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Group Name :
Muthia Muharani Fais
Tommy Hans Sinaga

: 8 (eight )
: Bilingual
:Biology Education

Mathematicss And Natural Science Faculty

State University Of Medan





1.2.Problem Review
1.3. Objectives


2.1. Defenition of Educational Supervision


2.2. Background The importance of Educational Supervision


2.3. Purpose of Educational Supervision


2.4. Function of Educational Supervision


2.5. Principle of Supervision

2.6. Supervision Problem
2.7. Educational Supervision Approach
2.8. Duties of Supervision






1.1 Introduction of Educational Supervision
Education is a vital issue for every facet of human progress and
development in particularly and the nation at large. Progress in terms of education
will determine the quality of human resources and development of the nation for
the better and move forward. Improving the quality of education is not easy; it
takes a long time and the involvement of the various components and elements.
Adults are now a lot of people talk about the decline of the quality of
education. On the other hand there are many who mengembor rant and stressed
that the need and importance of reconstruction or renewal of education and
teaching, the irony very few observers and critics of education that addresses the
issue of problem solving (problem solving) the improvement of education and
teaching to be more advanced and reached essential educational goals.
Schools as an educational institution that acts as one of the representatives
of the Indonesian central government, the role of the school is obliged to achieve
national education goals. In the organization of the school, the principal position
is the deciding factor, pengerak all the resources that exist in the schools, so that
all the components in it to function optimally in improving the quality of
education. The school principal who serves as educator, manager, administrator,
leader, motivator and supervisor of the school.
Teachers have a very large role, the magnitude of the responsibility of
teachers in education is a challenge when it comes to the quality of adult
education today. Public complaints against the decline in the quality of education
should be a reflection for teachers who are not competent and professional.
Professional teachers not merely to master the material and as a tool for cultural
transmission but can transform the knowledge, values and culture towards a
dynamic that demands high productivity and quality of work that can compete.

In this context actually less professional teachers desperately need

guidance and direction of another person or supervisor in solving the problems
they face to achieve educational goals, such as the issue is less pahamnya
educational, curricular goals, as well as instructional and operational objectives.
So the role of the teacher is very large in improving the quality of education will
be achieved if all the problems faced by teachers can be solved well. And one
called the supervisor who has the function as a guide, direct, help in this regard is
the Principal (supervisor) who every day face to face with the teacher.
Supervision is one of the principal functions to improve the quality and
professionalism of teachers in implementing the teaching. Relative to the
importance of school supervision activities related to improving the quality of
teachers in particular and improving the quality of education in general, then in
the writing of this paper will discuss about the activities of educational
supervision or school in an effort to improve the quality of education, Indonesia.
1.2. Problem Review

What is defenition of educational supervision?

What are the bacground the importance of educational supervision ?
What is the purpose of educational supervision?
What is the function of educational supervision?
What is the principle of supervision?
What is supervision problem?
What is educational supervision approach?
What are duties of supervision?

1.3. Objectives

To know defenition of educational supervision

To know the bacground the importance of educational supervision
To know the purpose of educational supervision
To know the function of educational supervision
To know the principle of supervision
To know supervision problem
To know educational supervision approach
To know duties of supervision

2.1. Defenition of Educational Supervision
Before discussing about supervision, we need to know some of the
terms related to supervision. The terms include inspection, surveillance,
supervision, monitoring and assessment and evaluation. The term can be
explained as follows:
1. Inspection limited to the definition monitor whether subordinate
(teachers) to run what had been instructed by his superiors.
2. Assessment and supervision has an idea of an activity that is not just
to find fault but to try to find things that have been good to be developed
further. In the 1992 government regulation 38 Article 20 distinguished term
supervisor (used to indicate his position on education track) and overseers
(used to indicate his position on the path of school education).
3. Monitoring means of data collection activities on an activity as a
material for conducting the assessment.
Morphologically supervision comes from

of two English words,

namely the super and vision. Super meaning above and the vision is to see,
still allied with the inspection, examination and supervision, and surveillance,
in the sense of the activities undertaken by the employer -people who plays at
the top, the leadership - the stuff underneath. Supervision is also a supervisory
activity but is more human, humane. Supervision activities is not to find fault
but more an element of coaching, so that conditions of work is being
supervised can be known shortcomings (not solely his fault) to be notified
section that needs to be fixed.
In semantic Supervision coaching education is a form of guidance or
guidance toward improving the situation of education in general and
improving the quality of teaching and learning and learning in particular.

