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ECIECI
Telecom
Ltd.Ltd.
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LOS, LOF, and LOP alarms will make the whole signal unusable.

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In the next slides well go through the SIO internals one by one
OM16_1xx1= optical module for STM16, 1 port, number 1. if there were another
module- it would be- OM16_1xx2
OT16 1-1= optical transceiver for STM16 on the first module, the first port.
SPIO= SDH physical I/O

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1. Channel wavelength- exists for only tuned modules


2. Assigned & Actual Application Code values should be the same on both the
transmitter and receiver.
3. The first letter refers to the receiver:
A -> APD receiver, which is highly sensitive. P-> a PIN diode receiver, which is less
sensitive
The second letter refers to the transmitter:
V (very long-100km), B (booster- 120km), I (inta-office 2km), S (short 40km), L
(long 80km), A, X
the number refer to the wavelength : 3- 1310 5- 1550
4. Low-rate cards will have other possible values (like S3, S5 and more)

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Laser Bias- the current needed for the laser to transmit at the level of Tx Power (in the ps
shown- 21 Mili Ampere needed to transmit in 2.1 dBm) as the laser bias level is higherthe transceiver is older (its life about to end).
Rx Power: actual power level currently received (at the edge of the card).
Tx Power: actual power level currently transmitted (at the edge of the card).

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1.

Some of the alarms connected to the optical parameters window:

2.

Card failure- the card has a general hardware failure.

3.

Low Temperature- temperature is below 0C.

4.

High Temperature- the equipment temperature is high (65C or higher).

5.

High/Low RX Power- the received power is higher/lower than the maximum/minimum allowed value.

6.

High/Low TX Power- the transmitted power is higher/lower than the maximum/minimum allowed
value

7.

Laser Bias High- the laser bias current is becoming low (so the current needed is high), signaling the
end of life of the device.

8.

BIT failed- an equipment fault that is more severe than the one indicated by the BIT Degraded alarm.
This alarm results from:

9.

BIT Degraded- an equipment fault that may affect functionality. BIT code information identifies the
module within a card reporting a problem.

10. BIT Slightly Degraded- an equipment fault that does not affect functionality.
All 3 BIT alarms can result from:
A problem in the card or the HLXC/XIO connector to the card
A misplaced or faulty HLXC/XIO matrix
11. Wavelength Mismatch- the expected configured wavelength differs from the actual value supported by
the optical module. This alarm usually occurs during installation or maintenance (if replacing a module
with the wrong type).
12. Application Code Mismatch- the expected configured application code differs from the actual value
supported by the optical module (application code defined in the module info).

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1. Default Laser: can be off- no transmission at all, on- transmission available. (using
Off when maintenance actions are made on the OPI)
2. ALS setting: When On, laser transmission on is shut off when LOS is detected on
fiber upon which it is transmitting.
Options: On or Off (no ALS)
3. Laser pulse sent every 70 seconds to verify that fiber is functioning. Duration of this
pulse is 2 seconds but can be increased to maximum 10 seconds.
It is recommended to increase ALS duration when equipment on fiber (for example,
amplifiers) can add delays that renders the default duration undetectable. Options: 210, default 2.

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Alarms that can be received in SPIO Snk are LOS (loss of signal) and LOD (loss of data)
LOS- The LOS alarm indicates a significant drop in the received signal level. This
error may be caused by a broken or disconnected fiber or by a faulty optical
transmitter.
LOD- the optical LOS is not detected and no signal transitions exist. This alarm
applies only to OPS (optical physical sections) objects on TRP and SIO64F cards.
It may be received when:
A. The received frequency does not match the expected frequency.
B. The received protocol does not match the expected protocol.
C. The received signal does not include FEC in the optical layer, but FEC was
expected.

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1. TTI- the value sent in J0 of the SDH overhead bytes.


In ASON networks this value needs to be set to default.
2. To set it to default- in the card internals view right-click RS-SRC and choose Set RS
TTI to Default
3. Syncoms dont read J bytes, so when working in network with syncoms- disable J
bytes.

