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# PART B: MODEL 2: COMPOSITE ROOF

## Free-size, Composite-size & Shuffling Optimization.

This tutorial discusses the optimization-driven design approach of a composite roof using OptiStruct.
The design takes a three-phased approach:
Phase 1: Concept design synthesis
Free-size optimization is used to identify the optimal ply shapes and locations of patches per ply orientation.
Phase 2: Design fine tuning
Size optimization is used to identify the optimal thickness of each ply bundle.
Phase 3: Ply stacking sequence optimization.
Shuffling optimization is used to obtain an optimal stacking sequence.
The process expands upon three important and advanced optimization techniques; free-size optimization, size
optimization and ply stacking sequence optimization. By stringing these three techniques together, OptiStruct offers a unique
and comprehensive process for the design and optimization of composite laminates. The process is automated and integrated
in HyperWorks by generating the input data for a subsequent phase automatically from the previous design phase.

## Phase 1 Concept design synthesis (free-size optimization)

In free-size optimization, the thickness of each designable element is defined as a design variable. Applying this concept
to the design of composites implies that the design variables are the thickness of each Super-ply (total designable thickness
of a ply orientation) per element.
The following optimization setup is defined in the concept design phase to identify the stiffest design for the given
fraction of the material. To obtain more meaningful results, manufacturing constraints are incorporated and carried through
all design phases automatically.
Design Variables:
Objective:
Constraints:
Manufacturing
Constraints:

## Element thickness of each ply orientation.

Minimize the compliance.
Volume fraction should not be more than 85% of total designable volume.
1) Ply percentage for 0s and 90s such that no less that 10% and no more than 60% can exist.
2) The manufacturable ply thickness is 0.25
3) A balance constraint that ensures an equal thickness distribution for the +45s and -45s.

Step 1: Load the OptiStruct user profile and open the model.
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Select OptiStruct in the User Profile dialog and click Ok.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate templates, macro menu, and import reader, paring down
the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for generating models OptiStruct.

User Profiles.can also be accessed from the Preferences pull-down menu on the toolbar.
3. Click on File, go to open, click on model. Select the file PartB_Problem2_Cargo_Door.hm file from the destination
4. Click Open.

## Step 2: Create constraints as load collector and apply it to model.

1. Click on load collector icon as show.
2. Go to create by selecting the radio button,
3. Enter SPCS in loadcol name=, select the colour, make sure the no card image is selected.

4. Click create.
5. Click return.
6. Now go to Analysis page select constraints

7. Click on nodes and select by id now enter the node id number followed by commas ,
11,61,91,131,161,2425,2436,2456,2479,2525,2588,2623,2650,2680,2725,3938,6210,11665,13335.
Then press enter (on your keyboard). Keep all the other parameters are show in the image. Then click create.

8. Click return.

Step 3: Save the file and run the Static Analysis (Using Radioss)
1. Go to File pull down menu on toolbar, go to Save As option and select Model.
2. Create a new folder and save the file.
3. Go to Analysis page and click on Radioss(as shown).

4. Click on Save as to save the .fem file, make sure the export option: is set to all, run option: is set to analysis and
memory option: is set to memory default. Click on Radioss

5. Once you see the message in the solver window: ANALYSIS COMPLETED close the solver window.

## Step 4: View the displacement contour using HyperView.

1. Click on Page window layout icon as shown below and slit it into two windows..(see below images)

2. Then click on 2nd Window.. the HyperView post-processor deck will open.

3. Click on the folder icon in front of Load model: and select the .h3d file or Altair HyperView Player file from the folder
where you have saved the model before doing Radioss Analysis. Then click on Apply.

