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7/18/2016

http://smtom.lecture.ub.ac.id/
Password:sm-plantnut

https://syukur16tom.wordpress.com/

PLANT NUTRITION
LECTURE 1:
INTRODUCTION

We are made for


loving. If we dont
love, we will be like
plants without water.
Desmond Tutu
http://www.ebook3000.com/Marschner-s-Mineral-Nutrition-of-Higher-Plants-Second-Edition_57063.html

Do you see any problem here?

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How about here?

These are my rules


Come on time ( 10)
with a proper dress
Get into the lecture
room, dont hang
around
Use English in my
lecture and exam (7599%)

These are my
philosophies
Turn your enemies to
be your friends
Turn your useless time
to be useful time
Make big problems to
be small problems
Simplify the systems or
problems

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STRUCTURED TASK
1.

Dictionary

2.

My Dictionary

3.

Take your English dictionary every time I give my


lecture
Buy a writing book (100-pages) and name it MY
DICTIONARY
Write down all English words with Indonesian
meanings that you do not know yet in my lectures

Paper

Write a paper about Plant Nutrition


Take from published papers in Journal (internet)

Max. 3 pages (single space)

EXAMPLE

1.

The effect of Nitrogen Supply on Maize Growth


Siti
Abstract
Introduction

what is it about (General description)


What is the problem
what is its importance

2. Nitrogen and Maize Growth


3. Conclusion
4. References (3 references at least)

http://www.dina.dk/efita-conf/program/papers.htm

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
Students on completion of this course would be able
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

to identify chemical elements necessary for


plant growth which are called nutrient elements
or nutrients
to identify symptoms of nutrient deficiency and
toxicity
to explain the mechanism of nutrient uptake
to explain the function of nutrient elements in
plant growth and development
to estimate the amount of nutrients required for
the optimum of plant growth and development

PRESENTATTION FLOW
Competency
I. INTRODUCTION

Definition
Our Challenge

II. NUTRIENT ELEMENTS

Nutrient Classification
Function Of Nutrients

III. HISTORY OF PLANT NUTRITION

Greek Mythology Records


The Invention of Agriculture

IV. THE LAW OF THE MINIMUM

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I. INTRODUCTION
1. Is it important to study plant nutrition ?
a. DEFITION
Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical
elements that are necessary for plant growth and
development.
The study is focused on the relationship between
nutrients and plant growth that includes

the type of nutrients required for the optimum of plant


growth
the mechanism of nutrient uptake
the function of nutrients in plant metabolism, and
the negative effects of nutrient deficiency and toxicity

INTRODUCTION

b. OUR CHALLENGE
Thomas Malthus (1766 -1834): An Essay on the
Principle of Population (1798)
Population, when unchecked, increases in a
geometrical ratio, and subsistence increases only in
an arithmetical ratio
Geometric sequence : 2, 4, 8, 16, 32
Arithmetic sequence : 2, 5, 8, 11, 14
This means that population growth would outstrip food
supply, causing great human suffering
In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient
in food
The Green Revolution (high-yield crops and energy
intensive agriculture) brought about remarkable
increases in crop production.

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INTRODUCTION

How to Feed the World in 2050

Today, per capita production has now slowed and


appears to be declining.

By 2050 the worlds population will reach 9.1 billion, 34


percent higher than today. Nearly all of this population
increase will occur in developing countries
Annual cereal production will need to rise to about 3
billion tonnes from 2.1 billion today and annual meat
production will need to rise by over 200 million tonnes
to reach 470 million tonnes

To increase food production, we can

farm more land, or


increase the yield from each unit of land

Our Challenge

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Rice Production

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Are there other hopes that can be expected to solve the problems
raised by Thomas Malthus?
Food Availability

Quantity

4 (Precision Agr
Technology)

3 (Biotechnology)
2 (Green Revolution
Technology)
1 (Traditional
technology)

Demand

Time

Potential Yield-limiting factors


CLIMATIC FACTORS
Precipitation
Quantity
Distribution
Air Temperature
Relative Humidity
Light
Quantity
Intensity
Duration
Altitude/Latitude
Wind
Velocity
Distribution
CO2 concentration

SOIL FACTORS
Organic matter
Texture
Structure
Cation exchange capacity
Base saturation
Slope and Topography
Soil Temperature
Soil management factors
Tillage
Drainage
Others
Depth (root sone)

CROP FACTORS
Crop species/variety
Planting date
Seedling rate and geometry
Row spacing
Seed quality
Evapotranspiration
Water availability
Nutrition
Pests
Insects
Diseases
Weeds
Harvest efficiency

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The future lies on increasing yields which


are dependent on

genetic improvement
farm management (water , nutrients etc.)

