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INTEORERCTORY MINING ENGINEERING SECOND EDITION WILEY STUDENT EDITION RESTRICTED! FOR SALE ONLY IN Howard L. Hartman Jan M. Mutmansky SRILANKA, VIETNAM INTRODUCTION TO MINING TECHNOLOGY Copyright © 2002 by John Wiley & Sons Inc, All rights reserved Authorized reprint by Wiley India (P) Ltd.., 4435/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110002. All rights reserved. AUTHORIZED REPRINT OF THE EDITION PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Limits of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shail be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Website if referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our website at Reprint: 2007 Printed by: Pushp Print Services. ISBN 81-265-1135-4 CONTENTS Preface xi 1 2 3 Introduction to Mining 1 1.1 Mining’s Contribution to Civilization / 1 1.2. Mining Terminology / 2 1.3 Advancements in Mining Technology / 5 1.4 Stages in the Life of a Mine / 6 1.5 Unit Operations of Mining / 14 1.6 Economics of the Mineral Industries / 15 1.7__Computer Applications and Usage / 21 1.8 Special Topic: Economic Analysis of a Mineral Commodity / 21 Mining and its Consequences 25 2.1 Introduction / 25 2.2. Government Regulations Applied to Mining / 26 2.3. Health and Safety Issues / 32 24 Environmental Responsibilities / 37 25 Socioengineering / 43 2.6 Summary of Consequences / 44 Stages of Mining: Prospecting and Exploration 47 3.1. Precursors to Mining / 47 . 3.2 Prospecting: General / 50 3.3 Prospecting: Geologic / 52 3.4 Prospecting: Geophysical / 53 3.5 Geochemical and Related Prospecting Methods / 63 3.6. Exploration: General / 64 3.7 Exploration: Methods / 67 3.8 Exploration: Reserve Estimates / 72 vii