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UNIVERSIDAD POLITCNICA TERRITORIAL

ALONSO GAMERO
DPTO. DE FORMACIN GENERAL
IDIOMAS I PNF ELECTRICIDAD

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EXERCISE: De acuerdo al texto extraiga:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5 palabras polismicas en ingls y sus significados en espaol.


10 cognados en ingls y su significado contextual.
Falsos cognados en ingls y su significado contextual.
Sinnimos de las palabras:usually, entire, good, expensive, successfull,
usually, advantage; y Antnimos de las palabras attractive, minority,
equilibrium,effective, thin, easy, flexibility.
5. 5 Palabras compuestas y su significado en espaol.
6. 5 palabras con sufijos y 5 palabras con prefijos y su significado en espaol.
TEXTO: The Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor(MOSFET)
John R. Brews

The MOSFET is a transistor that uses a controlelectrode, the gate, to


capacitivemodulates the conductanceof a surface channel joining two end contacts,
the source and the drain. The gate is separated from thesemiconductor body
underlying the gate by a thin gate insulator, usually silicon dioxide. The surface
channelis formed at the interface between the semiconductor body and the gate
insulator (see Fig. 24.43).
The MOSFET can be understood by contrast with other field-effect devices, like
the JFET, or junction fieldeffecttransistor, and the MESFET, or metal semiconductor
field-effect transistor [Hollis and Murphy, 1990].These other transistors modulate the
conductance of a majority-carrier path between two ohmiccontacts bycapacitive
control of its cross section. (Majority carriers are those in greatest abundance in a
field-free semiconductor,electrons in n-type material and holes in p-type material.)
This modulation of the cross section cantake place at any point along the length of
the channel, so the gate electrode can be positioned anywhere andneed not extend
the entire length of the channel.

Analogous to these field-effect devices is the buried-channel, depletion-mode,


or normally on MOSFET, whichcontains a surface layer of the same doping type as
the source and drain (opposite type to the semiconductorbody of the device). As a
result, it has a built-in or normally on channel from source to drain with a
conductancethat is reduced when the gate depletes the majority carriers.

FIGURE 24.43 A high-performance n-channel MOSFET. The device is isolated from its neighbors by a
surrounding thickfield oxide under which is a heavily doped channel stop implant intended to suppress
accidental channel formation that couldcouple the device to its neighbors. The drain contacts are placed
over the field oxide to reduce the capacitance to the body,a parasitic that slows response times. These
structural details are described later. (Source: After Brews, 1990.)

In contrast, the true MOSFET is an enhancement-mode or normally off device.


The device is normally offbecause the body forms pnjunctions with both the source
and the drain, so no majority-carrier current canflow between them. Instead,
minority-carrier current can flow, provided minority carriers are available.
Asdiscussed later, for gate biases that are sufficiently attractive, above threshold,
minority carriers are drawn intoa surface channel, forming a conducting path from
source to drain. The gate and channel then form two sidesof a capacitor separated
by the gate insulator. As additional attractive charges are placed on the gate side,

thechannel side of the capacitor draws a balancing charge of minority carriers from
the source and the drain. Themore charges on the gate, the more populated the
channel, and the larger the conductance. Because the gatecreates the channel, to
ensure electrical continuity the gate must extend over the entire length of the
separationbetween source and drain.
The MOSFET channel is created by attraction to the gate and relies upon the
insulating layer between thechannel and the gate to prevent leakage of minority
carriers to the gate. As a result, MOSFETs can be madeonly in material systems that
provide very good gate insulators, and the best system known is the silicon
silicondioxide combination. This requirement for a good gate insulator is not so
important for JFETs and MESFETs,where the role of the gate is to push away majority
carriers rather than to attract minority carriers. Thus, inGaAs systems where good
insulators are incompatible with other device or fabricational requirements,
MESFETsare used.
A more recent development in GaAs systems is the heterostructure field-effect
transistor, or HFET [Peartonand Shaw, 1990], made up of layers of varying
compositions of Al, Ga, and As or In, Ga, P, and As. Thesedevices are made using
molecular beam epitaxy or by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, expensive
methodsstill being refined for manufacture. HFETs include a variety of structures, the
best known of which is themodulation doped FET, or MODFET. HFETs are field-effect
devices, not MOSFETs, because the gate simplymodulates the carrier density in a
preexistent channel between ohmic contacts. The channel is formed
spontaneously,regardless of the quality of the gate insulator as a condition of
equilibrium between the layers, justas a depletion layer is formed in a pnjunction.
The compositions channel is created very near to the gate electrode,resulting in gate
control as effective as in a MOSFET.
The silicon-based MOSFET has been successful primarily because the silicon
silicon dioxide system providesa stable interface with low trap densities and because
the oxide is impermeable to many environmental contaminants, has a high
breakdown strength, and is easy to grow uniformly and reproducibly [Nicollian
andBrews, 1982]. These attributes allow easy fabrication using lithographic
processes, resulting in integrated circuits(ICs), with very small devices, very large
device counts, and very high reliability at low cost. Because theimportance of the
MOSFET lies in this relationship to high-density manufacture, an emphasis of this
articleis to describe the issues involved in continuing miniaturization.
An additional advantage of the MOSFET is that it can be made using either
electrons or holes as channelcarrier. Using both types of devices in so-called
complementary MOS (CMOS) technology allows circuits thatdraw no dc power if

