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BUITDING

Continuing to the finishing i


juice, nutmeg, and white PePPer.
to texture, although the butter in
is used for both texture and flavo
mered vealare a ctassic marriage of ftavors that

workwelltogether in many dishes' However'

make the dish ctoying' The


too much richness, combined with the mildness of the vea[, could

has been used.

combine to
lf the dsh is welt composed, atl of these flavors, primary and supporting,
vealbtanquette.
of
form a complex but unified whole we identify as the taste

General Concepts in Flavor Buitding


some

discussed suggests
There are no fixed rules for combining flavors, but the example iust
following
general principles. When you are developing or modifying a recipe, think about the

points.

and then think


Every ingredientshould have a purpose. startwith the main ingredients,
you need.
just
ingredients
the
aboutwhat witlworkwith them. Continue to buitd the flavor, using
above'
example
the
tngredients can worktogether by harmonizing or by contrasting,ln

tartness of the
the rich taste of the [iaison and the mitd taste of the veaI harmonize' The
lemon, on the other hand, contrasts with the cream'

Whentwoingredientscontrost,besuretheybalonce.Forexample,addiustenough

the flavors in an individuaI recipe do.

SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXITY


ingredients is
simpler is usuatly better. some cooks mistakenty thinkthat adding more

the harder you have to


always preferabte to adding fewer. But the more flavors you combine,
you
the more you have
have,
flavors
competing
more
the
work to balance them alt. Further,
[ost.
aren't
ingredients
main
the
of
to take care that the primary flavors
orthe components
This istruewhetheryou are planningthe ingredients in a singte recipe
you have a meat
plate.
when
on
a
things
put
many
too
to
on a plate. some cooks are tempted
garnishes
additional
with
starches,
and
fourvegetabtes
item perched on layers ofthree or
confused
a
is
often
iumble'
and two or three sauces, the resutt
better. Classic dishes from
It would be inconect, howevel, to say that simpler is always

not impossibte, to taste each of the individuatspices'

CLASSIC FLAVOR PROFILES

toget
rtd as
s that
been

lace to start is to studY


cuisine Passed down to
me' We know the flavor
cades or even centuries'

FTAVOR

CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COOKING AND FOOD SCIENCE


We have atready seen some classic flavor combinations in our discussion
of veat blanquette. The combination of white meat, cream, lemon, and
a hint of nutmeg is a quartet of
flavors you witl find repeatedty in classic and regional dishes.

CI.ASSIC FTAVORING

COMBINATIONS
These are just a few ofthe many tradi-

tional flavoring combinations from


around the world. Keep in mind that,
although only one or two combinations
are given for each country or region
mentioned, they are not the only combinations used there. These are merely

study classic dishes.


For chefs who want to create their own dishes, studying classic
recipes is a good place
to sta rt.

Seasoning and
Flavoring lngredients

examples to stimulate your thinking.


Sour cream, paprika, caraway

precedingdiscussi

sthatadd flavorto orchange

rema

(Hungary)
Sour cream or mustard,

The

the flavor of a dish. Th


ingredients. The
well as common flavor

dill

(Scandinavia)

i;#ii"."titi"i:il
mustard.

Carawa onion, vinegar (Germany)


Apples, apple cider or apple

brand

cream (France-Normandy)
Shallot, garlic, parsley

(France-Burgundy)

between seasoning and flavoring. Seasoning means enhancing the


natural ftavor of a food

Tomato, basil, olive oil (ltaly)

Olive oil, garlic, anchovy (ltaly)


Lemon, oregano (Greece)

Cinnamon, nuts, honey (eastern


and southern Mediterranean,
Middle East)
Ginger, onion, garlic (lndia)
Fish sauce (nam pla), lemongrass,

Season i ng
1. The most important time for seasoning liquid foods is at the end of
the cooking

chiles (Thailand)

process.

Ginger, soy sauce flapan)


Soy sauce, sake or

The last step in most recipes, whether written or not, is ,,adjust the seasoning."
This means you have to first taste and evaluate the product. Then you must
decide

mirin, dried

bonito (fapan)

what shoutd be done, if anything, to improve the taste. often, a rittte satt
in a stew or a
dash of fresh lemon juice in a sauce is enough.
The ability to evaluate and correct flavors takes experience, and it
is one ofthe
most important skiils a cook can develop.