2. NUTRIENT ELEMENTS
1. Some elements are essential
There are over 100 chemical elements, yet only 17
are essential for plant growth. To be classified as
essential, the element needs to meet the following
criteria:
1.

2.

3.

4.

The plant cannot complete its life cycle (seed to new


seed) without it.
The elements function cannot be replaced by
another element.
The element is directly involved in the plants growth
and reproduction.
Most plants need this element to survive

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2. Classification of Nutrient Elements

Classification based on the required quantity


Classification

Element

Macronutrients

N, P, S, K,
Mg & Ca

Micronutrients
Micronutrients
and beneficial
element

Fe, Mn, Zn,


Cu, B, Mo &
Cl
Na, Si, Co
I&V

Higher
plants
+
+
+/-

Lower
plants
+ (except
Ca for
fungi
+ (except
B for fungi
+/+/-

The primary nutrientsnitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)


The secondary nutrientscalcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S)

Classification based on biochemical function


Group 1
1. N
2. S

Group 2
3. P

4. Si
5. B

Nutrients that are part of carbon compounds


Constituent of amino acids, amides, proteins, nucleic acids,
nucleoticles, coenzymes, hexosamines, etc.
Component of cysteine, cystine, methionine. Constituent of
lipoic acid, coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, glutathione,
biotin, 5'-adenylylsulfate, and T-phosphoadenosine.
Nutrients that are important in energy storage or structural
integrity
Component of sugar phosphates, nucleic acids, nucleoticles,
coenzymes, phospholipids, phytic acid, etc. Has a key role in
reactions that involve ATP.
Deposited as amorphous silica in cell walls. Contributes to cell
wall mechanical properties, including rigidity and elasticity.
Complexes with mannitol, mannan, polymannuronic acid, and
other constituents of cell walls. Involved in cell elongation and
nucleic acid metabolism.

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Group 3
6. K

Nutrients that remain in ionic form


Required as a cofactor for more than 40 enzymes. Principal
cation in establishing cell turgor and maintaining cell
electroneutrality.

7. Ca

Constituent of the middle lamella of cell walls. Required as a


cofactor by some enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of ATP and
phospholipids. Acts as a second messenger in metabolic
regulation.

8. Mg

Required by many enzymes involved in phosphate transfer.


Constituent of the chlorophyll molecule.
Required for the photosynthetic reactions involved in 02
evolution.

9. Cl

10. Mn

Required for activity of some clehydrogenases, decarboxylases,


kinases, oxidases, and peroxidases. Involved with other cationactivated enzymes and photosynthetic 02 evolution.

11. Na

Involved with the regeneration of phosphoenolpyruvate in C4


and plants. Substitutes for potassium in some functions.

Group 4
12. Fe

Nutrients that are involved in redox reactions


Constituent of cytochromes and nonheme iron proteins
involved in photosynthesis, N2 fixation, and respiration.

13. Zn

Constituent of alcohol clehydrogenase, glutamic


clehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase, etc.

14. Cu

Component of ascorbic acid oxidase, tyrosinase,


monoamine oxiclase, uricase, cytochrome oxidase,
phenolase, laccase, and plastocyanin.

15. Ni

Constituent of urease. In N2-fixing bacteria, constituent of


hydrogenases.

16. Mo

Constituent of nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, and


xanthine clehydrogenase.

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3. Nutrient Forms Absorbed by Plants


Cations (positively
charged ions)
NH4+ (Ammonium)
K + (Potassium)
Ca2+ (Calcium)
Mg2+ (Magnesium)
Fe2+ & Fe3+ (Iron)
Mn2+ (Manganese)
Zn2+ (Zinc)
Cu2+ (Copper)

Annions (negatively
charged ions)
PO43-, HPO42- &
H2PO4- (Phosphorus)
NO3- (Nittrate)
SO42- (Sulfur)
BO32- (Boron)
MoO42- (Molybdenum)
Cl- (Chlorine)

3. Function Of Nutrients
1.

Carbon
Carbon is what most of the plant is made of. It forms the
backbone of many plant biomolecules, including starches and
cellulose. Carbon is fixed through photosynthesis from the
carbon dioxide in the air and is a part of the carbohydrates that
store energy in the plant.

2.

Hydrogen
Hydrogen also is necessary for building sugars and building the
plant. It is obtained from air and liquid water.

3.

Oxygen
Oxygen is necessary for cellular respiration. Cellular respiration
is the process of generating energy-rich adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) via the consumption of sugars made in photosynthesis. It
is obtained from the air.

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4.