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1. LOF- loss of frame (from A1 and A2) happens when there is timing problem or
wrong bit rate.
LOF state occurs when the OOF state exists for a specified time in microseconds.
The LOF state clears when Alignment -an in-frame condition- exists continuously for
a specified time in microseconds. The time for detection and clearance is normally 3
milliseconds
2. TIM- trace identification mismatch (from J0)
3. BBENE - Background Block Errors Near End (from B1)
4. ESNE- Errored Seconds Near End (from B1)
5. SESNE- Severely Errored Seconds Near End (from B1)
6. The near end errors (BBENE, ESNE, SESNE) are Quality of Service Alarms
counters, each counter has its own purpose.
7. For every counter type two counters are used- for 15min and for 24h, when each
counter (independently) expire it automatically reset and start over.
Events are counted in both counters (15min and 24h)
when the counter threshold is crossed an alarm Is triggered.
8. BBE- counts the number of error in the frame by using B1 BIP check
9. ES- counts the number of seconds which in errors were found (so in BBE counter
the value can be 8 but in the ES only one..)
10. SES- counts the number of seconds which in a high number of errors were found,
(high number- if more than 30% of the frames received in the second were errored)
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1. The near end errors (BBENE, ESNE, SESNE) are Quality of Service Alarms
counters, each counter has its own purpose.
2. For every counter type two counters are used- for 15min and for 24h, when each
counter (independently) expire it automatically reset and start over.
Events are counted in both counters (15min and 24h)
when the counter threshold is crossed an alarm Is triggered.
3. BBE- counts the number of error in the frame by using B1 BIP check, Every errored
block promotes this counter by 1.
4. ES- counts the number of seconds which in errors were found (so in BBE counter
the value can be 8 but in the ES only one..)
5. SES- counts the nuber of seconds which in a high number of errors were found, (high
number- if more than 30% of the frames received in the second were errored) If more
then 30% of blocks are errored, during a second.
6. UAS- Start to count after 10 consecutive SES.
7. OFS- Reported if at least one OOF (out of frame) defect occurs during a second
OOF- the system enters this state when several consecutive SDH frames are received
with errored framing patterns.
8. Those counters exist in the levels of: RS (B1), MS (B2), VC-4 (B3) and VC-12 (bit 3
in V5)

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Make sure a specific transmission object is selected- otherwise thresholds will be


unavailable for choosing
It is shown for RS sink, but can be preformed for every object that have counters.

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This window acts like the alarm severity window- profiles can be edited and propagated.
When editing a profile note the valid values field
When the value of a PM counter is higher than the high threshold, an alarm is reported.

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This slide refers to the RS sink, but can be performed on every object that has counters.

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Internal - the graph option is not recommended since the graph is full of bugs, and users
usually dont use it.

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The history dava is available only 24 hours prior to current time

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1. EXC= excessive
2. DEG= degraded
3. BER= Bit Error Rate
4. Two different levels, each triggers an alarm when the threshold is crossed.
The number (3-5 for EXC and 6-9 for DEG) is the power of 1/10- if 4 is choose for
EXC then the threshold for this alarm is 1/10000 (1/104) if its crossed an EXC
alarm is triggered.
5. DEG is first- since it has lower BER (1/1000000 at the minimum).
6. After that threshold is crossed if an EXC alarm shows- it means that a higher BER
exists (more than 1 error for 100000 bits or last) and worse alarm is triggered

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1. AIS- alarm identification signal (K2)


2. DEG minor- only 1:1000000 errors, EXC major- 1:1000
3. RDI- remote defect indication (K2)
4. MSPL failure (K1)
5. UAT- unavailable time = 10 consecutive SESs (severely errored seconds). This
counter reset the SES counter when its activated (if 14 consecutive seconds of SES
are detected- then SES=0 UAT=14 )
6. BBEfe, ESFE, SESFE- far end (received at the far element and reported back by M1
byte)

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AU-4/VC-4 sinks- which are Xconnected to the AU-4 source. It can be this AU-4s VC-4,
or other AU-4.
The way to connect 2 sinks to 1 source is by creating a protected XC, and the protecting
sink will appear as well.
To the sink of the AU-4 we wont see a XC.