Ginger, garlic, scallion (China)

2. salt and other seasonings

are also added at the beginning of cooking, particularly for


larger pieces of food, when seasonings added at the end would not
be absorbed or
btended in but just sit on the surface.

3' Addingsome ofthe seasoningduringthe

cooking process aids in evaluatingthe flavor

atong the way.

4.

Do not add much seasoning if


is reduced.

itwill

be concentrated during cooking, as when a liquid

Flavorin g
Flavoring ingredients can be added at the beginning, middte, or end,
depending on the cooking

time, the cooking process, and the ftavoring ingredient.

BUITDING FLAVOR
1. onty a few flavorings can be added successfulty at the end of cooking. These include
prepared mustard
fresh (not dried) herbs, sherry or ftamed brandy, and condiments tike
and Worcestershire sauce.
2. Most flavorings need heat to release their flavors and time for the flavors to btend'
quickty and thus don't
Whole spicestake longest. Ground spices release flavors more
require as long a cooking time.
3. Too much cooking results in loss of flavor. Most flavors, whether in spices or in main
volotile,which means they evaporate when heated. That is why you

ingredients,

are

can smelt food cooking.

we can conclude that herbs and spices should cook with the foods long enough to

short, you
release their flavors but not so long that their ftavors are [ost. lf cooking times are
lf cooking
can generalty add spices and herbs at the beginning or middle of cooking time'
time'
cooking
of
times are tong, it is usuatly better to add them in the middte or toward the end
minutes
30
ffofe: Food safety experts recommend adding dried spices and herbs at least
before the end of cooking so any microorganisms they might carry are destroyed.

Common Seasoning and Ftavoring Ingredents


(as when crumbled bacon is
Any food product can be used as a flavoring ingredient, even meat
are complex
added to sauted potatoes or diced ham is included in a mirepoix)' sauces, which

preparations containing many flavoring ingredients, are themsetves used as ftavorings for
meat, fish, vegetables, and desserts'
cannot treat alt possibte flavoring ingredients here, but we discuss some of

We obviously
important. A survey of herbs and spices is provided in Table 4.1. lngredients used
most
the
primarity in the bakeshop are discussed in Chapter 29'

4.1 Herbs and SPices


Mnnrrr Fonms
Pnooucr

Table

DrscntPTtoN

Exlmpls or Usr

Attspice

Whole, ground

Smallbrown berry; flavor resembles


blend ofcinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg

Sausages and braised meats, poached

Anise seed

Whole, ground

Smatl seed; licorice flavor

Cookies, pastries, breads

Basil

Crushed leaves

Aromatic leaf; member of mint family

Tomatoes and tomato dishes, Pesto


(ltatian basil sauce), egg dishes, [amb

fish, stewed fruits, Pies, Puddings

chops, eggplant, Peas, squash


Bay

leaf

Caraway seed

Whole

Stiff, dark green, oblong leaves; pungent


ar0ma

One of the most imPortant herbs for


stocks, sauces, stews, braised meats

Whole

Dark brown, curved seeds; familiar rye

Rye bread, cabbage, sauerkraut, Pork,


cheese spreads, Eastern European dishes

bread seasoning
Cardamom

Whole pod, ground seed

Tiny brown seeds inside white or green


pod; sweet and aromatic; exPensive

Pickting, Danish Pastries, curries

Cayenne (red pepper)

Ground

Ground form of hot red chile;looks [ike


paprika but is extremetY hot

ln smatl amounts in many sauces' soups'


meat, fish, egg, and cheese dishes
(see p.88)

Celery seed

Whote, ground, ground mixed

Tiny brown seeds with strong

with salt

celery flavor

Salads, coleslaw, salad dressings,


tomato products

CherviI

Crushed leaves

Herb with mitd flavor of ParsleY


and tarragon

Soups, salads, sauces, egg and


cheese dishes

Chili powder

Ground blend

Blend of spices including cumin,


chiles, oregano, garlic

Chiti and other Mexican dishes, egg


dishes, appetizers, ground meat

Chive

Fresh, dried, frozen

Grasslike herb with onion flavor

Salads, egg and cheese dishes,


fish, soups

Cilantro
(fresh coriander,
Chinese parsley)