According to Ibrahim (2004) Supervision is a professional services in the

form of assistance to school personnel, enhancing their ability to better
implement change school operations in order to improve the achievement of
school goals.
According to Wiles (1955), Supervision is an aid in the development of
teaching and learning situation.
According to P. Adams and Frank G. Dickey, supervision is a program
that is planned to improve teaching.
In the "Dictionary of Education", Good Carter, gives the sense of
supervision is the business school of officers in leading teachers and other
firefighters, in improving the teaching, including stimulating, selecting growth
and development positions teachers and revise pur- the purpose of education,
teaching materials and methods of teaching and evaluation of teaching.
The essence of supervision is essentially correct learning and teaching.
This program can be successful when supervisors have the skills (skills) and
efficient ways of working in partnership with others (teachers and other
education personnel).
Some understanding of the above, it was concluded that supervision
supervisor of learning is an attempt to help teachers improve their professional
ability and work ethic thus better able to overcome the various problems that
arise learning and improve learning.
Supervision value lies in the development and improvement of teaching
and learning situation that is reflected in the development achieved by
learners. And the term guidance above tend to refer to businesses that are
democratic or human that is not authoritarian. Then referred to as the
employer, as well as in the sense of hierarchy, but jiga in the sense of authority
and competence in the field of supervision. Improve the situation of teaching
and learning to work effectively and efficiently depends on their meaning to
work and learn in a disciplined, responsible, and meet accountability.

2.2. Background The importance of Educational Supervision

Some of this realities made the importance of educational supervision:

The education system involving the role of a number of people who

need to be controlled in cooperation where control is addressed in

order to achieve effective educational purposes.

Some inhibiting factors such as lack of preparation, experience less
help personal development, working conditions were inadequate
resulting professional growth is inadequate, or even more fatal
because teachers tend to assume that what they show to date there is

no more comparison to the others.

The teacher may not always be able to do their job properly. Factors
outside and ourselves are often the cause of these teachers faced

many problems in carrying out its activities.

The development of science and technology as well as life demands
of an increasingly complex society, has resulted in the development
demands of responsibility towards teachers.

2.3. The Purpose of educational Supervision

All activities performed certainly has a purpose and always aim for the
goal to be achieved. Education is one form of human activity that has a goal to be
achieved from the implementation process.
Formulating objectives education supervisors should be able to help locate
and determine activities more evektif supervision. We can not talk about the
effectiveness of an activity, if the purpose is not clear. The purpose of education
supervision is:
1. Helping Teachers to better understand / realize the goals of education in
schools, and school functions in order to achieve the education goals.
2. Helping Teachers to make them more aware of and understand the needs
and problems faced siswannya; in order to help the student better.

3. To melaksnakan effective leadership in a democratic way in order to

improve professional activities in school, and the relationship between the staff
together cooperatively to enhance the capabilities of each.
4. Find the capabilities and strengths of each teacher and utilize and
develop the ability to provide duties and responsibilities in accordance with their
5. Help the teacher improve his performance in front of the class.
6. To assist new teachers during orientation so that it can quickly adapt to
the task and could utilize to the fullest ability.
7. Helping teachers find their students learning difficulties and to plan
corrective actions.
8. Avoid the demands of the teacher outside the limits or unnatural; Good
demand was coming from the (school) and external (community). (Rifai, 1982)
According Hasbullah (2009: 12), the function and purpose of educational
supervision is as follows.
a. As the direction of education. In this case, the goal will indicate the
direction of a business, while the direction was the way he should be taken out of
the present situation to the next situation. For example, a teacher who wishes to
set up a child didikanya be an intelligent human being, the direction of the
business is to create learning situations which can develop intelligence.
b. Destination end point. In this connection, note what are the things that
lie in the range future. For example, if an educator aims to become a protege of
human morality, of emphasis here is the description of the person who wants the
akhlakul karimah.
c. Interest as a starting point for achieving other objectives. In this case,
the purpose of education with each other is an integral and inseparable.