current paths include at least one series connection of both types of device because,
insteady state, only one or the other type conducts, not both at once. Of course, in
exercising the circuit, poweris drawn during switching of the devices. This flexibility in
choosing n- or p-channel devices has enabled largecircuits to be made that use low
power levels. Hence, complex systems can be manufactured without
expensivepackaging or cooling requirements.

Fuente:Soclof, S., Watson, J., Brews, J.R. Transistors


The Electrical Engineering Handbook
Ed. Richard C. Dorf
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

1.

5 palabras polismicas en ingls y sus significados en espaol.

Source: el origen, la fuente, la procedencia, el manantial.


Drain: drenar, escurrir, purgar, desaguar, tragarse, beberse, desangrar.
Channel: canal (de televisin) , canal de agua
Gate: compuerta, porton
Surface: superficie, exterior firme.

2. 10 cognados en ingls y su significado contextual.


Transistor :transitor; dispositivoemisor de seales
Control: dispositivo de control
Electrode: caracteristicadelMOSFET
Capacitive: el transitortrabaja con uncircuitocapacitivo (con capacitores)
Conductance :flujo de electrones entre los contactos.
Contacts : element activoque en condicionesnormales se encuentra en tension
(en el textoes parte del circuito)

Semiconductor :cuerpoelectronico, parte del MOSFET


Dioxide: en el textoesdioxido de siicio, y es el auislante de la compuerta
Contrast: comparaciondelMOSFET con otrostransitorescomo el JFET y el
MESFET.
Metal : en el texto dice que el transitores de metal.

3. 10 Falsos cognados en ingls y su significado contextual.


Silicon (se parece a silicon: material gomoso que se utilize como pega, o en
medicina para implantes). En el texto significa silicio que es un mental que
constituye algunos transitores.
Quality (lo asocio a la palabra cualidad). En este caso se refiere a calidad
Manufactured ( a asocio a la palabra manufacturar) en este caso se refiere a
fabricar los sistemas.
Conducts (lo asocio conductos) se refiere a dirigir o llevar a cavo el
procedimiento.
Primarily : esta palabra la asocio con primeramente y en el texto significa
principalmente

4 Sinnimos de las palabras: usually, entire, good, expensive, successfull, usually,


advantage; y Antnimos de las palabras attractive, minority, equilibrium, effective,
thin, easy, flexibility.

1. Sinnimos de las palabras:


Usually: commonly, normally, ordinarily
Entire: full, intact, integral, total
Good: fine, adept, effective
Expensive:
Successful: prosperous, fortunate, whit god results.
Advantage: profit, gain, winning, preference.

Antnimos de las palabras:


Attractive: repulsive, unattractive
Minority: bulk, legal age, majority
Equilibrium: disequilibrium
Effective: ineffective, uneffective
Thin: fat, full,
Easy: Hard
Flexibility: rigidity, inflexibility

5.

5 Palabras compuestas y su significado en espaol.

Semiconductor: es un elemento que se comporta como un conductor o como un


aislante dependiendo de diversos factores, como por ejemplo el campo elctrico o

magntico, la presin, la radiacin que le incide, o la temperatura del ambiente en el


que se encuentre

Heterostructure: Se entiende por heteroestructura ideal a un nico cristal de material


semiconductor en el cual existira un plano a travs del cual la "identidad" de los tomos de
los que tal cristal est constituido cambia bruscamente.