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Presentation to The AsiaPac Perforating Symposium, Apr 2011

Propellant-Assisted Perforating An Alternative Stimulation


Solution in Heavily Karstified Carbonate Reservoirs

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Dominic Wong
Fergus Robinson
Kent Folse
Mark Brinsden

Halliburton Energy Serv.


Sarawak Shell Berhad
Marathon Oil
Shell International E&P

Background
 Traditionally the drilling strategy for karstified
carbonate reservoirs in offshore Sarawak called
for pre-drilled liner.
 liner to avoid solids production
 pre-drilled to eliminate need for perforation

 Follow by Acid stimulation.


 mud solvent to remove filter cake from drilling
 Hydrochloric acid to create wormholes in the
carbonate

 Contingency if losses are seen


 Switch to PMCD mode with drill-in liner and perforate
 Plug and sidetrack
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Introduction of new completion method


 Propellant-assisted perforating in karstified
carbonate reservoirs.
 eliminates conventional acid stim to re-connect to karst
network
 provide stimulation down very single perforation tunnel
 Well is connected to the matrix along entire perforated interval

 greatly increased probability of being connected to near


wellbore karstic features in the reservoir

 Two field trails offshore Sarawak, East Malaysia


 Field A: subsea carbonate gas field, single producer
 Field B: subsea carbonate gas field, two producer
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What is a KARST?
 An area of irregular limestone in which erosion
produces fissures, sinkholes, underground
streams and caverns
 Often complex in shape and highly variable in
thickness
 only large features can be imaged on seismic

 They provide significant loss zones which make


drilling the reservoir section particularly
challenging

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Field B Well Description


 First drilled in 1994, observed 99ft of gas bearing
carbonate before heavy losses due to karst thief
zones led to abandonment
 Appraisal well drilled in July 2006, penetrated a gas
water contact confirming communication and
volumes, and indicating gas column of 876ft. Due
to uncontrollable losses, well was abandon.
 High relief flat-topped carbonate platform, average
k=235md, = 23%, Pres= 3620 psi, Tres=2600F
 S shaped trajectory with total depth of 6,045ft MD
(5,602ft TVD)
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Completion schematic
30 Conductor Shoe

7 Tubing Retrievable Safety Valve

Pressure Downhole Gauge


18-5/8 Shoe
7 X 9-5/8 Production Packer

13-3/8 Shoe

7 RN Nipple

Liner hanger packer


9-5/8 Shoe

Perforation Interval

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TCP schematic
Run thru-tubing on 1-3/4 CT

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What is propellant perforating?


 Potassium perchlorate mixed with resin
 Moulded into a sleeve similar to PVD
piping
 Slid over a standard gun system
 gun centralizers protect the propellent sleeve

 Propellant ignites when gun is detonated


 Perforation and stimulation events
combined.

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Effects to the formation


high peak pressures & instantaneous injection rated
create predicted fracture extension
crush zone across the perf
tunnel (generally 1/10 of Korigin)

gas generated erode and


scour the formation near
the perf tunnels

Conventional perforation

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Propellant perforation

Benefits in this application


 Reduce Times & Cost
 perforating and stimulation in single trip
 eliminate need for mobilizing stimulation vessel
 Less rig days required

 Reduce HSE exposure


 less operations, less heavy lifting
 no high pressure, high volume, acid pumping

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Modeling on field B

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Actual results on field B


4000
3800
3600

BHP (psi)

3400
3200
3000
2800
2600

Matched inflow curve


2400

Test data
2200

Expectation inflow curve

2000
0

50

100

150

200

250

Gas Rate (MMscf/d)

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300

350

400

Conclusion
 New application of propellant perforating
 excellent stimulation alternative to conventional acid treatment
 breaking down perforation crush zone region and propagating
fractures increases likelihood of connecting to karstic features

 Well capacity met or exceeded expectations in all 3 wells


 all capable to deliver 200 MMscf/d with drawdown below 100psi

 Combine perforating & stimulation into a single operation


 reduces rig time
 reduces well completion costs
 reduces HSE exposure

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Back-up Slide#1 B1 Well Parameter


 Max well angle of 43 deg in the curve, vertically through
the reservoir section.
 No losses were observed while drilling the reservoir
section.
 7 26# L-80 13Cr liner was run, 7-5/8 tieback with seal
stung into 7 polished bore receptacle.
 Perf interval = 300ft, one run with 1000 psi U/B for
optimized perf clean-up.
 Propellant length of 117ft or 39% coverage.

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Back-up Slide#2 Discussion of results


 Well test data was affected by pressure declined 12 mins into the
build-up. It is believed that fall-off was caused by some liquid
dropout in the liner/prod tubing.
 The very low drawdown indicate no significant skin impeding the
inflow.
 These results indicate a wellbore that is well connected to the
reservoir and any further stimulation of the well would be unlikely
to enhance productivity further.
 No losses were observed while drilling the reservoir section in this
well, thus it is presumed that no karstic features were
encountered directly by the drill bit. However to achieve the inflow
performance observed from the well test, exceeding expectation,
it is reasonable to assume that communication to some very
permeable features was achieved by the propellant-assisted
perforation.
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