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Cultural Academic
1. Understanding
Culture is something that is a very broad issue. However, its essence inherent in human
beings. That is, humans as creators of culture. Culture born along with the birth of the human.
From the above it can be understood that the culture can be seen from two sides, that is culture as
a process and culture as product.
Alquran looked culture is a process, and puts them as the existence of human life. Culture
is a totality of human activity which includes the mind, heart, and body are fused in an act.
Therefore, in general, the culture can be understood as the result of a sense, the mind, copyrights
sense, initiative, and man's work. He can not be separated from human values. However, he
could escape from the values of divinity when people have ignored the existence of God in his
According to M. Nastsir there are six sources of Islamic teachings about the power of
culture locally became of universal human civilization, namely:
1. Respect sense. Human Muslims told to use his wits to observe and think about the state of
nature. Many verses of the Qur'an which states how important the development of sense for
human life. In this regard, the process of ijtihad becomes crucial for improving the welfare of
2. Liability study. Every Muslims, both men and women are required to study.
3. Prohibition of taqlid. Everyone barred case something which he has no knowledge of it even
came from the ancestors.

4. Take the initiative. Every Muslim mundane deployed to take the initiative to provide benefit
for the general public even for those who do not co-religionists. Such as holding goods that need
not exist before.
2. Intellectual History of Islam
The development of Islamic thought have a long history in the broadest sense. The
tradition of thought among Muslims developed along with the emergence of Islam itself. In the
context of Arab society itself, where Islam was born and first development there, coming
complete with scientific tradition. For the pre-Islamic Arab society does not have a systematic
system of thought development.
By using the theory dikembangnya by Harun Nasution, in terms of its development, the
intellectual history of Islam can be grouped into three periods, namely the classical period, ie
between the years 650-1250 AD period pertenganhan the year 1250-1800 AD, and the modern
period, ie since the year 1800 - until now.
In the classical period, was born the scholars like Imam Hamballi Hanafi sect, Imam ashShafi'i and Imam Malik. Dengna line was also born Muslim philosophers like al-Kindi, the year
801 AD, the first Muslim philosopher. Among the thoughts that Muslims should accept
philosophy as part of the Islamic culture. However jumhur aahli hadith can not accept it. In
addition to al-Kandi, also born in that century the great philosophers such as al-Razi, who was
born in 856 AD ALI-Farabbi born in 870, he was known as the builder of a philosophical system.
In the next century philosopher Ibn Miskawayh also born in the year 930 AD The thinking is
famous being moral education. Then came the year 1037 Ibn Sina, Ibn Bajjah, 1138 M, 1147 M
Ibn Thufail, and Ibn Rushd 1126 M.
During the middle of the year 1250 - 1800 M. Islamic Thought are in a phase of decline
and philosophy began to be kept away from the Muslims, so there is a tendency in the sense
pertententangkan by revelation, faith and science, with akirat world. His influence is still felt to
this day.

3. Academic Culture and Islamic values in Culture Indonesia

Islam entered Indonesia complete with culture. Because Islam is derived from Arab
countries. At the beginning of the entry of the propagation of Islam to Indonesia has been very
difficult to distinguish where the teachings of Islam and where the Arab culture. Ordinary people
equate the behavior displayed by the Arabs that they reflect the teachings of Islam. In fact, until
KNI Arab culture is still attached to the culture of Indonesia.
In the development of the propagation of Islam in Indonesia, the broadcaster religions
preached the teachings of Islam through the language and culture, as done by the trustees in the
land of Java. Because of the greatness of the trustees of God in presenting the teachings of Islam
with the language of the local culture, so that people do not realize that the values of Islam has
come in and become a tradition in their daily lives.
Furthermore that the values of Islam has become a part that can not be separated from the
culture. As in traditional ceremonies in the use of everyday language. Language of the Quran /
Arabic has been absorbed into the local language and even into Indonesian standard. All of it
without realizing that what he did is part of the tradition associated dengnan Islamic teachings.
The next task for scholars, Islam is explained in a systematic and continuing effort of
penetration that has been done by his predecessors. With the explanation, then execute a tradition
will change into a form ukhrawi kindness when he accordance with the teachings of Islam. It will
have a double benefit, which becomes righteous deeds. Therefore, it is realized that it is the
implementation of some of the teachings of Islam.

