, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate. What is the
main purpose of this phosphorylation?
A) to form a low-energy compound
B) to activate PFK-1
C) to trap glucose inside the cell
D) to prevent mutarotation
Circle the correct answer.
36. [2 points] Hamsters love to run on exercise wheels. Prolonged running at a high rate of speed
requires ATP. Could a hamster with a defective gene for the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase meet the
extra ATP demand for prolonged, fast wheel-running by maintaining a high rate of glycolysis? Why
or why not?
A) No, not enough NAD+ can be regenerated for glycolysis to continue at a high rate.
B) No, the defective gene will cause a rapid decline in pH in the muscles used for running.
C) Yes, the defective gene has no effect on the glycolytic pathway.
D) Yes, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase will supply the needed NAD+ if the lactose
dehydrogenase cannot.
Circle the correct answer.
37. [2 points] Indicate whether the following statement is true or false

In the preparatory phase of glycolysis, a glucose molecule is converted to two

pentose phosphate molecules, at the expense of (driven by) the hydrolysis of two
ATP molecules.

38. [2 points] Indicate whether the following statements are true or false by circling T or F for each

Phosphofructokinase 1 requires ATP as a substrate.


Phosphofructokinase 1 is allosterically activated by AMP.

39. [2 points] The ultimate electron acceptor in the fermentation of glucose to ethanol is:
A) acetaldehyde.
B) acetate.
C) ethanol.
D) NAD+.
E) pyruvate.
Circle the correct answer.