History 104

Unit 1 Exam

Dustin Williams

9.25.07

1.

The Populist movement was the first major American reform

movement. They reached the pinnacle of their influence in America in the 1880s and 1890s. The Populist Party were a group that wanted changes made in the United States government, such as the elimination of national banks, unlimited silver coinage, direct election of U.S. senators, and tighter control of government spending. The central motivating factor for the Populist Party was that working class citizens wanted a say in government policies and actions. They made a few serious runs for the presidency, one in 1892 and another in 1896, but never won. They did, however, manage to get a handful of House Representatives and Senators elected in the 1890s. Even though a lot of the Populists' ideas were considered radical, most of those ideas are now in effect and are taken as normal. Although they never won the presidency, in time, the Populists were proven a success. 2. The Spanish American War was fought in 1898 between the United

States and Spain. Most of the conflict took place in the Caribbean and the Philippines. In this way, the United States hoped to gain territories in the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific Ocean by defeating Spain and taking their colonies. The U.S. wanted to use these islands for military bases and outposts for further expansion. The outcome of the Spanish American War was very favorable for the United States. The U.S. won, and in the Treaty of Versailles in 1898 Spain surrendered Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the Americans, and lost Cuba. 3. Progressivism was a movement in the late 1890s and early 1900s to

respond to the growth of cities, industrialism, and fear about future of the U.S. It was also a movement to expand the power of the government and make politics more democratic and just. It was popular because it occurred

during a time of prosperity and the people were open to changes for the better. People believed that human nature was basically good, and could be made better. They wanted to help each other by helping society, which would in turn help themselves. Progressivism helped the U.S. grow in a positive way because it allowed the government to become involved in manufacturing and business. Products became more safe for the public. Positive effects were also felt in the political realm, because during this time of reform actions like referendas and initiatives began. 4. The United States' initial response to World War I in Europe was a firm

position of neutrality. The American people did not want to become involved in another European conflict. This stance on the war was very difficult for the U.S. to keep, because many of the Allied powers were trade partners. The U.S. also felt strong cultural ties to the United Kingdom because of their shared history, which also made the stance of neutrality hard to maintain. The U.S. was partly drawn into the war by a new weapon that the Germans called the U-boat, or the submarine. Germany was patrolling the seas around Europe with submarines to keep supplies from coming to the Allied forces. When Germany told the U.S. to stop trying to help the Allies and to keep away from Europe, the U.S. politely ignored their warnings for the most part. Eventually and inevitably, Americans were killed when ships were fired upon, and the U.S. was drawn into World War I by German submarine attacks. The other main contributing factor to U.S. involvement in the war was a message called the Zimmerman Telegraph, which Germany sent to Mexico trying to encourage them to attack the U.S. to reclaim lost territories. The telegraph was intercepted by the British which they turned over to the Americans. Understandably, the U.S. felt threatened by this and this too helped lead to their involvement. 5. The United States finally became involved in World War I in 1917 when

German submarines sunk a ship called the Lusitania. The Lusitania was

headed for Britain from the U.S., and when it sank, 128 Americans died. The U.S. government had to take action, and did so by declaring war on Germany. In attempts to mediate peace and stop the conflict, the U.S. tried to talk to both sides. In December of 1916, President Wilson asked both sides to state their terms for a negotiated peace. When the war was over, Wilson included a new idea in the peace plan: a league of nations to help solve world problems before they became armed conflicts. This was new and different, and many Americans were skeptical of it. The U.S. did not become a part of the League of Nations. A similar power today called the United Nations serves many of the same tasks that the League of Nations was supposed to handle. Many Americans are worried, just as Americans were in the early 1900s, that such an organization will one day cause the U.S. to give up its sovereignty. Such an action would be unacceptable to most Americans, because the U.S. was formed on principles of freedom, independence, and self-reliance.