B. Work Ethos, Extrovert, and Justice

a. Work Ethos
An activity is a reflection of the "work" and work led to "charity" that benefit themselves,
their families, communities, and the environment in which we are. Rasulullah SAW said The
best people is someone has the most useful for others. Allah said :

The essence of humanity lies in its existence. "Existence" means thinking to create that
produce products or creation. In other words, human nature is working. The logical consequence
is lost essentially stopped working as a human being. We also said that Islam is more concerned
with the idea or the charity of the last terminal is charity. Charity synonymous with work and
once again human nature is working.
The Qur'an itself looked charity is so important. The word charity and various words seakar word
with such ya'malun, ta'malun, 'amila, i'malu and the like mentioned in the Qur'an as much as 192
times. Words strung deeds with words of faith as much as 46 times. This means that human
nature on the basis of cultural or religious approach is the same that is located on or charity
work. This conclusion is supported by the maxim:

(Science without charity is like the bee without honey) or

(Science without charity is like a tree without fruit).

Thus the man who is not charity or non-working nature of humanity is not intact, or even lost the
essence of humanity.
So that no one is missing the essence of humanity, the Prophet taught his people to the farthest of
the nature of idlers. Thus prayer Apostles:

( )

(O Allah! I beg Engakau protection of laziness, weakness, and stinginess. H.R at-Turmuzi of ibn
Arqam (at-Turmuzi, V: 226)).
Lazy, weak and curmudgeonly personality is a major obstacle in the growth of the ethos of any
kind including work ethic. Conversely Islam motivates followers so excited that every
industrious charity or work. Allah says in (QS. Al-Anam):

There, in the hard work of searching for happiness both world and the hereafter that there is a
code of ethics, which is not supposed to do any damage, any damage (self, relationships with
other people, the plants, animals, or the universe).
b. Extrovert
Core open attitude is honest, and this is an important moral teachings in Islam. Opponents of the
honest is dishonest. The forms of dishonest include corruption, collusion and nepotism (KKN).
As a nation, we are deeply concerned, on the one hand, we (Indonesian people) embraced the
Islamic world, and on the other hand as the nation's most corrupt. Thus the phenomenon
anticlimax. It should haq it destroys falsehood, precisely in the practical level as if the Truth
mixed with falsehood. The practical display, prayers yes, yes corruption. This is the way religion
is wrong.
How true religion there must be coherence between doctrine, the belief in the teachings, and the
implementation of the above teachings. Can be exemplified here, the doctrine reads:
This means:
"... Lo! Prayer restrains from (deeds) cruel and unjust ... .." (QS. Al 'Ankabut: 45).
Humans respond to the gospel (revelation) it with faith. After that he embodies his faith by
praying and outside of prayer prevent yourself every cruel and evil.

Including coherence between doctrine, faith, and the implementation of the teachings is if
already done wrong promptly admit mistakes and ask for forgiveness to whom he is guilty (God
or neighbor). If done wrong to God immediately remember Allah and repent to Him.
This means:
"And (also) those who, when working on indecency or wrong themselves, they remember Allah,
and beg His forgiveness for their sins .... "(QS. Ali Imron: 135).
If the wronged man immediately apologized to him should not wait for Eid arrives. Recantation
both to God and to other than Him is an honest and open attitude. According to Islam being
honest and open, including well. The Prophet said:

( ) . .

