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Useful phrases for text analysis and literary appreciation

Begin with these simple expressions:


the writer/ poet/ novelist/etc ... :
- is aiming at (sth or verb+ing form)
- wants to achieve the purpose of
- wants to produce the effect that
- wants to contrast sth with sth else
- arouses the reader's emotions (feelings/ interest)
- evokes the attitude of
- focuses the reader' s attention on
- expects the reader to (infinitive)
- wants to produce the effect that
- appeals to the reader's senses/ feelings/ emotions/ reason
a word/ a phrase/ .
- is a clue to the message of the poem
- is a clue to the poet's intention
- is a means to gain strength and freshness of expression
- is a device to underline ( emphasize/ stress) sth
the idea/ topic/ subject is
- presented
- introduced
- expressed
- developed
- restated
- illustrated
- summed up
- summarized
the title
- suggests/ indicates
the poem/ story/ extract
- achieves coherence by
- establishes unity by
- brings about the effect
- is divided into
the rhythm
- adds to the musical quality of the poem
- makes the lines run more quickly/ slowly
- affects the poem as a whole
- is based on

Here you will find more phrases and words which help you for a better
examination.

THE TEXT

2. This text can be classified as ...


deals with
|
3. The text |
treats
concerns
itself with
|
presents

4. The title already

an extremely topical subject.

|
|
|
|

|
|
indicates
| gives a clue as to |

5. The aim of the text is as follows:


6. This events in the text
|

are factually true.


refer to the real world.
are invented.

|
|

7. The author seeks to judge the text

the subject.

|
|

8. The author

objectively
subjectively
gives his own opinion on ...
takes sides with .../sides with
concerning ...
regarding ...
as to ...

| remains neutral |
|
|
|
|
9. The text contains a subjective
element.
|
evaluation.
|
comment.
|
10. The author | seeks to |
convince the reader.
wants
to
make a point.
|
|
establish
a viewpoint.
|
|
11. The story |
is constructed around a single theme.
is confined to one setting.
|
involves only a few characters.
|
is restricted to one central aspect.
|
12. to stress/point out/lay emphasis on/emphasize
13. to illustrate with examples
14. to give reasons
|

15. A closer examination

| return to |
| take up |
17. to | analyse a text
examine
|

| reveals |
| shows |

16. to

18. to

| pinpoint |
study
|
|
centre
on |
|

for
against
that ...

another subject

| from several |
|
|

standpoints
angles

different aspects of the text

CHARACTERS
1. to

| reveal |
| uncover |
| disclose |
2. to depict the |
main
|
| prominent |

3. The narrator describes the dominant

4. Durring the course of the

individual features of a character

features of a person

| characteristics |
features
|
|
traits
|
|

| novel |
| play |
| poem |

of a character.

the character undergoes a development/change.

5. The character remains essentially unchanged.


6. The character changes his attitude.
7. to
us
|
| telling |
employ
|
| showing |

as a mode of characterization

8. The narrator presents his characters


9. The narrator
| gives | a rough
| presents |

sketch
of s.o.'s character.
|
|
| description |
10. to give a
description
of s.o.
| faithful |
|
| realistic | characterization |
| detailed |
11. to convey a
vivid
portrayal of ...
|
|
impressive
|
|
12. to | describe |
a character realistically
| picture |
13. to |
portray
s.o. with attention to detail
|
characterize
|
|
14. The description | presents |
many details.
| includes |
| contains |
15. to |
give
an impression
|
supply
|
|
| convey |
16. to point out the characteristics of s.o.
17. to characterize a person as
18. to | present |
| provide |
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

a portrait of a person

to caricature a person
to present a stereotyped person
to give a detailed analysis of s.o.
The narrator is particularly interested in the psychology of a character
In this description the narrator intends to convey the impression that.
The narrator
gives
some typical details.
|
|
provides
|
|
| presents |

25. An essential component of his character is ...


POINT OF VIEW

1. The narrator

|
|
|

views ... from a distance.


stands back from the action and observers.
remains outside the plot, merely observing

2. His lack of involvement permits the narrator to maintain an analytical stance.

3. The narrator describes the action and characters objectively.


4. the story is narrated in the third person, and the narrator never surfaces.
5. There is no interference by the narrator throughout the next.
6. The narrator |
is not involved explicitly.
is
a
thinly-sketched
characters on the edge of the story.
|
7. The narrator

8. The narrator

| plays a more active role in |


intervenes in
|
pronounces judgement on
|
takes part in
|
|
is
involved in
|
|
is one of
|
|
| cannot escape from |

the text.

|
|
...

9. The narrator is a central character in the story.


10. The story is told from the narrator's angle.
11. The fact that he is involved results in the narration being biased and slanted .
12. As the narrator participates in the plot his views are committed (=here: limited).
13. He describes the event from the point of view of ...
14.The narrator's attitude towards his/her material is ...
15. The events are viewed from a subjective angle/perspective.
16. The description is | restricted |
to ...
| limited |

19. The narrator

|
|
|

17. The narrator's relation to the text is confined to ...


18. His views are as subjective as those of the others.
intends | to | influence |
the reader.
wants |
manipulate
|
|
seeks |

20. The narrator's introductory remarks also

|
|
|

include
deal with
refer to

21. The points of view in the text shift from character to character.
22. The intention of this narrative approach is ...

|
|
|

...