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# Chap.

8 Optimization
(Maximization or Minimization)
of Single Variable Functions
one independent variable
constraint is closed interval [a0,b0]
inner solution of maximization problem or
minimization problem

optimization
f (a)>0

## If x increases infinitesimally from

a, then f (x) goes up.
f (a)<0 If x decreases infinitesimally
from a, then f (x) goes down.
f (a)=0 slope of tangency line to f (x) at
x=a is zero

## x=x* is an inner solution of the problem

f (x*)=0 (first order condition)
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y=f(x)

a1

a2

a3

a4

## concave function and maximum

differentiable and concave function y=f(x)
the slope of tangency line of f (x) at x=a is f (a)
equation y f (a) f (a)( x a)

f ( x) f (a) f (a)( x a) x
f (a) 0 f ( x) f (a) x
f (x) is maximized at x=a
the maximum is f (a)

concave function
f(a)+(x2-a)f (a)
f(x2)
f(a)

f(x)

f(a)+(x1-a)f (a)
f(x1)

x1

x2

concave function
f(a)
f(x)

## convex function and minimum

differentiabel and convex function y=f(x)
the slope of tangency line f (x) at x=a is f (a)
equation
y f (a) f (a)( x a)

f ( x) f (a) f (a)( x a) x
f (a) 0 f ( x) f (a) x
f (x) is minimized at x=a
the minimum is f (a)

convex function
f(x1)

f(a)+(x1-a)f (a)

f(a)
f(x2)
f(a)+(x2-a)f (a)

f(x)

x1

x2

function
f(x)

f(a)

## If the function y=f (x) is differentiable at x=a

y=f (x) is second order differentiable
(f (a))= f (a) second order derivative

f (a)

d y
2
dx

xa

d f ( x)
2
dx

x a

## second order derived function(f (x))= f (x)

n order derived function
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## Conditions for concave

functions and convex functions
f '(x)0 slope of tangency line is negative
y=f(x) is monotone decreasing
second order derivative f (x)0 (for any x)
function y=f '(x) is monotone decreasing
slope of tangency line is decreasing
concave function
f (x) is minimized at a such that f '(a) =0

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## Conditions for concave functions

and convex functions
2nd derivative f ''(x)0 (for all x)
concave function
f (x) is maximal at a such that f '(a)=0
2nd derivative f ''(x)0 (for all x)
convex function
f (x) is minimal at a such that f ' (a)=0

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## Conditions for concave functions

and convex functions
2nd derivative f '' (x)<0 (for all x)
strictly concave function
a such that f ' (a)=0 is unique if it exists
( f (x) has maximum)
2nd derivative f '' (x)>0 (for all x)
strictly convex function
a such that f ' (a)=0 is unique if it exists
( f (x) has minimum)

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Exercises

## Judge concavity or convexity with the

following functions.

f ( x) ax bx c
f ( x) 2a
f ( x) 2ax b
If a 0, then concave; if a 0, then convex.
(1)

f ( x) e
ax
2 ax
f ( x) ae
f ( x) a e
2
ax
a 0 and e 0 convex

(2)

ax

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Exercises

## Judge concavity or convexity with the

following functions.

a
f ( x)
x

a
2
a
(3)
f ( x) 2
f ( x) 3
x
x
a x 0 convex, a x 0 concave
(4)

f ( x) a log x

a
a
f ( x)
f ( x) 2
x
x
2
Since x 0, a 0 concave, a 0 convex
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## Local maximum and minimum

maximal in the neighborhoodlocal maximum
minimum in the neighborhoodlocal minimum
function y=f (x) is maximum in x=x0
f (x0) is maximum in open-interval (a,b)
f (x0) is local maximum
function y=f (x) is minimum in x=x0
f (x0) is minimum in open-interval (a,b)
f (x0) is local minimum

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## Maximum and local maximum

(Minimum and local minimum)
maximum among the local maximums
maximum
minimum among the local minimums
minimum

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Indep. v. x

derivative f (x)

fluctuation

local
max

Local
min

function f(x)

f(a)

f(b)

f (a) 0

f (b) 0
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y=f(x)

b
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## 1st order conditions for local

maximum and minimum
f '(a)>0 f (x) increases when x increases
from a infinitesimally
f '(a)<0 f (x) decreases when x increases
from a infinitesimally
f '(a)=0 zero slope of tangent of f (x) in x=a
maximum (minimum) in x=x * f '(x*)=0
1st order conditions for maximum (minimum)

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## Conditions to be maximum and

minimum
2nd order derivative f (a)0
f (x) is maximum in a such that f (a) =0
2nd order derivative f (b)0
f (x) is minimum in b such that f (b) =0

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## Marginal concepts in economics

The marginal productivity
labor imput
production q
production function q f ()
Increment of the production by adding one
unit of labor
q f () f ( ) f () f ()

q
f () marginal product

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## marginal productivity f () is decreasing

f () 0
f ( x)
(strictly
concave function
total differentiation

df () f ()d
total differential
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Exercises

## Show the marginal productivity of f(x). Judge

whether or not the marginal productivity
diminishes. Moreover, compute a total
differential.

f ( )
1
f ()
2
1
df ()
d
2

(1)

f ()

1
3

4
decreasing
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Exercises

## Show the marginal productivity of f(x). Judge

whether or not the marginal productivity
diminishes. Moreover, compute a total
differential.

f () a log( 1) (a 0)
a
a
f ()

0
f ()
2
( 1)
1
decreasing
a
df ()
d
1
(2)

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Exercises

## Show the marginal productivity of f(x). Judge

whether or not the marginal productivity
diminishes. Moreover, compute a total
differential.