Fresh leaves

The plant that produces coriander

Widety used in Asian and Southwestern

seeds; delicate texture; assertive,


herbaceous aroma and flavor; leaves
resemble flat parsley

cooking and in dishes with various


ethnic influences

CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COOKING AND FOOD SCIENCE

4.1 Herbs and Spices (continued)


Pnooucr
Mlnxr Fonrns

Table

Dscntprtor{

Extmpls o Us

Cinnamon

Sticks, ground

Aromatic bark olcinnamon or cassia tree

Pastries, breads, desserts, cooked fruits,


ham, sweet potatoes, hot beverages

Clove

Whote, ground

Dried flower buds ofa tropical tree;


pungent, sweet flavor

Whole: marinades, stocks, sauces,


braised meats, ham, pickting;
Ground: cakes, pastries, fruits

Whole, ground

Round, light brown, hollow seed,


slightly sweet, musty flavor

Coria

der

Cumin seed

Whole, ground

i curry p'wder

Ground

Pickting, sausage, pork, curried dishes,


ngerbread

gi

Small seed resembling carawa


but lighter in color

btend

lngredient of curry and chili powders,


sausages and meats, egg and
cheese dishes
eggs, vegetabres, rsh,

,i,il:ji,i:;1,',.; Jg1jfl' :;Ji::J:t.''


brands vary sreatr',
ilitilil;lfii.pper;
Herb and seed with familiardi[ pickle flavor; Seed: pickting, sauerkraut,

: Ditl
Crushed leaves
soups;
alled ditt weed),
seed is more prngniinn the herb
herb: salads, cheese dishes, fsh and
ii
fwhote
seed
sheltfish, some vegetiUi-.
i Epazote Fresh and dried leaves A pungent herb with coarse-textured leaves used in Mexican cooking; often cooked
with beans
i
i Fennel
whole seed
Greenish-brown seeds similar in flavor
ltalian sausage, tomato sauce, fish
to anise, but larger in size
:
Fresh: whole butbs;
i Garlic
Strong, aromatic memberof onion family;
Widevarietyof foods
ried: granurated, powder, fresh utbs lorpr.J oi,any sma croves
i
and mixed with salt
i
r
i
whole, grou nd lso fres h
Light rown, knob by root of nger pla nt
ked good
d desserts, fru its,
and candied orcrystallized)
i
curred?ishes, raseJmets; fresh in
:
Chinese and otherAsian dishes
i Juniper berry Whole
Slightly soft, purpte berries with piney flavor; Marinades, game dishes, sauerkraut
principal flavoringofgin
j: Lemongrass Fresh sta lks
tropica grass with a stightly
lbous base used in south east Asia n ishes
d
and an aroma of lemon
.
dishes influenced byAsian cuisine
: Mace
Whole (blade), ground Orange outer covering of nutmeg; similar
flavor, Baked-goods, desserts, fruits, sausages,
but milder
pork, fiih, spinach, sqast,tf,.r'
:
vegetables
i Marioram crushed leaves
Gray-green herb with pleasant aroma and
pts and ground meats,
braised meats,
ii
:lightty minty fla ror, similar to oregano, sauces, rost lamb, poury anJ poultry
but much milder
stufflngs
i lVtint
Leaves
familiar cool flavor;
d fruit beverages,
i
rmint and peppermint
oes
i Mustard seed Whole, ground (also
in white oryellow and
hes, pickling, meats,
prepared mustard; see p. gg)
rown is stronger
i
i Nutmeg whole, ground
sweet, aromatic kernel of nutmeg fruit
soups, cream sauces, chicken, veal,
manyvegetables (spinach, mushrooms,
!
.
squash, potatoes), desserts, custards,
breads, pastries
i
i orega no
Leaves, grou d
ngent
rb known as the "pizza herb"
lta
n
d Mexica n
hes, mato
products
ii Paprika
Ground
Ground form ofa dried, sweet red chile.
Spanish: used (oroverused) primarityas
variety is brighter in color, mild in
garnish
on light-colored foods;
:panish
'
-

Gi

nge

(a

gi

Ba

san

bu

an

i
i

Pu

he

flavor; Hungarian is darkerand more

pungent

ia

an

d is

to

Hungarian: gutash, braised meats and

poultry sauces
,
i Parsley
Fresh: whole sprigs, in
Most widely used herb; dark green curly or
Almost all foods
unches; dried: i frakes flat reaves with eiiiai, sweet navor
i
i Pepper,black Whole(peppercorns); ground Small blackorcreamywhitehardberry; Mostwidelyusedspice(seep.g/)
::1.yll:
...llf,medium,o',ouir pungentfravorandaioma

