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EXPANSION

iJOINTING

SYSTEM

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ER['G

BRIDGE

BBARINGS

GEI\IERAT IMORMANON

'

NGAGEL Elastonreric Bridge Bearings consist

of individual layers of Rubber, reinforced by steel

plates.

The Elastonrer is normally a nailral rubber compound.


If required, different kinds of Synthetic Rubber, zuch as chloroprene often called "NEOPRENE" may be used.
The steel plates are either cornpletely embedded by the rubber or protected by a specially. developed coating.
Perfect bonding between plates and elastomer is obained under high pressure during the vulcanization process.
The NGAGEL sandard range of elastonreric bridge bearings offers a logical progression in b<lth load bearings and
shear movernent or rotation capacity to the Bridge design Engineer.
Sandard Bearings are manufactured from a nominal 55 IRHD Natural Rubber Compound with protection addetives
the quality.

tro ensure

In this Technical Dau describes the Indonesian, +{,merican & British Standard. Our products can rneet these and
any others International Standard or requirements.

'

In

with normal commercial practice and in the absence of any other Information, NGAGEL CITM
RUBBERINDO will supply Bridge Bearings to cusbrners specification under the asumption that bearing design
approval for a particular load condition or environrnent has been granted by the responsible bridge design
accordance

engineer.

P.T. Ngagel Citraruhberindo


INSTAIIATION
REII\TFORCED
TX^A,STOMER

BEARINGS

In general, the bearing is simply placed on the zurfacr provided at the right level. The lower and upper

concrete

surfaces, between which the bearing is placed must be horizontal, paralhl, clean and flat.
Sornetirnes, the bearings is instalhd

sizes by sonre centinreters

on a nprtar bed which will have a thicknes of 2 - 3 cm and exceed the bearing

in each direction.

The sides of the bearings should not be prevented from deforming. The franrwork for in
situ concrete zuperstructure
must be constnrcte-d so as to prevent concrete flowing between.the franrework and the sides of the bearing. The
franrework zumounding ttre bearing should be soft and easy to remove later (VE RECOMMEND TO USE NGAGET
EVA HEAVY DUTY JOINT FITIER).

Care should be aken to avoid all contact of bearings with oil, solvents ....,..

The Engineer should design the location of bearings in order to facilitate ttreir funrre replacenrent (ack recess),

IECHIVCAI DATA
The total height of Bearing is determined by the number of elementary rubber layers each of ttrickness * ( = 8, 10,
72 etc. ), a comesponding Number of Intermediate Steel Plates of variable thickness depending on the elementary
layer, and two rubber zurface layers
thick,

In usual cases the values of ( t ) and ( ts ) are as follow

TXEMENTARY L\YERS

INTERIIEDI.AIT STEET PIATES

(t)

The toal height is thus a multiple of


For example

Size

(ts)

10

t2

t + ts

d Bearing 200 x 300 x 30 mm )

' 2 Surface special coatingp of rubber 4 mm thick.


' 2 Intermediate layer of rubber 8 mm thick.
' 3 Internediate plates of steel 2 mm thick,
CATCT]IAION OF DIMENSION
Symbols
n
ab

t
T
ts

N
H
U

c[,7

0,t
G

om
TN
TH

7A
7

Number of Elenrenary Rubber Iayers


Bearings dimensions in plan area ( a S b

Thicknes of elenrenary rubber layer


Toal thicknes of n Elenrnary Rubber layers
Thicknes of elenrentary internediate steel plate
Vertical load
Horizontal Force
Horizonal slow displarcment of Bearing
Rotation of Bearing
Rotation of elenrntary layer
Shear nrodulus
Average Compressive stress
Shear strain due to compressive stres
Shear strain due to horizonal force
Shear strain due to rohtion

Total shear *rain dr,re o conhined effect

of tN + 911 + TA

TIMITATION OF SIIEAR STMINS

rs
-rt0

TH

-_T::a
n .lt*

/-l--si-.-t-)

Slow deformation

oT+ (Io
rrv-G
r*- z 12t'
(t)2 n

l',-+l

1.5 Om

'N=

^P =

---)