(Actually to be honest it leads toward virtue and virtue leads to Paradise. Verily man is always
honest, he was assigned as an honest man. Truly a lie that leads in the direction of lies. Lies that
leads to hell, the real man who always do a lie that will defined as a liar. muttafaq 'alaih (anNawawi, []: 42)).
c. Justice
Lexically, justice means is not biased, impartial, adhering to the truth, rightly, and not arbitrary
(Kamus Besar, l990: 6-7) From each meaning can be exemplified as follows: (1) The love of a
mother the sons and daughters are not one-sided. (2) In deciding the case, a judge is not impartial
to a dispute. (3) In carrying out his duties as a judge, Hamid has always adhered to the truth. (4)
It is fitting if akhlaqul-karimah exemplary teacher by students. (5) A good leader is a leader who
does not practice arbitrary led. From each of these examples can be concluded that the fair was
very positive attitude morally.
Because of the nature of a positive, fair attitude certainly coveted by many. In the examples
above, fair attitude to be positive or benefit others. Adil also can dartikan behavior and inner
strength that encourages a person to control anger and lust and distribute it to good purpose (alHufiy, 2000: 24). In this definition can be understood that the fair is the inner condition of a
person in the form of energy. This energy pushes out to control anger and willingnesswillingness of lust so that acts that came out to be good. The person who should indulgence,
because the control sikaprbuatannya be directed, not harm yourself and other orng.
Adil can be interpreted to place a variety of inner strength in an orderly and balanced (al-Hufiy,
2000: 26). Strength in question is al-wisdom, ash-syaja'ah, and al-Hikmah' means
intelligence. Intelligent people can distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad, Haq and

canceled appropriately, but is not necessarily always choose the right, which is good, and the
Truth. Asy-syaja'ah be brave without fear. Al-'ffah means holy. These three properties utma
otherwise be well balanced. Very intelligent person or a genius but intelligence can be used as a
tool to deceive others because there is no 'iffah in him. People have always dared to deal with
any problems encountered, it will reveal thugs profile because there is no al-wisdom and 'iffah in
him. Intelligent and brave person then used to plunder the country's wealth illegally is not good
because it is not 'iffah in him. People always just choose holiness in all the atmosphere of blatant
certainly could endanger yourself.
If the al-wisdom, ash-syaja'ah, and al-'iffah blends balanced in a person, that person will be fair.
People dare to do something after the weighed-weigh that something is good according to reason
and in the judgment of the Shari'a also good. This is a fair description of the act. Means, he dare
do because it is right. People do not dare to do as well as it is, is to be fair, not out of fear. With
dimikian fair is the culmination of the three main properties.
Islam considers fair attitude very fundamental in the structure of the teachings. Said fair and
various derivatives such as: ya'dilun, i'dilu, 'adlun, and ta'dili repeated 28 times in the Qur'an.
Therefore God governs us in order to be fair in all respects. Allah says:
This means:
"... Valid just: that is next to piety ..." (QS. Al-Maidah: 8).
The word fair is synonymous with al-qish. This word and various derivatives, for instance:
iqshitu, al-muqshitun, and al-qashitun terulaqng 25 times in the Qur'an ( 'Abd al-Baqiy, []:
p690). Sometimes the word fair and said al-qisht referred to besama-alike and each other means
the same. The example is:
This means:
"And if there are two classes of those who believe that war be ye reconciled between the two!
but if one violates the agreement against another, let that violates the agreement you fight to
recede back to God's commands. if He has receded, make peace between them justly, and be ye
Be fair; Indeed, Allah loves those who are fair Applicable ". (QS. Al Hujurat: 9).
Because both rationally and sharia that fairness is good and positive, but on the other hand we
are followers of Islam the world's largest and at the same time is known as the nation with
various predicates that are not as good as KKN (corruption, collusion and nepotism) , then to
change the bad image that one is a strategic way to cultivate fairness in all fields of life.
To realize a fair attitude should be trained continuously on an ongoing basis, which mean
habituation justice. "From now on, start simple, and start from yourself," This is a commitment
to begin habituation justice. If this initial step can be passed well, certainly contagious to others,
especially if the start of that commitment is the people who have influence in the community in