(3)

f ( ) 1 e

f () ae
df () ae

f () a e

2 a

al

decreasing
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## Marginal concepts in economics

marginal cost
cost function C C (q)
increment of the cost by producing one

C
marginal cost MC C (q)
q
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## Marginal concepts in economics

The law of diminishing marginal productivity
f(l) is decreasing f(l)<0 (strictly concave)

## The law of increasing marginal cost

C(q) is increasing C(q)>0 (strictly convex)

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## The solution of the profit

maximization problem
total revenue R(q) total cost C(q)
profit function (q)=R(q)C(q)
(q) R(q) C(q) MR MC
(q) R(q) C(q) MR MC
(q) 0 MR MC
profit max (q) 0 MR MC

## always holds if decreasing marginal revenue,

increasing marginal cost
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## Example of profit maximization

Profit maximization problem of a firm
which inputs labor and produces some
good
Firm behaves as the price taker

labor input

product q (variable)

## wage rate w product price p (fixed)

production function q f ()
profit pq w

maximization

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## Profit maximization problem

steps of solution
step 1: find necessary minimum of labor
step 2: find necessary minimum total cost
step 3: Find production maximizing profit

## Assumptions of the production function

q=f(l) is twice differentiable and f(0)=0
f(l)>0 strictly monotone increasing
f(l)<0 strictly concave
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## Find a minimum labor input function

1

f (q) h(q)
function h(q) is a strictly convex h''(q)>0

Example : q h(q) q 2 (q 0)
1
1
q
0, q
0
2 0
3
2
2
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## Find the total cost function

C (q) w h(q)
h(q) is strictly convex C''(q)=wh''(q)>0

Example : q

C (q) wq 2 (q 0)

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## Step 3 : Profit maximization

Find profit function and use 1st order
conditions
pq C(q) pq w h(q)
Profit function is strictly concave
''= C''(q).<0

## p w h(q) 0 profit max

2
Example : q pq wq (q 0)
p
p 2wq 0 q
2w 0
2w
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## The derivation of the cost

function

necessary minimum
labor inputs

function

total cost
function

h( q) f ( q)
TVC( q) wh( q)

wh( q) TFC
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## A variety of average costs

Average total cost ATC, AC
TC( q)
ATC ( q)
Average variable cost AVC
q
Average fixed cost AFC

TVC ( q)
AVC ( q)
q

TFC ( q)
AFC ( q)
q

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## Relation between average variable

cost and marginal cost
AVC( q) 0 MC ( q) AVC ( q)
AVC( q) 0 MC ( q) AVC ( q)
AVC( q) 0 MC ( q) AVC ( q)

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## Relation between average variable

cost and marginal cost
ATC( q) 0 MC ( q) ATC ( q)
ATC( q) 0 MC ( q) ATC ( q)
ATC( q) 0 MC ( q) ATC( q)

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C(q)

E
D
A

c0

q0

q1

q2

q
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MC

ATC
AVC

AFC
0

q0

q1 q2

q
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## Maximization of short-run profit

max (q)=pq-C(q)
By the increase of the additional one unit of
production, the revenue increases in price p.
On the other hand, the cost increases only
by the marginal cost MC to enhance
production of the unit. The profit maximum
attains where both make a balance.
p=MC (price=marginal cost)
marginal cost is increasing MC'>0

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C(q)

C,R

R=pq

c0
0

q**

q*

-c0
(q)
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## price=marginal cost, increasing marginal cost

optimal provision supply curve
MC increasing upward-sloping part of MC
curve
Supply is q3 for price p3. Minimal profit in q3'.
Supply is q4 for price p4. Deficit is fewer than FC.
Candidacy for p5 is q5. It isn't supplied because
deficit is larger than FC.
The supply curve is a part of MC curve above
the shutdown point
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p
MC

ATC
AVC

p3

p2
p4

p1

A : break-even point
B : shutdown point

p5

q3'

q0 q5 q1 q2 q3
q4

q
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## The shape with average total

cost function
TFC
ATC ( q) AVC ( q) 2
q
TFC
ATC ( q) AVC ( q) 2 3
q

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## Relation of the arithmetic mean

and the geometrical average

x y
xy
2

## equality holds only for x=y

( x y ) 2 xy ( x ) ( y ) 2 x y
2

( x y) 0
2

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## The minimum of the average

total cost
ATC(q) AVC (q) AFC (q)

## 2 AVC (q) AFC (q)

equality holds only when
AVC(q)=AFC(q)
ATC(q) is minimal when AVC(q)=AFC(q)
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