FTAVOR

BUILDING

Mlnrr tonns

Pnooucr

DscntPTol{

Exlwrpr-s or Us

Pepper, red

(see Cayenne)

Peppercorn, pink

Whole

Bright pink dried seed or berry; pungent,


floral taste; unrelated to black pepper

Limited uses in meat, poultry and flsh


dishes; sauce garnish; used in peppercorn mixtures

Poppy seed

Whole

Tiny btue-btack seeds with faint but

Garnish for breads and rolls, buttered


noodles; ground: in pastry fltings

distinctive flavor
Rosemary

Whole

Light green leaves resembling pine needles

Lamb, braised meats and poultry soups'


tomato and meat sauces

Saffron

Whote (thread)

ofsaffron crocus; gives bright


yellow color to foods; mild, distinctive flavor;

Steeped in hot liquid before use; rice


dishes, poultry seafood, bouitlabaisse'
baked goods

Red stigma

very expensive

Pork, pouttry, stuffings, sausage, beans,

Sage

Whole, rubbed (finer


consistency than whole
Ieaves), ground

Pungent gray-green herb with fuzzy leaves

Savory

Crushed Ieaves

Fragrant herb of mint family; summer savory


is preferred to winter

Many meat, poultry, fish, egg, and


vegetabIe dishes

Sesame seed

Whole (hulled or unhulled)

Smatlyetlowish seed with nutlike taste; familiar


hamburger bun garnish; high oil content

Bread and roll garnish

Sichuan
peppercorn

Whole

Brown seed pod, usualty partialty opened;

Spicy meat and pouttry dishes

tomatoes

spicy, pepperyflavor, but unrelated to black


peppercofns
Whole or broken

Dried, star-shaped seed pod with an anisetike


ftavor (but unrelated to anise) but more aromatic

Braised Chinese dishes

Tarragon

Crushed leaves

Delicate green herb with flavor both minty and


licoricelike

Barnaise sauce, tarragon vinegar,


chicken, fish, salads and dressings, eggs

Thym e

Crushed [eaves, ground

Tiny brownish-green leaves; very aromatic

One of the most important and versatite


ofherbs; stocks, soups, sauces, meats,

Sta

ntSe

poultry tomatoes
Ground

Turm eflc

lntense yellow root of ginger famity; mild but


distinctive pePPery flavor

A basic ingredient of curry Powder;

pickles, relishes, salads, eggs, rice

1. Solt is the most important seasoning ingredient. Don't use too much. You can always

add more, but You can't take it out.

.
.

Table salt has a fine granutation. lt may contain iodine as a dietary additive' Table
satt also may contain other additives to prevent caking'

BasiI

Kosher salt is prized in the kitchen because of its purity. Unlike tabte salt, it contains
additives. Because of its coarse or ftaky granulation, it does not dissotve as

no

quickty as table salt, but it is easierto use when added to foods by hand, so many
chefs prefer it to table salt at their cooking stations.

ranging
Sea satts of many origins and types are avaitable. Many of them have colors
from grayto green to red, from various minerals and other impurities. These impurigives them
ties atso add subtle flavors to the salt. ln addition, their coarse granutation
primarily
used
are
salts
a pteasant mouthfeel. More expensive than other satts, sea
as garnishes for Plated foods.

2. Pepper

comes in three forms: white, black, and green. A[[ three are actually the same

Chives

berry, but processed differentty. (Btack pepper is picked unripe; white is ripened and
the hutl is removed; green peppercorns are picked unripe and preserved before their
color darkens.)

Whole and crushed black pepper are used primarity in seasoning and flavoring
stocks and sauces and, sometimes, red meats. Ground black pepper is used in the
dining room

bY

the customer.

-'-\.
Garlic chives

CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPI.ES OF COOKING AND FOOD SCIENCE

'

Ground whte pepperis more important as a seasoning in the food-service kitchen.