]rn

F-rr'-'-,

ab

Oo = additional rotation due to


placing defect

Slow/fast deformation

2r (a+b)

tH

"* = --16^N

u' * H'

=G

?ab

in situ concreting :
metal : 0,003 rd

0,003 rd

prefabricated concrete : 0,010 rd

FOIIOVING MUST BE CHECXXD

tH,a0,5" tHao,zc to.tN

t - tN+ tH+ 1A.<5 G ( 40 Kg/cm2


uMnarloN oF AvEMGE coMpRrssn/E srREEs 6* s

1t0 K8,r.,

H<f N withf =0.10+-iom

NO MOVING AI{D NO SUDING CONDnION omini > 20 Kg/cmz

If
CONDIION oF No BUCKuNG

<+

and check

these conditions are not respected, bearing be glued.

>+

DIMENSION REFERENCE TABTE


In order to faciliate the bearing design, the dimension list has been calculated for various dimensions. It gives the

N =
n =
0t =

followingvalues:

vertical load
maximum number of elementary neoprene layers
maximum rotation for elementary layer

Calculation have been done with following shear strain limitations

tNS3G<24 Kglcm2 &


su<t,5GstZKg/cr,

tmS150Kg/cm2

The Technical Bulletin no4 restricts only the total shear strain ( tN + 1H + to < 5 G )
Consequently it is possible to increase one of the values here above if another one is reduced.

EXAMPLE OF USE OF THE DIMENSION REFERENCE TABT.E


N

.
.

VERTICAL LOAD ( tons)


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF IATTRS

N max

-o*12

( om = 140 Kg/cmr)

(ts;

at + !L

3)

naximum

ru=12Kglcmz
othervaluesare

'The

possible: N = 164 t ( om = 1i0 Kg/cm2 )


ut = zto'3 ( ru = 93 Kg/cm2 I

remaining 0,1 G are reserved

to oH

rN.=
because

shear strain which must be checked

25,7

K/.r'>

N+

1o < 4,5 c'

PLAN AREA

AND

. DIM

VERTIC.T{I LOAD (Tons)

- II{AXIMIJM NUMBER OF I"AYERII


(ts-Z) t-10 (rs-3) t-t2 (ts-3)