d. Gives value to the work done. In the context of the efforts made,
sometimes found purpose nobler and more glorious than others. All this is visible
if based on certain values. (Maryono, 2011)
The purpose of education is to develop the supervision of teaching and
learning situation better through the development and improvement of the
teaching profession. (Subroto, 1988)
The main objective of supervision is to improve teaching (Neagly &
Evans, 1980; Oliva, 1984; Hoy & Forsyth, 1986; Wiles and Bondi, 1986;
Glickman, 1990). The general objective of supervision is to provide technical
assistance and guidance to teachers and staff so that such personnel are able to
improve the quality of their performance, in performing its duties and carry out
the teaching and learning process.
2.4. Function of Educational Profession
According Swearingen (Sahertian, 2008: 21) There are eight functions of
supervision as follows:
1. To coordinate all the business school
Efforts schools include:
a. Effort each teacher
Teacher wants to express ideas and describe the subject matter in his view toward
improvement. The efforts of an individual nature that need to be coordinated. That
is the function of supervision.
b. Attempts school
Schools in determining policy, formulate goals on school activities, including
programs throughout the school year, there needs to be coordination.
c. Efforts for the growth of office

Every teacher wants to grow in his post. Therefore, teachers are always learning
continuously, seminars, workshops, and others. They are trying to improve
yourself for the better. For that, there needs to be coordination, which is the task
of supervision.

2. Equipping the school leadership

Leadership is a skill that must be learned and requires continuous training. One of
the functions of supervision is to train and equip the teachers so that they have the
skills in leadership at the school.
3. Expand the experience of teachers
Supervision should be able to motivate teachers to learn from real experience in
the field. Through this new experience they can learn to enrich their knowledge.
4. Menstimukasi efforts of creative school
A supervision should be able to provide a stimulus to the teachers not only by
superior instruction, but they are active participants in the learning process.
5. Facilitate and continuous assessment
Ratings given should be comprehensive and continuous. Conducting regular
assessment is a primary function of education supervisors.
6. Analyze the teaching and learning situation
The purpose of supervision is to improve teaching and learning situation.
Analyzing giving a new experience in formulating strategies and efforts towards
7. Provide the knowledge and skills to every member of staff supervision function
to provide stimulation and encouragement to help teachers to develop knowledge
in teaching skills.

8. Giving a wider horizon and integrated in formulating educational goals and

improve the teaching skills of teachers. (Maryono, 2011)

Principle of Supervision
If we talk about the supervision principle, there are so many words from

the experts about this. Even there are so many words or view from the experts, but
all the words have one main point to become a good and professional supervisor.
Based on Sudarwan (Danim & Khairi, 2011), there are six principles of
supervision, those are:
1. Supervisors give the comfortable and safety feeling to those who
2. The Supervision are constructive and creative.
3. The Supervision is real, based on the real condition.
4. The process of supervision is simple, not bother the teacher or make them
5. The process of supervision must be professional.
6. The supervision is based on the capability, condition and the attitude of the
person who supervised.
Based on Sahertian (Sahertian, 2008), there are four main principle of
supervision, those are:
1. Scientific
This principle has some characteristics, namely:
a. Supervision activity is held based on the objective data that got from
the real activity of learning.
b. To get the data, used the recording equipment of data.
c. Each activity of supervision was done systematically, planned, and
2. Democratic
Democratic means that appreciate the esteem and dignity of the teacher,
not based on the seniority, but because of the peer feeling.
3. Working Together

Developed the togethernes, or sharing of idea, sharing of experience, give

the positive support, and stimulated the teacher so they could develop
4. Constructive and Creative
Every single teacher would feel motivated to develop the potential of
creativity if the supervision is able to make fun and comfortable of work

Supervision Problem
The constitution of RI number 20 of 2003 on National Education System,

Article 1 (5) states educators are community members who are devoted and raised
to support education. Furthermore, in the article 39 paragraph (1) stated:
education personnel in charge of the administration, management, development,
supervision and technical services to support the educational process in the
educational unit. Government Regulations. No. 19, 2005 article 39 paragraph (1)
states: "Control of the formal education conducted by the unit superintendent of
MENPAN Decree No. 118 of 1996 which was renewed by MENPAN
Decree No. 091 / KEP / MEN.PAN / 10/2001 on the Functional School
Supervisors and credit figures stated: "The school superintendent is the civil
servants who were given the duties, responsibilities and authority are full by the
authorities for supervision of education in the educational unit preschools,
elementary schools, and secondary schools "(article 1, paragraph 1). In Article 3,
paragraph (1) shall be declared; "The school superintendent is functional official
who serves as the technical implementation in overseeing the education of a
number of specific school designated / designated". Article 5 (1); the
responsibility of school supervisors namely: (a) carry out supervision on school
education in accordance with the duties, and; (B) improve the quality of teaching
and learning process / guidance and learning achievement results / guidance of
students in achieving educational goals. The first responsibility to indicate the
importance of the supervision of managerial responsibility while the second

