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F321

Acids, bases & salts

ACIDS, BASES & SALTS


ACIDS

Release H+ ions (protons) in aqueous solution

Hydrochloric

HCl

Nitric

HNO3 >

H+(aq)

Sulphuric

H2SO4 >

2H+(aq)

Ethanoic

CH3COOH(aq)

BASES

React with acids by accepting H+ ions (protons) to form salts

ALKALIS

>

H+(aq)

Cl(aq)
+

NO3(aq)

SO42-(aq)

CH3COO(aq)

carbonates

K2CO3

hydrogencarbonates

NaHCO3

metal oxides

MONOPROTIC

1 replaceable H

MONOPROTIC

1 replaceable H

DIPROTIC

2 replaceable Hs

H+(aq)

A WEAK ACID

MgCO3

CuCO3

MgO

ZnO

CuO

metal hydroxides

NaOH

KOH

Ca(OH)2

ammonia

NH3

SOLUBLE BASES which release OH (hydroxide ions) in aqueous solution

Na2O + H2O(l) > 2Na+(aq) + 2OH(aq)

Soluble metal oxides


Soluble metal hydroxides

NaOH > Na+(aq) + OH(aq)


sodium hydroxide

KOH > K+(aq) + OH(aq)


potassium hydroxide

Aqueous ammonia

SALTS

NH3 (aq) + H2O(l)

NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)

Formed from the reaction between acids and bases


hydrochloric acid
nitric acid
sulphuric acid

makes
makes
makes

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2008

CHLORIDES
NITRATES
SULPHATES / HYDROGENSULPHATES

F321

Acids, bases & salts

SALT FORMATION
A salt is produced when the H+ ion of an acid is replaced by...

Formation

a metal ion

the ammonium ion NH4+

or

SUMMARY
Acids react with...
metals
oxides of metals
hydroxides of metals
carbonates
hydrogencarbonates
ammonia

Water of
crystallisation

to give

a salt + hydrogen
a salt + water
a salt + water
a salt + water + carbon dioxide
a salt + water + carbon dioxide
an ammonium salt

loosely bonded water molecules attached to salts


CuSO4.5H2O

FeSO4.7H2O

Na2CO3.10H2O

the water can be driven off by heating


e.g.

CuSO4.5H2O(s)

>

HYDRATED copper(II) sulphate


BLUE CRYSTALS

CuSO4(s)

5H2O(l)

ANHYDROUS copper(II) sulphate


WHITE POWDER

PROPERTIES AND REACTIONS OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID


HCl > H+(aq)

Hydrochloric acid is a typical acid; in dilute aqueous solution

+ Cl(aq)

Hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas; it is a poor conductor of


electricity because there are no free electrons or ions present. It
has no action on dry litmus paper because there are no
aqueous hydrogen ions present.
In water, the covalent hydrogen chloride molecules dissociate
into ions. The solution now conducts electricity showing ions are
present. For each hydrogen chloride molecule that dissociates
one hydrogen ion and one chloride ion are produced. The
solution turns litmus paper red because of the
presence of the H+(aq) ion.

hydrogen chloride
hydrochloric acid

Appearance
colourless gas
colourless soln.

The dissociation of hydrogen chloride


into ions when put in water

Bonding and formula


covalent molecule HCl(g)
aqueous ions
HCl(aq)
KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2008

Conductivity
poor
good

Dry litmus
no reaction
goes red

F321

Acids, bases & salts

THE REACTIONS OF ACIDS


Metals

magnesium +
Mg(s)
Mg(s)

hydrochloric acid

+
+

>

2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)

>

Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + H2(g)

>

Mg2+(aq) +

Mg(s) + 2H+(aq)

copper(II) oxide +
CuO(s)

hydrochloric acid

2HCl(aq)

>

sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid


NaOH(aq)

HCl(aq)

copper(II) chloride + water


CuCl2(aq)

Carbonates

calcium + hydrochloric
carbonate
acid
CaCO3(s) +

2HCl(aq)

H2O(l)

H2O(l)

> sodium chloride + water

>

H+(aq) + OH(aq)

H2(g)

H2(g)

NaCl(aq)

Na+(aq) + OH(aq) + H+(aq) + Cl(aq) > Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)


cancel ions

> Cu2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + H2O(l)

O2- + 2H+(aq) >

cancel ions

MgCl2(aq)

>

Cu2+O2-(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)

Alkalis

magnesium chloride + hydrogen

2HCl(aq)

cancel ions

Basic
Oxides

>

>

>

>

H2O(l)
H2O(l)

H2O(l)

calcium
chloride

CaCl2(aq) +

carbon
dioxide

+ water

CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Ca2+CO32-(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) > Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


cancel ions

Hydrogencarbonates

CO32- + 2H+(aq) >

CO2(g) + H2O(l)

H+(aq) + HCO3 >

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CO2(g)

H2O(l)

F321

Q.1

Q.2

Acids, bases & salts

Write the formulae for...


a) zinc chloride

b) zinc sulphate

c) magnesium sulphate

d) magnesium nitrate

e) aluminium sulphate

f) potassium carbonate

g) ammonium chloride

h) ammonium sulphate

Write balanced equations for the reactions between...


a) zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid

b) zinc and dilute sulphuric acid

c) magnesium oxide and dilute sulphuric acid

d) zinc oxide and dilute nitric acid

e) potassium hydroxide and dilute hydrochloric acid

f) potassium hydroxide and dilute sulphuric acid

g) magnesium carbonate and dilute sulphuric acid

h) ammonia solution and dilute hydrochloric acid

i) ammonia solution and dilute sulphuric acid

Q.3

Calculate the percentage of water (by mass) in the following hydrated salts;
a) CuSO4.5H2O

b) Na2CO3.10H2O

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2008