SURFACE

axb

mm

mm

cm2

100

ri0

150

125

1i0

197,5

100

200

100

230

125

t-t

ll

MAXIMI'M ROTATION
1/1000 rd

t-8

t-10

t-12

79,2

30

43,2

72,8

10,2

8,5

12,3

lg,2

27,6

200

t4

ll

2
2

43,2

12,8

lg,2
lg,2

30

T6

9,3
L0,7

30

43,2

200

230
250

79,2

15,4

12,8

12,3

19,2

27,6

125

225

28],2

22,6

l8

15,l

12,3

19,2

27,6

150

200

300

25,7

2t

t7

8,5

13,3

19,2

125

zra

312,5

26

20,8

17,4

12,3

lg,2

27,6

t75
t25

200

350

32,6

26,1

21,7

6,3

9,8

14,1

375

33,1

26,5

22

12,3

lg,2

27,6

1t0

375
450

36,5

29,2

24,3

8,5

L3,3

19,2

47,7

38,1

31,9

4,9

7,5

10,8

225

250
225
250

562,5

66,6

53,3

44,4

5'9

8,5

200

300

6oo

70

6o

t0

3,9
4,9

10,8

200

300

175

350

612,5

71,4

,7,1

47,6

6,3

7,5
g,g

200

350

700

89

71,2

59,3

4,9

7,5

10,8

250

300

750

100

8t

70

3,1

4,9

6,9

230

805

1,11,7

gg,4

74,5

8,1

900

124,6

93,1

7,5

10,8

300

330

990

149,5

99,7
124

3,8
4,9

5,7

200

350
450

104

2,1

250

45A

1125

169,7

144,6

120,5

3,1

3,3
4,9

6,9

350

350
450

1225

193,7

171,5

t43

1,5

2,4

3,5

330

1485

't)',

222,7

199,5

1,8

2,7

300

t00r

1500

225

225

180

,2,1

3,3

{,9

350

500

1750

262,5

262,5

240,2

1,6

2,4

3,4

350

525

1837

275,6

275,6

257,2

7,6

2,4

3,9

280

700

1960

294

294

261,3

2,4

5,5

425

500

2125

319,7

10

318,7

319,7

1,1

3,8
1,7

450

i00

2250

337,5

i1

337,5

337,5

4,9

1,5

2,1

350

700

2450

367,5

367,5

367,5

1,5

2,4

3,5

465

650

3022

453

1l

413

453

0,9

1,4

45A

1000

4500

675

11

675

675

4.95

1,48

2,13

t00

900

4500

675

675

10

675

0,8

1,2

1,7

700

700

4900

735

t2
t7

1,4

0,4

0,6

0,8

900

1000

9000

1350

1350

18

735
13t0

11

))

735

t5

0,2

0,4

0,5

700

1400

9800

1470

t7

1470

r4

t470

11

0,4

0,6

0,9

14,1

4,9

2,4

SIANDARD BEARING SIZES


NORMAI
(for min O > 3,0

N/mm2)

Bearing sizes shown in brackets are subject to limitations.

Plrn

Thlckness

atea

Thlckness

Number of

of rubber

rubber layers
n

d
mm

Itrln

agl

Thlctness of
rubber layers

Thlckness of
steel plates

ltrIn

ltrtn

.1
100

100

100

150

14

10

27

15

28

2U

(35)

(2n

(4)

(42)

(30)

6)

14

l0
l5

I
)

2t

150

200

28

20

(3r)

(25)

(42)

(30)

(4)
(5)

2l

l5

28

20

35
42

2i

30

(49)
(56)
(63)

G5)

(6)
(7)
(8)

(40)
(4

t)

i
I

250

30

2t

x
2@ x
a 200

300
100

4L

29

200

200

52

37

(63)

(45)
(53)
(61)

6)

41

29

52

37
45

(53)
(61)
(69)

(6)

o4)
(8t)

t
250
I

250

400

63

(74)

(85)

(90
4l

29_

37)

350

0)
(8)
I --.

'a'
]
.

45-'

5,'t."
6

85

,3
6l

(90

(69)

(107)
(118)

(71)

(8)
(9)

(85)

(to1

54

38
49

69
84

6o

99

7t

(l l4)

(82)
(93)
(104)

(7)

74

0)

,52)

'6{

(6)

(129)
(144)

,. /-

..

I'

,-\.) l/ -^t -*4


/t

(_

(8)
(9)

(;
; .!

STANDARD BEARING SIZES

HEAVY DUTY
"
(for min O > 5,0 N/mmz)
Bearing sizes shown in brackets are subject
Plen

ate.

Thlcknesr

Thlctnesc
of rubber

T
trtln

trtmomtrlln-mlnmm
35O

450

54

69

8{

{00 x i00

400

45o

600

99

7r

(114)
(129)
(144)

(82)
(93)
(104)

600

114

82

6
7

(129)

(l{4)

(93)
(104)

(8)
(9)

(159)

o15)

(10)

700

600

800

700

800

900 x 900
a 900

(174)

(126)

15)

54

,8
49
60

114

82
93

l)

(l

3
4
5

7r

6
7
8
9

144

104

(1t9)

(115)
(126)

(10)
(11)

037)
048)

(l

2)

(13)

70
90

5o

b)

110

80
95

5
6
7

150
170

110

(190)
(210)
(210)

(140)
(155)
(170)

125

(9)
(10)
(1

l)

t0

110
130

65
80
95

1t0

110

170

12'

70
90

(270)

6
7
8

82
93

(9)

(2i0)
800

7r

(10)

(210)
(230)

3
4

(1

190

800

38
49
60

(104)

lr0

700

(159)

(174)
(189)
(204)

(l{4)

tzg

600

5
6

77

69
84
99

79

6
7
8
9

140

(l5r)