indicates the importance of academic supervision. This is confirmed in the

Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 article 57, which reads; supervision
which includes managerial and academic supervision is done regularly and
continuously by the supervisor or the superintendent of education unit.
Managerial supervision covers aspects of the management and administration of
the education unit, while the academic supervision covers aspects of the
implementation of the learning process (explanation of Article 57). The target of
managerial oversight is the principal and other school staff, while the goal is to
target the academic supervision of teachers.
Statutory provisions above shows that the superintendent of education unit
on the path to school is the professional education civil servants appointed and
given the task and authority in full by the authorities to conduct training and
supervision of education both academic oversight and managerial oversight at the
educational unit appointed. (Wiwaha)
The research that was conducted by Ekosusilo (2003: 75) points to the fact
implementation of supervision by supervisors quite contrary to the ideal concept
of supervision. Supervision activities that undertaken by the supervisor, are still
far from the substance of the theory of supervision. The supervision that done by
the supervisors, are close to the paradigm of inspection or supervision. The efforts
to help teachers by first establishing a close relationship as a condition for the
success of teaching supervision has not been performed by inspectors. Marsudi W.
Kisworo explains that the competence of teachers in decline because of the
coaching are ignored. According to this source, the competence of teachers is low
and more than 60 percent, the teachers should receive serious coaching (Wau,
One of the main duties of the principal, beside being an administrator, is
also as supervisor. These tasks included in the capacity of principal as
instructional leader. In the fact, the implementation of supervision by the
principal, as supervisor, also still focused on administrative supervision.
Generally, the school principals would to supervise the teaching process of
teachers through classroom visits, when he received a report on the performance

of teachers is not good, or different from his friends. In the fact that often found, a
school principal to supervise teaching and learning activities that teachers do by
way of peering through a door or window, that is not known.

Educational Supervision Approach

The approach is derived from the word approach is a way to draw closer to

the object or steps towards the object. Sudjana (Sudjana, 2004) split supervision
approach into two, namely: a direct approach (direct contact) and indirect
approach (indirect contact). The first approach can be called with a face to face
approach and the second approach is to use an intermediary, such as through
correspondence, mass media, electronic media, radio, cassette, internet and
similar. There is also known as collaborative approach, that is an approach that
combines the two approaches. The approach that used in applying modern
supervision based on the psychological principles. An approach or techniques of
supervision, was also very dependent on the person who supervised. (Juliani)
Sahertian (2000) suggests several approaches, following the supervisor's
a. Directive Approach
Directive approach is the approach to a problem that is direct. Supervisor
provides direct referrals is certainly more dominant behavioral effects supervisor.
This directive approach based on an understanding of the psychological
behaviouristis. Behaviorism principle is that all the works that come from the
reflex, which is a response to the stimulus / stimulus. Therefore lecturer has
shortcomings, it should be given a stimulus so he could react better. Supervisors
can use reinforcement (reinforcement) or punishment (punishment). This kind of
approach can be done with the supervisor's behavior as follows:
1) Describe, 2) Present, 3) Directing, 4) Giving an example, 5) Apply
benchmarks, and 6) Strengthening.
b. Indirect Approach

What is meant by an indirect approach (non-directive) is the approach to the

problems that are indirect. Behavior supervisor does not directly indicate the
problems, but he first actively listening to what is proposed by the lecturer. He
gives many opportunities as possible to supervised to express the problems they
are experiencing. Non-directive approach is based on a humanistic psychological
understanding. Humanistic psychology is very appreciative of people who will be
assisted. Therefore, private lecturer who fostered so honored, so he has more to
listen to the problems faced by the lecturers. Supervised put forward the problem.
Supervisor try to listen and understand what happened. Third supervisor behavior
in non-directive approach are as follows: Listening, Giving reinforcement,
Explains, Presenting, and Solve the Problem.
c. Colaborative Approach
The collaborative approach is the approach that blends approach directive
and non-directive into a new approach. In this approach, both supervisors and
supervised jointly agreed to establish the structure of the process and criteria in
carrying out the process of the conversation to the problems encountered. This
approach is based on cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology assumes that
learning is a combination of individual activities with the environment, which in
turn will affect the formation of individual activities. Thus, the approach in the
supervision related to the two directions, ie from top to bottom and from bottom
to top. Supervisor behavior in this approach is as follows: 1) Present, 2) Explain,
3) Listen, 4) Solving problems, 5) Negotiations. That approach is done through
the stages of giving activity supervision as follows, namely: 1) Conversation early
(pre-conference), 2) observation, 3) analysis / interpretation, 4) Conversation late
(past - conference), 5) The final analysis , 6) Discussion.