## Phase 1 Concept design synthesis (free-size optimization)

In free-size optimization, the thickness of each designable element is defined as a design variable. Applying this
concept to the design of composites implies that the design variables are the thickness of each Super-ply (total designable
thickness of a ply orientation) per element.
The following optimization setup is defined in the concept design phase to identify the stiffest design for the given
fraction of the material. To obtain more meaningful results, manufacturing constraints are incorporated and carried through
all design phases automatically.
Design Variables:
Objective:
Constraints:
Manufacturing
Constraints:

## Element thickness of each ply orientation.

Minimize the compliances.
Maximum allowable volume fraction is 85%.
1) Ply percentage for 0s and 90s such that no less that 10% and no more than 60% can exist.
2) The manufacturable ply thickness is 0.25
3) A balance constraint that ensures an equal thickness distribution for the +45s and -45s.

## Step 1: Create free size design variable.

1. Go to Analysis page and select optimization panel.

## 2. Now click on free size panel.

3. In free size panel select the radio button as create. In desvar= enter Roof. Select the type as PCOMP(G), click on props
and check the box in front of COMP and click select. Then click create.

4. Then select the radio button composites, click on desvar and select Roof. In laminate thickness: toggle the minimum
thickness off to minimum thickness= and enter 5. Click Update.

5.

Then click on edit button, check the box in front of PLYTHK, PLYPCT AND BALANCE. Now in PYLPCT option instead of
all select Specify Number, and enter 2 in DSIZE_NUMBER_OF_PLYPCT

6.

7. Click return.
8. Click Update.
9. Click return.

## Step 2: Create Responses.

1. Click on responses.

## 2. In response= enter compl, in response type select compliance, click create.

3. Now in response= enter volfrac, in response type select volumefrac, click create.

## Step 3: Create Dconstraints.

1. Click on dconstraints.

2. In constraint= enter volfrac, check the upper bound box and enter 0.85 in the upper bound. Click on response and
select volfrac fron the list of responses.

3. Click create.
4. Click return.

## Step 4: Create Objective.

1. Click on objective.

2. Select min from the drop down list, click on response= and select volfrac. Click create.

3. Click return.

## Step 5: Edit the Control Crads.

1. Go to Analysis page, click on control cards.

2. Click on GLOBAL_OUTPUT_REQUEST.

4. Click return.

7. Click return.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

## Click on File pull down menu. Go to save as and select model.

Create a new folder and save the file.
On Analysis page click on OptiStruct.
Set the export option: to all.
Set run options: to optimization.
Set memory option: to memory default.
Click on save as. To save to .fem file.

8. Click on OptiStruct.
9. Once you see OPTIMIZATION HAS CONVERGED FEASIBLE DESIGN <ALLCONSTRAINTS SATISFIED>. Close the solver
window

Step 7: View the Element Thickness and Ply Thickness as results in HyperView.
1. Click on Page Window Layout icon as show

## and select the 4 window lay-out.

2. Click on 3rd Window. And then load the ._des.h3d file (follow the same procedure as shown above to load the result file)
3. Select the last iteration as show below.

4. Click on contour icon, set the Averaging Method as Simple and click Apply.

5. Now Select Ply Thicknesses in Result type: and then click Apply

6. To view the Ply thickness of each ply. Select 1 in Entity with layers:

## Step 8: View the ply bundles through element sets

The optimized Super-ply thickness is subsequently represented as Ply Bundles. Four ply bundles per fiber
orientation (Super ply) are output by default, based on an intelligent algorithm in OptiStruct. These ply bundles represent the
shape and location of the plies per fiber orientation through element sets. In this case, a total of 16 ply bundles are created
after free size optimization converges: element sets 1 through 4 represent the ply bundles for 0 degree super-ply; element
sets 5 through 8 represent ply bundles for both +45 and -45 degree super-ply; element sets 9 through 12 represent ply
bundles for 90 degree super-ply.
1. Click on 1st Window.
2. Click on New icon.
3. Click Yes on the confirm message box which says The model has not been saved, would you like to continue? (y/n).
4. Click on import solver deck icon
5. Select OptiStruct in File type: now click on the folder icon in front of File: and then select the .._sizing.3.fem file from
the folder where you have saved the .hm file before running OptiStruct.