which it exists as one of the human instinct is to replicate the idol. If the idol was not being fair,
of course the fans would emulate unfair anyway.
In Islam the person who most deserves to reseat as an idol to follow and emulate was Prophet
Muhammad. Allah says which means:
"Ye have indeed in the (self) that the Messenger of Allah a good role model for you (that) for
people who expect (grace) of God and the (arrival) Day of Resurrection and He is Allah much".
(QS. Al Ahzab: 21).
Besides 'Aisha, the wife of the Prophet, mentioned that he was the morality of the Koran "kana
khuluqulm Al-Quran" (Muslim H.R of' Aisha). It seems too appropriate that the first idol of all
Muslims is the Prophet. Until now arguably the most influential person in the world (ranked
first) of the one hundred most influential people in the world (Hart, 1982: 4). Quite a lot of
examples of unfair attitude that is displayed by the Prophet, among others:
An-Nu'man ibn Bashir said, "My father gave me something Award. Amrah bin Rawahah then my
mother said, "I could not let you testify before the prize in the presence of the Prophet
My father then turned to the Prophet and said, "O Messenger of Allah, verily I have membarikan
a gift to my son of Amrah bin Rawahah. Then I gave orders to testify to the Lord! "
Prophet then said, "Are you also have to give to all of your son giving like this?"
An-Nu'man said, "No".
He then said, "bertaqwalah to God and be fair to your children!"
Then my father came home and pulled back his gift.
And there are women Makhdzumiyyah steal. They said, "Who will talk about it to the Prophet
No one dared to except (her lover) Usman bin Zaid r.a. Then he talked about it with the Prophet
He said, "Are you going to act as a defender in pelanggarana law of God?" Then the Prophet
stood up and preached. Among the sermon he said, "Surely that destroyed the people before you
is that if there is an aristocratic steal, they let it go, but if that stole it from the lower classes
(weak), she was sentenced. By Allah suppose Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad stole, it
would have cut his hand. "(Al-hufiy, 2000: 189)
And there are many other examples of justice of the Prophet.
d. Work ethos, Extrovert, and jusice

Academic culture will be realized on the condition that positive attitudes are shared. Among the
positive attitude must possess is a high work ethic, openness and justice. The significance of
these three attitudes can be summarized as follows:
In order to improve the work ethic of a Muslim must first understand their duties as human
beings is as a vicegerent of Allah on earth and as servant is obliged to worship kepad Aallah
SWT. Some hints of the Qur'an in order to improve the work ethic among others;
1. Set the time with the best.
2. Work shall be in accordance with the field and it should be noted that a high work ethic may
not make the people forget Allah SWT.
The further positive attitude is the attitude of open and honest, one can not achieve success by
having a high work ethic kalu not being open and honest. Karenaorang are not open then it will
tend to shut down so it can not cooperate with others. Moreover kalu dishonest then the energy
will be taken to cover dishonesty committed. Thus the Qur'an and the Hadith give high
appreciation tehadap person who is open and honest.
The fruits of a person's openness will give birth to fairness. Meaning that introduced the Qur'an
is open only in the legal aspect but in a broad spectrum. In terms of fairness to whom it should be
addressed Qur'an hints that dissamping fair attitude to God and other people or fellow creatures
also to yourself.

C. Mosque as a Center of Islam Civilization

The mosque is generally understood by the public as a place of
worship, such as prayer, whereas the function of the mosque is wider than
that. At the time of the Prophet, the mosque serves as a center of
civilization. Prophet purify the soul of the Muslims, the Qur'an teaches,
consulted various people problems until the problem efforts to improve the
welfare of the people.
Any intellectual, scientific and social school or university which
continued to produce educators for humanity in sciences of the mind and
transmissions alike for almost a thousand years from scholars, modernizers
and scientists in medicine, engineering, mathematics, philosophy,
astronomy, literature and more of religious and life sciences, rarely combined
under the umbrella of one civilization, let alone the product of one school.
The school I mean by is the mosque in its comprehensive depth which
is a concept missing in many of our nations children, the mosque resembles
the point of meet to nations and unites them, and there for was the first
works of the teacher of humanity Prophet Mohammad by building a
mosque for Muslims in Quba where he spent his first days in the city,
carrying rocks with his own hands, building what is known to me The
prophets mosque which was a school for the Islamic first calling, the house
of Islam, which was a school, a university and the headquarters of the
council, preparations of the Army and managing the nation matters big ot
Mosques in its pure Islamic definition is the place of pure worship to
the creator, and since worshiping in its comprehensive Islamic definition is a
university of human life, and since knowledge in Islam is prerequisite in
practicing proper devotion and worship in its comprehensive concept,
mosques have the role of the dissemination of knowledge, becoming a
lighthouse and a scientific destination.

