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Tutorial Sheet - 05

1. The equivalent circuit of Fig. 11 shows an ideal transformer with an impedance

R2+ j X2 = (1 + j4) , is connected in series with the secondary. The turns ratio N1/N2 = 5:1.
(a) Draw an equivalent circuit with the series impedance referred to the primary side. (b) For
a primary voltage of 120 V rms and a short connected across the terminals A-B, calculate the
primary current and the current flowing in the short.
Ans. (b) 0.03-j0.63 A, 8.82 A

Fig. 11
2. A 50 kVA, 2400/240V, 60 Hz transformer is used to step down the voltage at the load end of a
feeder whose impedance is 0.3 + j1.6 . The voltage at the sending end of the feeder is
2400V. Find the voltage at the secondary terminals of the transformer when the load
connected to its secondary draws rated current from the transformer and power factor of the
load is 0.8 lagging. Neglect the voltage drops in the transformer and feeder caused by
exciting current.
Ans. 233V
3. The maximum efficiency of a 50 kVA transformer is 97.4% and occurs at 90% of full load
and at unity power factor. Calculate the efficiency at full load and with 0.8 lagging power
Ans. 97.35%
4. A 100 kVA transformer has 400 turns on the primary and 80 turns on the secondary. The
primary and secondary resistances are 0.3 and 0.01 respectively and the corresponding
leakage reactances are 1.1 and 0.035 respectively. The supply voltage is 2200V. Calculate
(a) equivalent impedance referred to primary and (b) the voltage regulation and secondary
terminal voltage for full load at 0.8 power factor lead.
Ans. (0.55+j1.975) , -1.54%, 446.77V.
5. A single phase transformer has voltage regulation of 6% and 6.6% for lagging power factors
of 0.8 and 0.6 respectively. Full load ohmic loss is equal to iron loss. Calculate the lagging
power factor at which full load voltage regulation is maximum and the full load efficiency at
unity power factor.
Ans. 0.4472, 94.34%
6. A 1-phase transformer has 400 primary and 1000 secondary turns. The net cross-sectional
area of the core is 60 cm2. The primary winding is connected to a 50Hz supply of 500V. The
mean length of the flux path in the core is 0.7m. Determine the flux density of the core and
the magnetizing current. The B-H curve of the material of the core is provided below in a
tabular form.



























7. The following parameters refer to two mutually coupled coils a and b:

Ra = 20 , La = 120 mH, Na = 1500; Rb = 4 , Lb = 31 mH, Nb = 750;
An alternating voltage of 20V r.m.s. at angular frequency of 1000 rad/s is applied across coil
a. Compute, under steady state condition, (i) voltage across the terminals of coil b when it
is open circuited, and (ii) current in coil a when the terminals of coil b are short circuited.
8. For the transformer shown in the figure, N EF = 600, NCD =150 and NAB =300 turns. Also the
load resistances RCD = 30 and RAB = 15. The voltage applied to the primary is 16V.
(a) Total load impedance reflected to the primary.
(b) Total current D
drawn from the supply.
(c) Voltage applied across RCD (VCD) and across RAB (VAB)


Fig. Q8

9. Determine the input current I1 if RAB = 50 and ZAC = (30+j40). Number of turns between
D-E is 100, between A-B is 150 and between B-C is 50.


Fig. Q9

10. A 2300/230 V, 500kVA, 60 Hz transformer has the following values:

r1 = 0.1 , xL1 = 0.3 , r2 = 0.001 , xL2 = 0.003
When the transformer is loaded to its capacity and used as a step-down transformer, calculate
(a) Rated primary and secondary currents
(b) Secondary and primary induced voltages, assuming that the terminal voltage and induced
voltage are in phase.
(c) Ratio of primary and secondary induced voltages and ratio of primary and secondary
terminal voltages
11. A 1-phase, two winding transformer has 1000 turns on the primary and 500 turns on the
secondary. The primary winding is connected to a 220 V supply and the secondary winding is
connected to a 5 kVA load. The transformer can be considered ideal.
(a) Determine the load voltage and load impedance.
(b) Determine the load impedance referred to the primary.