(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)

(170)
(185)
(200)
59
77
95

148

113

r%

149

6
8

(217)
(240)
(263)
(286)
(309)

(167)
(185)
(203)
(221)
(239)

79

(9)
(l 0)

(l

1)

(1 2)

(13)
1

125
118

59
77
95

l13

r7l

131

194

149
167

8
9

102

277

(240)
(263)
(286)
(309)

4
5

(l8t)
(20j)
(221)

l5

125

102

(7)
(8)
(9)

lD

x
o i00

3
4

54

Thlckness or

rubber layers

Th
lhlctness oof
steel pletes
3

mm
6

38
49
50

54

to iimitations.

lt

59
84

114

100

38
49
60

69
84
99

450

Nunber of
rubber layen

(lo)
(l

t)

(1 2)
(1 3)

Q39)

18

P.T. Ngagel Citrarubberindo


AMERICAN STANDARDS
Extract from the AASHTO, Highway Bridges, Section 25
The elastomer portion of the elastomeric compound will be a 100 percent natural rubber meeting the requirements
of Table A or 100 percent virgin chloroprene meeting the requirement of Table B.
Laminates shall be rolled steel sheets embedded by a minimum

of 3,2 mm of elastomer.

TABI,X A
Phystcal Propertles

60
50
Duro Duro

D2240

Hardness

D412

Tensile strengh, min, psi (MPa)

50ri

ASTM

Standard

ztm

(17.237)

Ultimate elongation, min %

450

70

Duro

6015 70t,
2500 2500
(17.237) Q7.237)
400
300

Heat Reslstaoce
Change in durometer hardness, max. points

+10

+10

+10

Chenge in tensile strength, max. %


Chenge in ultimate elongation, max. %

_25

-zt

-25

-25
-25

25

?5

No

No

No

Cracks

Cracks

Cracks

Dr73
70 hr.

G1'8F

-25

(69.9 c)

Compresslon Set
D395

Method B

22 hours

158 F (69.9

c),

r,ilax. vo

25 pphm ozone in air by volume,

Dl149

20%strainl00FtZF
Q7.7 C r. I C), 48 hours
mounting procedure D518, Procedure A

Adheslon
Bond made during vulcanization,
D429,8

Iba. per inch (kglm)

Iow Temperature
D746
Procedure B

Brittleness at

40

40

40

o14)

o14)

014)

Test

40 F

(- 40 C)

No

No

Pailure

Failure

No
Failure

50
Duro

60
Duro

Duro

50t5

6015
70r,
25A0 2t00
(17.237) Q7.237)
35A
300

TABLE B
ASTM

Standard

Physical Propertles

D2240

Hardness
Tensile strengh, min, psi (MPa)

D41,2

z1N
(17.237)

Ultimate elongation, min

400

9o

70

Heat f,.eslstance
Change in durometer hardness, max. points

+15

+15

Chenge in tensile strength, max. Yo


Chenge in ultimate elongation, max. /o

_15

-15
-40

D573
70 hr.

G158F
(1oo c)

-{u

+15

-lt

-{0

Compresslon Set
I

D395
I

2lZF (100 C), max. /o

Method B

22 hours G

Dl149

20%strainl00Fl2F

100 pphm ozone in air by volume,

G7.7 Ct 1C), 100 hours


mounting procedure D518, Procedure A

35

3'

No

No

No

Cracks

Cracks

Cracks

Adheslon
Bond made during vulcanization,
D429,8

Iba. per inch (kglm)

40

40

40

ot4)

(o14)

(714)

No

No

Failure

Failure

No
Failure

Iow Temperature Test


D746
Procedure B

Brittleness at

40 F (- 40 C)

P.T. Ngagel Citrarubherindo


BRITISH STANDARDS
The following summarized specifications are taken from BS 5400

Section 9-1/9-2

1983.