Its flavor is stightly different from that of btack pepper, and it btends welt (in smalt
quantities) with many foods. lts white color makes it visuatty undetectable in
tightcolored foods.
Green peppercorns are fairly expensive and are used in special recipes, primarity
in

luxury restaurants. The types packed in water, brine, orvinegar (those in waterand
in brine have better flavor) are soft. wet-pack peppercorns are perishable. waterpacked peppercorns keep only a few days in the refrigeratorafterthey are opened,

Clantro

while the others keep longer. Dried green peppercorns are also available.

Dill

3.

'

Red pepper or coyen ne is comptetely unretated to btack and white pepper. lt betongs
to
the same family as paprika and fresh sweet bell peppers. used in tiny amounts, it gives
a spicy hotness to sauces and soups without actually altering the flavor. ln larger
amounts, it gives both heat and flavor to many spicy foods, such as those of Mexico

and lndia.

4.

Epazote

Lemon iuice is an important seasoning, particularty for enlivening the flavor of sauces

and soups,

5. Fresh herbs

are almost always superiorto dried herbs. They should be used whenever
cost and avaitabitity permit. Not long ago, the onty fresh herbs generally available in
many areas of North America were pa rsley, chives, and sometimes m int and diil. Now,
however, most herbs are available fresh. The accompanying photos illustrate the most
commonly used fresh herbs as well as some unusualfresh flavoring ingredients.

6. onion, gorlic, shallots, and other members

of the onion famity, as well as carrots and


cetery, are used as flavorings in virtualty alI stations of the kitchen and even in the
bakeshop. Tryto avoid the use ofdried onion and garlic products, except as a component of spice blends. They have less flavor, and the fresh product is always available.

green ginger

7, wine, brondy, and other atcoholic beverages are used to ftavor sauces, soups, and

Lemongrass

many entres. Brandy should be boited orflamed to eliminate the high percentage of
alcohol, which would be unpteasant in the finished dish. Tabte wines usualty need
some cooking or reduction (either separatety orwith other ingredients) to produce the
desired flavors. Fortified wines Iike sherry and Madeira, on the other hand, may be
added as flavorings atthe end ofcooking,

8, Prepared mustard

is a blend of ground mustard seed, vinegar, and other spices. lt is


used to flavor meats, sauces, and salad dressings and as a table condiment. For most
cooking purposes, European styles such as Dijon (French) or Dussetdorf (German) work

best, while the bright yellow American ballpark style is more appropriate as a table
condiment than as a cooking ingredient. A coarse, grainy style is sometimes called for
in specialty recipes.
Marjoram

Parsle flat

Mint

Rosemary

Parsley, curly

Thyme

Tarragon

Sage

BUILDING

9. Grated lemon

and orange rind is used in sauces, meats, and poultry (as in duckting

FTAVOR

['orange) as we[[ as in the bakeshop. 0nty the colored outer portion, called the zest,
which contains the flavorfuI oils, is used. The white pith is bitter.

70. MSG, or monosodium glutomate, is a flavor enhancer widely used in Asian cooking.
MSG doesn't actuatly change the flavor offoods, but it acts on the taste buds. lt has a
reputation for causing chest pains and headaches in some individuals'

Using Herbs and Spices


Definitions
Herbs are the leaves of certain plants that usuatly grow in temperate ctimates.
Spices arelhe buds, fruits, ftowers, bark, seeds, and roots of plants and trees, many of
which grow in tropicalctimates.
The distinction is often confusing, but it is not as important to know which flavorings are
spices and which are herbs as it is to use them skittfully.
Tabte 4.1 is not a substitute for famitiarity with the actual products. Eventuatly, you
shoutd be abte to identify any spice on your shetf by aroma, taste, and appearance without
looking at the labet. The accompanying photos illustrate a number of whole spices.

Top row, left to

right:

black peppercorns,

gfeen PePpercorns,
pink peppetcorns.
Bottom row, left to right:
white peppercotns,
Sichuan peppercofns

Top row, left to right: cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon sticks.

Bottom row, left to right: iuniper berries, cardamom, saffron,


star anise

dill seed, coriander seed, caraway seed.


Bottom row, left to right: fennel seed, cumin seed, anise seed

Top row, left to right: celery seed,

CHAPTER 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COOKING AND FOOD SCIENCE

Guidelines for Using Herbs and Spices


1.