Mosques made their educational role in its first days, where the
prophet encouraged the educational role by saying Who goes to the
mosque only to benefit from learning or to teach, is similar to the have done
the pilgrimage of Islam, the purpose here is to show how the prophet
explains the importance of knowledge and its differentiation from worshiping
rituals in performing prayers in the mosque.
Education was not limited to men in the mosque, but women have
competed in knowledge and education, mosques were wide open for them to
participate in harboring knowledge and sharing life with men.
If the currently available educational tools where available in the
prophets time, he wouldve encouraged us to use them, and he would be the
first to do so.
Mosques continued in development and growth, generation after
another, to accomplish its duties in making life and become a university or
science and pioneering intellectuals, and examples are many, we will
mention some of them, such as the mosques of a thousand (named due to
being established more than a thousand years ago) like Amr Bin Al As
Mosque which was the cradle of scientific movement in Egypt, and had
hundreds of science sessions, also The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus and
Al Mansur Mosque in Baghdad, and the Villagers Mosque in Fez (Morocco)
which had a unique educational system and educational democracy, as well
as the methods of teaching in it. This Mosque had detailed and very specific
terms and conditions for hiring and educational jobs, it had dorms for
students and teachers, specialized libraries for university students, and thus
attended by Muslims and non-Muslims from all over the world, especially
Europe such as Rev. Gerbert Doryak which later became the pope of Rome.
Teaching used to start just before sunrise and lasts until one hour after
midnight, another Mosque is Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis which excelled in
most of the scientific fields and areas, its library held more than 200
thousand volumes of books, and same foes for AL Azhar Mosque which

started like any other mosque and their ritual applications but soon enough
becoming a university that teaches different sciences and produces giants in
science and all other life fields.
All those great universities/mosques contributed in motivating and
encouraging students on the concept of discussion, corresponding and
practice them, it even became familiar for students to disagree with
educators and teachers in opinion, all under the boundaries of conventional
and mutual respect, thus schooling system, called mosques (in its
comprehensive definition) found generations that will stay as miracles to the
world and its pride, credited with all life sciences where it established the
scientific and industrial revolution in the west.
Both the 5th and 6th (After Hirjah) had expansions in school building
separated from mosques, which gradually resulted in losing the inclusivity of
education in the mosques circles and limited with forensic science, and so
the educational weakness began overcoming the nation, which increased the
speed of weakness and the collapse of 3 disasters in the history of Islamic
nations throughout 3 centuries.
This first disaster was the burning of Fustat in 564 A.H, the second one
was the vandalism and burning of the Islamic civilization center in Baghdad
by the Tatars in 656 A.H, the 3rd disaster however was the fall of Andalusia in
897 A.H.
With Muslims losing the lead in science, they lost the lead of Islam over
humanity, and then the scientific heritage was inherited by Europe and
carried buy its people, appreciated by them, thus raising their fate to take
charge of leadership from Muslims in science and humanity, and as Muslims
scramble in ignorance, losing their Islamic identity, starting with separating
religious education from lifes knowledge, and thus the separation of the
spiritual and ethical aspects of mosques from life sciences, followed by
weakness in education in all aspects of building life, and then occupation
came to minimize the comprehensive Islamic education, with the British

empire working on AL-Azhar, the French on the Villagers Mosque in Fez, and
same goes for Al-Zaytonah university in Tunis, and from the ways of sizing
and neutralizing those university mosques is to weaken its status, graduating
generations colored in different colors of an Islamic school concept, pushing
Muslims further and further from comprehensive sciences and building the
earth and the taking of reasons in everything that brings life and builds it,
but when those colors were lost in mosques, devotion to receive knowledge
was lost as well, using science by other nations away from all its spiritual
values and whats beneficial to humanity.
The weak stand of mosques is a reflection to the weakness of Islamic
nations, and an Islamic wakening would never happen until mosques do their
comprehensive role, and living up to means of education with what
commensurate the needs of this century and its requirements to make the
core values of an Islamic life once again, it is a duty or else cannot bring
proper education to generations without it.
The great efforts to bring back the role of mosques in building
civilizations and making life, from those efforts what is done by the Islamic
society in Boston by establishing the biggest cultural center in America that
includes a mosque with a university and school, as well as a library that is a
reference for researchers and a center to invite non-Muslims with many
lecture halls.
The mosque will be built in a very unique location next to the medical
city and big universities such as Harvard and Boston, on a land that was
presented to Muslims with a symbolic price for the first time in U.S history,
which will be our subject for the next time.