ETASTOMER PROPERTIES
RUBBER
PROPERTY

.
r

Tensile strength, minimum

CHLOROPRENE

15,5 N/mm2

15,5 N/mmz

Ultimate elongation

45 IRHD to 55 IRHD
55 IRHD tO 55 INHO
66 mHo to 75 rRHD

NAIURAL

Ageing resistance

450

o/o

400

Vo

400

o/o

350

o/o

300

Vo

300

o/o

Maximum change from initial values


15 IRHD

10 IRHD

Hardness

Tensile Strength

15

o/o

Ultimate elongation

20

o/o

30

o/o

Compression set maximum

15 o/o
40 o/o
35

o/o

TYPICAT ELASTOMER MODUTI


NOMINAL HARDMSS

SHEAR MODUTUS

BULK MODI]LUS

Eb

IRHD

0,5 N/mm2

'O IRHD
50

0,9 N/mm2

70 IRHD

1,2 N/mm2

2000 N/mm2

(IRHD = International Rubber Hardness Degrees)

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS AND REQUffi,EMENTS (Extract)


Elastomer : The elastomer used
as the raw polymer.

in the manufacture shall conuin either natural rubber or chloroprene rubber

No, reclaimed or ground vulcanizate ruhher shall be used.


Bondirrg

of elastomer : Prior to the bonding process, the steel plates shall be freed from all

contamination

by a chemical or mechanical method, Bonding shall be carried out during wlcanization. A laminated bearing
shall be moulded as a single unit under pressure and heat.
There is no relative movement between elastomer and reinforcement at an ifiertace.

of an internal steel plate shall not be less than 2 mm. The cover of
elastomer shall be a minimum of 4,5 mm to all edges and a minimum of 2 mm to the contact surfaces,
Steel reinforcing plates : the thickness

Maximum design strain

At any point"in the bearing the sum of the nominal strains due to all load effects should not exceed : 5,0

10

rr\

ot

z
o
U

rll
zrll

EI

cr)

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tr

rll

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o o
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(r)

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cr)

rrl

;Ir

t<

&

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trl

(,

a
F(
fr

Ia
&

r.ll

F{

&

z z

rrl

o
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\o

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E
E
&

ct)

(J
!(

GI

ac)
I

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5I

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(,

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(.)

(,q

r..\r^l\Q .<li

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XXX
(!(!63
H
a2.aE

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rr)

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w;
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oo

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oo

rh
k(!
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tr8

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c\
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rh

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L

o.

o
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q)

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zo

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11

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@
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()^
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!x
<h

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-<f,

<h

a(J
/^O
c.r
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N^
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o.;
0)(!
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ooN^
L.,, (\.r

r-

co

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ca)

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rno
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Frr

oo-

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o-iE
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H (!

r--,;6o
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Ubo';

.=EF6 =
SIEt:tr

INDOMSIAN STANDARDS
The following specifications are taken frorn the SII.2081-87

60+10
.

TENSILE

ELONGATION

AGEING RESISTANCE

STRENGTH ...

I'-

Min 15 N/mm2

MIN

4OO %

Maxirrum cbange frorn initial ualws


15

Vo

20

o/o

.....15

Vo

Tensile strengtb
......

Elongation

'

COMPRESSION SET MN(IMUM

'ozoNE
25 PPHM Ozone in air by wlume

20 % strain 40 C, 48 boun

SOI,E DISTRIBUTOR

no crack

..........

II

P.T. RUBBER TECH

NDONESIA

Jttfirte OIfice:

Surabaya Offlce :

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Jl. Biru Laut X Kav 10

Jl. Jagir Sidomukti Lebar No 8


Telp : 62-3L-8490619, 849rc92
Fax : 62-31-8435651
Surabaya 60244 - INDONESIA

Telp. : (021) 8508523 -

Fax

8508526

: (021) 8508526

Cawang Jakarta

P.T. IIgageI Citrarut&erin{e


Telp :
SPECI/TLIZED

62
IN

31

RUBBER

Fax-

8490619, 849LO92
MTTNSTOP

o JOIM FILTER

RUBBER

RUBBER BEAR]NG

FENDER

'

PAD

RUBBER

'

62

-$1-843 5651

EXPANSION JOINT

STRIP

'

PVC WATXRSTOP