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TTI- from J1.


TSL Expected- Expected signal label and path status information: TUG Structure, Test
Signal, Equipped non-specified, 34M/45M, 140M, ATM, Undefined, VC-AIS (from C2
byte).

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1.
2.

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AU-4 alarms can be triggered by overhead bytes of AU pointers and VC OH bytes.


AU/TU AIS-The AU/TU-AIS indicates that a failure has occurred upstream of the equipment sending
the AIS. It indicates that another alarm exists before the equipment sending the AIS.
3. LOP- loss of pointer- invalid pointers were received due to an equipment failure, mismatch in signal
mapping, or timing problem. (from H1/2)
4. RDI- remote defect indication- a far end sands signal indicating failure condition- (from G1)
5. TIM- trace identifier mismatch- mismatch caused by the incorrect provisioning of the expected trace
or a misconnection (from J1)
6. SSF- server signal fail- the SSF alarm indicates a failure in the adaptation function due to an AU-AIS
or AU-LOP. Well see this alarm a lot when forcing AIS
7. UNEQ- unequipped- an unequipped signal has been detected (This error may be caused by a
disconnected trail) in byte C2 of the overhead bytes.
8. PLM- Payload Label Mismatch- The PLM alarm indicates a mismatch in the payload signal label in
byte C2 of the overhead bytes. As with the UNEQ or TIM alarms, the cause for this alarm may be a
wrong connection (a missing XC or a crossed fiber).
9. LOM- Loss Of Multiframe- a loss of multiframe alignment on the incoming signal. This alarm is
triggered when a loss of synchronization is detected on byte H4 (bit 7, 8) in a superframe sequence.
This alarm can result from a faulty card or connected test equipment that doesnt support multiframe.
10. LOA- Loss Of Alignment- when having incoming concatenation signal- the VC-4 has exceeded its
allocated RAM for delay compensation
11. LOMC- Loss Of Multiframe Concatenated- a loss of multiframe alignment related to concatenated
trails.
To clear LOMC- Verify that the cross-connected VC-4 source is a member of the concatenated group.
12. PJ 15 Min- indicates that the pointer justification count exceeds a predetermined value.

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Since we deal with the AU-4 source- the alarms are the XC alarms.

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1.

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If a problem occurs on the protection path in a protected ring, then either a Protection Path Degraded
or Protection Path Failed alarm is generated.
The service still flows properly, but with a problem on the protection path in the ring.
In contrast, Service Degraded and Service Failed alarms are generated when there is a degradation or
failure, respectively, in the traffic signal on an unprotected trail.

2.

By default, all service alarms are masked, (meaning they only appear in the invisible alarms list and
are not reported in the Current Alarms window) To automatically report these alarms in the current
alarms list, change the Monitor Mask option setting for them to Monitored.

3.

Protection Path Degraded - the protection path of a trail transmitting traffic (which is currently not
used for the active traffic) is degraded, meaning that the active path is transmitting without any
degradation.
If there is a DEG alarm on a path that is part of a protected XC, this alarm is triggered. (reminderDEG is a threshold cross alarm of high number of errors)

4.

Protection Path Failed - the protection path of a trail transmitting traffic (which is currently not used
for the active traffic) has failed.

5.

Service Degraded - degradation in the traffic signal. This alarm may also indicate that a XC that is
part of a trail is transmitting traffic, but the traffic is recognized as degraded.
If the service is on an unprotected path, this alarm indicates a degraded traffic signal somewhere along
the path.
If the service is on a protected path, then it indicates one of two possible problems: either the nonactive
path has failed, or the service on the active path is degraded.

6.

Service Failed - both the main and protection paths are not transmitting traffic.

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