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is important in plant bioenergetics. As a
component of ATP, phosphorus is needed for the
conversion of light energy to chemical energy (ATP)
during photosynthesis.

5.

Phosphorus can also be used to modify the activity of various


enzymes by phosphorylation, and can be used for cell
signalling. Since ATP can be used for the biosynthesis of
many plant biomolecules, phosphorus is important for plant
growth and flower/seed formation.

Potassium
Potassium regulates the opening and closing of the
stoma by a potassium ion pump. Since stomata are
important in water regulation, potassium reduces
water loss from the leaves and increases drought
tolerance. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis
or interveinal chlorosis.

6.

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is an essential component of all proteins, and as a
part of DNA, it is essential for growth and reproduction as
well. Nitrogen deficiency most often results in stunting.

7.

Sulphur
Sulphur is another important component of amino acids and
proteins, and is therefore important in plant growth.

8.

Calcium
Calcium a part of cell walls, and regulates transport of other
nutrients into the plant. Calcium deficiency results in stunting.

9.

Magnesium
Magnesium is an important part of chlorophyll, a critical plant
pigment in photosynthesis. It is important in the production of
ATP through its role as an enzyme cofactor.

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10.

There are many other biological roles for magnesium.


Magnesium deficiency can result in interveinal chlorosis.

Iron
Iron is necessary for photosynthesis and is present
as an enzyme cofactor in plants. Iron deficiency can
result in interveinal chlorosis and necrosis.

11.

Molybdenum
Molybdenum is a cofactor to enzymes important in
building amino acids.

12.

Boron
Boron is important in sugar transport, cell division,
and synthesizing certain enzymes. Boron deficiency
causes necrosis in young leaves and stunting.

13.

Copper
Copper is important for photosynthesis. Symptoms
for copper deficiency include chlorosis.

14.

Manganese
Manganese is necessary for building the
chloroplasts. Manganese deficiency may result in
coloration abnormalities, such as discolored spots
on the foliage.

15.

Zinc
Zinc is required in a large number enzymes and
plays an essential role in DNA transcription. A
typical symptom of zinc deficiency is the stunted
growth of leaves, commonly known as "little leaf"
and is caused by the oxidative degredation of the
growth hormone auxin

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16.

Nickel
Nickel is required in nitrogen metabolism, however the
requirement is vague in all but a very few select plants.

Main References

Marschner, P., 2012. Marschners Mineral Nutrition of

Higher Plants. Third ed., Academic Press,


Marschner, H.,1986. Mineral Nutrition in Higher Plants.
Academic Press, London
Wild, A.,1973. Russels Soil Condition and Plant
Growth. Longman Scientific & Technical
Jones, Jr., J.B., Wolf, B. and Mills, H.A., 1991. Plant
Analysis Handbook. Micro-Macro Publishing, Inc., USA.

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III. HISTORY OF PLANT


NUTRITION

Greek Mythology Records

The knowledge that all plants require nutrients to survive


and grow could be started from Greek mythology
records.
Augeas, the legendary king of Elis had a stable that
contained 3000 oxen (cattle) and had not been cleaned
for thirty years. He contracted Hercules to clean the
stable, and Hercules simply diverted the river of Alphens
through the stable and carried away the accumulated
manure and waste.
The material was deposited on the soil surrounding the
stable, and increases in crop yields were recorded in
subsequent years

The Invention of Agriculture


Agriculture

refers to a series of discoveries


involving the domestication, culture, and
management of plants and animals. It is
clearly the basis for civilizations.

Agriculture

was adopted repeatedly and


independently in various parts of the world
after the retreat of the Pleitocene ice around
12,000 years ago. This warming trend
affected the Middle East, northern China,
and Mesoamerican where agriculture began.

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The precise origin of the first center of agriculture is


obscure. Carl O. Sauer (1952) has proposed that the
beginnings may be southeast Asia.

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Archaeological evidence is the "literature" of


the beginnings of agriculture.
The evidence places contemporary agriculture
7000 to 9000 years ago in the river valleys in
three locations;
Tigris-Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamiapresent day
Iraq)
Indus River
Nile River

The earliest evidence of agricultural


development occurs in the area known as the
Fertile Crescent (present-day Iraq, Syria,
Lebanon, Israel)

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Tsi, Chinese writer (1100 BCE)

They (green manure) are broadcasted in the fifth or


sixth month and plowed under in the seventh or eighth
monthTheir fertilizing value is as good as silkworm
excrement and well-rotted farm manure

Democritus

of Abdera (ca 460360 BCE)

Mother earth when fructified by rain gives


birth to crops for the nourishment of man
and beast. But that which come from
earth must return to earth and that which
came from air to air. Death however,
does not destroy matter but only breaks
up the union of its elements which are
then recombined into other forms

