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FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Organic compounds have two different parts:
1. Radical (R). Any chain of C & H and single bonds only.
2. Functional Groups. When atoms different from Carbon and Hydrogen are present in a molecule, that part of the molecule is
called a functional group. The most important functional groups are in the chart below
R – CH3
ALKANES
ALKENES

R – CH = CH2

R1 – CH = CH – R2

ALKYNES

R – C  CH

R1 – C  C – R2

HALOGEN
DERIVATES

R – Cl

R1 – CH – R2
|
Cl

ALCOHOLS

R – OH

R1 – CH – R1
|
OH

PRIMARY

ALDEHYDES
KETONES

ETHERS
CARBOXYILIC
ACIDS

R – CHO
O
||
R1 – C – R2

SECONDARY

O
||
R – C – H or

or

or

R-COH

R1 – CO – R2

R1 – O – R2

R – COOH

or

ESTERS

R1 – COO – R2

AMINES

R – NH2

O
||
R – C – NH2

R – CO2H

O
||
or R – C – OH

O
||
or R1 – C – O – R2
R1 – NH – R2

PRIMARY

AMIDES

R1
|
R1 – C – OH
|
TERTIARY
R3

R1 – N – R2
|
R3
TERTIARY

SECONDARY

or

O
||
R1 – C – NH – R2

R – CO – NH2

R1 – CO – NH – R2

PRIMARY

SECONDARY
ARY

or

O
||
R1 – C – N – R2
|
R3
R – CO – N – R2
. |
R3
TERTIARY

AROMATICS

–R

or

–R

or