Duties of Supervision
A learning activity is the main activity of education in schools, so that all

activities of the school organization boils down to achieving efficiency and

effectiveness of learning. Therefore, a supervisor in providing supervision is a

process which he designed specifically to assist teachers in learning everyday

tasks in the school, is expected to make the services effectively and efficiently so
as to make the school a more effective learning community.
So the role of the supervisor in accordance with its function is to provide
support (support), helping (assisting), and includes (shearing). Besides the role of
a supervisor is to create an atmosphere such that teachers feel safe and free to
develop their creative potential and with full responsibility. Besides, as a
supervisor with a variety of functions, the supervisor may also act as:
1. Coordinator.
As coordinator, he can coordinate the teaching and learning program, the
duties of staff members, and a range of activities varies among teachers. Such as:
coordinating the task of teaching the subjects were supervised by more than one
teacher. In coordinating the teaching and learning program, duties staff members,
various activities vary among teachers, a supervisor can make plans together, by
including the group members (teachers, students, and employees) in various
activities, as well as giving assistance to members of the group in the face and
solve problems and others.
2. Consultants
As a consultant, he can provide some help, along with consulting problems
experienced teachers, both individually and in groups. For example: the difficulty
in dealing with a difficult child to learn, which causes the teachers themselves is
difficult to overcome in any face-to-face class. In providing assistance, along with
consulting problems experienced teachers, either individually or as a group, the
use error that ever happened to be a lesson for the sake of further improvement.
Directing the group members and democratic attitudes, and help overcome the
shortage or difficulties encountered members of the group.
3. Group Leader
As a group leader, he may lead a number of teaching staff in developing
the potential of the group when drafting and developing curriculum. Course

material and professional needs of teachers together. In leading a number of

teaching staff in developing their potential into account when designing and
developing a curriculum, subject matter, and the professional needs of teachers
together, then a supervisor should get to know each individual member of staff of
teachers, both weaknesses and strengths, creating, and maintaining an attitude
trust among members or between members with each other, cultivate, and the
willingness of helping each other, and enhancing the sense of responsibility of the
4. Evaluator
As an evaluator, it can assist teachers in assessing outcomes and learning
processes, to evaluate the curriculum developed. For example: at the end of the
semester, he can hold his own self-evaluation to get feedback from every student
that can be used as a material for repairing and improving himself.
Implementation of the evaluation process should include include teachers, so the
teachers will be more aware of his weakness, so he tried to improve his ability
without any coercion and pressure from others.
Besides, he also assisted in reflecting itself, namely the concept itself (self
concept), ideas / ideals (self idea), reality itself (self reality). For example at the
end of the semester he or she can conduct self evaluation to obtain feedback from
students that can be used as a material for repairing and improving himself
(Mukhtar & Iskandar, 2009).
In its role as the supervisor has the main task of improving the ability of
teachers in learning. In addition there are other tasks are:
a) Develop curriculum
b) Organizing teaching
c) Procurement staff
d) Provision of facilities
e) Provision of material pengeajaran
f) Preparation of upgrading education

g) Provision of orientation of the staff members

h) Services pupil
i) Public relations
j) Ratings teaching
(Kisbiyanto, 2008)
The main task of the supervisor is to improve learning activities, develop
curriculum, and evaluate learning. More specific the described of the results of
the evaluation, the more meaningful for the teacher. (Wau, 2016)

3.1. Conclusion
Supervision is the guidance given to all school staff so they can improve
the ability to develop the teaching-learning situation better. People who supervises
called a supervisor. Supervision can we interpret as coaching. While the targets of
the coaching can be for principals, teachers, employees of administration. But the
target is defined also coaching teacher supervision.
The purpose of education is to develop the supervision of teaching and
learning situation better through the development and improvement of the
teaching profession. The function and purpose of educational supervision
including the As for the direction of education, goal as the end point, the
destination as a starting point for achieving other objectives. In this case, the
purpose of education with each other is an integral and inseparable.
Supervision has a very important goal to be achieved, therefore
supervision of course has a very important benefit. Among the benefits of
supervision is coordinate all the efforts of the school, Equipping school
leadership, Extending the experience of teachers, school Menstimukasi efforts of
creative, Facilitate and continuous assessment and many more benefits or function
of the educational supervision. Besides having the purpose and functions,
supervision also has a basic principle in the implementation process.


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