Aristotle

(384322 BCE)

Four elements: earth, water, fire, and air. Aristotle


assumed plants assimilated organic matter from
the roots based on the fact that organic matter,
particularly manure and plant residues, benefited
plant growth. Beginning of Humus Theory of plant
nutrition

Pliny (2379 CE)

It is universally agreed by all writers that there is


nothing more beneficial than to turn up a crop of
lupines, before they have podded, either with the
plough or the fork, or else to cut them and bury
them in heaps at the roots of trees and vines

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Bernard

Palissy (15101589)

Proposed concept that manuring was to


replace substances lost by crop removal.
Manure is carried to the field for the purpose of
restoring to the latter a part of what had been
removed. Proceeding thus you will restore to the soil
the same substances that have been removed by
previous crops and which following crops will regain
to their advantage
Jan

Baptista van Helmont


(15771644)
Infamous experiment with willow
Attributed plant growth to water!!!.
Planted a willow in soil. After 5 years,
willow gained 169 pounds and soil lost 2
ounces

J.B. van Helmont (1577-1644)


van Helmont (Belgian chemist, physiologist and
physician) is best known for a single experiment
demonstrating that the weight a plant gains during
growth is not due to absorption of an equal
amount of soil, but instead is due (at least in part)
to water
At initial stage:
-Pot + Soil = 200 lb ( 90 kg)
-Willow stake = 5 lb ( 2 kg)
-Rain water atau destilation
water = sufficient
After 5 years:
-Pot = cosntant
-Tree = 169 lb + 3 oz (76 kg)
-Soil = 200 lb 2 oz

water

2 kg
90 kg

76 kg
90 kg

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Humus

Humus Theory supported by renowned chemists:

Theodore de Saussaure (17671845)

Sir Humphrey Davy (17781829)

The burning question in the early 19th century was


whether the ashes produced by plants were
constituents produced by plants or must be
absorbed and what was their role.

A prize was offered to solve the problem of the


source and function of inorganic elements in plant
ash

Prize awarded to A.F. Wiegmann and L. Polstroff


based on experiments using synthetic soil vs. sand
alone: origin of plant ash was soil

John Woodward (16651728)

Theory

Demonstrated that spearmint


(Mentha spicata) grew better in
water containing soil that rainwater
alone

Johan Glauber (16041655) &


Gabriel Plattes 16001655), 17th
Century Chemists,

http://science.howstuffworks.com/l
ife/botany/spearmint-info.htm

analyzed salts such as wood ashes, limestone,


and saltpeter (potassium nitrate) on plant growth
in Thirty Year War due to lack of manure, invented
chemical fertilizer called philospher dung or
fattening salt. Despite these observation the
belief that humus (organic matter) was the food of
plants was upheld well into the 19th century

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Justus

von Liebig (18031873)

Dominant figure in plant nutrition. Proves


that humus per se not absorbed by plants
Demonstrated that carbon was supplied by air and
not by humus
He incorrectly believed C was absorbed by roots
Liebig assumed N was absorbed from the air (not
from humus) but this was insufficient for agriculture
Was unaware of N fixation by bacteria
Realized that animal manures were an important
source of N

Liebig changed chemistry in Germany more significantly than


any other chemist of his time when he was at the University
of Giessen 1824-1852. He was responsible for the
development of the teaching, research, and technology of
modern chemistry.

IV. THE LAW OF THE MINIMUM


Justus von Liebig was born in Darmstadt,
Germany in 1803. His schoolmaster labeled
him as hopelessly useless, and yet he
would later become one the master chemistry
teachers of all time.
Liebigs

Law of the Minimum in plant nutrition


states that
whichever nutrient is in least amount
relative to the required amount, will
determine the yield of a plant

Liebig

likens the potential of a


crop to a barrel with staves of
unequal length

staves

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The capacity of this barrel is limited by the length of


the shortest stave and can only be increased by
lengthening that stave
When that stave is lengthened, another one
becomes the limiting factor.

Examples of
yield-limiting
minimum factors
1. N limits the
yield to 3 t/ha
2. Mg limits the
yield to 8 t/ha

2
1

Questions
What is the challenge raised by Thomas Malthus
2. What are ways to feed people in the future (e.g.
2050)
3. What are possible factors limiting the productivity of
crops
4. What is the position of plant nutrients as limiting
factors
5. What are nutrient elements necessary for plant
growth and development
6. What are the criteria of plant nutrients
7. What is the function of N, P and K in plants
8. Who is Augeas
9. What is the conclusion of J.B. van Helmot from his
exaperiment
10. What is The Law of The Minimum
1.

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