Be

familiar with each spice's aroma, flavor, and effect on food. looking at a spice chart,

induding the one in this booh is no substitute for familiarity with the actual product.
2. Store dried herbs and

spices in a cool place, tightly covered, in opaque containers. Heat,


light, and moisture cause herbs and spices to deteriorate rapidly.

3. Don't use

stale spices and herbs, and don't buy more than you can use in about 6 months.
Whole spices keep longer than ground, but both lose much flavor after 6 months.

4.

Be cautious after you have replaced old spices. The fresher products are more potent, so

the amount you used lefore might now be too much.

5. Use good-quality spices and herbs. It doesn't pay to economize here. The difference in
cost is only a fraction

ofa cent per portion.

6. Whole spices take longer to release flavors than ground spices, so allow for adequate
cooking time.

7. Whole herbs and spices for flavoring a liquid are tied loosely in

a piece of cheesecloth

(called,a sachet) for easy removal.

8. When in doubt,

add less than you

think you need. You can always add more, but it's hard

to remove what you've already added.

9.

Except in dishes like curry or chili, spices should not dominate. Often, they should not
even be evident. If you can taste the nutmeg in the creamed spinach, there's probably
too much nutmeg.

10. Herbs and spices added to uncooked foods such as salads and dressings need several
hours for flavors to be released and blended.
1

1.

Taste foods before serving whenever possible. How else can you

. How do chefs use the idea offlavor balance to combine

adjustthe seasoningl

variety ofingredients into a

single dishl

. What is the difference between seasoning and flavoringl


. What guidelines are used for conectly adding herbs and spices to foodsl

QUESTTONS FOR DTSCUSSION

TERMS FOR REVIEW


molecular gastronomy

cooking

infra red

ba rbec

carametizaton

microwave

gelatinization
fiber

moist-heat methods
dry-heat methods

rangetop smoke-roast
pan-smoke

denature

boit

gritt

coagu lation
Maitlard reaction
connective tissues

simmer

griddte

umami
primary ftavor

poach

pan-broil

supporting flavor

bla nch

season i ng

oits
smoke point

steam
en papitlote
braise
stew
roast
bake

saut
degtaze
pan-fry

flavoring
volatile

deep-fry
pressure fry

herb
spice

evaporation
cond uction
convection

radiation

broil

colloid
hydrocoltoid
flavor profite

sous vide

QUTSTIONS FOR DISCUSSION


Your broiter cook has just broited a codfish fillet that turned
out dry, rubbery, and shrunken. Explain what happened to it.
2. Why might adding some tomato product to a beef stew help
make the meat more tender?
3. You are roasting a [arge quantity of ducktings and must use
both your conventional ovens and your convection oven.
You set a[[ the ovens at the same temperature, but find the
ducktings in the convection oven are done first. Why did this
h a ppen?
4. You are roasting two beef tenderloins of the same size, one in
an oven set at 450oF (230'C), and the other in an oven at
250"F (12OoC). You remove both ofthem from the oven when

the temperature at the center is 135oF (57"C). Describe the


doneness ofeach tenderloin from outside to inside.
5. Arrange the following cooking methods in three groups, depending on whether they are moist-heat methods, dry-heat
methods without fat, or dry-heat methods with fat: braising,
n g, deep-fryi n g, sa uti ng, poach in g, steaming, broi ti n g,
pressure frying, grilling, sim mering.
6. What are some advantages of braising a pan of Swiss steaks
in the oven instead ofon the range?

roasti

7.

A cook in your restaurant is roasting severaI pans of chickens.

He thinks they are browning too fast, and he covers the pans
with foilto keep the chickens from browning much more' What
is wrong with this?
8. You are sauting beeftenderloin tips for stroganoff, and you
suddenly find the meat is simmering in tiquid rather than

sauting. What did you do wrong?


are too greasy and
soggy. How can you correct the problem?
10. What food safety probtems are posed by the vacuum packaging a n d the low cooking tem peratu res of sous vide cooking?
1 1. Descri be th e d ifferen ce belw een p ri m a ry fl avor and s u p po rti n g
flavor.selectafavorite recipe and explain the function ofeach
ingredient, indicating which are primary ftavors and which are

9. Your customers complain your French fries

secondary flavors.
12. What is meant by the phrase "adiust the seasoning"?
13. What iswrongwith addingwhote caraway seed to a portion of
goulash just before serving?