6. Click Import.
7. Click Close.
8. Go to Analysis page and click on entity sets panel

9. Click on review button. And then select the set1, set2, set3,. To view the ply bundles due to each set.

Set 1

Set 2

Set 5

Set 6

Set 9

Set 10

Set 3

Set 7

Set 11

Set 4

Set 8

Set 12

## PHASE 2:- Composite Size Optimization (Design Fine tuning) Set-up.

In the second design phase, a size optimization is performed to fine tune the thicknesses of the optimized ply
bundles from Phase 1. To ensure that the optimization design meets the design requirements, additional performance criteria
on natural frequencies and composite strains are incorporated into the problem formulation. A load case of normal modes
analysis is added to calculate the natural frequencies of the fairing under assembled conditions. The optimization setup is also
modified to factor in these additional performance targets, among others.
The following is the modified optimization setup:
Design Variables:
Objective:
Constraints:

Ply thickness, which have been defined in the size input deck from Phase 1
Minimize the total designable volume
Natural frequencies (1st ~ 5th) 0.02 KHz
- Composite strains in the fairing < 0.025 micro-strain

Manufacturing constraints are preserved and transferred to the DCOMP card. A minimum manufacturable ply thickness
of 0.25, defined in Phase 1, is transferred to the PLY card. It allows for the optimal ply bundle thicknesses to be a multiple of
the minimum ply thickness value, and helps in calculating the total number of plies required per fiber orientation.

## Step 1: Review the design variables for size optimization

The Size design variables were generated automatically at the free-size stage. They can be reviewed in the size panel of
optimization.

## Step 2: Review the manufacturing constraints

The manufacturing constraints were carried over to the size optimization phase automatically. They can be reviewed in the
composite size panel in HyperMesh.

## 2. Go to the parameters subpanel, click dcomp=, and select Roof.

3. Click edit and review the DCOMP card image as shown below. PLYPCT and BALANCE constraints are transferred to
DCOMP card. The manufacturable ply thickness constraint 0.25 in PLYTHK is transferred to the PLY card.

## Step 3: Delete the responses defined in the free-size phase.

The Optimization will be re-formulated to satisfy the main design requirements. The responses weighted compliance and
volume fraction used in the free-size phase will be removed.
1. Click on Delete panel by clicking on the icon as show.
2. Click on the small arrow and selece optiresponses from the list

3. Click on the optiresponses. And then select the compl and volfrac from the list, click on select. And then click on
delete entity.

4. Click return.

## Step 4: Set up the normal modes analysis.

1. Click on the load collectors icon, as show
2. Select the create radio button, Enter EIGRL in loadcol name=, click on card image= and select EIDRL from the list of
card images available.
3. Click create/edit.

4. Enter 8 in [ND].

## 5. Click return twice.

6. On Analysis page select loadsteps panel.
7. Enter norm_modes in name=, select normal modes as type:, check the box of SPC and METHOD(STRUCT). Click on
SPC and select SPC, click on METHOD(STRUCT) and select EIGRL.

8. Click create.
9. Click return.

## Step 5: Create the responses for size optimization.

1. On Analysis page, click on optimization, then click on responses.
2. Enter volume in response=, in response type: select volume. Keep all the other parameters as show below.

3. Click create.
4. In response= enter freq1, in response type select frequency, enter 1 in Mode Number:, click create.

5. Repeate set 4 and create 4 more responses for frequency as freq2 mode number: 2, freq3 mode number: 3, freq4
mode number: 4, freq5 mode number: 5.

6. Now in response= enter cstrain, in response type select composite strain. Click on the drop down arrow as shown in
the image and select piles from the list. Click on the piles and select all the plies. Set maj. Principal as strain type, click
create.

## Step 6: Create optimization constraints

1. Click on dconstraints.
2. In constraint= enter freq1, click on response= and select freq1 from the list of responses. Check the box in front of
lower bound= and enter 0.02. Click on loadsteps and select norm_modes.click create.

