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1.

2 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
DEFINED

Keith Davis defined organizational


behavior as the study and application
of knowledge about how people act
within an organization.
BASIC ELEMENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR
People creators of organizations
Organizations exist to serve
people. However, people do not
exist to serve organizations
although they are responsible for
the organizations management
and operation.
Structure/Organizational Structure
formal relationship between and
among the constituents of an
organization.
Technology provides the physical
and economic facilities and
resources of that lend ease and
facilitate performance of jobs.
Significantly affects and
influences working
relationships
External environment where the
different elements interact with
one another.
Organizational behavior and
administration
Managers and supervisors
burdened with the responsibility of
harnessing organizational behavior
to improve people-organization
relationships.
Historical Development of Organizational
Behavior
Robert Owen a Welsh factory
owner, was the first to recognize
human needs in the year 1800.
Father of Personnel
Administration
Andrew Ure book: The
Philosophy of Manufactures

Included the recognition of


the factory workers to the
mechanical and
commercial aspects of
manufacturing
Initiated extension of
extraneous benefits to
workers
Frederick W. Taylor (early 1900s)
created interest in the working
man, that later led to the
development of organizational
behavior.
Father of Scientific
Management
if there was a best
machine for a job, so was
there best a way for a
person to do his job.
1920s and 1930s Elton Mayos
and Fritz Jule Roethlisbergers study
of human behavior at the Harvard
University resulted in the concept
that an organization is a social
system and the worker is indeed
the most important element in it.
Elton Mayo Father of Human
Relations, which was consequently
known as organizational behavior

1.3 CONTRIBUTIONS OF OTHER SOCIAL


SCIENCES
1. Psychology Psychological theories
have helped us explain and predict
individual behavior
2. Sociology studying the structure
and function of small groups
3. Political Science helped us to
understand how differences in
preferences and interests lead to
conflict and power struggles
between groups within
organizations.
4. Economics understanding how
competition for scarce resources
both within and between
organizations leads to increase in

commitment to efficiency and


productivity
5. Anthropology how cultures and
belief system develop
1.4 WORKING WITH PEOPLE
Human relations
Human relations have to do with,
by and large, the interaction of
people in all types of undertakings
These human interactions
are also referred to as
employee human relations
or organizational human
relations.
Organizational Behavior study of
human behavior at work in an
organization
Human relations and
organizational behavior are
complementary to one
another in the drive to attain
improved behavior.
Basic Concepts
4 Basic assumptions with regard to
nature of man:
1. Individual differences
management can motivate
employees by treating each
individual differently (based on
personal circumstances)
2. The whole person the
appraisal of an individual should
therefore, be on the basis of the
entirety of his whole being
because a persons attitude,
work life, home life, emotional
conditions and physical
conditions affect and influence
his outlook and behavior.
3. Motivation of caused behavior
motivation is the driving force
that keeps the components of
an organization on the go.
Recognition, promotion,
increase in pay

4. Human dignity management


should treat every individual
with respect, to safeguard the
preservation of everyones
dignity
Nature of Organization as Social Systems
Organization is a social system
that is formed for mutual interest
and is achieved through the
interrelationship and interaction of
its constituents
Influenced by goup as well
as individual drives
Organizational
environment
(characterized by dynamic
changes)
Two types of Social Systems:
1. Formal structured and
operated ion an official basis
2. Informal springs from the
ranks of the employees, without
any official status and operates
primarily to safeguard its
members well being
Mutual Interest
It is the mutuality of interest that
serves as the building force as well as
the generator of cooperation within its
ranks.
The individual will join the organization
if it will serve or satisfy his needs and the
organization may opt to take an
individual whom it believes will serve its
objectives.
1.5 SOCIAL SYSTEM
Social Environment (Culture)
The behavior of an individual is said to
be social whenever he acts in
consonance with the expectations of
others.

Culture is the conventionalized


behavior of society which
influences a persons behavior;
changes slowly, giving stability and
security to society

Basic Culture that Affects Work


Freedom a cultural value, which
connotes autonomy, freedom from
authority and liberty to perform as
one pleases, within the bounds of
propriety
Equality makes people seek for
equal rights and privileges
compared with their peers and
neighbors
Motivation Patterns
1. Achievement motivation leads to
higher levels of aspiration, so
people work harder and make more
progress
Achievement motivated
person seeks
accomplishment as his
objectives
2. Affiliation motivation persons
work better when they are
complimented for their attitude
3. Competence often interested in
technical aspects of the job and is
unmindful of human factors at work
4. Power risk-taker, willing to
sacrifice others in is desire for
power
Role in the Social System
Role Perception how an individual
in an organization thinks he is
expected to act in a given situation
Role sets collective expectations
of how the supervisor should
behave

Three role values:


1. Own role as called for by
his job
2. Role of those he is in
contact
3. His role as perceived by
other persons
Role conflicts arise whenever role
expectations differ materially and
both are not satisfied
Status
Status is the rank a person is in,
in relation to others in a society or
group
Two kinds:
1. Formal status rank of a
person in an
organizational hierarchy
2. Informal status rank an
informal organization
accords to a person as
outcome of their attitude
Status relationship arises when
ranking and comparison of two or
more persons take place
Status hierarchies define and
indicate ranks of constituents
Status anxiety person becomes
seriously upset of his status
Status congruence or consistency
degree agreement among various
indicators of status
Organizational Causes of Status
1. Official ranks within an org
2. Type of work or skill performed
3. Working conditions
4. Occupational prestige