12. A 1-phase, 100 kVA, 220/110 V, 60 Hz transformer is connected to a 220 V supply. It draws
F factor leading. Considering ideal transformer,
rated current at 0.8 power
(a) Determine the kVA rating of the load.
(b) Determine the impedance of the E
13. A 1-phase, 440 V, 80 kW load having a lagging power factor of 0.8 is supplied through a
feeder of impedance (0.6 + j1.6) and a 1-phase, 100 kVA, 220/440 V, 60 Hz transformer.
The equivalent impedance of the transformer referred to the high voltage side is (1.15 + j4.5)
(a) Determine the voltage at the high voltage terminal of the transformer.
(b) Determine the voltage at the sending end of the feeder.
14. A 1-phase, 25 kVA, 2300/230 V transformer has the following parameters:
Zeq,H = (4.0 + j5.0) , Rc,L = 450 ; Xm.L = 300
The transformer is connected to a load with variable power factor. Determine the worst-case
voltage regulation for full load output.
15. A 1-phase, 10 kVA, 2400/240 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following characteristics:
Core loss at full voltage = 100 W, Copper loss at half load = 60 W
(a) Determine the efficiency of the transformer when
it delivers full load at 0.8 power factor
(b) Determine the per unit rating at which the transformer efficiency is maximum. Determine
this efficiency if the load power factor is 0.9.
(c) The transformer has the following load cycle:
No load for 6 hours
70% of full load at 0.8 power factor for 10 hours
90% of full load at 0.9 power factor for 8 hours
Determine the all-day efficiency of the transformer.
16. Reconnect the windings of a 1-phase, 3 kVA, 240/120 V, 60 Hz transformer so that it can
supply a load at 330 V from a 110 V supply.
(a) Show the connection
(b) Determine the maximum kVA the reconnected transformer can deliver.
17. The nameplate of a single-phase transformer reads: 10MVA, 50Hz, 25kV/10kV, Zpu = 0.12.
During short-circuit test on the high voltage (HV) side of this transformer (with low voltage
(LV) side shorted), the ammeter and wattmeter readings were 200A and 50kW respectively.
During open circuit test on the LV side (HV side open) at rated frequency, the voltmeter and
wattmeter readings were 10kV and 180kW.
(i) Find the values of total leakage reactance (xeq) and winding resistance (req) referred to HV
(ii) While supplying a load, the terminal voltages of the HV side and LV side of this
transformer are found to be 25kV0 and 10kV6 respectively. Find the active power
delivered by the transformer and the corresponding power factor. Also find the regulation and
efficiency of the transformer under this operating condition
18. The nameplate on a 50-MVA, 60 Hz 1-phase transformer indicates that it has a voltage rating
of 8kV/78kV. An open circuit test conducted from the low voltage sideand the corresponding
instrument readings are 8kV, 62.1 A and 206 kW. Similarly, a short circuit test from the low
voltage side gives readings of 674 V, 6.25 kA and 187 kW.

(a) Calculate the equivalent series impedance, resistance and reactance of the transformer
referred to the (i) low voltage terminals, (ii) high voltage terminals
(b) Determine the efficiency and regulation of the transformer if it is operating at rated
voltage and load (at unity power factor).
(c) Recalculate the efficiency and regulation when the power factor of the load changes to 0.9
19. A 4 kVA, 200/400 V, 50 Hz, single-phase transformer gave the following test figures:
No Load: LV Side: 200 V, 0.7 A, 60 W;
SC Test: HV Side: 9V, 6A, 21.6 W;
a) The magnetizing current and the iron loss component of current.
b) The secondary terminal voltage on full load at power factors of 0.8 lag and 0.8 lead
20. A 20 kVA, 2500/500 V, single-phase transformer has the following parameters:
HV Winding: r1 = 8 , x1 = 17 ;
LV Winding: r2 =0.3 , x2 = 0.7 .;
Find the voltage regulation at full load for (a) 0.9 pf lag (b) 0.9 pf lead.
The supply Voltage is held constant at 2500 V
21. (a) During no-load test of a transformer, a voltage of v=200sin(314t) is applied and the
resulting current is I = 3sin(314t-60). Determine the core loss and rms value of the no-load
(c) A transformer gives the following results during tests:
Test 1: 100% voltage, 6% current, power factor 0.2.
Test 2: 8% voltage, 100% current, power factor 0.3.
Identify the tests. Obtain the parameters of the transformer in p.u.
22. Calculate the regulation of a transformer in which the ohmic loss is 1% of the output voltage
and the reactance drop is 5% of the output voltage, when the power factor is 0.8 lagging,
unity and 0.8 leading.