3. Follow the above step 2, to create constraints as freq2, freq3, freq4 and freq5 having response as freq2, freq3, freq4
and freq5 respectively. Having the same lower bound as 0.02 and same loadstep as norm_modes.

4. Now in constraints= enter cstrain, in response= select cstrain from the list of responses, click on loadstep and select
LS as a load step. Check the box in front of upper bound= and enter value 0.025. click create.

## Step 7: Create Objective function for the optimization.

1. Click on objective panel, in optimization.
2. Set the objective type as min click on the response and select volume from the list of responses. click create.

3. Click return.

## Step 8: Define the Output request for shuffling deck.

The output control on composite strain and stress results defined in the previous phase are carried over
automatically. OUTPUT, SZTOSH (sizing to shuffling) is used to write a ply stacking optimization input deck
1. On the Analysis page, select control cards
2. Go to the OUTPUT panel

## 3. Enter 1 as the number_of_outputs.

4. Set SZTOSH as the KEYWORD and YES for FREQ.

OptiStruct will automatically generate a size model after the free-size optimization.
5. Click return twice to go back to the Analysis page.

Step 9: Save the file & run the Composite size Optimization
1. Follow the same procedure given in STEP 6 of PHASE 1 (see above).
(But create a new folder and then save the file dont save the file in the same folder).

## Step 10: View the Thickness Results in Hyperview.

1. Follow the same procedure given in STEP 7 of PHASE 1 (see above.).
2. The Element Thicknesses (s) contour view is.

3. The Orientation Thicknesses (s) contour view is.. for Max in Entity with layers:..

## Phase 3:- Ply Stacking Sequence/Composite Shuffling Optimization.

This algorithm is aimed at providing a global view of what the optimal stacking sequence could be. An input
deck for the ply stacking sequence optimization was generated from a previous design stage. Each ply bundle is
divided into multiple PLYs whose thickness is equal to the manufacturable thickness (0.25 in this case), and the STACK
card is updated accordingly. In this design phase, composite plies are shuffled to determine the optimal stacking
sequence.
It is important that design performances are preserved. Hence, the optimization problem is retained as
previously formulated in the size optimization phase. Two manufacturing constraints are applied:

The maximum successive number of plies of a particular orientation does not exceed 4 plies
The + 45s and 45s are reversed paired

Step 1: Load the OptiStruct user profile and import the composite size optimization file.
1. Follow the same procedure given in STEP 8 of PHASE 1 upto POINT 7. And import the file ._shuffling.*.fem file from
the folder where you have saved the file before Analysis.

## Step 3: Update the composite strain Respose.

Since the ply bundles were divided into multiple plies in the shuffling model, the ply information in CSTRAIN
response needs to be updated as well.
1. Go to Analysis page, click on optimization panel
2. Click on responses panel.

5. Click update.
6. Click return.

## Step 4: Create the manufacturing constraints for shuffling

A DSHUFFLE card was created automatically during the sizing phase. Two manufacturing constraints will be added
for the shuffling optimization.
1. On the optimization panel, click on composite shuffle

2. Click on create radio button. Then click on dshuffle and select door.

3. Click on parameters radio button; make sure the door is selected in dshuffle. Check the box next to pairing constraint,
select reverse as pair type: make sure the ply angle1= is 45 and ply angle2= is -45.

4. Click update.
5. Click on edit.

## 6. Check the box next to MAXSUCC and enter 4 in MSUCC.

7. Click return.
8. Click update.
9. Click return.

Step 5: Save the file and run the Composite Shuffling Optimization.
1. Follow the same procedure given STEP 6 in PHASE 1 (see above).
(But create a new folder and then save the file dont save the file in the same folder).

## Step 6: Post process the results.

1. Go to the folder where you have save the phase 3 file.
2. There open the doore.shuf.html file, it will open in the default browser.